Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Expectorants: Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.Levorphanol: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is nearly as effective orally as by injection.Ambroxol: A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Codeine: An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Theophylline: A methyl xanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Theophylline inhibits the 3',5'-CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASE that degrades CYCLIC AMP thus potentiates the actions of agents that act through ADENYLYL CYCLASES and cyclic AMP.Bronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Cooking and Eating UtensilsBromhexine: A mucolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p744)Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.MarylandPseudoephedrine: A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Receptors, sigma: A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.Cetirizine: A potent second-generation histamine H1 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. Unlike many traditional antihistamines, it does not cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects.Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Dietetics: The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.Hydrocodone: Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.

Combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine and sevoflurane anesthesia in horses. (1/21)

The anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of a combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of 100 g/L guaifenesin-4 g/L ketamine-5 mg/L medetomidine (0.25 ml/kg/hr) and oxygen-sevoflurane (OS) anesthesia (GKM-OS anesthesia) in horses were evaluated. The right carotid artery of each of 12 horses was raised surgically into a subcutaneous position under GKM-OS anesthesia (n=6) or OS anesthesia (n=6). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (EtSEV) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was around 1.5% in GKM-OS and 3.0% in OS anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was maintained at around 80 mmHg under GKM-OS anesthesia, while infusion of dobutamine (0.39+/-0.10 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 60 mmHg under OS anesthesia. The horses were able to stand at 36+/-26 min after cessation of GKM-OS anesthesia and at 48+/-19 minutes after OS anesthesia. The cardiovascular effects were evaluated in 12 horses anesthetized with GKM-OS anesthesia using 1.5% of EtSEV (n=6) or OS anesthesia using 3.0% of EtSEV (n=6). During GKM-OS anesthesia, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance was maintained at about 70% of the baseline value before anesthesia, and MABP was maintained over 70 mmHg. During OS anesthesia, infusion of dobutamine (0.59+/-0.24 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 70 mmHg. Infusion of dobutamine enabled to maintaine cardiac output at about 80% of the baseline value; however, it induced the development of severe tachycardia in a horse anesthetized with sevoflurane. GKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular effect and good recovery.  (+info)

Anesthesia of bulls undergoing surgical manipulation of the vas deferentia. (2/21)

Twelve bulls ranging from 341 to 545 kilograms in body mass were successfully anesthetized for either vasectomy or prosthetic vas deferens implantation with a combination of thiopental sodium, glyceryl guaiacolate, nitrous oxide, halothane and oxygen. Duration of anesthetic administration was 119.2 plus or minus 24.2 (S.D.) minutes. Righting reflexes returned 15.0 plus or minus 8.0 minutes after cessation of anesthetic administration and the bulls were capable of standing within 46.6 plus or minus 17.8 minutes. Interpretations of pulse rate, respiratory rate and eye reflexes were related to anesthetic depth and maintenance. A control mean respiratory frequency of 28.8 plus or minus 3.6 per minute compared to minimum and maximum frequencies of 26.8 plus or minus 5.1 and 37.6 plus or minus 6.3, respectively, during anesthetic maintenance. A control mean pulse frequency of 91.6 plus or minus 15.9 per minute compared to minimum and maximum frequencies of 84.8 plus or minus 13 and 102.3 plus or minus 13.4, respectively, during maintenance of anesthesia. Methods for avoiding complications related to anesthetic induction, maintenance and emergence were described. Specific pharmacological aspects of atropine, halothane and nitrous oxide were emphasized in light of their application to ruminant anesthesia.  (+info)

Detection and characterization of a novel extracellular fungal enzyme that catalyzes the specific and hydrolytic cleavage of lignin guaiacylglycerol beta-aryl ether linkages. (3/21)

Cleavage of the arylglycerol beta-aryl ether linkage is the most important process in the biological degradation of lignin. The bacterial beta-etherase was described previously and shown to be tightly associated with the cellular membrane. In this study, we aimed to detect and isolate a new extracellular function that catalyses the beta-aryl ether linkage cleavage of high-molecular lignin in the soil fungi. We screened and isolated 2BW-1 cells by using a highly sensitive fluorescence assay system. The beta-aryl ether cleavage enzyme was produced by a newly isolated fungus, 2BW-1, and is secreted into the extracellular fraction. The beta-aryl ether cleavage enzyme converts the guaiacylglycerol beta-O-guaiacyl ether (GOG) to guaiacylglycerol and guaiacol. It requires the C alpha alcohol structure and p-hydroxyl group and specifically attacks the beta-aryl ether linkage of high-molecular mass lignins with addition of two water molecules at the C alpha and C beta positions.  (+info)

Guaifenesin as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhea. (4/21)

BACKGROUND: Dysmenorrhea is highly prevalent and causes much work loss and discomfort. A treatment with a new mechanism of action could benefit women of menstruating age. A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy of guaifenesin as a treatment for primary dysmenorrhea because of its effects of cervical dilation and cervical mucous thinning. METHODS: Thirty-four subjects with primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three treatment surveys measured 10 symptoms (lower abdominal pain, general abdominal pain, back pain, headache, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, menstrual flow, weakness, and activities of daily living) on a 100-mm visual analog scale. Nonstudy analgesic use was also measured. RESULTS: Twenty-five subjects returned the first treatment survey, and 17 returned all 3 surveys. Results were nonsignificant, but guaifenesin trended toward being better than placebo for dysmenorrhea pain and associated constitutional symptoms and caused no worsening of symptoms. Lower abdominal mean pain scores from the first survey decreased 38 mm for guaifenesin versus 7 mm for placebo. By the third survey, only 2 of 8 guaifenesin participants took nonstudy analgesics compared with all 9 placebo subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Guaifenesin may be useful in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. A larger study is needed to validate these initial findings.  (+info)

Gender differences in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. (5/21)

PURPOSE: To determine whether male and female populations of patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are similar, in terms of demographic and social factors, aetiological factors, the clinical characteristics of events and path to diagnosis. METHODS: Prospective study by semi-structured interview of 160 consecutive patients (117 female and 43 male) with video EEG confirmed diagnosis of PNES + epileptic seizures (ES). RESULTS: Most parameters showed no significant differences. Males were, however, more likely to be unemployed (P = 0.028), and females were six times more likely to self-harm (P = 0.050), though the numbers were small in these categories. Men were more likely to attribute their PNES to a predisposing factor for epilepsy (P = 0.001), and women were over eight times more likely to report sexual abuse (P = 0.001). Event semiology was similar, but women were more likely to weep after events (P = 0.017). The carers and family of men with PNES were three times less likely to accept the diagnosis of PNES (P = 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: Our samples showed few significant gender differences, suggesting that other male and female populations of patients with PNES are likely to be similar also. Some of the differences we found may give insight into causation of PNES.  (+info)

Enantiomer separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol from Hydnocarpus annamensis by capillary electrophoresis with HP-beta-CD as a chiral selector. (6/21)

A capillary electrophoresis method with HP-beta-CD as the chiral selector is established for the enantioseparation of two pairs of phenylpropanoids, which are isolated from Hydnocarpus annamensis. The effects of buffer pH, HP-beta-CD and buffer concentration, applied voltage, and cartridge temperature on the enantioseparation are optimized. A baseline separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol is achieved in less than 10 min under these optimized conditions: 25 mmol/L Borax-NaOH buffer (pH 10.01) in the presence of 30 mmol/L HP-beta-CD at 15 degrees C and 30 kV. The experimental results show that the reported method by capillary electrophoresis for the separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol is powerful, sensitive, and fast, requires smaller amounts of reagents, and can be employed as a reliable alternative to other methods.  (+info)

Inhibition of cough-reflex sensitivity by benzonatate and guaifenesin in acute viral cough. (7/21)


Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol-theophylline-guaiphenesin mixture) in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. (8/21)

BACKGROUND: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt) is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg); theophylline (50 mg); and guaiphenesin (30 mg), per 5 mL syrup. OBJECTIVE: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC). RESULTS: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05). There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin treatment group (P < 0.001). Out of 50 patients, 48 (96%) in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their improvement on the CGIC scale as "much" and "very much" improved, while only 41 patients (82%) reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: We concluded from our study that Farcosolvin syrup might be safe and effective in improving symptoms in cases of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.  (+info)

  • Guaifenesin ayuda a aflojar la congestión en su pecho y garganta, haciendo más fácil toserla y expulsarla por su boca. (
  • Depending on the particular product, a typical guaifenesin dose is 200 to 400 mg every 4 hours (not to exceed 2400 mg per day) for immediate-release products and 600 to 1200 mg every 12 hours (not to exceed 2400 mg in 24 hours) for extended-release products. (
  • guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate) manufacturers and suppliers with contacts and product range are mentioned in the study. (
  • Furthermore, guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate) prices in regional markets can be found in the report with regards to countries and companies. (
  • The report also focuses on guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate) consumers by providing data on companies that use it. (
  • You should not use this medicine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to guaifenesin. (
  • You should not use this medicine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to guaifenesin, dyphylline, or a related drug such as aminophylline, theophylline, oxtriphylline, or theobromine. (
  • Children's doses of regular guaifenesin depend on age and the type of guaifenesin being administered. (
  • Guaifenesin is used in combination with, for example, ketamine, since guaifenesin does not produce analgesia nor does it produce unconsciousness. (
  • Guaifenesin comes alone and in combination with antihistamines, cough suppressants, and decongestants. (
  • If you are giving guaifenesin or a combination product that contains guaifenesin to a child, read the package label carefully to be sure that it is the right product for a child of that age. (
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate intranasal oxygen supplementation (IOS) in mules ( Equus caballus x Equus asinus ) anesthetized with ketamine/butorphanol/guaifenesin combination. (
  • For this, we used six male, adult mules (322±29kg) which underwent premedication (MPA) with 0.2mg/kg of midazolam intramuscularly after 15 minutes, 0.02mg/kg detomidine IV 5 minutes after, induction IV with combination of ketamine (2mg/mL), butorphanol (22.5mg/mL), and guaifenesin (50mg/mL) (K/B/G) until lateral decumbency. (