A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
Amino Acid Sequence
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
Predeciduous teeth present at birth. They may be well formed and normal or may represent hornified epithelial structures without roots. They are found on the gingivae over the crest of the ridge and arise from accessory buds of the dental lamina ahead of the deciduous buds or from buds of the accessory dental lamina. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Protein Structure, Secondary
Adenosine Diphosphate Sugars
Chromatography, Ion Exchange
A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 220.127.116.11.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
Subunit dissociation in fish hemoglobins. (1/2908)The tetramer-dimer dissociation equilibria (K 4,2) of several fish hemoglobins have been examined by sedimentation velocity measurements with a scanner-computer system for the ultracentrifuge and by flash photolysis measurements using rapid kinetic methods. Samples studied in detail included hemoglobins from a marine teleost, Brevoortia tyrannus (common name, menhaden); a fresh water teleost, Cyprinus carpio, (common name, carp); and an elasmobranch Prionace glauca (common name, blue shark). For all three species in the CO form at pH 7, in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, sedimentation coefficients of 4.3 S (typical of tetrameric hemoglobin) are observed in the micromolar concentration range. In contrast, mammalian hemoglobins dissociate appreciably to dimers under these conditions. The inability to detect dissociation in three fish hemoglobins at the lowest concentrations examined indicates that K 4,2 must have a value of 10(-8) M or less. In flash photolysis experiments on very dilute solutions in long path length cells, two kinetic components were detected with their proportions varying as expected for an equilibrium between tetramers (the slower component) and dimers (the faster component); values of K 4,2 for the three fish hemoglobins in the range 10(-9) to 10(-8) M were calculated from these data. Thus, the values of K 4,2 for liganded forms of the fish hemoglobins appear to be midway between the value for liganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-6) M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (K 4,2 approximately 10(-12) M). This conclusion is supported by measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride to enhance the degree of dissociation. All three fish hemoglobins are appreciably dissociated at guanidine concentrations of about 0.8 M, which is roughly midway between the guanidine concentrations needed to cause comparable dissociation of liganded human hemoglobin (about 0.4 M) and unliganded human hemoglobin (about 1.6 M). Kinetic measurements on solutions containing guanidine hydrochloride indicated that there are changes in both the absolute rates and the proportions of the fast and slow components, which along with other factors complicated the analysis of the data in terms of dissociation constants. Measurements were also made in solutions containing urea to promote dissociation, but with this agent very high concentrations (about 6 M) were required to give measureable dissociation and the fish hemoglobins were unstable under these conditions, with appreciable loss of absorbance spectra in both the sedimentation and kinetic experiments. (+info)
Effect of diabetes and aminoguanidine therapy on renal advanced glycation end-product binding. (2/2908)BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, and aminoguanidine (AG) has been shown to decrease the accumulation of AGEs in the diabetic kidney. METHODS: This study investigates changes in AGE binding associated with diabetes in the rat kidney using in vitro and in vivo autoradiographic techniques. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control and diabetic groups with and without AG treatment and were sacrificed after three weeks. Frozen kidney sections (20 microm) were incubated with [125I]-AGE-RNase or [125I]-AGE-BSA. To localize the AGE binding site, in vivo autoradiography was performed by injection of 15 microCi of [125I]-AGE-BSA into the abdominal aorta of the rat. RESULTS: Low-affinity binding sites specific for AGEs in the renal cortex (IC50 = 0.28 microm) were detected by in vitro autoradiography. There was a significant increase in [125I]-AGE binding in the diabetic kidney, which was prevented by AG treatment. Emulsion autoradiography revealed that binding was localized primarily to proximal tubules in the renal cortex. Renal AGE levels, as assessed by fluorescence or by radioimmunoassay, were increased after three weeks of diabetes. This increase was attenuated by AG therapy. CONCLUSIONS: AGE binding sites are present within the proximal tubules of the kidney and appear to be modulated by endogenous AGE levels. It remains to be determined if these binding sites represent receptors involved in clearance of AGEs or are linked to pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of diabetic nephropathy. (+info)
Prevention of neointimal formation by a serine protease inhibitor, FUT-175, after carotid balloon injury in rats. (3/2908)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In vivo and vitro studies revealed the activation of thrombin and the complement system in vascular lesion formation during the process of atherosclerosis, along with pathological proliferation of smooth muscle cells. We examined the effect of the synthetic serine protease inhibitor FUT-175 (developed as a potent inhibitor of thrombin and the complement system) on vascular lesions using balloon dilatation-induced neointimal formation in the carotid artery of rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats underwent balloon dilatation injury of the left carotid artery to induce neointimal formation. Three groups of these rats (n=8, each) were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of 1 of the following doses of FUT-175: 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/d in 1 mL of saline for 7 consecutive days. The control group (n=8) was similarly treated with 1 mL of saline for 7 days. The injections were started immediately after balloon injury. Two weeks after the injury, the left carotid arteries were perfusion-fixed, and the areas of the neointimal and medial layer were analyzed under a microscope. RESULTS: A morphometric analysis revealed that there were significant differences in the intima-media ratio between the 4 groups treated with vehicle (saline) or a low, medium, or high dose of FUT-175 (1.45+/-0.11, 1.08+/-0.06, 0.71+/-0.04, or 0.32+/-0.04, respectively). This suppression was achieved in a dose-dependent manner by the administration of FUT-175 after balloon injury. In the histological study, it was demonstrated that FUT-175 suppresses the production of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB in the neointima and the medial smooth muscle cell layer. CONCLUSIONS: After balloon injury activated proteases that were inhibited by FUT-175 were demonstrated to have an essential role in the development of the pathological thickening of the arterial wall. (+info)
Adenosine inhibits the transfected Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3 in Xenopus laevis renal epithelial cells (A6/C1). (4/2908)1. Adenosine influences the vectorial transport of Na+ and HCO3- across kidney epithelial cells. However, its action on effector proteins, such as the Na+-H+ exchanger NHE3, an epithelial brush border isoform of the Na+-H+ exchanger (NHE) gene family, is not yet defined. 2. The present study was conducted in Xenopus laevis distal nephron A6 epithelia which express both an apical adenosine receptor of the A1 type (coupled to protein kinase C (PKC)) and a basolateral receptor of the A2 type (coupled to protein kinase A (PKA)). The untransfected A6 cell line expresses a single NHE type (XNHE) which is restricted to the basolateral membrane and which is activated by PKA. 3. A6 cell lines were generated which express exogenous rat NHE3. Measurements of side-specific pHi recovery from acid loads in the presence of HOE694 (an inhibitor with differential potency towards individual NHE isoforms) detected an apical resistant Na+-H+ exchange only in transfected cell lines. The sensitivity of the basolateral NHE to HOE694 was unchanged, suggesting that exogenous NHE3 was restricted to the apical membrane. 4. Stimulation of the apical A1 receptor with N 6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) inhibited both apical NHE3 and basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by the addition of the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and partially prevented by the PKC inhibitor calphostin C which also blocked the effect of PMA. 5. Stimulation of the basolateral A2 receptor with CPA inhibited apical NHE3 and stimulated basolateral XNHE. These effects were mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP and partially prevented by the PKA inhibitor H89 which entirely blocked the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP. 6. In conclusion, CPA inhibits rat NHE3 expressed apically in A6 epithelia via both the apical PKC-coupled A1 and the basolateral PKA-coupled A2 adenosine receptors. (+info)
Modulation of human airway smooth muscle proliferation by type 3 phosphodiesterase inhibition. (5/2908)Elevation in cell cAMP content can inhibit mitogenic signaling in cultured human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. We studied the effects of the type 3-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor siguazodan, the type 4-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram, and the nonselective inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) on proliferation of cultured HASM cells. At concentrations selective for the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform, siguazodan inhibited both [3H]thymidine incorporation (IC50 2 microM) and the increase in cell number (10 microM; 64% reduction) induced by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (20 ng/ml). These effects were mimicked by IBMX. At concentrations selective for type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibition, rolipram was without effect. A 20-min exposure to siguazodan and rolipram did not increase whole cell cAMP levels. However, in HASM cells transfected with a cAMP-responsive luciferase reporter (p6CRE/Luc), increases in cAMP-driven luciferase expression were seen with siguazodan (3.9-fold) and IBMX (16.5-fold). These data suggest that inhibition of the type 3 phosphodiesterase isoform present in airway smooth muscle results in inhibition of mitogenic signaling, possibly through an increase in cAMP-driven gene expression. (+info)
Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha on intracellular pH, intracellular calcium, cell shortening and L-type calcium currents in rat myocytes. (6/2908)OBJECTIVE: We have studied the mechanisms underlying the positive inotropic action of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) by monitoring intracellular calcium transients, intracellular pH, L-type calcium currents and cell shortening in isolated ventricular myocytes. METHODS: Rat myocytes were loaded with fura-2AM for intracellular calcium measurements, or BCECF-AM for pH measurements. Cell shortening was recorded using an edge detection system, and L-type calcium currents measured using whole cell patch clamping. RESULTS: PGF2 alpha (3 nmol l-1-3 mumol l-1 increased single myocyte shortening and reduced resting cell length in a concentration-dependent manner. While myocyte shortening was increased by PGF2 alpha, this was not associated with any change in the amplitude of intracellular calcium transients, diastolic calcium, or L-type calcium currents. However, the same myocytes were capable of responding to catecholamines with increases in calcium transient amplitude and L-type calcium currents. PGF2 alpha (3 mumol l-1 caused a reversible rise in intracellular pH of 0.08 +/- 0.01 pH units (n = 5, p < 0.05). The Na(+)-H+ exchanger inhibitor, HOE 694 (10 mumol l-1, abolished the PGF2 alpha-induced rise in pH and the increase in cell shortening. PGF2 alpha-induced increases in cell shortening and intracellular pH were also attenuated by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, chelerythrine (2 mumol l-1. CONCLUSION: The positive inotropic action of PGF2 alpha appears to be mediated via activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger with the possible involvement of PKC. This suggests that PGF2 alpha-produces intracellular alkalosis, which then sensitizes cardiac myofilaments to calcium. (+info)
Potentiation of anti-cancer drug activity at low intratumoral pH induced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and its analogue benzylguanidine (BG). (7/2908)Tumour-selective acidification is of potential interest for enhanced therapeutic gain of pH sensitive drugs. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a tumour-selective reduction of the extracellular and intracellular pH and their effect on the tumour response of selected anti-cancer drugs. In an in vitro L1210 leukaemic cell model, we confirmed enhanced cytotoxicity of chlorambucil at low extracellular pH conditions. In contrast, the alkylating drugs melphalan and cisplatin, and bioreductive agents mitomycin C and its derivative EO9, required low intracellular pH conditions for enhanced activation. Furthermore, a strong and pH-independent synergism was observed between the pH-equilibrating drug nigericin and melphalan, of which the mechanism is unclear. In radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumour-bearing mice, the extracellular pH was reduced by the mitochondrial inhibitor m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) or its analogue benzylguanidine (BG) plus glucose. To simultaneously reduce the intracellular pH, MIBG plus glucose were combined with the ionophore nigericin or the Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor amiloride and the Na+-dependent HCO3-/Cl- exchanger inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Biochemical studies confirmed an effective reduction of the extracellular pH to approximately 6.2, and anti-tumour responses to the interventions indicated a simultaneous reduction of the intracellular pH below 6.6 for at least 3 h. Combined reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH with melphalan increased the tumour regrowth time to 200% of the pretreatment volume from 5.7 +/- 0.6 days for melphalan alone to 8.1 +/- 0.7 days with pH manipulation (P < 0.05). Mitomycin C related tumour growth delay was enhanced by the combined interventions from 3.8 +/- 0.5 to 5.2 +/- 0.5 days (P < 0.05), but only in tumours of relatively large sizes. The interventions were non-toxic alone or in combination with the anti-cancer drugs and did not affect melphalan biodistribution. In conclusion, we have developed non-toxic interventions for sustained and selective reduction of extra- and intracellular tumour pH which potentiated the tumour responses to selected anti-cancer drugs. (+info)
Nitric oxide mediates cerebral ischemic tolerance in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic preconditioning. (8/2908)Neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia can be realized if the brain is preconditioned by previous exposure to a brief period of sublethal ischemia. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) produced from the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (NOS) serves as a necessary signal for establishing an ischemia-tolerant state in brain. A newborn rat model of hypoxic preconditioning was used, wherein exposure to sublethal hypoxia (8% oxygen) for 3 hours renders postnatal day (PND) 6 animals completely resistant to a cerebral hypoxic-ischemic insult imposed 24 hours later. Postnatal day 6 animals were treated 0.5 hour before preconditioning hypoxia with the nonselective NOS inhibitor L-nitroarginine (2 mg/kg intraperitoneally). This treatment, which resulted in a 67 to 81% inhibition of calcium-dependent constitutive NOS activity 0.5 to 3.5 hours after its administration, completely blocked preconditioning-induced protection. However, administration of the neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (40 mg/kg intraperitoneally) before preconditioning hypoxia, which decreased constitutive brain NOS activity by 58 to 81%, was without effect on preconditioning-induced cerebroprotection, as was pretreatment with the inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (400 mg/kg intraperitoneally). The protective effects of preconditioning were also not blocked by treating animals with competitive [3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate; 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally] or noncompetitive (MK-801; 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists prior to preconditioning hypoxia. These findings indicate that NO production and activity are critical to the induction of ischemic tolerance in this model. However, the results argue against the involvement of the neuronal NOS isoform, activated secondary to a hypoxia-induced stimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and against the involvement of the inducible NOS isoform, but rather suggest that NO produced by the endothelial NOS isoform is required to mediate this profound protective effect. (+info)
A guanidine moiety also appears in larger organic molecules, including on the side chain of arginine. Guanidine can be thought ... With a pKb of 0.4, guanidine is a strong base. Most guanidine derivatives are in fact salts containing the conjugate acid. The ... Guanidine exists protonated, as guanidinium, in solution at physiological pH. Guanidinium chloride (also known as guanidine ... Examples of guanidines are arginine, triazabicyclodecene, saxitoxin, and creatine. Galegine is an isoamylene guanidine. ...
Although it is the salt formed by neutralizing guanidine with nitric acid, guanidine nitrate is produced industrially by the ... Guanidine nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula [C(NH2)3]NO3. It is a colorless, water-soluble salt. It is produced ... Jetex: Propellants PhysChem: Guanidine Nitrate Archived 2004-05-05 at the Wayback Machine MSDS (Articles without EBI source, ... It has a relatively high monopropellant specific impulse of 177 seconds (1.7 kN·s/kg). Guanidine nitrate's explosive ...
... (PHMG) is a guanidine derivative that is used as a biocidal disinfectant, often in the form of its ... Maciej Walczak; Agnieszka Richert; Aleksandra Burkowska-But (2014). "The effect of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride ( ... salt polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-P). Studies have shown that PHMG in solution has fungicidal as well as ...
Ishikawa, T.; Kumamoto, T. (2006). "Guanidines in Organic Synthesis". Synthesis. 2006 (5): 737-752. doi:10.1055/s-2006-926325. ... Guanidines, Reagents for organic chemistry, Non-nucleophilic bases). ...
... aromatic guanidines are also used. These compounds need to be combined with activators, typically zinc ions, in order to be ...
Durant GJ, Smith GM, Spickett RG, Wright SH (January 1966). "Biologically active guanidines and related compounds. II. Some ... Guanidines, Phenol ethers, All stub articles, Antihypertensive agent stubs). ...
Amidine Guanidines Pinner, A. (January 1883). "Ueber die Umwandlung der Nitrile in Imide. Verhalten der Blausäure und des ...
In the 1920s, guanidine compounds were discovered in Galega extracts. Animal studies showed that these compounds lowered blood ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Güthner T, Mertschenk B, Schulz B (2006). "Guanidine and Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of ...
In this way, guanidines can be prepared. As weak bases, carbodiimides bind to Lewis acids to give adducts. Carbodiimides are ...
Guanidines - a similar group of compounds where the central carbon atom is bonded to three nitrogen atoms. Imidazolines contain ... ISBN 3-527-30655-2. Greenhill, John V.; Lue, Ping (1993). 5 Amidines and Guanidines in Medicinal Chemistry. Progress in ...
This result was completely forgotten, as other guanidine analogs such as the synthalins, took over and were themselves soon ... G. officinalis itself does not contain any of these medications, but isoamylene guanidine; phenformin, buformin, and metformin ... Dawes GS, Mott JC (March 1950). "Circulatory and respiratory reflexes caused by aromatic guanidines". British Journal of ... Guanidines, Merck brands, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, World Health Organization essential medicines, Anti- ...
Common superbases of this variety feature amidine, guanidine, and phosphazene functional groups. Strong superbases can be ... These include the phosphazenes, phosphanes, amidines, and guanidines. Other organic compounds that meet the physicochemical or ... Barić, Danijela; Dragičević, Ivan; Kovačević, Borislav (2013-04-19). "Design of Superbasic Guanidines: The Role of Multiple ...
"Cytotoxic Guanidine Alkaloids fromPterogyne nitens△". Journal of Natural Products. American Chemical Society (ACS). 72 (3): 473 ...
ZTX is a guanidine alkaloid. It's structurally related to saxitoxin, but with some differences. ZTX has a guanidine core ... Zetekitoxin AB (ZTX) is a guanidine alkaloid found in the Panamanian golden frog Atelopus zeteki. It is an extremely potent ... Guanidine alkaloids, Alcohols, Geminal diols, Isoxazolidines, Carbamates, Lactams, Hydroxamic acids, Nitrogen heterocycles, ...
Five guanidine alkaloid natural products were isolated from the leaves of Pterogyne nitens: nitensidine D, nitensidine E, ... "Cytotoxic Guanidine Alkaloids fromPterogyne nitens△". Journal of Natural Products. American Chemical Society (ACS). 72 (3): 473 ...
Ann Stone Minot
Minot, A. S. (1939). "A comparison of the actions of prostigman and of guanidine on the activity of choline esterase in blood ... In 1938, she became the first to apply guanidine to treat myasthenia gravis. Other topics of research include protein ... Minot, A. S.; Cutler, J. T. (April 1929). "Increase in Guanidine-like Substance in Acute Liver Injury and Eclampsia". ... Minot, Ann S.; Dodd, Katharine; Riven, Samuel S. (April 15, 1938). "The response of the myasthenic state to guanidine ...
Petit A, Delhaye S, Tempé J, Morel G (1970). "Recherches sur les guanidines des tissues de Crown gall. Mise en evidence d'une ...
... morphine and guanidine. The second usage is to denote a hydrocarbon of the second degree of unsaturation. Examples include ...
Isoquinoline#Applications of derivatives The guanidine part of the molecule also appears in guanoxan and guanadrel. The 7-bromo ... Debrisoquine is a derivative of guanidine. It is an antihypertensive drug similar to guanethidine. Debrisoquine is frequently ... Guanidines, Tetrahydroisoquinolines, All stub articles, Antihypertensive agent stubs). ...
7-Methyl-1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (mTBD) is a bicyclic strong guanidine base (pKa = 25.43 in CH3CN and pKa = 17.9 in ... doi:10.1007/s10765-019-2540-2. Ishikawa, T. (2009). Superbases for Organic Synthesis: Guanidines, Amidines, Phosphazenes and ... Guanidines, Pyrimidopyrimidines, Amines, Reagents for organic chemistry, Superbases). ... THF). mTBD, like 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene and other guanidine super bases, can be used as a catalyst in a variety of ...
With guanidines, a functionalized imidazolone is produced in 85% yield. Diethyl oxomalonate is a versatile reactant in the ... 561-563, doi:10.1021/jo00865a035 C. Quirosa-Guillou; D.Z. Renko; C. Thal (1992), "Réaction des guanidines avec les composés ...
Mini-ykkC RNA motif
Therefore, mini-ykkC RNA motif represents a distinct class of guanidine-sensing RNAs called Guanidine-II riboswitch. Its ... The mini-ykkC RNA motif (later renamed Guanidine-II riboswitch) was discovered as a putative RNA structure that is conserved in ... Huang L, Wang J, Lilley DM (June 2017). "The Structure of the Guanidine-II Riboswitch". Cell Chemical Biology. 24 (6): 695-702. ... Despite this, it was shown that each of the mini-ykkC two stem-loop structures directly binds free guanidine. ...
Findlay and Paton isolated a Guanidine compound. "Leonard Findlay". University of Glasgow. University of Glasgow Story. ...
Biochemical validation has been presented to show that this motif is a third class of guanidine riboswitches called Guanidine- ... showed that this riboswitch senses and responds to guanidine and it was renamed Guanidine-I riboswitch. Furthermore, they ... Therefore, mini-ykkC RNA motif represents a distinct class of guanidine-sensing RNAs called Guanidine-II riboswitch. Its ... Battaglia, Robert A.; Price, Ian R.; Ke, Ailong (April 2017). "Structural basis for guanidine sensing by the ykkC family of ...
Condensation with guanidine leads to the pyrimidone. NBS mediated bromination then gives bropirimine. Akaza H, Kotake T, ...
GITC may also be recognized as guanidine thiocyanate. This is because guanidinium is the conjugate acid of guanidine and is ... Guanidine thiocyanate: its formation from ammonium thiocyanate". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 103: 1378-91. doi:10.1039/CT9130301378. ...
Edith Wilson Miles
Miles, Edith Wilson; Yutani, Katsuhide; Ogasahara, Kyoko (May 25, 1982). "Guanidine hydrochloride-induced unfolding of the . ...
... is a nitrile derived from guanidine. It is a dimer of cyanamide, from which it can be prepared. 2- ... A variety of useful compounds are produced from 2-cyanoguanidine, guanidines and melamine. For example, acetoguanamine and ...
Walther G, Daniel H, Bechtel WD, Brandt K (April 1990). "New tetracyclic guanidine derivatives with H1-antihistaminic ... Guanidines, AbbVie brands, Mast cell stabilizers, Peripherally selective drugs, All stub articles, Respiratory system drug ...
Ethyl methane sulfonate alkylates guanidine residues. This alteration causes errors during DNA replication.[page needed] ...
ICSC 0894 - GUANIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE
The simple monosubstituted guanidines of mammalian brain | Biochemical Journal | Portland Press
The administration of guanidine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis | Neurology
The administration of guanidine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. FORBES H. NORRIS, PHILIP R. CALANCHINI, ROBERT J. FALLAT, ... The administration of guanidine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. FORBES H. NORRIS, PHILIP R. CALANCHINI, ROBERT J. FALLAT, ... A controlled study is reported in 24 patients assigned randomly to guanidine doses of 2 or 25 mg per kilogram per day. By six ... Any short-term benefit in ALS from the administration of guanidine must be balanced against possible major side effects, ...
The Mechanism of Action of Hypoglycemic Guanidine Derivatives | Diabetes | American Diabetes Association
Ultra Pure Guanidine Salts - Austin Chemical, Inc.
GUANIDINE. HYDROCHLORIDE. Tablets. DESCRIPTION. Chemically, guanidine (aminomethanamidine) hydrochloride is a crystalline ... Fatal bone-marrow suppression, apparently dose related, can occur with guanidine. Safe use of guanidine hydrochloride in ... Guanidine apparently acts by enhancing the release of acetylcholine following a nerve impulse. It also appears to slow the ... Guanidine is indicated for the reduction of the symptoms of muscle weakness and easy fatigability associated with the ...
Base (chemistry) - Wikipedia
Physicochemical and biological properties of experimental dental adhesives doped with a guanidine-based polymer: an in vitro...
Cragoe EJ[au] - Search Results - PubMed
A guanidine-appended scylloinositol derivative AAD-66 enhances brain delivery and ameliorates Alzheimer's phenotypes
A guanidine-appended scylloinositol derivative AAD-66 enhances brain delivery and ameliorates Alzheimers phenotypes ... Herein, we report that a novel guanidine-appended SI derivative AAD-66 resulted in more effective reductions of brain Aβ and ... Source URL: http://alzped.nia.nih.gov/guanidine-appended ...
Miscellaneous Molecular Biology Reagents | Thermo Fisher Scientific
Guanidine Thiocyanate Invitrogen™ Guanidine Thiocyanate is an ultrapure, molecular biology grade reagent. It is free of ... UltraPure™ Guanidine Hydrochloride Invitrogen™ UltraPure™ Guanidine Hydrochloride is a strong protein denaturant. In a highly ... Guanidine hydrochloride is widely used to purify nucleic acids from cell extracts. ... concentrated (5 to 6 M) guanidine hydrochloride solution, many proteins unfold and separate into their constituent polypeptide ...
Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Botulism, 2021 | MMWR
Kaplan JE, Davis LE, Narayan V, Koster J, Katzenstein D. Botulism, type A, and treatment with guanidine. Ann Neurol 1979;6:69- ... Cholinergic agonists such as guanidine and 3,4-diaminopuridine have been used in attempts to stimulate acetylcholine release ... Guanidine in type B botulism. Arch Intern Med 1975;135:726-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.135.5.726external icon PMID: ... Botulism and guanidine. N Engl J Med 1968;278:931-3. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM196804252781704external icon PMID:5644559 ...
1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitroso-guanidine (70-25-7) | Chemical Effects in Biological Systems
Home » Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) » 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitroso-guanidine (70-25-7) ... 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitroso-guanidine (70-25-7). Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS). Research Triangle Park, NC (USA ... 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitroso-guanidine (70-25-7). DOI: https://doi.org/10.22427/NTP-DATA-DTXSID2020846 ...
Registration Dossier - ECHA
After the test period of 24 hours no mortality of the test organisms was determined in the control and all test media up to and including the highest concentration of 100 µg/L. However, at the highest test concentration all larvae showed convulsions and unusual body movements (clearly different to the larvae in the control). At the lower test concentrations of 2.2 - 46 µg/L this sign of intoxication was not determined. Thus, the 24-hour LC50 of the test item was >100 µg/I, the 24-hour LCO was at least 100 µg/L. After 48 hours of exposure the toxicity of the test item to the larvae of Chironomus riparius had increased: Now the larvae at 46 µg/I showed convulsions and unusual body movements. At the highest test concentration of 100 µg/L 17 larvae were dead (corresponding to a mortality rate of 85%). The remaining three alive larvae showed convulsions and unusual body movements, and thus probably would have died after short time. In the range-finding tests even 100% mortality was recorded at ...
Qinhuangdao TianZi Chemical Co., Ltd. --Industry Guanidine Hydrochloride|Liquid Guanidine Hydrochloride|Medical Guanidine...
Figure 6 - Novel Prion Strain as Cause of Chronic Wasting Disease in a Moose, Finland - Volume 29, Number 2-February 2023 -...
Ammonium acetate Reagents designed and manufactured under cGMP controls suitable for use in IVD application. 631-61-8
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Pharmaceutics | Free Full-Text | Cell Penetrating Peptides, Novel Vectors for Gene Therapy
Somatostatin-evoked Aβ catabolism in the brain: Mechanistic involvement of α-endosulfine-KATP channel pathway | Molecular...
K Aβ42 ELISA of guanidine-HCl-soluble (GuHCl) hippocampal fractions from AppNL-F and AppNL-F/Ensa KO mice (AppNL-F: n = 7, App ... Tris-soluble fractions and guanidine-soluble fractions were applied to 96-well plates. Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels were measured with ... Pellets were rinsed with TBS buffer following which 6 M guanidine-HCl solution was added and mixed with a Pellet Pestle (KIMBLE ... Next, samples were centrifuged at 70,000 rpm for 20 min and supernatants collected as guanidine-soluble fractions. ...
Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Chloride pharmaceutical drugs and health products
Characterization of the binding affinities of peramivir and oseltamivir carboxylate to the neuraminidase enzyme - PubMed
Autoimmune hepatitis following drug-induced liver injury in an elderly patient - PubMed
We describe a case of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) that may have occurred following drug-induced liver injury with camostat mesilate and/or benzbromarone in an elderly patient. The patients liver biopsy showed chronic active hepatitis and autoimmune hepatitis. Stopping the use of these drugs did not …
Nomenklaturliste fra NKS - Norsk Kjemisk Selskap
List of Publications -- David Long | NIST
- Empirical treatment of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis suggested that some modification of the classical downhill course occurred in nonfamilial cases during administration of guanidine hydrochloride in dosages of at least 10 mg per kilogram per day for three months or more. (neurology.org)
- Chemically, guanidine (aminomethanamidine) hydrochloride is a crystalline powder freely soluble in water and alcohol. (nih.gov)
- Each tablet contains 125 mg of guanidine hydrochloride with no color additive in the base. (nih.gov)
- Safe use of guanidine hydrochloride in pregnancy has not been established. (nih.gov)
- The objective of this study is to formulate experimental dental adhesives with different polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride concentrations (PHMGH) and evaluate their physical, chemical, and biological properties. (bvsalud.org)
- No sulphur added and formulated without the following vulcanising chemicals and accelerators : Thiurams, Thiazoles, Guanidines and Carbamates. (kcprofessional.com)
- 1. Synthetic and natural guanidine derivatives as antitumor and antimicrobial agents: A review. (nih.gov)
- 6. Synthesis and Evaluation of Anticancer Activities of Novel C-28 Guanidine-Functionalized Triterpene Acid Derivatives. (nih.gov)
- 7. Novel approaches to screening guanidine derivatives. (nih.gov)
- 11. Thiourea and guanidine derivatives as antimalarial and antimicrobial agents. (nih.gov)
- 13. Synthesis and In Vitro Antimicrobial SAR of Benzyl and Phenyl Guanidine and Aminoguanidine Hydrazone Derivatives. (nih.gov)
- 18. Novel 2-(2-alkylthiobenzenesulfonyl)-3-(phenylprop-2-ynylideneamino)guanidine derivatives as potent anticancer agents - Synthesis, molecular structure, QSAR studies and metabolic stability. (nih.gov)
- 19. Synthesis of novel 3-amino-2-(4-chloro-2-mercaptobenzenesulfonyl)-guanidine derivatives as potential antitumor agents. (nih.gov)
- 20. Guanidine Derivatives Containing the Chalcone Skeleton Are Potent Antiproliferative Compounds against Human Leukemia Cells. (nih.gov)
- The test substance Guanidine carbonate did not cause any adverse skin reactions in this study. (europa.eu)
- A controlled study is reported in 24 patients assigned randomly to guanidine doses of 2 or 25 mg per kilogram per day. (neurology.org)
- Because guanidine is excreted in milk, patients on this drug should discontinue breastfeeding. (nih.gov)
- Renal function may be affected in some patients receiving guanidine. (nih.gov)
- 2. Antimicrobial drugs bearing guanidine moieties: A review. (nih.gov)
- Any short-term benefit in ALS from the administration of guanidine must be balanced against possible major side effects, including acute paralysis and bone marrow depression. (neurology.org)
- Gastrointestinal side effects may preclude the use of guanidine as a desired form of therapy. (nih.gov)
- Chemically, guanidine (aminomethanamidine) hydrochloride is a crystalline powder freely soluble in water and alcohol. (nih.gov)
- Each tablet contains 125 mg of guanidine hydrochloride with no color additive in the base. (nih.gov)
- Safe use of guanidine hydrochloride in pregnancy has not been established. (nih.gov)
- Anti-human IgM (µ chain guanidine hydrochloride, in the diluent of specific) goat serum and peroxidase- antibody in the ELISA. (who.int)
- The pseudorotation phase ( P ) and amplitude ( m ) are 13° and 45°, respectively for the guanidine nucleotide, and 16° and 47° for the cytidine nucleotide. (nih.gov)
- Recessive mutations in DOCK6, encoding the guanidine nucleotide exchange factor DOCK6, lead to abnormal actin cytoskeleton organization and Adams-Oliver syndrome. (nih.gov)
- Guanidine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of intolerance or allergy to this drug. (nih.gov)