A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A product of putrefaction. Poisonous.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The reconstitution of a protein's activity following denaturation.
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage of pancreatic ribonucleic acids to 3'-phosphomono- and oligonucleotides ending in cytidylic or uridylic acids with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate intermediates. EC 3.1.27.5.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Predeciduous teeth present at birth. They may be well formed and normal or may represent hornified epithelial structures without roots. They are found on the gingivae over the crest of the ridge and arise from accessory buds of the dental lamina ahead of the deciduous buds or from buds of the accessory dental lamina. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the guanidine nitrogen of arginine in the presence of ATP and a divalent cation with formation of phosphorylarginine and ADP. EC 2.7.3.3.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS associated with outbreaks of aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
A genus of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the family Archaeoglobaceae.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Conformational transitions of the shape of a protein to various unfolded states.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of adenosine diphosphate.
An alpha-2 selective adrenergic agonist used as an antihypertensive agent.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A compound that, along with its isomer, Cleland's reagent (DITHIOTHREITOL), is used for the protection of sulfhydryl groups against oxidation to disulfides and for the reduction of disulfides to sulfhydryl groups.
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.
A nicotinic antagonist most commonly used as an experimental tool. It has been used as a ganglionic blocker in the treatment of hypertension but has largely been supplanted for that purpose by more specific drugs.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
A cyanide compound which has been used as a fertilizer, defoliant and in many manufacturing processes. It often occurs as the calcium salt, sometimes also referred to as cyanamide. The citrated calcium salt is used in the treatment of alcoholism.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.

Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins. (1/2908)

The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride indicated that there are changes in both the absolute rates and the proportions of the fast and slow components, which along with other factors complicated the analysis of the data in terms of dissociation constants. Measurements were also made in solutions containing urea to promote dissociation, but with this agent very high concentrations (about 6 M) were required to give measureable dissociation and the fish hemoglobins were unstable under these conditions, with appreciable loss of absorbance spectra in both the sedimentation and kinetic experiments.  (+info)

Effect of diabetes and aminoguanidine therapy on renal advanced glycation end-product binding. (2/2908)

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, and aminoguanidine (AG) has been shown to decrease the accumulation of AGEs in the diabetic kidney. METHODS: This study investigates changes in AGE binding associated with diabetes in the rat kidney using in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic techniques. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control and diabetic groups with and without AG treatment and were sacrificed after three weeks. Frozen kidney sections (20 microm) were incubated with [125I]-AGE-RNase or [125I]-AGE-BSA. To localize the AGE binding site, in vivo autoradiography was performed by injection of 15 microCi of [125I]-AGE-BSA into the abdominal aorta of the rat. RESULTS: Low-affinity binding sites specific for AGEs in the renal cortex (IC50 = 0.28 microm) were detected by in vitro autoradiography. There was a significant increase in [125I]-AGE binding in the diabetic kidney, which was prevented by AG treatment. Emulsion autoradiography revealed that binding was localized primarily to proximal tubules in the renal cortex. Renal AGE levels, as assessed by fluorescence or by radioimmunoassay, were increased after three weeks of diabetes. This increase was attenuated by AG therapy. CONCLUSIONS: AGE binding sites are present within the proximal tubules of the kidney and appear to be modulated by endogenous AGE levels. It remains to be determined if these binding sites represent receptors involved in clearance of AGEs or are linked to pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of diabetic nephropathy.  (+info)

Prevention of neointimal formation by a serine protease inhibitor, FUT-175, after carotid balloon injury in rats. (3/2908)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In vivo and vitro studies revealed the activation of thrombin and the complement system in vascular lesion formation during the process of atherosclerosis, along with pathological proliferation of smooth muscle cells. We examined the effect of the synthetic serine protease inhibitor FUT-175 (developed as a potent inhibitor of thrombin and the complement system) on vascular lesions using balloon dilatation-induced neointimal formation in the carotid artery of rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent balloon dilatation injury of the left carotid artery to induce neointimal formation. Three groups of these rats (n=8, each) were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of 1 of the following doses of FUT-175: 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/d in 1 mL of saline for 7 consecutive days. The control group (n=8) was similarly treated with 1 mL of saline for 7 days. The injections were started immediately after balloon injury. Two weeks after the injury, the left carotid arteries were perfusion-fixed, and the areas of the neointimal and medial layer were analyzed under a microscope. RESULTS: A morphometric analysis revealed that there were significant differences in the intima-media ratio between the 4 groups treated with vehicle (saline) or a low, medium, or high dose of FUT-175 (1.45+/-0.11, 1.08+/-0.06, 0.71+/-0.04, or 0.32+/-0.04, respectively). This suppression was achieved in a dose-dependent manner by the administration of FUT-175 after balloon injury. In the histological study, it was demonstrated that FUT-175 suppresses the production of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB in the neointima and the medial smooth muscle cell layer. CONCLUSIONS: After balloon injury activated proteases that were inhibited by FUT-175 were demonstrated to have an essential role in the development of the pathological thickening of the arterial wall.  (+info)

Adenosine inhibits the transfected Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3 in Xenopus laevis renal epithelial cells (A6/C1). (4/2908)

1. Adenosine influences the vectorial transport of Na+ and HCO3- across kidney epithelial cells. However, its action on effector proteins, such as the Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3, an epithelial brush border isoform of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) gene family, is not yet defined. 2. The present study was conducted in Xenopus laevis distal nephron A6 epithelia which express both an apical adenosine receptor of the A1 type (coupled to protein kinase C (PKC)) and a basolateral receptor of the A2 type (coupled to protein kinase A (PKA)). The untransfected A6 cell line expresses a single NHE type (XNHE) which is restricted to the basolateral membrane and which is activated by PKA. 3. A6 cell lines were generated which express exogenous rat NHE3. Measurements of side-specific pHi recovery from acid loads in the presence of HOE694 (an inhibitor with differential potency towards individual NHE isoforms) detected an apical resistant Na+-H+ exchange only in transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of the basolateral NHE to HOE694 was unchanged, suggesting that exogenous NHE3 was restricted to the apical membrane. 4. Stimulation of the apical A1 receptor with N 6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) inhibited both apical NHE3 and basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by the addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and partially prevented by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C which also blocked the effect of PMA. 5. Stimulation of the basolateral A2 receptor with CPA inhibited apical NHE3 and stimulated basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP and partially prevented by the PKA inhibitor H89 which entirely blocked the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP. 6. In conclusion, CPA inhibits rat NHE3 expressed apically in A6 epithelia via both the apical PKC-coupled A1 and the basolateral PKA-coupled A2 adenosine receptors.  (+info)

Modulation of human airway smooth muscle proliferation by type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibition. (5/2908)

Elevation in cell cAMP content can inhibit mitogenic signaling in cultured human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. We studied the effects of the type 3-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor siguazodan, the type 4-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram, and the nonselective inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) on proliferation of cultured HASM cells. At concentrations selective for the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform, siguazodan inhibited both [3H]thymidine incorporation (IC50 2 microM) and the increase in cell number (10 microM; 64% reduction) induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (20 ng/ml). These effects were mimicked by IBMX. At concentrations selective for type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibition, rolipram was without effect. A 20-min exposure to siguazodan and rolipram did not increase whole cell cAMP levels. However, in HASM cells transfected with a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter (p6CRE/Luc), increases in cAMP-driven luciferase expression were seen with siguazodan (3.9-fold) and IBMX (16.5-fold). These data suggest that inhibition of the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform present in airway smooth muscle results in inhibition of mitogenic signaling, possibly through an increase in cAMP-driven gene expression.  (+info)

Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on intracellular pH, intracellular calcium, cell shortening and L-type calcium currents in rat myocytes. (6/2908)

OBJECTIVE: We have studied the mechanisms underlying the positive inotropic action of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) by monitoring intracellular calcium transients, intracellular pH, L-type calcium currents and cell shortening in isolated ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Rat myocytes were loaded with fura-2AM for intracellular calcium measurements, or BCECF-AM for pH measurements. Cell shortening was recorded using an edge detection system, and L-type calcium currents measured using whole cell patch clamping. RESULTS: PGF2 alpha (3 nmol l-1-3 mumol l-1 increased single myocyte shortening and reduced resting cell length in a concentration-dependent manner. While myocyte shortening was increased by PGF2 alpha, this was not associated with any change in the amplitude of intracellular calcium transients, diastolic calcium, or L-type calcium currents. However, the same myocytes were capable of responding to catecholamines with increases in calcium transient amplitude and L-type calcium currents. PGF2 alpha (3 mumol l-1 caused a reversible rise in intracellular pH of 0.08 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 5, p < 0.05). The Na(+)-H+ exchanger inhibitor, HOE 694 (10 mumol l-1, abolished the PGF2 alpha-induced rise in pH and the increase in cell shortening. PGF2 alpha-induced increases in cell shortening and intracellular pH were also attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine (2 mumol l-1. CONCLUSION: The positive inotropic action of PGF2 alpha appears to be mediated via activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger with the possible involvement of PKC. This suggests that PGF2 alpha-produces intracellular alkalosis, which then sensitizes cardiac myofilaments to calcium.  (+info)

Potentiation of anti-cancer drug activity at low intratumoral pH induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and its analogue benzylguanidine (BG). (7/2908)

Tumour-selective acidification is of potential interest for enhanced therapeutic gain of pH sensitive drugs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a tumour-selective reduction of the extracellular and intracellular pH and their effect on the tumour response of selected anti-cancer drugs. In an in vitro L1210 leukaemic cell model, we confirmed enhanced cytotoxicity of chlorambucil at low extracellular pH conditions. In contrast, the alkylating drugs melphalan and cisplatin, and bioreductive agents mitomycin C and its derivative EO9, required low intracellular pH conditions for enhanced activation. Furthermore, a strong and pH-independent synergism was observed between the pH-equilibrating drug nigericin and melphalan, of which the mechanism is unclear. In radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumour-bearing mice, the extracellular pH was reduced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or its analogue benzylguanidine (BG) plus glucose. To simultaneously reduce the intracellular pH, MIBG plus glucose were combined with the ionophore nigericin or the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor amiloride and the Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Biochemical studies confirmed an effective reduction of the extracellular pH to approximately 6.2, and anti-tumour responses to the interventions indicated a simultaneous reduction of the intracellular pH below 6.6 for at least 3 h. Combined reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH with melphalan increased the tumour regrowth time to 200% of the pretreatment volume from 5.7 +/- 0.6 days for melphalan alone to 8.1 +/- 0.7 days with pH manipulation (P < 0.05). Mitomycin C related tumour growth delay was enhanced by the combined interventions from 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 days (P < 0.05), but only in tumours of relatively large sizes. The interventions were non-toxic alone or in combination with the anti-cancer drugs and did not affect melphalan biodistribution. In conclusion, we have developed non-toxic interventions for sustained and selective reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH which potentiated the tumour responses to selected anti-cancer drugs.  (+info)

Nitric oxide mediates cerebral ischemic tolerance in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic preconditioning. (8/2908)

Neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia can be realized if the brain is preconditioned by previous exposure to a brief period of sublethal ischemia. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) produced from the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (NOS) serves as a necessary signal for establishing an ischemia-tolerant state in brain. A newborn rat model of hypoxic preconditioning was used, wherein exposure to sublethal hypoxia (8% oxygen) for 3 hours renders postnatal day (PND) 6 animals completely resistant to a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic insult imposed 24 hours later. Postnatal day 6 animals were treated 0.5 hour before preconditioning hypoxia with the nonselective NOS inhibitor L-nitroarginine (2 mg/kg intraperitoneally). This treatment, which resulted in a 67 to 81% inhibition of calcium-dependent constitutive NOS activity 0.5 to 3.5 hours after its administration, completely blocked preconditioning-induced protection. However, administration of the neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (40 mg/kg intraperitoneally) before preconditioning hypoxia, which decreased constitutive brain NOS activity by 58 to 81%, was without effect on preconditioning-induced cerebroprotection, as was pretreatment with the inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (400 mg/kg intraperitoneally). The protective effects of preconditioning were also not blocked by treating animals with competitive [3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate; 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally] or noncompetitive (MK-801; 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists prior to preconditioning hypoxia. These findings indicate that NO production and activity are critical to the induction of ischemic tolerance in this model. However, the results argue against the involvement of the neuronal NOS isoform, activated secondary to a hypoxia-induced stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and against the involvement of the inducible NOS isoform, but rather suggest that NO produced by the endothelial NOS isoform is required to mediate this profound protective effect.  (+info)

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Nafamostat, also known as FUT-175, is a serine protease inhibitor and an anticoagulant. Nafamostat promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation via the Akt-eNOS dependent pathway. Nafamostat Attenuates Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury. Nafamostat Attenuates Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Renal Injury. Nafamostat protects against acute cerebral ischemia via blood-brain barrier protection. Nafamostat Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species Production.
The average guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) level in the serum of seventeen uremic subjects was found to be 2.53 mg per cent (0.15… Expand ...
Nafamostat mesylate | C21H25N5O8S2 | CID 5311180 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Hailun New Material products are aminoguanidine bicarbonate, aminoguanidinium sulphate, Aminoguanidine Hydrochloride and other fine chemicals.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Beneficial effects of mercaptoethylguanidine, an inhibitor of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase and a scavenger of peroxynitrite, in a porcine model of delayed hemorrhagic shock. AU - Szabó, Andrea. AU - Hake, Paul. AU - Salzman, Andrew L.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. PY - 1999/7. Y1 - 1999/7. N2 - Objective: In rodent models, enhanced formation of nitric oxide and formation of peroxynitrite have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various forms of shock. Here we examined the effect of mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG), an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and peroxynitrite scavenger, in a severe hemorrhagic shock model. Design: Randomized, placebo- controlled trial. Setting: Animal laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-one anesthetized immature Yorkshire pigs. Interventions: Mechanical ventilation, sternotomy, continuous cardiac output (pulmonary artery flowmetry), and systemic and intracardial pressure measurements were taken. Pigs were bled to a cardiac index of 40 mL/kg/min ...
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Guanidine exists protonated, as guanidinium, in solution at physiological pH. Guanidinium chloride (also known as guanidine hydrochloride) has chaotropic properties and is used to denature proteins. Guanidinium chloride is known to denature proteins with a linear relationship between concentration and free energy of unfolding. In aqueous solutions containing 6 M guanidinium chloride, almost all proteins lose their entire secondary structure and become randomly coiled peptide chains. Guanidinium thiocyanate is also used for its denaturing effect on various biological samples. Guanidinium chloride[9] is used as an adjuvant in treatment of botulism, introduced in 1968,[10] but now its role is considered controversial[11] - because in some patients there was no improvement after this drug administration. ...
This study was undertaken to compare the ability of two guanidine compounds (aminoguanidine and methylguanidine), with different in vitro effects on NO synthase activity and AGE formation, to inhibit diabetic vascular dysfunction developing early after the onset of diabetes. In rats with STZ-induced diabetes of 5-wk duration, regional vascular [125I]albumin permeation was increased about two- to threefold in ocular tissues, sciatic nerve, and aorta; in general, both guanidine compounds normalized albumin permeation in diabetic rats without affecting it in controls. Methylguanidine was only ∼7% as effective as aminoguanidine as an inhibitor of AGE formation from L-lysine and G6P; both compounds were poor inhibitors of AR. Methylguanidine was ∼1-5% as potent as aminoguanidine and L-NMMA as an inhibitor of the cytokine- and endotoxin-inducible isoform of NO synthase. In contrast, the potency of methylguanidine as an inhibitor of the constitutive isoform of NO synthase was comparable to that of ...
Title:Estimation of molecular weight of polypeptide chains by thin-layer gel chromatography in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride.,Author:Heinz F,Prosch W,Journal:Anal Biochem,1971/4;40(2):327-30.,Publicatio...
थोक चीन से नाइट्रो Guanidine , लेकिन कम कीमत के अग्रणी निर्माताओं के रूप में सस्ते नाइट्रो Guanidine खोजने की आवश्यकता है। बस नाइट्रो Guanidine पर उच्च गुणवत्ता वाले ब्रांडों पा कारखाना उत्पादन, आप आप क्या चाहते हैं, बचत शुरू करते हैं और हमारे नाइट्रो Guanidine का पता लगाने के बारे में भी राय, आप में सबसे तेजी से उत्तर हम करूँगा कर सकते हैं ...
Guanidines from Zhengzhou Meikewote Trade Co., Ltd.. Search High Quality Guanidines Manufacturing and Exporting supplier on Alibaba.com.
Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) plays a pivotal role in the suppression of antitumour immunity by binding to programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) on tumouricidal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), rendering them inactive. As blockade of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction by the monoclonal antibodies induced effective T cell-mediated antitumour response, suppression of PD-L1 expression in tumour cells by the chemical agent might contribute to treatment against malignant tumours. Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a serine protease inhibitor that is frequently used in the clinic, potently suppressed interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced up-regulation of PD-L1 in cultured human lung cancer cells (HLC-1) at both the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels ...
Fixation of CO2 is one of the most important priorities of the scientific community dedicated to reduce global warming. In this work, we propose new methods for the fixation of CO2 using the guanidine bases tetramethylguanidine (TMG) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-2H-pyrimido[1,2-a]-pyrimidine (TBD). In order to understand the reactions occurring during the CO2 fixation and release processes, we employed several experimental methods, including solution and solid-state NMR, FTIR, and coupled TGA-FTIR. Quantum mechanical NMR calculations were also carried out. Based on the results obtained, we concluded that CO2 fixation with both TMG and TBD guanidines is a kinetically reversible process, and the corresponding fixation products have proved to be useful as transcarboxylating compounds. Afterward, CO2 thermal releasing from this fixation product with TBD was found to be an interesting process for CO2 capture and isolation purposes. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Guanidine HCl, the crystalline compound of strong alkalinity formed by the oxidation of guanine, is a normal product of protein metabolism and a protein denaturant.
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The distribution and the chemical nature of the protective agent in the various tissues of C57BL/6J male tumor-bearing mice given a protective dose of either of two forms of the radiation-protective agent S-(2-aminoethyl)thiuronium bromide hydrobromide (AET) were studied. The mice carried a subcutaneously transplanted mammary adenocarcinoma. Results at 20 minutes after an I.P. injection of 140 or 280 mg/kg 2-mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG) and at 20 or 120 minutes after an I.P. injection of 140 mg/kg bis(2-guanidoethyl) disulfide (GED) were obtained. At 20 minutes the tumor took up less protective agent than did most of the vital organs except brain. The tumor contained the same S35-labeled chemical compounds that normal tissues contained. The concentration of GED in the tumor was the only form which correlated with protection of the tumor against the effects of local irradiation. As compared with normal animals, tumor-bearing animals appeared to have difficulty excreting the protective agent. It ...
2-[4-[2-[(5-Amino-4-methyl-1,1-dioxo-1,2,4,6-thiatriazin-3-yl)amino]ethylsulfanylmethyl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]guanidine/ACM91257146 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
63273-74-5 - RVSORJBNVJNGAW-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Guanidine, (2-hydroxy-3-phenoxypropyl)-, sulfate (2:1) (salt), (+-)- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
14156-69-5 - ZYTJMOQIGIBJNL-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Guanidine, 1-(2-(isobutylamino)ethyl)-, sulfate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
N-(4-methylquinazolin-2-yl)guanidine | C10H11N5 | CID 345657 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
N-(5-METHYL-BENZOOXAZOL-2-YL)-GUANIDINE/ACM332898096 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
Lookchem Provide Cas No.15422-17-0 Basic information: Properties,Safety Data,Sds and Other Datebase. We also Provide Trading Suppliers & Manufacture for 15422-17-0 2-[3-(3-phenoxypropoxy)phenyl]guanidine.
Aminoguanidine tablets inhibit the cross linking of proteins or glycosylation. Cross-linking may be cause senile cataracts, atherosclerotic plaque and some cancers.
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Detailed Description:. Additional Study Purpose Details: Evaluate the effects of multiple doses of cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics (e.g., elimination from the body) of a single dose of PD 0332334.. On February 18th 2009, a decision to terminate further development for PD 0332334 was communicated to investigators in this study. The decision to terminate this study was not based on any safety concerns. ...
protein extraction using trizol - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: hi , i do not have Gndn- Cl (denaturant) which is prescribed in protein washing step using trizol[ .3M Soln in 95% abs. ethanol]. my lab has guanidine isothiocynate, urea , 2 mercaptoethanol etc, can i use any of these as substitute. my ultracentrifuge is out of order so trizol is my only option .. besides i regularly get rna for my rt pcr using trizol... just starting with protein work .. pl...
Authors: Bhavesh, Neel; Panchal, Sanjay; Mittal, Rohit; Hosur, Ramkrishna. Citation: Bhavesh, Neel; Panchal, Sanjay; Mittal, Rohit; Hosur, Ramkrishna. NMR Identification of local Structural Preferences in HIV-I Protease Tethered Heterodimer in 6 M Guanidine Hydrochloride FEBS Lett. 509, 218-224 (2001).. Assembly members: ...
Report firstly reviews the basic information of the product including its classification, application and manufacturing technology. The report then explores...
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S., Sidek, N.A.A., Halim, A.A.A. & Tayyab, (2010) Denatured states of ficin induced by urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Turkish Journal of Biochemistry, 35 ((1)). pp. 45-49. ...
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
A Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of IV Peramivir in Addition to Standard of Care Compared to Standard of Care Alone in Adults and Adolescents Who Are Hospitalized Due to ...
UCSJYZPVAKXKNQ-HZYVHMACSA-N 1-[(1S,2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3-carbamimidamido-6-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S)-3-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(methylamino)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-4-formyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyloxolan-2-yl]oxy}-2,4,5-trihydroxycyclohexyl]guanidine Chemical compound ...
Fit a regularized generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood. The model is fit for a path of values of the penalty parameter. Fits linear, logistic and Cox models.. ...
LANXESS GESCHFTSBERICHT 2009 PDF - The financial year was defined by the most severe global economic . the ShaRe pRice oF Sgl caRBon Se in moStly Lanxess AG, Leverkusen. the German language
SINGH, Rajesh K.; KHAN, Mohd. A. e SINGH, Pashupati P.. Rating of sweetness by molar refractivity and ionization potential: QSAR study of sucrose and guanidine derivatives. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2014, vol.67. ISSN 1996-840X.. A quantitative structure activity relationship study of 31 sucrose derivatives and 30 guanidine derivatives has been undertaken. Their sweetness values, relative to sucrose (RS), have been taken from literature. The study has been made with the help of CAChe Pro software by using eight descriptors, viz. electron affinity, ionization potential, electrophilicity index, total energy, heat of formation, steric energy, molar refractivity and solvent accessible surface area. Multi-linear regression (MLR) analysis has been performed with different combinations of descriptors and the quality of regression has been adjudged by the correlation coefficient, cross-validation coefficient and other statistical parameters like the standard error, standard error of the estimate, ...
SINGH, Rajesh K.; KHAN, Mohd. A. and SINGH, Pashupati P.. Rating of sweetness by molar refractivity and ionization potential: QSAR study of sucrose and guanidine derivatives. S.Afr.j.chem. (Online) [online]. 2014, vol.67. ISSN 1996-840X.. A quantitative structure activity relationship study of 31 sucrose derivatives and 30 guanidine derivatives has been undertaken. Their sweetness values, relative to sucrose (RS), have been taken from literature. The study has been made with the help of CAChe Pro software by using eight descriptors, viz. electron affinity, ionization potential, electrophilicity index, total energy, heat of formation, steric energy, molar refractivity and solvent accessible surface area. Multi-linear regression (MLR) analysis has been performed with different combinations of descriptors and the quality of regression has been adjudged by the correlation coefficient, cross-validation coefficient and other statistical parameters like the standard error, standard error of the ...
PHMG hydrochloride or polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride - a cationic polyelectrolyte having a unique combination of physical, chemical and biocidal properties, allowing the polymer applied in virtually all areas of the economy.. Abbreviations: PHMG, PHMGH, PHMG-HC, PHMG hydrochloride, PHMG chloride.. Name PHMG hydrochloride IUPAC classification: poly (imnokarbonimidoilimino-1,6-hexanediyl) hydrochloride. In English: Poly (iminocarbonimidoylimino-1,6-hexanediyl), monohydrochloride.. Synonyms polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride: polyhexene (iminoimidokarboniminogeksametilen) hydrochloride.. CAS number: 57029-18-2.. The name in English and the structural formula polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride: Poly (hexamethyleneguanidine) hydrochloride, (C7H16N3Cl) n, where n = 4-50, molecular weight: 700-10000 amu. Physical and chemical properties PHMG hydrochloride:. ...
Deoxyspergualin (DSG) is a novel immunosuppressive agent recently shown to bind to the constitutive heat shock protein 70, which is involved in binding and intracellular transport of antigenic peptides. In this study, we show that DSG inhibits the proliferation of PBMCs to the Ags tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid, but not to the mitogens PHA and PMA/ionomycin, nor to the superantigens toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxin A. DSGs effect was specific for monocytes as preincubation of T cells with DSG did not inhibit their proliferation to monocytes pulsed with tetanus toxoid Ag for 16 h, whereas the presence of DSG during Ag pulsing of the monocytes inhibited their ability to stimulate T cell proliferation. DSG did not down-regulate the expression of MHC class II molecules by monocytes, and the inhibitory effect of DSG on T cell proliferation was not reversed by the addition of IL-2, nor by the addition of the costimulatory signals IL-1, IL-6, and anti-CD28. Studies ...
United States Patent T 3,283,003 Z-(N-LOWER ALKYL-N-(IYCLOHEPTYL- AND CYCLOOCTYLAMINO)ETHYL GUANIDINES David Jack, Gustard Wood, near Wheathampstead, Robert Geoffrey William Spickett, Harpenden, and Graham John Durant, St. Albans, all of England, assignors, by mesne assignments, to Smith Kline & French Laboratories, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania No Drawing. Filed Dec. 19, 1961, Ser. No. 160,627 Claims priority, application Great Britain, Dec. 23, 1960, 44,284/ 60 Claims. (Cl. 260-564) This invention relates to new guanidine derivatives having pharmacological activity. In particular the compounds of this invention are blockers of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and hypotensive agents. In addition certain of the compounds of this invention have useful diuretic activity. The new guanidine derivatives of this invention are represented in their free base form by the following general structural formula: in which n is an integer of from 1 to 2 and R is lower alkyl. The ...
Influenza virus infections are known to persist longer in patients with underlying diseases, including respiratory tract diseases, and tend to become complicated by secondary influenza-associated infections, such as pneumonia. To assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anti-influenza virus drug peramivir in high-risk patients, we conducted a clinical trial of patients with diabetes or chronic respiratory tract diseases and patients being treated with drugs that suppress immune function. In this multicenter, uncontrolled, randomized, double-blind study, peramivir was intravenously administered at 300 or 600 mg/day for 1 to 5 days, as needed. Efficacy was investigated in 37 patients (300 mg, n = 18 patients; 600 mg, n = 19 patients). The median durations of influenza illness were 68.6 h (90% confidence interval, 41.5 to 113.4 h) overall, 114.4 h (90% confidence interval, 40.2 to 235.3 h) in the 300-mg group, and 42.3 h (90% confidence interval, 30.0 to 82.7 h) in the 600-mg group. The hazard ...
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Wholesale Crystal Amino Guanidine Bicarbonate from China, Need to find cheap Crystal Amino Guanidine Bicarbonate as low price but leading manufacturers. Just find high-quality brands on Crystal Amino Guanidine Bicarbonate produce factory, You can also feedback about what you want, start saving and explore our Crystal Amino Guanidine Bicarbonate, Well reply you in fastest ...
c) informed that Peramivir IV is an unapproved drug that is authorized for use under Emergency Use Authorization.. 3. Patients with known or suspected renal insufficiency must have creatinine clearance determined prior to Peramivir IV dose calculation and first administration.. 4. Patients with history of severe allergic reaction to any other neuraminidase inhibitor (zanamivir or oseltamivir) or any ingredient of Peramivir IV must not receive Peramivir IV.. 5. The prescribing health care provider and/or their designee is/are responsible for mandatory responses to requests from FDA, CDC or their designee for information about adverse events and medication errors following receipt of Peramivir IV. For example, health care providers and/or their designee will be asked whether Peramivir IV was administered, if a selected adverse event or medication error occurred, and if the adverse event or medication error was reported to FDA MedWatch.. 6.The prescribing health care provider and/or their designee ...
Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate transepithelial ionic permeation via the paracellular pathway of human Caco-2 epithelial monolayers and its contribution to absorption of the base guanidine. Methods. Confluent monolayers of Caco-2 epithelial cells were mounted in Ussing chambers and the transepithelial conductance and electrical potential difference (p.d.) determined after NaCl dilution or medium Na substitution (bi-ionic conditions). Guanidine absorption (J a-b) was measured ± transepithelial potential gradients using bi-ionic p.d.s. Results. Basal NaCl replacement with mannitol gives a transepithelial dilution p.d. of 28.0 ± 3.1 mV basal solution electropositive (P Cl/P Na = 0.34). Bi-ionic p.d.s (basal replacements) indicate a cation selectivity of NH4+ , K+∼Cs+ , Na+ , Li+ , tetraethylammonium+ , N-methyl-d- glucamine+∼choline+. Transepithelial conductances show good correspondence with bi-ionic potential data. Guanidine J a-b was markedly sensitive to imposed ...
Clothianidin chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of Clothianidin 210880-92-5, What are the physical properties of Clothianidin ect.
Shanghai Canbi can provide for you 50-01-1, Guanidine hydrochloride, physical and chemical properties (such as molecular weight, density, boiling point, melting point, flash point, structural formula, molecular formula), product synthesis route,MSDS safety information sources, etc.
Guanidine Hydrochloride market size, market share, market survey, market intelligence, market trends, market strategy, market research report, analysis, survey, market research surveys
Gannedahl, G Wanders, A Carlsson, M Tufveson, G eng Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt 1993/02/01 Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb;25(1 Pt 1):768-9.. Available from: 2015-10-29 Created: 2015-10-29 Last updated: 2015-10-29 ...
The effect of guanidine on neuromuscular transmission was studied in the sciatic-sartorius preparation of the frog, using intracellular electrodes. The sensitivity of the ned-plate to ACh was measured by applying ACh electrophoretically. Guanidine was also applied in the same way.. Guanidine greatly increased the amplitude of e.p.p. of curarized muscle without changing the resting potential at the end-plate region. Guanidine exhibited no effect on the cholinesterase activity, and it did not change the sensitivity of the end-plate to ACh. It is concluded that the drug increases the amplitude of e.p.p. by increasing the quantity of ACh released from the nerve ending by a single nerve impulse.. Membrane potential was recorded from endplates of guanidine-treated nerve-muscle preparation showing spontaneous twitchings. The most striking event was the appearance of spontaneous e.p.p.s of more than 5 mV size (giant potential), some of which did not reach threshold the others elicited the conducted ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an EUA for the use of the unapproved (investigational) drug intravenous Peramivir for treatment of 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in certain hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Data on the safety of Peramivir IV are limited. Please consult this Fact Sheet for general information on possible side effects of Peramivir IV. Healthcare providers who prescribe Peramivir IV are responsible for mandatory reporting to FDA MedWatch of all medication errors and selected adverse events occurring during Peramivir IV treatment within 7 calendar days from the onset of the event. The fact sheet includes information on what selected adverse events should be reported to FDA MedWatch.. ...
The trial was discontinued early at the recommendation of the Data Safety Monitoring Board to explore the risks and benefits seen with cariporide therapy. The primary composite endpoint of death or MI at day five was lower in the cariporide arm compared with placebo (16.6% vs. 20.3%, relative risk reduction [RRR] 18.3%, p=0.0002), with similar results at 30 days (18.3% vs. 21.8%, RRR 16.1%, p=0.0009) and six months (20.2% vs. 23.9%, RRR 15.7%, p=0.0006 ...
Research Use Only (RUO). Unless otherwise stated in our catalog or other company documentation accompanying the product(s), our products are intended for research use only and are not to be used for any other purpose, which includes but is not limited to, unauthorized commercial uses, in vitro diagnostic uses, ex vivo or in vivo therapeutic uses or any type of consumption or application to humans or animals. ...
Peramivir - Get up-to-date information on Peramivir side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Peramivir
White crystals. It is quite stable against shock and friction and not hygroscopic. It is used in some strobe compositions where it is decomposed by copper salts or other compounds acting as catalysts. Some smoke formulas employ guanidine nitrate. It also found use in toy rocket fuels such as JETEX and may be found in some explosives. It is quite attractive because it has a high gas output, low flame temperature, and non-toxic combustion products.. ...
Purpose: Chronic cerebral ischemia is a common pathological state, which can lead to cognitive disorder and neurological dysfunction. Aminoguanidine i..
or denaturating conditions with a lysis buffer such as PBS containing guanidine hydrochloride 6M or urea 8M pH 8.0 for example, with or without beta-mercaptoethanol (approx. 1% v/v). In this case, the buffer A (step 1) can be replaced by PBS buffer containing guanidine hydrochloride 6M pH 8.0 and the steps 4, 6, 7 and 8 are not yet necessary. The buffers E & F can contain beta-mercaptoethanol. ...
In the present study, the routes of elimination and metabolism and the excretion mass balance of zoniporide in humans were investigated after an intravenous infusion of [14C]zoniporide. A dose of 80 mg was administered in this study, which was approximately equal to the anticipated clinical dose to be used in the phase III program. The comparison of metabolite profiles of a drug candidate in animals and humans is essential to ensure that animal species used in toxicological evaluations are appropriate models of humans and to confirm that all human circulating metabolites are covered in these species (Food and Drug Administration, 2008). The metabolic profiles in humans, rat, and dog were compared to assess whether all metabolites observed in human matrices were detected in these two toxicology species. The doses used in the preclinical species were equivalent to the dose in the toxicology studies in which minimum adverse effects were observed.. After intravenous administration, the majority of ...
Effect of cimetidine on cumulative survival rates in the colorectal cancer patients. The tumour tissues from individual patients obtained during curative operat
An Unexpected Anti-Cancer Agent. The first studies to hint at cimetidines effectiveness against cancer were published in the late 1970s. Although scientists initially thought that cimetidine worked by enhancing immune function, later studies showed that cimetidine functions via several different pathways to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. In a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study in 1988, 181 patients with gastric cancer received cimetidine (400 mg, twice daily) or placebo for two years or until death. Those given cimetidine had a significantly prolonged survival rate compared to the placebo group, particularly patients with more serious disease.1. In a 1994 study, just seven days of cimetidine treatment (400 mg twice daily for five days preoperative and intravenously for two days post-operative) in colorectal cancer patients decreased their three-year mortality rate from 41% to 7%. In addition, tumors in the cimetidine-treated patients had a notably higher rate of ...
Aminoguanidine bicarbonate 2582-30-1 Precursor and Downstream products, Aminoguanidine bicarbonate Precursor products, Aminoguanidine bicarbonate Downstream products ect.
The literature conditions to accomplish these transformations usually include rough conditions not suited for student-run experiments. Harsh basic conditions(NaOEt in refluxing ethanol, LDA at -78 °C:) are usually used for step 1. Diazomethane has been used for the alkylation in step 2, and step 3 requires access to free guanidine prepared from guanidine hydrochloride and sodium ethoxide. The conditions historically used for step 1 and step 2 will be avoided in this experiment as they include harsh base, and highly toxic and explosive reagents. As of 2016-09-05, suitable conditions have been developped for reaction 1 but not 2 or 3. See DP-1-1. Strings:. ClC1=CC=C(CC#N)C=C1. ClC1=CC=C(/C(C#N)=C(O)\CC)C=C1. ClC1=CC=C(/C(C#N)=C(OC)\CC)C=C1. ClC1=CC=C(C(C(N)=NC(N)=N2)=C2CC)C=C1. ...
The proteins were purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The cell pellet ( ~ 1 g) of each clone was solubilized in 5 ml ofbuffer A (6 M guanidine hydrochloride, 0.1 M NaH2P04, 0.01 M Tris, pH 8.0). The suspension was centrifuged at 8000 X g for 15 min at 4°C and the supernatant containing the recombinant protein was mixed with Ni-NT A resin (Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid equilibrated with buffer A) and kept for gentle end-to-end shaking for 1 hat RT. The resin was loaded on a column and washed with 10 bed-volumes of buffer A. The column was subsequently washed with 5 bed-volumes each of buffers B, and C, which contained 8 M urea, 0.1 M NaH2P04 and 0.01 M Tris and had successively reducing pH values of 8.0 and 6.3 respectively. The protein was eluted with buffers D and E (composition same as buffer B) in which the pH was further reduced to 5.9 and 4.5 respectively. Five fractions of 4 ml each were collected during elution with buffer D and buffer E respectively. The eluted proteins were ...
Also protein pellets suspended in 0.3M guanidine hydrochloride in 95% ethanol are stored in the -20 deg. cel fridge in Dr. Hills CBL, in a red bullet rack labelled with RP ILP RGC Origin study (or something similar). This is on the top or second to top shelf near the front. 20/07/09 ...
BioCryst Pharmaceuticals Provides Update Regarding Peramivir RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C.--(BUSINESS WIRE)-- BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NAS: BCRX) today announced that it received a preliminary comment letter from the U.S. Food &
BioCryst to File Peramivir NDA Supported by BARDA/HHS Funding RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK, N.C.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--July 11, 2013 BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (BCRX) today announced that the Biomedical...
Two moxonidine metabolites, dehydrogenated moxonidine and guanidine metabolite, have been previously reported (Schaefer et al., 1998). In that study, which was conducted in early 1980s, moxonidine metabolites were not adequately identified due to limited analytical techniques available at that time (thin-layer chromatography with radiolabel detection). A large percentage of radioactivity in both urine and plasma samples remained uncharacterized. Also, the plasma and urine samples were extracted or prepared with very low recoveries. In the present study, moxonidine metabolites have been identified with modern analytical methods, which have much greater sensitivity. The results from the current study differed from the early study in two major aspects. First, all the metabolites identified in the present study except for dehydrogenated moxonidine were new human metabolites that had not been reported from the previous study. Second, the guanidine metabolite identified in the early study based on ...
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking this medicine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using this medicine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.. ...
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Cimetidine information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Sicor Pharmaceuticals, Cimetidine indications, usages and related health products lists
Cimetidine information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Mylan, Cimetidine indications, usages and related health products lists
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Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is a derivative of the amino acid l-arginine. Stored in neurons, this compound (also referred to as super argi
Title: MedicineNet cimetidine Specialty, Description: MedicineNet cimetidine Specialty, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 331221, Grade: 93, Type: RSS20
Chemicals China, Everyday Use Chemicals, Guanidine, dodecyl, monohydro chloride DGH for the oxidant is soluble in water and alcohol of nitrogen and organic matte...
Ishikawa, T.; Kumamoto, T. (2006). "Guanidines in Organic Synthesis". Synthesis. 2006 (5): 737-752. doi:10.1055/s-2006-926325. ...
... aromatic guanidines are also used. These compounds need to be combined with activators, typically zinc ions, in order to be ...
Durant GJ, Smith GM, Spickett RG, Wright SH (January 1966). "Biologically active guanidines and related compounds. II. Some ...
Amidine Guanidines Pinner, A. (January 1883). "Ueber die Umwandlung der Nitrile in Imide. Verhalten der Blausäure und des ...
In the 1920s, guanidine compounds were discovered in Galega extracts. Animal studies showed that these compounds lowered blood ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Güthner T, Mertschenk B, Schulz B (2006). "Guanidine and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
In this way, guanidines can be prepared. As weak bases, carbodiimides bind to Lewis acids to give adducts. Carbodiimides are ...
Guanidines - a similar group of compounds where the central carbon atom is bonded to three nitrogen atoms. Imidazolines contain ... ISBN 3-527-30655-2. Greenhill, John V.; Lue, Ping (1993). 5 Amidines and Guanidines in Medicinal Chemistry. Progress in ...
This result was completely forgotten, as other guanidine analogs such as the synthalins, took over and were themselves soon ... G. officinalis itself does not contain any of these medications, but isoamylene guanidine; phenformin, buformin, and metformin ... Dawes GS, Mott JC (March 1950). "Circulatory and respiratory reflexes caused by aromatic guanidines". British Journal of ... are chemically synthesized compounds composed of two guanidine molecules, and are more lipophilic than the plant-derived parent ...
These include the phosphazenes, phosphanes, amidines, and guanidines. Other organic compounds that meet the physicochemical or ... Barić, Danijela; Dragičević, Ivan; Kovačević, Borislav (2013-04-19). "Design of Superbasic Guanidines: The Role of Multiple ... guanidine, and phosphazene functional groups. Strong superbases can be designed by utilizing multiple intramolecular hydrogen ...
"Cytotoxic Guanidine Alkaloids fromPterogyne nitens△". Journal of Natural Products. American Chemical Society (ACS). 72 (3): 473 ...
ZTX is a guanidine alkaloid. It's structurally related to saxitoxin, but with some differences. ZTX has a guanidine core ... Zetekitoxin AB (ZTX) is a guanidine alkaloid found in the Panamanian golden frog Atelopus zeteki. It is an extremely potent ...
Five guanidine alkaloid natural products were isolated from the leaves of Pterogyne nitens: nitensidine D, nitensidine E, ... "Cytotoxic Guanidine Alkaloids fromPterogyne nitens△". Journal of Natural Products. American Chemical Society (ACS). 72 (3): 473 ...
Minot, A. S. (1939). "A comparison of the actions of prostigman and of guanidine on the activity of choline esterase in blood ... In 1938, she became the first to apply guanidine to treat myasthenia gravis. Other topics of research include protein ... Minot, A. S.; Cutler, J. T. (April 1929). "Increase in Guanidine-like Substance in Acute Liver Injury and Eclampsia". ... Minot, Ann S.; Dodd, Katharine; Riven, Samuel S. (April 15, 1938). "The response of the myasthenic state to guanidine ...
Petit A, Delhaye S, Tempé J, Morel G (1970). "Recherches sur les guanidines des tissues de Crown gall. Mise en evidence d'une ...
... morphine and guanidine. The second usage is to denote a hydrocarbon of the second degree of unsaturation. Examples include ...
Isoquinoline#Applications of derivatives The guanidine part of the molecule also appears in guanoxan and guanadrel. The 7-bromo ... Debrisoquine is a derivative of guanidine. It is an antihypertensive drug similar to guanethidine. Debrisoquine is frequently ...
7-Methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (mTBD) is a bicyclic strong guanidine base (pKa = 25.43 in CH3CN and pKa = 17.9 in ... doi:10.1007/s10765-019-2540-2. Ishikawa, T. (2009). Superbases for Organic Synthesis: Guanidines, Amidines, Phosphazenes and ... THF). mTBD, like 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene and other guanidine super bases, can be used as a catalyst in a variety of ...
With guanidines, a functionalized imidazolone is produced in 85% yield. Diethyl oxomalonate is a versatile reactant in the ... 561-563, doi:10.1021/jo00865a035 C. Quirosa-Guillou; D.Z. Renko; C. Thal (1992), "Réaction des guanidines avec les composés ...
Therefore, mini-ykkC RNA motif represents a distinct class of guanidine-sensing RNAs called Guanidine-II riboswitch. Its ... The mini-ykkC RNA motif (later renamed Guanidine-II riboswitch) was discovered as a putative RNA structure that is conserved in ... Huang L, Wang J, Lilley DM (June 2017). "The Structure of the Guanidine-II Riboswitch". Cell Chemical Biology. 24 (6): 695-702. ... Despite this, it was shown that each of the mini-ykkC two stem-loop structures directly binds free guanidine. ...
Findlay and Paton isolated a Guanidine compound. "Leonard Findlay". University of Glasgow. University of Glasgow Story. ...
Biochemical validation has been presented to show that this motif is a third class of guanidine riboswitches called Guanidine- ... showed that this riboswitch senses and responds to guanidine and it was renamed Guanidine-I riboswitch. Furthermore, they ... Therefore, mini-ykkC RNA motif represents a distinct class of guanidine-sensing RNAs called Guanidine-II riboswitch. Its ... Battaglia, Robert A.; Price, Ian R.; Ke, Ailong (April 2017). "Structural basis for guanidine sensing by the ykkC family of ...
Condensation with guanidine leads to the pyrimidone. NBS mediated bromination then gives bropirimine. Akaza H, Kotake T, ...
GITC may also be recognized as guanidine thiocyanate. This is because guanidinium is the conjugate acid of guanidine and is ... Guanidine thiocyanate: its formation from ammonium thiocyanate". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 103: 1378-91. doi:10.1039/CT9130301378. ...
... is a nitrile derived from guanidine. It is a dimer of cyanamide, from which it can be prepared. 2- ... A variety of useful compounds are produced from 2-cyanoguanidine, guanidines and melamine. For example, acetoguanamine and ...
Walther G, Daniel H, Bechtel WD, Brandt K (April 1990). "New tetracyclic guanidine derivatives with H1-antihistaminic ...
Ethyl methane sulfonate alkylates guanidine residues. This alteration causes errors during DNA replication.[page needed] ...
Alcohols, thiols, and amines react analogously to give alkylisoureas, "pseudothioureas", and guanidines. The anti-ulcer drug ...
For example, it methylates guanidines of DNA and certain lysines of histones. Thus it is part of gene expression and epigenetic ...
In vivo tests have shown that several positively charged peptides (based on guanidine residues) are able to cross cell ... Functionalizations of these compounds using dendrimeric guanidines showed similar activities as TAT-based CPPs but higher ... "Enhanced cell uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with dendritic guanidines". Bioconjugate ...
ISBN 978-0-08-029247-2. Bycroft, B. W.; King, T. J. (1 January 1972). "Crystal structure of streptolidine, a guanidine- ...
With a pKb of 0.4, guanidine is a strong base. Most guanidine derivatives are in fact salts containing the conjugate acid. ... Guanidine exists protonated, as guanidinium, in solution at physiological pH. Guanidinium chloride (also known as guanidine ... Guanidines are a group of organic compounds sharing a common functional group with the general structure (R. 1R. 2N)(R. 3R. 4N) ... "Guanidine hydrochloride". ChemIDplus. National Library of Medicine.. *^ Goebel, M.; Klapoetke, T. M. (2007). "First structural ...
Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) is a guanidine derivative that is used as a biocidal disinfectant, often in the form of its ... "The effect of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) derivatives introduced into polylactide (PLA) on the activity of ... salt polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P). Studies have shown that PHMG in solution has fungicidal as well as ...
GUANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE. ICSC. : 0894. Aminoformamidine hydrochloride. Aminomethanamidine hydrochloride. Carbamidine ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Although it is the salt formed by neutralizing guanidine with nitric acid, guanidine nitrate is produced industrially by the ... Guanidine nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula [C(NH2)3]NO3. It is a colorless, water-soluble salt. It is produced ... It has a relatively high monopropellant specific impulse of 177 seconds (1.7 kN·s/kg). Guanidine nitrates explosive ... Its correct name is guanidinium nitrate, but the colloquial term guanidine nitrate is widely used. ...
Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Guanidine. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible ... What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Guanidine?. *If you have an allergy to guanidine or any other part of guanidine ... How is this medicine (Guanidine) best taken?. Use guanidine as ordered by your doctor. Read all information given to you. ... What are some things I need to know or do while I take Guanidine?. *Tell all of your health care providers that you take ...
Guanidine is used to treat muscle weakness and tiredness caused by the Eaton-Lambert syndrome. The Eaton-Lambert syndrome is an ... Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of guanidine in the pediatric population ... No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of guanidine in geriatric patients. ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/guanidine-oral-route/before-using/drg-20075661 ...
To protect your privacy, your account will be locked after 6 failed attempts. After that, you will need to contact Customer Service to unlock your account.. You have 4 remaining attempts.. You have 3 remaining attempts.. You have 2 remaining attempts.. You have 1 remaining attempt.. Contact Customer Service ...
Guanidine official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse reactions and ... Guanidine. Generic name: Guanidine hydrochloride. Dosage form: tablet. Drug class: Cholinergic muscle stimulants ... How is Guanidine Supplied. Guanidine hydrochloride tablets: 125 mg, white, round tablet; impressed with the product ... Guanidine - Clinical Pharmacology. Guanidine apparently acts by enhancing the release of acetylcholine following a nerve ...
Therapeutic substituted guanidines. US6174924. Jun 5, 1995. Jan 16, 2001. Cambridge Neuroscience, Inc.. Therapeutic guanidines ... Alkyleneimino-lower alkyl-guanidines. US3006913 *. Jun 10, 1959. Oct 31, 1961. Ciba Pharm Prod Inc. Process for preparing (n,n- ... Acenaphthyl substituted guanidines and methods of use thereof. US5637622 *. May 22, 1995. Jun 10, 1997. State Of Oregon, Acting ... Therapeutic guanidines. US6358696. Aug 9, 2000. Mar 19, 2002. Mcburney Robert N.. Methods of treatment of eye trauma and ...
... amino-guanidine, methylguanidine, and triamino-guanidine were examined... ... Clay-organic complexes of the clay minerals sodium hectorite and sodium montmorillonite with the hydrochlorides of guanidine, ... amino-guanidine, methylguanidine, and triamino-guanidine were examined for thermal stability by the oscillating-heating x-ray ... Clay-organic complexes of the clay minerals sodium hectorite and sodium montmorillonite with the hydrochlorides of guanidine, ...
Guanidines. Direct Parent. Guanidines. Alternative Parents. Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Imines / Hydrocarbon ... Guanidine. PDB Entries. 1jxm / 1kp2 / 1kp3 / 1o01 / 1o02 / 1o04 / 1pxv / 1rbw / 1t8a / 1umj … ... This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as guanidines. These are compounds containing a guanidine moiety ... one-carbon compound, guanidines, carboxamidine (CHEBI:42820) / a small molecule (CPD-13517) Targets. ...
Guanidine HCl may agglomerate upon storage. It may appear as a free-flowing crystalline powder, a free flowing powder with ... The quality of the product does not appear to be affected and solutions prepared from the free-flowing and lumpy guanidine HCl ... Guanidine hydrochloride consists of a networkof guanidinium cations and chloride anions linked by N-H•••Cl hydrogen bonds,it is ... Guanidine HCl may agglomerate upon storage. It may appear as a free-flowing crystalline powder, a free flowing powder with ...
N,n,n-tris(p-nitrophenyl)guanidine. *Formula: C19H14N6O6 ...
Guanidine hydrochloride ≥99.5%; CAS Number: 50-01-1; EC Number: 200-002-3; Synonym: Aminoformamidine hydrochloride, ... Guanidine hydrochloride ≥99.5% Synonym: Aminoformamidine hydrochloride, Aminomethanamidine hydrochloride, Guanidinium chloride ...
Their chemical structures and properties are also highly tunable as their flexibility and the number of guanidine groups can be ... The toxicities of these dendritic guanidines are also reported as well as their application towards the intracellular delivery ... Dendritic analogues of cell penetrating peptides, with multiple guanidine groups on their peripheries offer advantages as their ... tuned by altering the dendritic backbone or the linkages to the guanidine groups. This review describes the development of cell ...
Find user ratings and reviews for guanidine oral on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions, medication ... Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of guanidine oral. ...
2-(2-Iodobenzyl)guanidine *Molecular FormulaC8H10IN3 ... Guanidine, N-[(2-. iodophenyl)methyl]- [ACD/Index Name] ortho ...
... guanidine , C7H9N3O , CID 32204 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Global Guanidine Phosphate Market Research Report. This report provides a strategic analysis of the Guanidine Phosphate market ... global guanidine phosphate (cas 5423-23-4) market size and shareglobal guanidine phosphate (cas 5423-23-4) market forecast & ... and commercial study of the Guanidine Phosphate market.This report is an effort to identify driving factors for the Guanidine ... Global Guanidine Phosphate (CAS 5423-23-4) Market New Project Investment, Import and Export, Strategies - 2016. Press Release ...
The Global Guanidine Industry 2016 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the ... 1.2.2 Guanidine Nitrate 3. 1.2.3 Guanidine Hydrochloride 3. 1.2.4 Guanidine Carbonate 4. 1.3 Guanidine Segment by Applications ... 1 Guanidine Market Overview 1. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Guanidine 1. 1.2 Guanidine Segment by Types 2. 1.2.1 Global ... 2.5 Guanidine Market Competitive Situation and Trends 23. 2.5.1 Guanidine Market Concentration Rate 23. 2.5.2 Guanidine Market ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Study performed according to standard test guidelines (OECD, EC) and conform GLP requirements. The light intensity was not recorded but since all the validity criteria were met, it can be concluded that the study integrity was not adversely affected by this deviation. The results of the study can be considered reliable without restriction ...
Looking for SIGMA-ALDRICH Guanidine Hydrochloride,CAS 50-01-1 (45ZH42)? Graingers got your back. Price:$471.50. Easy ordering ...
Pages in category "Guanidines". The following 5 pages are in this category, out of 5 total. ...
For isolation of RNA from cell extracts Shop Guanidine Hydrochloride (Colorless-to-White Crystals), Fisher BioReagents™ at ... Guanidine Hydrochloride is a strong protein-denaturing agent used in the isolation of RNA from cell extracts. RNase activity is ...
... Cornelius Krasel krasel at wpxx02.toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de Fri Mar 14 ... Affinity chromatography on blue sepharose is likely to be affected by both guanidine and urea since it will denature the ... Previous message: Ion Exchange Chro/HPLC with 6M Guanidine or Some Detergent? ... Previous message: Ion Exchange Chro/HPLC with 6M Guanidine or Some Detergent? ...
Guanidine, N-nitro-N-(2-phenylethyl)- , C9H12N4O2 , CID 145854 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, ...
Testing Status of 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitroso-guanidine C01423. CASRN: 70-25-7. Related: MNNG/TPA/BPO, CAS 70-25-7. Formula: C2- ...
  • Guanidinium chloride (also known as guanidine hydrochloride) has chaotropic properties and is used to denature proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically, Guanidine (aminomethanamidine) hydrochloride is a crystalline powder freely soluble in water and alcohol. (drugs.com)
  • Each tablet contains 125 mg of Guanidine hydrochloride with no color additive in the base. (drugs.com)
  • Safe use of Guanidine hydrochloride in pregnancy has not been established. (drugs.com)
  • Guanidine hydrochloride can be used as the first step in refolding proteins or enzymes into their active form. (mpbio.com)
  • Also used in the isolation of RNA.Guanidine hydrochloride is a strong chaotropic agent useful for the denaturation and subsequent refolding of protein, it can solubilize insoluble or denatured proteins such as inclusion bodies and be used for the recovery of periplasmic proteins. (mpbio.com)
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride is a strong protein-denaturing agent used in the isolation of RNA from cell extracts. (fishersci.com)
  • Guanidine hydrochloride is used in the presence of ethanol to precipitate DNA, why this reagent (which is so harmful) is used instead of i.e. (biology-online.org)
  • So, why the guanidine hydrochloride is the ingredient of AP3/E buffer used in DNeasy kit? (biology-online.org)
  • To the editor: We wish to report a case of cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension occurring in conjunction with guanidine hydrochloride therapy in a patient with an oat cell carcinoma of the lung and the myasthenic syndrome. (annals.org)
  • Guanidine hydrochloride has been shown to enhance the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings and to improve significantly the muscular weakness associated with the myasthenic syndrome of Lambert and Rooke (1). (annals.org)
  • NAKANO KK, TYLER HR. Cardiovascular Complications of Guanidine Hydrochloride. (annals.org)
  • Denaturation of thermophilic ferricytochrome c-552 by acid, guanidine hydrochloride, and heat. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The denaturation of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome c-552 by acid, guanidine hydrochloride, and heat was studied by measuring the changes in absorption and circular dichroism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the presence of guanidine hydrochloride, the influence of the heat on the ligand bond in cytochrome c-552 was studied. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The enthalpy changes in the higher temperature range were independent on the guanidine hydrochloride concentration, while those in the lower range were not. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Guanidine hydrochloride is a strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt form of guanidine, a strong basic compound with parasympathomimetic activity. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Guanidine hydrochloride enhances the release of acetylcholine following a nerve impulse and potentiates acetylcholine actions on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride is a powerful, chaotropic agent which is widely used for purification of proteins and nucleic acids. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride is useful for denaturation and refolding of proteins as well as in the recovery of periplasmic proteins and isolation of RNA. (chemicalbook.com)
  • When utilized at lower concentrations, Guanidine Hydrochloride is noted to be useful in prompting the refolding of denatured proteins. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride is also been reported to allow return of enzymatic activity in protocols using Guanidine Hydrochloride as a first step. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride is an inhibitor of RNase. (chemicalbook.com)
  • Guanidine Hydrochloride (GdnHCl) is a better denaturant than urea.It should normally give higher and lower values for m and for Cm, respectively, but identical deltaG° values. (chemicalbook.com)
  • PSI + ] strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae replicate and transmit the prion form of the Sup35p protein but can be permanently cured of this property when grown in millimolar concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl). (asm.org)
  • In order to elucidate the roles of individual amino acid residues in the conformational stability of proteins, the denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride of the wild-type tryptophan synthase [EC 4.2.1.20] .alpha. (eurekamag.com)
  • The trpA33 and the trpA11 proteins were more and less resistant, respectively, to guanidine hydrochloride than the wild-type protein at 9.7-49.6.degree. (eurekamag.com)
  • Bartoszewska, Sylwia 2018-01-01 00:00:00 A series of novel 2-(2-arylmethylthio-4-chloro-5-methylbenzenesulfonyl)-1-(6-substituted-4-chloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)guanidine derivatives 9-20 have been synthesized by substitution of chlorine atom at the 1,3,5-triazine ring in compounds 5-8 with 3- or 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide and 4-(aminomethyl)benzenesulfonamide hydrochloride. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the present study, the peptide fragments liberated from the chicken liver enzyme by digestion with trypsin in dilute solutions of urea or guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) have been separated by FPLC and sequenced. (biochemj.org)
  • DIDS and Hoe 694 (3-methylsulfonyl-4-piperidinobenzoyl, guanidine hydrochloride) were added, as solids, to solutions shortly before use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The samples then have been resuspended in 6M of guanidine hydrochloride. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Changes in the complex induced by incubation in guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) solution and those induced by the incubation followed by removal of GdnHCl were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Guanidine exists protonated, as guanidinium, in solution at physiological pH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its correct name is guanidinium nitrate, but the colloquial term guanidine nitrate is widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most guanidine derivatives are in fact salts containing the conjugate acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2019, 44, 267-292.https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/prep.201800253 Thomas Güthner, Bernd Mertschenk and Bernd Schulz "Guanidine and Derivatives" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2006, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. (wikipedia.org)
  • 260-564) This invention relates to new guanidine derivatives having pharmacological activity. (google.com)
  • A quantitative structure activity relationship study of 31 sucrose derivatives and 30 guanidine derivatives has been undertaken. (scielo.org.za)
  • The study indicates that ionization potential appears an important descriptor for sucrose derivatives, whereas molar refractivity appears an important descriptor for guanidine derivatives. (scielo.org.za)
  • Molar refractivity alone and in combination with solvent accessibility surface area, ionization potential and heat of formation provide dependable QSAR models for guanidine derivatives. (scielo.org.za)
  • Stimulation of insulin secretion by guanidine acetic acid and other guanidine derivatives. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This study was undertaken to compare the ability of two guanidine compounds (aminoguanidine and methylguanidine), with different in vitro effects on NO synthase activity and AGE formation, to inhibit diabetic vascular dysfunction developing early after the onset of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • in general, both guanidine compounds normalized albumin permeation in diabetic rats without affecting it in controls. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In contrast, the potency of methylguanidine as an inhibitor of the constitutive isoform of NO synthase was comparable to that of aminoguanidine, and both guanidine compounds were much less effective than L-NMMA. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although some guanidine compounds were reported as superior substrates for organic cation transporter (OCT)2 than OCT1, it was unclear whether this guanidino group was an important factor in determining the specificity of hOCT1 and hOCT2. (ovid.com)
  • Using HEK293 cells transfected with human (h)OCT1 or hOCT2 cDNA, we assessed the role of hOCT1 and/or hOCT2 in the transport of guanidine compounds such as uremic toxins and therapeutic agents. (ovid.com)
  • Among guanidine compounds, aminoguanidine was identified as a new superior substrate for hOCT2. (ovid.com)
  • Denaturation is an induced state by external stressors or chemical compounds like guanidine thiocyanate. (agscientific.com)
  • This method can be used for analysis of other guanidine-based compounds. (sielc.com)
  • A laboratory method of producing guanidine is gentle (180-190 °C) thermal decomposition of dry ammonium thiocyanate in anhydrous conditions: 3 NH 4 SCN = 2 CH 5 N 3 + H 2 S + CS 2 {\displaystyle {\ce {3 NH4SCN = 2 CH5N3 + H2S + CS2}}} The commercial route involves a two step process starting with the reaction of dicyandiamide with ammonium salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanidine thiocyanate Rs.2500/-gms CAS : 593-84-0 Appearance (Colour) White Appearance (Form) Crystalline compound Solubility (Tur. (tradeindia.com)
  • 2 However, immediate deep-freezing is often inconvenient in routine clinical practice, and we wondered whether simple storage of faecal samples at RT in test tubes containing 4 M guanidine thiocyanate solution would be equally effective. (bmj.com)
  • Guanidine thiocyanate is a general protein denaturant 3 and inhibits bacterial growth. (bmj.com)
  • The test tubes (TechnoSuruga Laboratory, Shizuoka, Japan) at RT contained 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 9), 40 mM EDTA, 4 M guanidine thiocyanate, and 0.001% bromothymol. (bmj.com)
  • What Is Guanidine Thiocyanate? (agscientific.com)
  • Guanidine thiocyanate (G-2563) is a water and ethanol soluble reagent used to study protein denaturation, cell signaling and function, and gene expression. (agscientific.com)
  • In this specific case mentioned above , guanidine thiocyanate is used to unfold the protein structure in order to study it and its mechanisms. (agscientific.com)
  • In addition, guanidine thiocyanate is a chaotropic agent, meaning it can be added to water solutions with proteins and weaken their structure by way of weakening proteins' hydrophobic properties. (agscientific.com)
  • Using guanidine thiocyanate in varying methods to isolate and pull intact strand samples in a relatively short amount of time is proven to be extremely effective and preferable. (agscientific.com)
  • In this pandemic and the race for the vaccine, guanidine thiocyanate is a key research component because of its ability to capture RNA sequences as well as break down proteins and cell structures for further analysis. (agscientific.com)
  • Guanidine thiocyanate is used as a part of a lysis buffer solution which isolates and extracts the viral RNA from a sample. (agscientific.com)
  • It is so effective in fact that guanidine thiocyanate is becoming increasingly in-demand and therefore more scarce. (agscientific.com)
  • Research scientists have been working on developing solutions which require less guanidine thiocyanate with the same results , so that testing can be shared and more widespread. (agscientific.com)
  • The viability of guanidine thiocyanate as an aide in the diagnosis of COVID-19 could prove incredibly useful - even life-saving - in the year to come, and we are here to help. (agscientific.com)
  • At AG Scientific, we stock guanidine thiocyanate alongside many other chemicals needed for COVID-19 research and beyond. (agscientific.com)
  • ball-and-stick model resonance hybrid canonical forms Guanidine can be selectively detected using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonic acid (Folin's reagent) and acidified urea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affinity chromatography on blue sepharose is likely to be affected by both guanidine and urea since it will denature the protein -- affinity chromatography usually needs the native molecule, however. (bio.net)
  • Can MBP fusions be purified in the presence of denaturants like urea or guanidine-HCl? (neb.com)
  • A highly enantioselective catalytic epoxidation of α,β-unsaturated diaryl enones was achieved with high chemical yield by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a guanidine-urea bifunctional organocatalyst. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • The catalyst performs cooperatively by interaction of the guanidine group with hydrogen peroxide and the urea group with the enone or vice versa. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Helmut Hoffmann, Carlhans Suling, 'Process for the production of guanidine salts of aliphatic mercaptosulphonic acids. (drugbank.ca)
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Guanidine Salts manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Guanidine Salts industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • The report then estimates 2016-2021 market development trends of Guanidine Salts industry. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of Guanidine Salts Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2011-2021 global and Chinese Guanidine Salts industry covering all important parameters. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • 5.2 Market Competition of Guanidine Salts Industry by Country (USA, EU, Japan, Chinese etc. (rnrmarketresearch.com)
  • melting point, approximately 50° C. Guanidine absorbs C0 2 and moisture from the air and forms salts with acids. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Guanidine (or its salts) is obtained by reacting cyanamide with ammonia (or with ammonium salts). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [3] A detailed crystallographic analysis of guanidine was elucidated 148 years after its first synthesis, despite the simplicity of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impromidine-analogous guanidines: synthesis and activity at the histamine H2-receptor. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • We present a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the chiral separation of 3-phenyl-3-(2-pyridyl)propylamines, -guanidines and -guanidine-N-carboxylic acid esters. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • 19 impromidine analogous guanidines were synthetized by acid hydrolysis of the corresponding N-cyanoguanidines. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Category:Guanidines Sakaguchi test Y-aromaticity Amidine International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (2014). (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanidines, which exist widely in nature, have been frequently utilised as strong Brønsted bases in organic chemistry. (rsc.org)
  • An amino-indanol derived chiral guanidine was developed as an efficient Brønsted base catalyst for the desymmetrization of meso- aziridines with both thiols and carbamodithioic acids as nucleophiles, which provided 1,2-difunctionalized ring-opened products in high yields and enantioselectivities. (rsc.org)
  • What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE I take Guanidine? (drugs.com)
  • You must check to make sure that it is safe for you to take guanidine with all of your drugs and health problems. (drugs.com)
  • What are some things I need to know or do while I take Guanidine? (drugs.com)
  • Tell all of your health care providers that you take guanidine. (drugs.com)
  • How should I take guanidine? (drugster.info)
  • Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) is a guanidine derivative that is used as a biocidal disinfectant, often in the form of its salt polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P). Studies have shown that PHMG in solution has fungicidal as well as bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the ligand, DMEGpy, three new copper guanidine-pyridine complexes could be synthesized and structurally characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • The anionic counterpart of guanidine, which is known as guanidinate, is also able to function as a ligand. (rsc.org)
  • Silia Bond ® Guanidine is a silica-supported diisopropylguanidine ligand. (silicycle.com)
  • A linear correlation between the enantiopurity of the catalyst and reaction product indicates the presence of a copper complex bearing a single guanidine ligand at the enantio-determining step. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Clay-organic complexes of the clay minerals sodium hectorite and sodium montmorillonite with the hydrochlorides of guanidine, amino-guanidine, methylguanidine, and triamino-guanidine were examined for thermal stability by the oscillating-heating x-ray technique. (springer.com)
  • In patients with renal failure, the impairment of hOCT2 might decrease the excretion of guanidine, methylguanidine, and creatinine as uremic toxins. (ovid.com)
  • Guanidine, creatinine and aminoguanidine more markedly inhibited the uptake of [ 14 C]tetraethylammonium (TEA) by hOCT2 than by hOCT1. (ovid.com)
  • One aliquot (PBS aliquot) was diluted with 180 [micro]L of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and the other (G aliquot) was diluted with 180 [micro]L of 1M guanidine solution (G) (Sigma-Aldrich). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Guanidine nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula [C(NH2)3]NO3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it is the salt formed by neutralizing guanidine with nitric acid, guanidine nitrate is produced industrially by the reaction of dicyandiamide (or calcium salt) and ammonium nitrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanidine nitrate's explosive decomposition is given by the following equation: H6N4CO3 (s) → 3 H2O (g) + 2 N2 (g) + C (s) Guanidine nitrate is used as the gas generator in automobile airbags. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having 56 years of experience in this field, we are engaged in offering excellent quality Guanidine Nitrate. (tradeindia.com)
  • Some smoke formulas employ guanidine nitrate . (pyrodata.com)
  • Global Guanidine Phosphate (CAS 5423-23-4) Market New Project. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • This report provides a strategic analysis of the Guanidine Phosphate market and the growth estimates for the forecasted period.The market research analyst projects the global Guanidine Phosphate market to grow at a considerable CAGR, in terms of revenue,over the forecast period. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The report will provide the client with market insights andin-depth analysis of multiple market segments on the basis of applications, end-users, and geographicalcross-sectional study across the globe.This report also provides market sizing and forecasts for the Guanidine Phosphate market. (mynewsdesk.com)
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  • Additionally, the report also strategically analyzes the Guanidine Phosphate market with regards to individual growth trends, future prospects, and contribution of each segment to the market. (mynewsdesk.com)
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  • Guanidine phosphate is often used as a flame retardant and antirust agent for wood fiber paper. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • The global Guanidine Dihydrogen Phosphate(CAS 5423-22-3) market was valued at xx million US$ in 2018 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2019-2025. (htfmarketreport.com)
  • This report focuses on Guanidine Dihydrogen Phosphate(CAS 5423-22-3) volume and value at global level, regional level and company level. (htfmarketreport.com)
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  • The guanidines were tested on the isolated spontaneously beating guinea-pig atrium for histamine H2-receptor affinity. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Investigations on the pharmacology of the cardioprotective guanidine ME10092. (diva-portal.org)
  • GUANIDINE NITRATECAS No: 506-93-4Formula CH6N4O3Appearance White Crystalline Powder.Solubility Freely Soluble in Water, Very Soluble in Boiling WaterPH. (tradeindia.com)
  • Guanidine HCl, the crystalline compound of strong alkalinity formed by the oxidation of guanine, is a normal product of protein metabolism and a protein denaturant. (apexbt.com)
  • Guanidine can be obtained from natural sources, being first isolated by Adolph Strecker via the degradation of guanine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanidine is highly basic (pKa 12.5), and a polar compound is formed by the oxidation of guanine. (sielc.com)
  • A guanidine fragment enters into the composition of guanine (a component of nucleic acids), creatine, and arginine, the antibiotic streptomycin, and tetrodotoxin, a poison of animal origin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Guanidine is indicated for the reduction of the symptoms of muscle weakness and easy fatigability associated with the myasthenic syndrome of Eaton-Lambert. (drugs.com)
  • Their chemical structures and properties are also highly tunable as their flexibility and the number of guanidine groups can be tuned by altering the dendritic backbone or the linkages to the guanidine groups. (mdpi.com)
  • The potential of catalytic guanidine or guanidinate metal complexes to catalyse unique chemical transformations is immensely promising. (rsc.org)
  • Guanidine improves the action of a chemical in the body that regulates muscle cells. (drugster.info)
  • हम विशेष हैं Guanidine नाइट्रेट निर्माताओं और आपूर्तिकर्ताओं / कारखाने चीन से। कम कीमत / सस्ते के रूप में उच्च गुणवत्ता के साथ थोक Guanidine नाइट्रेट , चीन से अग्रणी ब्रांडों में से एक Guanidine नाइट्रेट में से एक, Beilite Chemical Co., Ltd. (dicyandiamideblt.com)
  • Borong White Guanidine Nitrat dengan kualiti tinggi sebagai harga rendah / murah, salah satu daripada White Guanidine Nitrat jenama terkemuka dari China, NINGXIA PURU CHEMICAL CO., LTD. (nxpuruchem.com)
  • The Global Guanidine Industry 2016 Market Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Guanidine industry. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A new guanidine derivative named plantagoguanidinic acid was isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica. (elsevier.com)
  • Ion Exchange Chro/HPLC with 6M Guanidine or Some Detergent? (bio.net)
  • The biodegradation studies using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, HPLC, FTIR, and LC-MS indicated the production of the following metabolites: 2-chloro-5-methyl thiazole (CMT), methyl nitroguanidine (MNG), methyl 3-[thiazole-yl], and methyl guanidine (TMG). (hindawi.com)
  • HPLC-UV-ELSD-MS-guided fractionation of the anti-parasitic extract obtained from the marine sponge Monanchora arbuscula, collected off the southeastern coast of Brazil, led to the isolation of a series of guanidine and pyrimidine alkaloids. (fapesp.br)
  • A guanidine moiety also appears in larger organic molecules, including on the side chain of arginine . (wikipedia.org)
  • The guanidine hybrid ligands, (tetramethylguanidine)methylenepyridine (TMGpy) and (dimethylethyleneguanidine)methylenepyridine (DMEGpy), were proven to be able to stabilize copper complexes active in the solvent-free polymerization of styrene at 110 °C using 1-phenylethylbromide as the initiator. (mdpi.com)
  • As ligands, guanidines can have different coordination modes with the metal center. (rsc.org)
  • It was interesting to study if the reactive blending via transamination reaction using terminal amine and guanidine groups of PHMG with ester units of PBAT at high temperature in an extruder leading to covalent immobilization was possible or not. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antitumor effects of EGFR antisense guanidine-based peptide nucleic ac" by Sufi M. Thomas, Bichismita Sahu et al. (cmu.edu)
  • Antitumor effects of EGFR antisense guanidine-based peptide nucleic acids in cancer models. (cmu.edu)
  • Herein, we report the development of cell-permeable, guanidine-based peptide nucleic acids targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in preclinical models as therapeutic modality for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (cmu.edu)
  • The excretion of Guanidine can be decreased when combined with Abemaciclib. (drugbank.ca)
  • Guanidine is the compound with the formula HNC(NH 2 ) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention is concerned with [(benzodioxan, benzofuran or benzopyran)alkylamino]alkyl substituted guanidines having the formula. (wipo.int)
  • Guanidine apparently acts by enhancing the release of acetylcholine following a nerve impulse. (drugs.com)
  • The toxicities of these dendritic guanidines are also reported as well as their application towards the intracellular delivery of biologically significant cargos including proteins and nanoparticles. (mdpi.com)
  • The serum concentration of Agmatine can be increased when it is combined with Guanidine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Comparison of the new structure with those of the guanidine I and II riboswitches reveals that evolution generated three different structural solutions for guanidine binding and subsequent gene regulation, although with some common elements. (nih.gov)
  • Guanidine can be thought of as a nitrogenous analogue of carbonic acid . (wikipedia.org)
  • Michael and his coworkers have synthesized, characterized, and studied the thermal degradation of a terpolymer prepared from salicylic acid, guanidine , and formaldehyde [8] and 8-hydroxyquinoline-guanidineformaldehyde [9]. (thefreedictionary.com)