Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.50.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.
A 120-kDa RAS GTPase-activating protein that binds to tyrosine phosphoproteins through its SH2 domains. The 100-kDa RNA-splicing variant (p100 GAP protein) is expressed in placenta.
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A family of ubiquitously expressed MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in intracellular signal transduction. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A subtype of dynamin found ubiquitously expressed in a variety of tissues.
A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.
A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Agents and factors that activate GTP phosphohydrolase activity.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.
An abundantly-expressed rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor subtype that regulates a broad variety of RHO GTPASES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Bundles of actin filaments (ACTIN CYTOSKELETON) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A protein found most abundantly in the nervous system. Defects or deficiencies in this protein are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome. Mutations in the gene (GENE, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) affect two known functions: regulation of ras-GTPase and tumor suppression.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
The large subunit of the eubacterial 70s ribosome. It is composed of the 23S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 37 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It also has GDP exchange activity towards other MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.

Control of growth and differentiation by Drosophila RasGAP, a homolog of p120 Ras-GTPase-activating protein. (1/2445)

Mammalian Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), p120 Ras-GAP, has been implicated as both a downregulator and effector of Ras proteins, but its precise role in Ras-mediated signal transduction pathways is unclear. To begin a genetic analysis of the role of p120 Ras-GAP we identified a homolog from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster through its ability to complement the sterility of a Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) gap1 mutant strain. Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila RasGAP stimulated the intrinsic GTPase activity of normal mammalian H-Ras but not that of the oncogenic Val12 mutant. RasGAP was tyrosine phosphorylated in embryos and its Src homology 2 (SH2) domains could bind in vitro to a small number of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins expressed at various developmental stages. Ectopic expression of RasGAP in the wing imaginal disc reduced the size of the adult wing by up to 45% and suppressed ectopic wing vein formation caused by expression of activated forms of Breathless and Heartless, two Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. The in vivo effects of RasGAP overexpression required intact SH2 domains, indicating that intracellular localization of RasGAP through SH2-phosphotyrosine interactions is important for its activity. These results show that RasGAP can function as an inhibitor of signaling pathways mediated by Ras and receptor tyrosine kinases in vivo. Genetic interactions, however, suggested a Ras-independent role for RasGAP in the regulation of growth. The system described here should enable genetic screens to be performed to identify regulators and effectors of p120 Ras-GAP.  (+info)

Identification of a new Pyk2 target protein with Arf-GAP activity. (2/2445)

Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is activated by a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors and by extracellular signals that elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We have identified a new Pyk2 binding protein designated Pap. Pap is a multidomain protein composed of an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal SH3 domain. We demonstrate that Pap forms a stable complex with Pyk2 and that activation of Pyk2 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Pap in living cells. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that Pap is localized in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it is colocalized with Pyk2. In addition, in vitro recombinant Pap exhibits strong GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards the small GTPases Arf1 and Arf5 and weak activity towards Arf6. Addition of recombinant Pap protein to Golgi preparations prevented Arf-dependent generation of post-Golgi vesicles in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of Pap in cultured cells reduced the constitutive secretion of a marker protein. We propose that Pap functions as a GAP for Arf and that Pyk2 may be involved in regulation of vesicular transport through its interaction with Pap.  (+info)

The yeast ser/thr phosphatases sit4 and ppz1 play opposite roles in regulation of the cell cycle. (3/2445)

Yeast cells overexpressing the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase Ppz1 display a slow-growth phenotype. These cells recover slowly from alpha-factor or nutrient depletion-induced G1 arrest, showing a considerable delay in bud emergence as well as in the expression of the G1 cyclins Cln2 and Clb5. Therefore, an excess of the Ppz1 phosphatase interferes with the normal transition from G1 to S phase. The growth defect is rescued by overexpression of the HAL3/SIS2 gene, encoding a negative regulator of Ppz1. High-copy-number expression of HAL3/SIS2 has been reported to improve cell growth and to increase expression of G1 cyclins in sit4 phosphatase mutants. We show here that the described effects of HAL3/SIS2 on sit4 mutants are fully mediated by the Ppz1 phosphatase. The growth defect caused by overexpression of PPZ1 is intensified in strains with low G1 cyclin levels (such as bck2Delta or cln3Delta mutants), whereas mutation of PPZ1 rescues the synthetic lethal phenotype of sit4 cln3 mutants. These results reveal a role for Ppz1 as a regulatory component of the yeast cell cycle, reinforce the notion that Hal3/Sis2 serves as a negative modulator of the biological functions of Ppz1, and indicate that the Sit4 and Ppz1 Ser/Thr phosphatases play opposite roles in control of the G1/S transition.  (+info)

Herpes virus induced proteasome-dependent degradation of the nuclear bodies-associated PML and Sp100 proteins. (4/2445)

The PML protein is associated to nuclear bodies (NBs) whose functions are as yet unknown. PML and two other NBs-associated proteins, Sp100 And ISG20 are directly induced by interferons (IFN). PML and Sp100 proteins are covalently linked to SUMO-1, and ubiquitin-like peptide. PML NBs are disorganized in acute promyelocytic leukemia and during several DNA virus infections. In particular, the HSV-1 ICP0 protein is known to delocalize PML from NBs. Thus, NBs could play an important role in oncogenesis, IFN response and viral infections. Here, we show that HSV-1 induced PML protein degradation without altering its mRNA level. This degradation was time- and multiplicity of infection-dependent. Sp100 protein was also degraded, while another SUMO-1 conjugated protein, RanGAP1 and the IFN-induced protein kinase PKR were not. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 abrogated the HSV-1-induced PML and Sp100 degradation and partially restored their NB-localization. HSV-1 induced PML and Sp100 degradation constitutes a new example of viral inactivation of IFN target gene products.  (+info)

Regulation of p190 Rho-GAP by v-Src is linked to cytoskeletal disruption during transformation. (5/2445)

The v-Src oncoprotein perturbs the dynamic regulation of the cellular cytoskeletal and adhesion network by a mechanism that is poorly understood. Here, we have examined in detail the effects of a temperature-dependent v-Src protein on the regulation of p190 RhoGAP, a GTPase activating protein (GAP) that has been implicated in disruption of the organised actin cytoskeleton, and addressed the dependence of v-Src-induced stress fibre loss on inhibition of Rho activity. We found that activation of v-Src induced association of tyrosine phosphorylated p190 with p120(RasGAP) and stimulation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity, although p120(RasGAP) itself was not a target for phosphorylation by v-Src in chicken embryo cells. These events required the catalytic activity of v-Src and were linked to loss of actin stress fibres during morphological transformation and not mitogenic signalling. Furthermore, these effects were rapidly reversible since switching off v-Src led to dissociation of the p190/p120(RasGAP) complex, inactivation of p120(RasGAP)-associated RhoGAP activity and re-induction of actin stress fibres. In addition, transient transfection of Val14-RhoA, a constitutively active Rho protein that is insensitive to RhoGAPs, suppressed v-Src-induced stress fibre loss and cell transformation. Thus, we show here for the first time that an activated Src kinase requires the inactivation of Rho-mediated actin stress fibre assembly to induce its effects on actin disorganisation. Moreover, our work supports p190 as a strong candidate effector of v-Src-induced cytoskeletal disruption, most likely mediated by antagonism of the cellular function of Rho.  (+info)

Facilitation of signal onset and termination by adenylyl cyclase. (6/2445)

The alpha subunit (Gsalpha) of the stimulatory heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate binding protein (G protein) Gs activates all isoforms of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. Adenylyl cyclase (Type V) and its subdomains, which interact with Gsalpha, promoted inactivation of the G protein by increasing its guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity. Adenylyl cyclase and its subdomains also augmented the receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric Gs and thereby facilitated the rapid onset of signaling. These findings demonstrate that adenylyl cyclase functions as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the monomeric Gsalpha and enhances the GTP/GDP exchange factor (GEF) activity of receptors.  (+info)

Activation of G12/G13 results in shape change and Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation in mouse platelets. (7/2445)

Platelets respond to various stimuli with rapid changes in shape followed by aggregation and secretion of their granule contents. Platelets lacking the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq do not aggregate and degranulate but still undergo shape change after activation through thromboxane-A2 (TXA2) or thrombin receptors. In contrast to thrombin, the TXA2 mimetic U46619 led to the selective activation of G12 and G13 in Galphaq-deficient platelets indicating that these G proteins mediate TXA2 receptor-induced shape change. TXA2 receptor-mediated activation of G12/G13 resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of pp72(syk) and stimulation of pp60(c-src) as well as in phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) in Galphaq-deficient platelets. Both MLC phosphorylation and shape change induced through G12/G13 in the absence of Galphaq were inhibited by the C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum, by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and by cAMP-analogue Sp-5,6-DCl-cBIMPS. These data indicate that G12/G13 couple receptors to tyrosine kinases as well as to the Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated regulation of MLC phosphorylation. We provide evidence that G12/G13-mediated Rho/Rho-kinase-dependent regulation of MLC phosphorylation participates in receptor-induced platelet shape change.  (+info)

Disruption of the YRB2 gene retards nuclear protein export, causing a profound mitotic delay, and can be rescued by overexpression of XPO1/CRM1. (8/2445)

Disruption of the YRB2 gene encoding a nuclear Ran-binding protein homologous to Yrb1p/RanBP1 makes Saccharomyces cerevisiae cold sensitive for colony-formation, but not for growth in liquid medium. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Hba1p, which is homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yrb2p, rescued the cold sensitivity of Deltayrb2 cells. When released from an alpha factor block, Deltayrb2 cells underwent a prolonged delay at the short spindle stage of mitosis with a normal level of Clb/p34(CDC28) kinase activity, but there was no chromosome loss, this being consistent with the finding that Deltayrb2 was synthetic lethal with neither Deltamad1 nor Deltamad3. The cold sensitive colony-formation of Deltayrb2 cells was rescued by both XPO1/CRM1 and GSP1, but not CDC5, carried on a multicopy vector. XPO1/CRM1 rescued Deltayrb2 even in a single copy. Consistent with such a tight functional interaction, Xpo1p/Crm1p directly bound to Yrb2p, but not Yrb1p, and Deltayrb2 cells were found to have a defect in nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent nuclear protein export. From these results together, the ability of Xpo1/Crm1p to export NES-proteins is suggested to be enhanced by both Yrb2p and Gsp1p, and thereby disruption of YRB2 retards nuclear protein export, resulting in the mitotic delay.  (+info)

Background: Deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC-1) is a tumour suppressor gene that is inactive in liver carcinogenesis. It encodes a ρ-guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (ρ-GAP) and maps to one of the deleted regions (8p21.3-22). Little is known, however, about the methylation status of the DLC-1 promoter in myeloma cells.. Aim: To identify whether methylation of DLC-1 was associated in pathogenesis of multiple myeloma.. Methods: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect DLC-1 transcripts in RPMI 8226, U266, OPM-2 and XG-2 cell lines. The methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR followed by bisulphite DNA sequencing in these four cell lines and in the bone marrow of 14 patients with multiple myeloma and 4 normal patients. DLC-1 mRNA expression in cells with or without treatment with 5-aza-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) or trichostatin A (TSA) was investigated by real-time RT-PCR.. Results: RPMI 8226 and U266 showed complete methylation and ...
The Caenorhabditis elegans anteroposterior axis is established in response to fertilization by sperm. Here we present evidence that RhoA, the guanine nucleotide-exchange factor ECT-2, and the Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein CYK-4 modulate myosin light-chain activity to create a gradient of actomyosin, which establishes the anterior domain. CYK-4 is enriched within sperm, and paternally donated CYK-4 is required for polarity. These data suggest that CYK-4 provides a molecular link between fertilization and polarity establishment in the one-cell embryo. Orthologs of CYK-4 are expressed in sperm of other species, which suggests that this cue may be evolutionarily conserved ...
Regulator of G-protein signaling 19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS19 gene. G proteins mediate a number of cellular processes. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RGS (regulators of G-protein signaling) family and specifically interacts with G protein, GAI3. This protein is a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein that functions to down-regulate Galpha i/Galpha q-linked signaling. RGS19 has been shown to interact with GNAO1, GIPC1, OSTM1, GNAI1, GNAI3 and GNAZ. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171700 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000002458 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. De Vries L, Mousli M, Wurmser A, Farquhar MG (January 1996). GAIP, a protein that specifically interacts with the trimeric G protein G alpha i3, is a member of a protein family with a highly conserved core domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92 (25): 11916-20. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.25.11916. PMC 40514 . PMID 8524874. Entrez ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DLC1 negatively regulates angiogenesis in a paracrine fashion. AU - Shih, Yi Ping. AU - Liao, Yi Chun. AU - Lin, Yuan. AU - Lo, Su Hao. PY - 2010/11/1. Y1 - 2010/11/1. N2 - The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is a tumor suppressor that is often deleted in liver cancer and downregulated in other cancers. DLC1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton, cell shape, adhesion, migration, and proliferation through its Rho GTPase-activating protein activity and focal adhesion localization. In this study, we silenced DLC1 in nonmalignant prostate epithelial cells to explore its tumor suppression functions. Small hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of DLC1 was insufficient to promote more aggressive phenotypes associated with tumor cell growth. In contrast, DLC1 silencing promoted pro-angiogenic responses through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upregulation, accompanied by the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and its nuclear localization. Notably, modulation of VEGF expression ...
This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity and to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 binding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008 ...
Phosphoinositide lipids recruit proteins to the plasma membrane involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton organization and in signalling pathways that control cell polarity and growth. Among those, Rgd1p is a yeast GTPase-activating protein (GAP) specific for Rho3p and Rho4p GTPases, which control actin polymerization and stress signalling pathways. Phosphoinositides not only bind Rgd1p, but also stimulate its GAP activity on the membrane-anchored form of Rho4p. Both F-BAR (F-BAR FCH, and BAR) and RhoGAP domains of Rgd1p are involved in lipid interactions. In the Rgd1p-F-BAR domain, a phosphoinositide-binding site has been recently characterized. We report here the X-ray structure of the Rgd1p-RhoGAP domain, identify by NMR spectroscopy and confirm by docking simulations, a new but cryptic phosphoinositide-binding site, comprising contiguous A1, A1′ and B helices. The addition of helix A1′, unusual among RhoGAP domains, seems to be crucial for lipid interactions. Such a site was totally ...
May be involved in several stages of intracellular trafficking (By similarity). Could play an important role in the regulation of glucose transport by insulin. May act as a downstream effector of RHOQ/TC10 in the regulation of insulin-stimulated glucose transport.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
ARF proteins, which mediate vesicular transport, have little or no intrinsic GTPase activity. They rely on the actions of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for their function. The in vitro GTPase activity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARF proteins Arf1 and Arf2 is stimulated by the yeast Gcs1 protein, and in vivo genetic interactions between arf and gcs1 mutations implicate Gcs1 in vesicular transport. However, the Gcs1 protein is dispensable, indicating that additional ARF GAP proteins exist. We show that the structurally related protein Glo3, which is also dispensable, also exhibits ARF GAP activity. Genetic and in vitro approaches reveal that Glo3 and Gcs1 have an overlapping essential function at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi stage of vesicular transport. Mutant cells deficient for both ARF GAPs cannot proliferate, undergo a dramatic accumulation of ER and are defective for protein transport between ER and Golgi. The glo3Delta and gcs1Delta single mutations each interact with a ...
This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein may pay a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013 ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Disabled homolog 2-interacting protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAB2IP gene. DAB2IP is a Ras (MIM 190020) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that acts as a tumor suppressor gene and is inactivated by methylation in prostate and breast cancers (Yano et al., 2005).[supplied by OMIM] DAB2IP has been shown to interact with DAB2. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136848 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026883 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Chen H, Pong RC, Wang Z, Hsieh JT (April 2002). Differential regulation of the human gene DAB2IP in normal and malignant prostatic epithelia: cloning and characterization. Genomics. 79 (4): 573-81. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6739. PMID 11944990. Wang Z, Tseng CP, Pong RC, Chen H, McConnell JD, Navone N, Hsieh JT (April 2002). The mechanism of growth-inhibitory effect of DOC-2/DAB2 in prostate cancer. Characterization of a novel GTPase-activating protein associated with ...
The ~200 amino acid TBC/rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain is well conserved across species and has been found in a wide range of different proteins from plant adhesion molecules to mammalian oncogenes. The name TBC derives from the name of the murine protein Tbc1 in which this domain was first identified based on its similarity to sequences in the tre-2 oncogene, and the yeast regulators of mitosis, BUB2 and cdc16 [ (PUBMED:7566974) ]. The connection of this domain with rab GTPase activation stems from subsequent in-depth sequence analyses and alignments [ (PUBMED:9255064) ] and recent work demonstrating that it appears to contain the catalytic activities of the yeast rab GAPs, GYP1, and GYP7 [ (PUBMED:10508155) ]. The TBC/rab GAP domain has also been named PTM after three proteins known to contain it: the Drosophila pollux, the human oncoprotein TRE17 (oncoTRE17), and a myeloid cell line-expressed protein [ (PUBMED:8654926) ]. The TBC/rab GAP domain contains six conserved motifs named ...
Diverse GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for the p21rho subfamily were detected by a novel overlay assay (Manser, E., Leung, T., Monfries, C., Teo, M., Hall, C., and Lim, L. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 16025-16028), with some GAPs being tissue-specific. Using a PCR strategy exploiting conserved regions common to rho/rac-GAPs, we have isolated a rat testis cDNA encoding a 34-kDa rac-GAP termed beta-chimaerin, as it was highly related to n-chimaerin, containing both a GAP domain (77% identity) and the phorbol ester-binding region (93% identity). beta-Chimaerin mRNA is expressed exclusively in the testis at the onset of sexual maturation. In situ hybridization and cell fractionation analyses show beta-chimaerin mRNA expression to be stage-specific, paralleling acrosomal assembly at the late stage of spermatogenesis. A corresponding testis-specific 30-kDa rac-GAP was detected. The testis-specific and stage-dependent expression of this new member of the chimaerin family offer an alternative model system for
Stimulation of Na+/K+-ATPase translocation to the cell surface increases active Na+ transport, which is the driving force of alveolar fluid reabsorption, a process necessary to keep the lungs free of edema and to allow normal gas exchange. Here, we provide evidence that insulin increases alveolar fluid reabsorption and Na+/K+-ATPase activity by increasing its translocation to the plasma membrane in alveolar epithelial cells. Insulin-induced Akt activation is necessary and sufficient to promote Na+/K+-ATPase translocation to the plasma membrane. Phosphorylation of AS160 by Akt is also required in this process, whereas inactivation of the Rab GTPase-activating protein domain of AS160 promotes partial Na+/K+-ATPase translocation in the absence of insulin. We found that Rab10 functions as a downstream target of AS160 in insulin-induced Na+/K+-ATPase translocation. Collectively, these results suggest that Akt plays a major role in Na+/K+-ATPase intracellular translocation and thus in alveolar fluid ...
Cell polarization generally occurs along a single axis in response to spatial cues. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the axis of polarized growth is determined by selection of a bud site, which is dependent on cell type - haploid a and α cells bud in the axial pattern, whereas diploid a/α cells bud in the bipolar pattern (Chant and Herskowitz, 1991; Freifelder, 1960; Hicks et al., 1977). Selection of a bud site depends on several genes, collectively called BUD genes, which encode cell-type-specific cortical markers and components of the Rsr1 GTPase module - Rsr1/Bud1, its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bud2 and its GDP-GTP exchange factor (GEF) Bud5 (Bender and Pringle, 1989; Chant et al., 1991; Chant and Herskowitz, 1991; Park et al., 1993). These Bud proteins closely interact with the Cdc42 GTPase and its regulators to trigger bud emergence at a proper site (see Bi and Park, 2012 and references therein).. In the absence of spatial cues, yeast cells can still bud, albeit at a ...
The Rho family small GTP-binding proteins are subjected to regulation by Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) in the course of transmitting diverse intracellular signals. To understand the mechanism of GAP-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis of Rho GTPases, we have studied the interaction between RhoA and p190, the RasGAP binding phosphoprotein which has been implicated as a Rho-specific GAP, by delineating the structural determinants of RhoA and p190 GAP domain (p190GD) that are involved in their functional coupling. Besides the conserved residues Tyr34, Thr37, and Phe39 in the switch I region of RhoA which are required for p190GD interaction, chimeras made between RhoA and Cdc42, a close relative of RhoA with which p190GD interacts 50-fold less efficiently, revealed that residues outside the switch I and neighboring regions of RhoA, residues 85-122 in particular, contain the major p190GD-specifying determinant(s). Mutation of the unique Asp90 of RhoA in this region mostly abolished p190GD stimulation, ...
Changes in cell morphology are linked to many cellular events including cytokinesis, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. We recently showed that BNIP-Sα induced cell rounding that leads to apoptosis via its BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP Homology (BCH) domain, but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. Here, we have identified a unique region (amino acid 133-177) of the BNIP-Sα BCH domain that targets RhoA, but not Cdc42 or Rac1 and only the dominant-negative form of RhoA could prevent the resultant cell rounding and apoptotic effect. The RhoA-binding region consists of two parts; one region (residues 133-147) that shows some homology to part of the RhoA switch I region and an adjacent sequence (residues 148-177) that resembles the REM class I RhoA-binding motif. The sequence 133-147 is also necessary for its heterophilic interaction with the BCH domain of the Rho GTPase-activating protein, p50RhoGAP/ Cdc42GAP. These overlapping motifs allow tripartite competition such that ...
A novel role for the GTPase-activating protein Bud2 in the spindle position checkpoint.: The spindle position checkpoint (SPC) ensures correct mitotic spindle p
Background Rho GTPase-activating protein which may be involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. GTPase activators for the Rho-type GTPases act by converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. Has activity toward CDC42 and...
This gene encodes a phosphoinositide binding protein containing ARF-GAP, RHO-GAP, RAS-associating, and pleckstrin homology domains. The ARF-GAP and RHO-GAP domains cooperate in mediating rearrangements in the cell cytoskeleton and cell shape. It is a specific PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/PtdIns(3,4)P2-stimulated Arf6-GAP protein. An alternatively spliced transcript has been found for this gene, but its biological validity has not been determined ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for Q6ZM89 (RH42A_DANRE), Rho GTPase-activating protein 42. Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (Brachydanio rerio)
Rho GTPases are important regulators for cell dynamics. They are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and inactivated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). We recently identified a novel RhoGAP, BPGAP1, that uses the BNIP-2 and Cdc42GAP homology (BCH) domain, RhoGAP domain and proline-rich region to regulate cell morphology and migration. To further explore its roles in intracellular signaling, we employed protein precipitations and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass-spectrometry and identified EEN/endophilin II as a novel partner of BPGAP1. EEN is a member of the endocytic endophilin family but its function in regulating endocytosis remains unclear. Pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation studies with deletion mutants confirmed that EEN interacted directly with BPGAP1 via its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain binding to the proline-rich region 182-PPPRPPLP-189 of BPGAP1, with prolines 184 and 186 being indispensable for this interaction. Overexpression of EEN or BPGAP1 alone ...
Insulin increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and adipocytes and thus facilitates the disposal of ~90% of glucose after a meal. The increased glucose uptake is achieved through the translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4 from an intracellular compartment to the cell surface. Recent studies have implicated two Rab GTPase-activating proteins (Rab GAPs), AS160 and Tbc1d1, in the regulation of glucose uptake and GLUT4 subcellular distribution. To determine the roles of the two Rab GAPs in GLUT4 subcellular distribution, glucose uptake, and whole body glucose and energy homeostasis, we characterized single AS160 and Tbc1d1 and double AS160/Tbc1d1 knockout (KO) mice. Our results with isolated skeletal muscles and adipocytes demonstrate that AS160 but not Tbc1d1 regulates glucose uptake in adipocytes, while AS160 and Tbc1d1 each regulate glucose uptake in specific skeletal muscles. Our results further show that AS160 or Tbc1d1 deletions lead to similar changes in glucose uptake, total ...
Emerging evidence indicates that the neuronal guidance molecule SLIT plays a role in tumor suppression, as SLIT-encoding genes are inactivated in several types of cancer, including lung cancer; however, it is not clear how SLIT functions in lung cancer. Here, our data show that SLIT inhibits cancer cell migration by activating RhoA and that myosin 9b (Myo9b) is a ROBO-interacting protein that suppresses RhoA activity in lung cancer cells. Structural analyses revealed that the RhoGAP domain of Myo9b contains a unique patch that specifically recognizes RhoA. We also determined that the ROBO intracellular domain interacts with the Myo9b RhoGAP domain and inhibits its activity; therefore, SLIT-dependent activation of RhoA is mediated by ROBO inhibition of Myo9b. In a murine model, compared with control lung cancer cells, SLIT-expressing cells had a decreased capacity for tumor formation and lung metastasis. Evaluation of human lung cancer and adjacent nontumor tissues revealed that Myo9b is ...
ARF GAP Lis a kind of important regulator of introcellular transport. Recently, a novel human gene has been found from a cDNA library of second trimester human fetal liver. The amino acid sequence encoded by the novel gene has 32% similarity to rat ARF1 GAP, was thus termed as ARFGAP3. Functional studies of the new gene were performed. The full-length cDNA of ARFGAP3 was amplified from the human total placenta RNA by RT-PCR technique, then subcloned into pGEM-T vector and sequenced. The RNA Master blot and multiple tissue Northern blot analysis were used to define the expression profile and the transcript size of ARFGAP3 in human tissues. It was shown that ARFGAP3 was strongly expressed in glands and testis and that ARFGAP3 mRNA existed as only one kind of transcript of 2.7 kb in various human tissues. Then, the expression and purification of the recombinant human ARFGAP3 (rhARFGAP3) were performed. It was demonstrated that rhARFGAP3 exhibited strong GTPase-activating protein ( GAP) activity ...
Insulin exerts many of its metabolic actions via the canonical phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, leading to phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding of key metabolic targets. We previously identified a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rac1 called RhoGAP22 as an insulin-responsive 14-3-3 binding protein. Insulin increased 14-3-3 binding to RhoGAP22 fourfold, and this effect was PI3K dependent. We identified two insulin-responsive 14-3-3 binding sites (pSer(16) and pSer(395)) within RhoGAP22, and mutagenesis studies revealed a complex interplay between the phosphorylation at these two sites. Mutating Ser(16) to alanine blocked 14-3-3 binding to RhoGAP22 in vivo, and phosphorylation at Ser(16) was mediated by the kinase Akt. Overexpression of a mutant RhoGAP22 that was unable to bind 14-3-3 reduced cell motility in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, and this effect was dependent on a functional GAP domain. Mutation of the catalytic arginine of the GAP domain of RhoGAP22 potentiated growth factor-stimulated
G protein GAPs allow rapid termination of a signal on removal of agonist, but can also substantially inhibit signaling in the presence of agonist by shortening the activation lifetime of the G protein during the GTPase cycle. The data presented here describe how the individual steps in the GTPase cycle combine to produce both robust activation by agonist and rapid deactivation on agonist removal. Such balance is particularly important for G protein-regulated effectors, such as PLC-β1, that use intrinsic GAP activity to modulate the kinetics of their own activation.. The most striking outcome of this study was the speed of GAP-stimulated hydrolysis of Gq-bound GTP, with an average khydrol of 25 s−1 for RGS4 and 15 s−1 for the effector PLC-β1 at 30°C. This represents a 2,000-fold increase over the basal rate of 0.013 s−1 (12), comparable to the 10,000-fold effect of ras GAP on p21ras (23). Moreover, G protein GAPs accelerate GTP hydrolysis by an allosteric mechanism, whereas GAPs for ...
To examine the role of the mTORC1 pathway in pancreatic β-cells in vivo, we produced transgenic mice that express Rheb under the control of the rat insulin promoter. Rheb is unique in that it maintains basal levels of GTP charging much higher than those of Ras because of its lower intrinsic GTPase activity. With a limiting level of endogenous Rheb GTPase-activating activity established by the TSC complex, even wild-type Rheb takes an active GTP form when it is overexpressed (21). When isolated islets were incubated in nutrient-limited media, phosphorylation levels of ribosomal protein S6 and of 4EBP1 were clearly augmented in transgenic β-cells compared with wild-type β-cells, in parallel with the abundance of FLAG-Rheb. Moreover, immunostaining of the pancreas sections with the anti-phospho-S6 antibody revealed an increase in S6 phosphorylation in the transgenic β-cells. These results indicate that the mTORC1 pathway is upregulated in the pancreatic β-cells of transgenic mice in vivo as ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant RABGAP1. RABGAP1 (AAH54492, 1 a.a. ~ 110 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00023637-M01) - Products - Abnova
GTPase-activating Protein (GAP); Contains Rho1p-specific GAP Activity, Interacting With Activated Forms Of Rho1p; Functions Along With Sac7p As A Negative Regulator Of The Pkc1p-mediated Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway; Negative Regulator Of Cell Wall 1,3-beta-glucan Biosynthesis; Required For Efficient Cell Fusion; Contains A RhoGAP Domain And Three Lin-11-Isl1-Mec-3 (LIM) Domains
GTPase-activating Protein (GAP); Contains Rho1p-specific GAP Activity, Interacting With Activated Forms Of Rho1p; Functions Along With Sac7p As A Negative Regulator Of The Pkc1p-mediated Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway; Negative Regulator Of Cell Wall 1,3-beta-glucan Biosynthesis; Required For Efficient Cell Fusion; Contains A RhoGAP Domain And Three Lin-11-Isl1-Mec-3 (LIM) Domains
The segmentation of the Drosophila body plan depends on a hierarchy of interactions among approximately 20-25 regulatory genes that are active in the early embryo (refs 1-4; for a review see ref. 5). The gap genes have a key role in this process and are responsible for the periodic expression of cer …
Genetic studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have shown that SST2 promotes pheromone desensitization in vivo. Sst2 is the founding member of the RGS (regulators of G protein signaling) family of proteins, which in mammals act as GAPs (GTPase activating proteins) for several subfamilies of G …
Although the ability of FcγRIIB1 to oppose stimulation of B cell responses by engagement of the BCR is well documented, the mechanism by which FcγRIIB1 antagonizes the BCR is incompletely understood. The participation of Src-related kinases in BCR-mediated signaling and the ability of Csk to suppress Src-related kinase activity in resting B cells suggested the possible participation of Csk in antagonism of BCR signaling by FcγRIIB1. In response to extracellular signals, the activity of Csk is known to be modulated by changes in its intracellular localization ((21), (23)). Recruitment of Csk into a signaling pathway emanating from FcγRIIB1 would therefore be expected to involve FcγRIIB1-induced changes in the association of Csk with other proteins or in the phosphorylation state of proteins known to interact with Csk. In this communication we have demonstrated that signaling through FcγRIIB1 induces tyrosine phosphorylation of a 62-kD protein (p62) that associates with the SH2 domain of ...
GTPase-activating protein for p21-rac. Contains phorbol-ester/DAG-type zinc finger (C1 domain), Rho-GAP domain, and SH2 domain ...
Superconducting doped bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) is a promising candidate of topological superconductors. Recent studies in the superconducting state reveal that this material shows spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking in the gap function, which is termed as nematic superconductivity. Among pairing symmetries proposed for superconducting doped Bi2Se3, only the odd-parity pairings with Eu representation generate nematicity in the superconducting gap. Eu pairing states allow two kinds of gap structures, Δ4x state with point nodes along ky direction and Δ4y state with gap minima along kx direction. These two states can be distinguished from the measurements which is sensitive to low-energy quasiparticle excitations. Here we report the magnetic penetration depth in Sr-doped Bi2Se3 (Tc~2.8K) down to 50 mK measured by tunnel-diode oscillator technique. All samples show power-law behavior λ(T)∝Tn (n=1~2) down to 0.05Tc, indicating strong momentum dependence of the gap. However, the data give ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-RABGAP1 Antibody (1A8) [DyLight 680]. Validated: WB, ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
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Kit Component:- KN301499G1, Arhgap25 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN301499G2, Arhgap25 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN301499D, donor…
Buy ARFGAP1 recombinant protein, ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein 1 (ARFGAP1) Recombinant Protein-NP_001268411.1 (MBS1301288) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
Duanes retraction syndrome (DRS) is a complex congenital eye movement disorder caused by aberrant innervation of the extraocular muscles by axons of brainstem motor neurons. Studying families with a variant form of the disorder (DURS2-DRS), we have identified causative heterozygous missense mutations in CHN1, a gene on chromosome 2q31 that encodes α2-chimaerin, a Rac guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (RacGAP) signaling protein previously implicated in the pathfinding of corticospinal axons in mice. We found that these are gain-of-function mutations that increase α2-chimaerin RacGAP activity in vitro. Several of the mutations appeared to enhance α2-chimaerin translocation to the cell membrane or enhance its ability to self-associate. Expression of mutant α2-chimaerin constructs in chick embryos resulted in failure of oculomotor axons to innervate their target extraocular muscles. We conclude that α2-chimaerin has a critical developmental function in ocular motor axon ...
Neuropathy is a major complication that affects nearly half of all patients with diabetes, greatly decreasing their quality of life. Patients experience a wide range of symptoms including pain, numbness, weakness and other morbidities. While its pathogenesis has been the focus of extensive research, there are still few effective treatment options available for this disease. The discovery of novel molecular targets underlying this diabetic neuropathy may lead to the development of new, more effective therapeutics. DLC2, a Rho GTPase-activating protein with specific activity for RhoA, was shown to be involved in pain signaling. Mice deficient for this protein (DLC2-/-) have increased RhoA activity in their peripheral nerves, and have heightened pain responses compared to wild type (DLC2+/+) in acute pain tests, displaying increased sensitivity to noxious thermal and inflammatory stimuli. DLC2-/- mice also show elevated blood glucose levels, lower body weight and increased sensitivity to blood ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity ...
CIN85 is a multidomain adaptor protein involved in Cbl-mediated down-regulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. CIN85 src homology 3 domains specifically bind to a proline-arginine (PxxxPR) motif in Cbl, and this association seems to be important for EGF receptor endocytosis. Here, we report identification of novel CIN85 effectors, all containing one or more PxxxPR motifs, that are indispensable for their mutual interactions. These effectors include phosphatidyl-inositol phosphatases SHIP-1 and synaptojanin 2B1, Arf GTPase-activating proteins ASAP1 and ARAP3, adaptor proteins Hip1R and STAP1, and a Rho exchange factor, p115Rho GEF. Acting as a molecular scaffold, CIN85 clusters its effectors and recruits them to high-molecular-weight complexes in cytosolic extracts of cells. Further characterization of CIN85 binding to ASAP1 revealed that formation of the complex is independent on cell stimulation. Overexpression of ASAP1 increased EGF receptor recycling, whereas ASAP1 containing ...
Cellular signaling downstream of Ras is highly diversified and may involve many different effector molecules. A potential candidate is AF6 which was originally identified as a fusion to ALL-1 in acute myeloid leukemia. In the present work the interaction between Ras and AF6 is characterized and compared with other effectors. The binding characteristics are quite similar to Raf and RalGEF, i.e. nucleotide dissociation as well as GTPase-activating protein activity are inhibited, whereas the intrinsic GTPase activity of Ras is unperturbed by AF6 binding. Particularly, the dynamics of interaction are similar to Raf and RalGEF with a lifetime of the Ras. AF6 complex in the millisecond range. As probed by 31P NMR spectroscopy one of two major conformational states of Ras is stabilized by the interaction with AF6. Looking at the affinities of AF6 to a number of Ras mutants in the effector region, a specificity profile emerges distinct from that of other effector molecules. This finding may be useful in ...
PIKE-A (PIKE-activating gene differs from PIKE-S with the addition of a 40-kDa C-terminal extension containing Arf-GAP and two ankyrin-repeat domains. and peripheral bloodstream leukocytes (4-6). Weve proven that PIKE-A is certainly coamplified with CDK4 on chromosome 12 in a number of human malignancies including sarcoma RG7112 neuroblastoma and glioblastoma (32). PIKE-A is certainly readily discovered in 12q-amplified cell lines including RMS13 rhabdomyosarcoma and OSA osteosarcoma however not in regular muscles (6). PIKE-A provides the GTPase PH ArfGAP and two Ankyrin repeats domains within PIKE-L but does not have the N-terminal proline-rich area which binds proteins 4.1N PLC-γ1 and PI3-kinase. PIKE-A particularly binds to energetic Akt and up-regulates its activity within a GTP-dependent way mediating human cancers cell invasion (32). Akt/PKB is an essential regulator of divergent cellular procedures including apoptosis proliferation fat burning capacity and differentiation. Constitutive ...
TSC1 and TSC2 are the tumour-suppressor genes mutated in the tumour syndrome TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex). Their gene products form a complex that has become the focus of many signal transduction researchers. The TSC1-TSC2 (hamartin-tuberin) complex, through its GAP (GTPase-activating protein) activity towards the small G-protein Rheb (Ras homologue enriched in brain), is a critical negative regulator of mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1). As mTORC1 activity controls anabolic processes to promote cell growth, it is exquisitely sensitive to alterations in cell growth conditions. Through numerous phosphorylation events, the TSC1-TSC2 complex has emerged as the sensor and integrator of these growth conditions, relaying signals from diverse cellular pathways to properly modulate mTORC1 activity. In the present review we focus on the molecular details of TSC1-TSC2 complex regulation and function as it relates to the control of Rheb and mTORC1 ...
ABSTRACTCytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. These regulatory proteins oscillate between a cytosolic GDP-bound inactive form and a membrane-linked GTP-bound active form, orchestrating the actin cy
Complete information for TBC1D3F gene (Protein Coding), TBC1 Domain Family Member 3F, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Expression of RABGAP1 (GAPCenA, TBC1D11) in bronchus tissue. Antibody staining with HPA041651 and HPA072273 in immunohistochemistry.
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
We identified six novel splicing events of ITSN1 transcripts that do not introduce premature termination codon. Different combinations of these splicing events could generate 28 isoforms of ITSN1. The isoforms differ in their domain organization, interaction with protein partners, localization in different tissues and stages of development. The role of alternative splicing was clearly demonstrated in case of ITSN1 microexon 20 splicing that provides a mechanism for tissuespecific control of protein protein interactions in neurons. Using mutational analysis we found that neuron-specific insertion of a microexon 20 leads to regulation of the SH3A domain specificity due to the shifting of negatively charged amino acids towards the interaction interface. Neuronspecific isoform of the SH3A domain binds with significantly higher affinity endocytic proteins dynamin 1 and synaptojanin 1, as well as GTPase-activating protein CdGAP, while the ubiquitously expressed isoform preferentially interacts with ...
GTPase-activating protein for Gpa1p, regulates desensitization to alpha factor pheromone; also required to prevent receptor-independent signaling of the mating pathway; member of the RGS (regulator of G-protein signaling) ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
A method of forming air gaps within a solid structure is provided. In this method, a sacrificial material is covered by an overlayer. The sacrificial material is then removed through the overlayer to leave an air gap. Such air gaps are particularly useful as insulation between metal lines in an electronic device such as an electrical interconnect structure. Structures containing air gaps are also provided.
ARHGAP44_ENST00000340825 Gene, Drug Resistance, Tissue Distribution, Mutation Distribution, Variants, ARHGAP44_ENST00000340825 Genome Browser, ARHGAP44_ENST00000340825 References
Recombinant rho GTPase Activating Protein 19 (ARHGAP19) Protein (His tag). Species: Mouse. Source: Insect Cells. Order product ABIN3125177.
ARHGAP25 GTPase activator for the Rho-type GTPases by converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. 4 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
Rna1p is the GTPase-activating factor (GAP) of yeast Gsp1p, an ortholog of mammalian Ran. Rna1p is located in the cytoplasm throughout the cell cycle and plays a direct role in protein import into the nucleus in S. cerevisiae and S. pombe.
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The first section, on the use of articles in English (a/an/the), has a video story and a series of exercises. You can choose to do the easier exercises, where gaps for missing articles are indicated, or the harder exercises, where no gaps are indicated.
I think maybe we should restructure now, actually -- because that lets us know where the gaps are. I might have to uncouple from this thread a mo...
The data, published by the Central Bureau of Statistics to mark the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, indicate that social and economic gaps are widening.
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To calculate the required minimum distribution of an IRA, the balance of the IRA is divided by the distribution period, which is 26.5 at the age of 70 years 6 months. The deadline to start...
Exotic Microlepidoptera Exot. Microlep. 3 (1-2): 1-64 (1923), (3): 65-96 (1924), (4): 97-128 (1924), (5-7): 129-224 (?1925), (8): 225-256 (1926), (9): 257-288 (1926), (10): 289-320 (1926), (11): 321-352 (1927), (12): 353-384 (1927), (13): 385-416 (1928), (14-15): 417-480 (1928), (16): 481-512 (1929), (17): 513-544 (1929), (18-20): 545-640 (1930 ...
The CDC42 GTPase, which is controlled by nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs; see MIM 606057) and GTPase-activating proteins ( ... Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara IG (Oct 2000). "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C to ... Partitioning defective 3 homolog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PARD3 gene. PARD proteins, which were first ... "Atypical protein kinase C is involved in the evolutionarily conserved par protein complex and plays a critical role in ...
Rho GTPase activating protein 18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP18 gene. The gene is also known as MacGAP ... "Rho GTPase activating protein 18". Retrieved 2011-12-05. Potkin, S. G.; Turner, J. A.; Fallon, J. A.; Lakatos, A.; Keator, D. B ... ARHGAP18 belongs to a family of Rho GTPase-activating proteins that modulate cell signaling. Model organisms have been used in ...
Rho GTPase activating protein 25 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP25 gene. The gene is also known as ... "Rho GTPase activating protein 25". Retrieved 2011-12-05. Katoh M, Katoh M (August 2004). "Identification and characterization ... ARHGAP25 belongs to a family of Rho GTPase-modulating proteins that are implicated in actin remodeling, cell polarity, and cell ...
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF5 gene. EIF5 is a GTPase-activating ... Das S, Ghosh R, Maitra U (2001). "Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 functions as a GTPase-activating protein". J. Biol ... "Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 functions as a GTPase-activating protein". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (9): 6720-6. doi: ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ...
Zhang B, Chernoff J, Zheng Y (April 1998). "Interaction of Rac1 with GTPase-activating proteins and putative effectors. A ... PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activated kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. These proteins serve as ... Shin YJ, Kim YB, Kim JH (September 2013). "Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates and activates p21-activated kinase 1". Molecular ... "Hepatitis B virus X protein confers resistance of hepatoma cells to anoikis by up-regulating and activating p21-activated ...
GIT proteins interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating ... a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-associated ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein". Proceedings of the National ... ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GIT2 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... 5-trisphosphate-stimulated GTPase-activating proteins for ARF6". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (18): 13901-6. doi: ...
"The Ras GTPase-activating-protein-related human protein IQGAP2 harbors a potential actin binding domain and interacts with ... Zhao C, Ma H, Bossy-Wetzel E, Lipton SA, Zhang Z, Feng GS (September 2003). "GC-GAP, a Rho family GTPase-activating protein ... Nakamura T, Komiya M, Sone K, Hirose E, Gotoh N, Morii H, Ohta Y, Mori N (December 2002). "Grit, a GTPase-activating protein ... Zhang B, Chernoff J, Zheng Y (April 1998). "Interaction of Rac1 with GTPase-activating proteins and putative effectors. A ...
RGS proteins are GTPase-activating proteins for Gi (see GNAI1; MIM 139310) and Gq (see GNAQ; MIM 600998) class G-alpha proteins ... Structure, membrane association, regulation by Galphaz phosphorylation, and relationship to a Gz gtpase-activating protein ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 20 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS20 gene. Regulator of G protein signaling ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ...
"The Ras GTPase-activating-protein-related human protein IQGAP2 harbors a potential actin binding domain and interacts with ... Zhao C, Ma H, Bossy-Wetzel E, Lipton SA, Zhang Z, Feng GS (Sep 2003). "GC-GAP, a Rho family GTPase-activating protein that ... Zhang B, Chernoff J, Zheng Y (Apr 1998). "Interaction of Rac1 with GTPase-activating proteins and putative effectors. A ... Moon SY, Zang H, Zheng Y (Feb 2003). "Characterization of a brain-specific Rho GTPase-activating protein, p200RhoGAP". The ...
"Expanding functions of GIT Arf GTPase-activating proteins, PIX Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GIT-PIX complexes". ... "The GIT family of ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating proteins. Functional diversity of GIT2 through alternative splicing ... and activated Rac1 or Cdc42 binding to this PAK stimulates its protein kinase activity leading to downstream target protein ... "Sorting nexin 27 protein regulates trafficking of a p21-activated kinase (PAK) interacting exchange factor (β-Pix)-G protein- ...
... a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-associated ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95 ... ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GIT1 gene. GIT1 contains an ARFGAP domain, ... The Arf-GAP domain, which enables it to act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for the Arf family of GTPases, has been shown ... "The GIT family of ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating proteins. Functional diversity of GIT2 through alternative splicing ...
Ras GTPase-activating-like protein IQGAP1 (IQGAP1) also known as p195 is a ubiquitously expressed protein that in humans is ... It was hypothesized that IQGAP1 would act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP) protein, promoting the switch of ras GTPases ... This domain is highly similar to the functional subunit of Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and was thus thought to have ... "Entrez Gene: IQGAP1 IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1". White CD, Brown MD, Sacks DB (June 2009). "IQGAPs in ...
Rho GTPase activating protein 44 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the ARHGAP44 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: Rho GTPase activating protein 44". Retrieved 2013-05-13. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Human ARHGAP44 ...
RAB GTPase activating protein 1 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the RABGAP1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: RAB GTPase activating protein 1". Caratù G, Allegra D, Bimonte M, Schiattarella GG, D'Ambrosio C, Scaloni A, ... a GTPase activating protein for Rab6, part of which associates with the centrosome". The EMBO Journal. 18 (7): 1772-82. doi: ... "The small GTPase Rab6B, a novel Rab6 subfamily member, is cell-type specifically expressed and localised to the Golgi apparatus ...
The Rho GTPase activating protein 31 is encoded in humans by the ARHGAP31 gene. It is a Cdc42/Rac1 GTPase regulator. ARHGAP31 ... 2002). "The activity of the GTPase-activating protein CdGAP is regulated by the endocytic protein intersectin". J. Biol. Chem. ... Lamarche-Vane N, Hall A (1998). "CdGAP, a novel proline-rich GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42 and Rac". J. Biol. Chem. 273 ( ... 2006). "The human orthologue of CdGAP is a phosphoprotein and a GTPase-activating protein for Cdc42 and Rac1 but not RhoA". ...
"Molecular cloning of a GTPase activating protein specific for the Krev-1 protein p21rap1". Cell. 65 (6): 1033-42. doi:10.1016/ ... Rap1 GTPase-activating protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RAP1GAP gene. RAP1GAP has been shown to interact ... "Entrez Gene: RAP1GAP RAP1 GTPase activating protein". Su L, Hattori M, Moriyama M, Murata N, Harazaki M, Kaibuchi K, Minato N ( ... "Human SPA-1 gene product selectively expressed in lymphoid tissues is a specific GTPase-activating protein for Rap1 and Rap2. ...
... is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). It accelerates the GTP hydrolysis on G proteins determining their fast inactivation ... Regulator of G-protein signaling 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RGS7 gene. RGS7 is highly enriched in the ... Snow BE, Betts L, Mangion J, Sondek J, Siderovski DP (1999). "Fidelity of G protein β-subunit association by the G protein γ- ... "The R7 RGS Protein Family: Multi-Subunit Regulators of Neuronal G Protein Signaling". Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics. 54 (1-3 ...
Rho GTPase activating protein 27 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP27 gene. This gene encodes a member of a ... "Entrez Gene: Rho GTPase activating protein 27". Retrieved 2018-05-30. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) PDBe-KB provides ... an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Rho GTPase-activating protein 27 (ARHGAP27) This ... large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein may play ...
... and several GTPase activating proteins like ABR, BCR or ARAP proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins such as dynamin (see InterPro: ... ARAP proteins contain five PH domains. Serine/threonine-specific protein kinases such as the Akt/Rac family, protein kinase D1 ... and proteins such as the βγ-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, and protein kinase C. Through these interactions, PH domains ... Nash Lab Protein Interaction Domains - PH domain description[permanent dead link] UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes ...
2000). "The GIT family of ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating proteins. Functional diversity of GIT2 through alternative ... 2003). "The Cbl proteins are binding partners for the Cool/Pix family of p21-activated kinase-binding proteins". FEBS Lett. 550 ... "Expanding functions of GIT Arf GTPase-activating proteins, PIX Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GIT-PIX complexes". ... and activated Rac1 or Cdc42 binding to this PAK stimulates its protein kinase activity leading to downstream target protein ...
GTPase-activating protein) for small GTPases: Rab activity is modulated in part by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and many ... GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) limit the duration of the active state and accelerate the slow intrinsic rate of GTP ... Rab GTPase-activating proteins". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 24 (10): 1574-83. doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-07-0557. PMC 3655817. ... Rab GTPase-activating proteins". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 24 (10): 1574-83. doi:10.1091/mbc.E12-07-0557. PMC 3655817. ...
ARHGAP44: encoding protein Rho GTPase activating protein 44. *AZI1: encoding protein 5-azacytidine-induced protein 1 ... VPS25: encoding protein Vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 25. *VPS53: encoding protein Vacuolar protein sorting 53 ... LINC00511: encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 511. *LINC00674 encoding protein Long intergenic non-protein ... encoding protein Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein 2. *QRICH2: encoding protein Glutamine-rich protein ...
Rho GTPase-activating protein 19 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP19 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: ARHGAP19 Rho GTPase activating protein 19". Human ARHGAP19 genome location and ARHGAP19 gene details page in the ...
... and GTPase-activating protein domains of a novel Rho GTPase-activating protein, BPGAP1". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (46): 45903-45914. ... Rho GTPase-activating protein 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP8 gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... GAP (GTPase-activating) family proteins participate in signaling pathways that regulate cell processes involved in cytoskeletal ... "Entrez Gene: ARHGAP8 Rho GTPase activating protein 8". Human ARHGAP8 genome location and ARHGAP8 gene details page in the UCSC ...
... and GTPase-activating protein domains of a novel Rho GTPase-activating protein, BPGAP1". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (46): 45903-14. doi ... "Crystal structure of a small G protein in complex with the GTPase-activating protein rhoGAP". Nature. 388 (6643): 693-7. doi: ... "Characterization of the interactions between the small GTPase Cdc42 and its GTPase-activating proteins and putative effectors. ... "Magnesium fluoride-dependent binding of small G proteins to their GTPase-activating proteins". Biochemistry. 38 (45): 14981-7. ...
Rho GTPase-activating protein 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP4 gene. It has been shown to regulate cell ... 2002). "p115 Rho GTPase activating protein interacts with MEKK1". J. Cell. Physiol. 192 (2): 200-8. doi:10.1002/jcp.10125. PMID ... "Entrez Gene: ARHGAP4 Rho GTPase activating protein 4". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Vogt, DL; Gray, CD; Young Ws, ... Katoh M, Katoh M (2004). "FNBP2 gene on human chromosome 1q32.1 encodes ARHGAP family protein with FCH, FBH, RhoGAP and SH3 ...
... "p115 Rho GTPase activating protein interacts with MEKK1". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 192 (2): 200-8. doi:10.1002/jcp.10125 ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) are substrates for direct phosphorylation by the MAP3K1 protein kinase. The ... "Dimerization choices control the ability of axin and dishevelled to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP3K1 gene. MAP3K1 (or ...
Rho GTPase-activating protein 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP5 gene. Rho GTPase activating protein 5 ... Chakravarty G, Roy D, Gonzales M, Gay J, Contreras A, Rosen JM (2000). "P190-B, a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, is ... Vargo-Gogola T, Heckman BM, Gunther EJ, Chodosh LA, Rosen JM (2006). "P190-B Rho GTPase-activating protein overexpression ... "Entrez Gene: ARHGAP5 Rho GTPase activating protein 5". Wennerberg K, Forget MA, Ellerbroek SM, Arthur WT, Burridge K, Settleman ...
Ran GTPase-activating protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RANGAP1 gene. RanGAP1, is a homodimeric 65-kD ... Becker J, Melchior F, Gerke V, Bischoff FR, Ponstingl H, Wittinghofer A (May 1995). "RNA1 encodes a GTPase-activating protein ... Becker J, Melchior F, Gerke V, Bischoff FR, Ponstingl H, Wittinghofer A (1995). "RNA1 encodes a GTPase-activating protein ... "Entrez Gene: RANGAP1 Ran GTPase activating protein 1". Hochstrasser M (2000). "Biochemistry. All in the ubiquitin family". ...
GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) bind activated forms of Rho GTPases and stimulate GTP hydrolysis. Through this catalytic ... Rac GTPase-activating protein 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RACGAP1 gene. Rho GTPases control a variety of ... "Entrez Gene: RACGAP1 Rac GTPase activating protein 1". Ren K, Zhou D, Wang M, Li E, Hou C, Su Y, et al. (March 2021). "RACGAP1 ... June 2000). "CYK-4: A Rho family gtpase activating protein (GAP) required for central spindle formation and cytokinesis". The ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade that is itself a kinase. RSK2 phosphorylates cellular proteins (including histone H3 ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ...
It was already known that other Ga proteins could induce Rho activation (i.e. Ga13 activates p115 Rho GEF, which in turn ... In 1986, Hall helped uncover properties of the human p21 protein, which is encoded by N-ras. GTPase activity of different ... "Activated Galphaq family members induce Rho GTPase activation and Rho-dependent actin filament assembly". FEBS Letters. 531: ... activates Rho), but it was also known that Gaq does not activate p115 Rho GEF, and therefore must act via an alternate, unknown ...
TRAF2 in turn recruits the multicomponent protein kinase IKK, enabling the serine-threonine kinase RIP to activate it. An ... "TNF-stimulated MAP kinase activation mediated by a Rho family GTPase signaling pathway". Genes Dev. 25 (19): 2069-78. doi ... protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ...
protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... This exposes a domain near the WASp C-terminus that binds to and activates the Arp2/3 complex. Activated Arp2/3 nucleates new F ... and interact with multiple proteins. These proteins, directly or indirectly, associate with the small GTPase CDC42, known to ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ...
Valproic acid added to cells from SMA patients increased SMN2 mRNA and protein levels and that the drug directly activates SMN2 ... C9orf72 likely functions as a guanine exchange factor for a small GTPase, but this is likely not related to the underlying ... The UBQLN2 gene encodes the protein ubiquilin 2 which is responsible for controlling the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins ... As that gene's name suggests, BACE1 is an enzymatic protein that cleaves the Amyloid Precursor Protein into the insoluble ...
... including the role of GTPase-activating proteins.[16]. Niche usesEdit. Together with zirconium fluoride, aluminium fluoride is ... that aluminum fluoride can bind to and activate heterotrimeric G proteins has proven to be useful for the study of G protein ...
... the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). Inhibitors[edit]. Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide ... The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs ... GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevent the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ...
"Yersinia enterocolitica promotes deactivation of macrophage mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated ... YopT únese á Rho GTPase, normalmente chamada "RhoA", e desacóplaa da membrana, deixándoa nun estado inactivo como RhoA-GDI ( ... "En Ladant, Daniel; Alouf, Joseph E.; Popoff, Michel R. The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press ... Galyov EE, Håkansson S, Forsberg A, Wolf-Watz H (1993). "A secreted protein kinase of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an ...
1998). „GTPase activating specificity of RGS12 and binding specificity of an alternatively spliced PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain ... Francesconi A, Duvoisin RM (2000). „Opposing effects of protein kinase C and protein kinase A on metabotropic glutamate ... Metabotropni glutamatni receptor 1 (GRM1) je ljudski gen koji kodira mGluR1 protein.[1][2][3] ... aktivnost G-protein spregnutog receptora. • aktivnost glutamatnog receptora. • vezivanje estrogenskog receptora. Celularna ...
CaMKII activates the Ras proteins, which go on to activate p42/44 MAPK, which drives AMPAR insertion directly into the ... Interactions from calcineurin activate dynamin GTPase activity, allowing the clathrin pit to excise itself from the cell ... which in turn activates protein phosphatases PP1 and calcineurin. However, AMPAR endocytosis has also been activated by voltage ... Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are a family proteins that associate with AMPA receptors and control ...
For the Rac branch, DVL activates the Rac GTPase.[3] Activating the Rac GTPase stimulates the downstream effector c-Jun N- ... These regions mediate protein-protein interactions and help DVL channel signals into either the β-catenin or the β-catenin ... which activates downstream effectors like Rho GTPase and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), which activates actin and cytoskeleton ... This region mediates many protein-protein interactions and regulates multiple biological processes.[3] ...
phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • salivary gland cavitation. • negative regulation of ... tTG also has GTPase activity:[5] In the presence of GTP, it suggested to function as a G protein participating in signaling ... protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • metal ion binding. • GTP binding. • ... ProteinEdit. TG2 is a multifunctional enzyme that belongs to transglutaminases which catalyze the crosslinking of proteins by ...
... control mTOR signaling by acting as a GTPase-activating protein complex toward Rheb". Curr. Biol. 13 (15): 1259-68. doi:10.1016 ... "The tumor suppressor LKB1 kinase directly activates AMP-activated kinase and regulates apoptosis in response to energy stress" ... May 1993). "Phosphoinositide 3-kinase is activated by phosphopeptides that bind to the SH2 domains of the 85-kDa subunit". J. ... October 2004). "A rapid method for determining protein kinase phosphorylation specificity". Nat. Methods. 1 (1): 27-9. doi: ...
protein binding. • ankyrin binding. • gamma-catenin binding. • beta-catenin binding. • GTPase activating protein binding. • ... Oneyama C, Nakano H, Sharma SV (March 2002). "UCS15A, a novel small molecule, SH3 domain-mediated protein-protein interaction ... Several proteins such as SNAI1/SNAIL,[58][59] ZFHX1B/SIP1,[60] SNAI2/SLUG,[61][62] TWIST1[63] and DeltaEF1[64] have been found ... identical protein binding. Cellular component. • cell-cell adherens junction. • apical junction complex. • trans-Golgi network ...
protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • retina development in camera-type eye. • Ras protein ... protein heterotrimerization. • Wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway. • protein folding. • G-protein coupled ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene.[5] ...
The increase in presynaptic calcium concentration activates calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). CaMK ... The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ... In the periactive zone, scaffolding proteins such as intersectin 1 recruit proteins that mediate endocytosis such as dynamin, ...
AMOTL2: encoding protein Angiomotin-like protein 2. *ARHGAP31: Rho GRPase activating protein 31 ... LSG1: large subunit GTPase 1 homolog. * MB21D2: encoding protein Mab-21 domain containing 2 ... C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14: predicted DNA binding protein.. *C3orf23: encoding protein Uncharacterized protein ... FRA3A encoding protein Fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(p24.2). *FRMD4B encoding protein FERM domain containing ...
... mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK)訊息的梯瀑效應(cascade)的活化、粒線體活性氧(reactive oxygen species, ROS)的產生、C型磷脂酶(phospholipase C, PLC)及 ... 3.6.5: GTP酶(英语:GTPase). 3.6.5.1: 异三聚体G蛋白(英语:Heterotrimeric G protein). *Gαs ... Regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase anchored on membrane via its
... catalytic domain and a noncatalytic domain for in vivo activity of ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein". J. Biol ... GTPase activity. • GDP binding. • ‏GO:0001948 ربط بروتيني. • RNA binding. • protein domain specific binding. • protein ... "ADP-ribosylation factors: a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin". ... small GTPase mediated signal transduction. • cellular copper ion homeostasis. • long-term synaptic depression. • antigen ...
Because type I IFN signaling modulates proteins involved in protein translation, it can also indirectly alter protein levels of ... IFNAR activates the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, along with MAPK, PI3K, and Akt signaling pathways.[2] IFNAR agonism results in ... endocytosis pathway is inhibited with siRNA knockdown of clathrin or using a small molecule inhibitor of the GTPase dynamin.[15 ... Once recruited, STAT proteins are phosphorylated by which induces their homo- or heterodimerization.[17] These dimers ...
1998). "GTPase activating specificity of RGS12 and binding specificity of an alternatively spliced PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domain ... Metabotropni glutamatni receptor 1 (GRM1) je ljudski gen koji kodira mGluR1 protein.[1][2][3] ... aktivnost G-protein spregnutog receptora. • aktivnost glutamatnog receptora. • vezivanje estrogenskog receptora. Celularna ... signalni put G-protein spregnutog receptora. • sinaptička transmisija. • lokomotorno ponašanje. • kalcijumom posredovana ...
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... regulation of GTPase activity. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of microtubule cytoskeleton organization. • ... ephrin-A5 binds to and activates EphB2 receptor signaling". Nat. Neurosci. 7 (5): 501-9. doi:10.1038/nn1237. PMID 15107857.. ... protein binding. Cellular component. • membrane. • plasma membrane. • anchored component of external side of plasma membrane. • ...
signalni put G-protein spregnutog receptora. • G-proteinska signalizacija, spregnuta sa cAMP nukleotidnim sekundarnim glasnikom ... Kang SK; Yi KS; Kwon NS (2004). „Alpha1B-adrenoceptor signaling and cell motility: GTPase function of Gh/transglutaminase 2 ... constitutively activating mutation of the alpha 1B-adrenergic receptor enhances mitogenesis and tumorigenicity.". Proc. Natl. ... Zhang T; Xu Q; Chen FR (2005). „Yeast two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with alpha1-adrenergic receptors.". Acta ...
A group of proteins called Regulator of G protein signalling (RGSs), act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), are specific for ... Whereas G proteins are activated by G protein-coupled receptors, they are inactivated by RGS proteins (for "Regulator of G ... Heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins, are activated by G protein-coupled receptors and ... G proteins located within the cell are activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that span the cell membrane.[2] ...
PI(3)K enzymes are activated by a variety of cell surface receptors including antigen receptors on lymphocytes. Once activated ... The p110δ subunit is a protein of 1,044 amino acids that is predominantly expressed in leukocytes and plays a role in adaptive ... P110δ contains at least five domains (figure 1): adaptor-binding domain, a Ras GTPase-binding domain, a PI(3)K-type C2 domain, ... Specific p110δ mutants cause stronger binding to membranes and relieve inhibition of the kinase by regulatory proteins.[1][2] ...
protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • ATP binding. • Rho GTPase binding. ... Mitogen-activated protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.24). *Extracellular signal-regulated *MAPK1. *MAPK3 ... protein kinase activity. • PDZ domain binding. • SH3 domain binding. • scaffold protein binding. • metal ion binding. • kinase ... The small GTPase RhoA has been shown to be implicated, controlling CR assembly and dynamics during cytokinesis. This GTPase ...
Further effect depends on the type of G protein. G proteins are subsequently inactivated by GTPase activating proteins, known ... or RGS proteins, which are a type of GTPase-Activating Protein, or GAP. In fact, many of the primary effector proteins (e.g., ... Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (protein kinase A) are activated by the signal chain coming from the G protein (that was ... The GPCR can then activate an associated G protein by exchanging the GDP bound to the G protein for a GTP. The G protein's α ...
"Vav3 mediates receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling, regulates GTPase activity, modulates cell morphology, and induces ... "Characterization of an activated human ros gene". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 6 (9): 3109-16. doi:10.1128/MCB.6.9.3109 ... The protein encoded by this gene is a type I integral membrane protein with tyrosine kinase activity. The protein may function ... protein kinase activity. • kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ...
EIF5 is a GTPase-activating protein. Furthermore, YopE is a protein domain that is a Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which ... GTPase-activating proteins or GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to ... With a nonfunctional G protein enzyme, GAPs cannot activate the GTPase activity, and the G protein is constitutively on. This ... These G proteins acquire missense mutations that disrupt the inherent GTPase activity of the proteins. The mutant G proteins ...
Human protein-coding gene ARHGAP24. Represented by 220 ESTs from 111 cDNA libraries. Corresponds to 3 reference sequences ( ... Protein/EST matches (ProtEST) * * Protein/protein matches (BLink) * PREDICTED: rho GTPase-activating protein 24. D. rerio. 79.7 ... Protein/EST matches (ProtEST) * * Protein/protein matches (BLink) * PREDICTED: rho GTPase-activating protein 24 isoform 1. P. ... Protein sequence * * Protein/EST matches (ProtEST) * * Protein/protein matches (BLink) * PREDICTED: rho GTPase-activating ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... and the inactive state by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) which stimulate the intrinsic GTPase activity of small G proteins. ... Rho GTPase-activating protein domain (IPR000198). Short name: RhoGAP_dom Overlapping homologous superfamilies *Rho GTPase ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Rho GTPase activating protein 21 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP21 gene. ARHGAP21 functions preferentially ... "Entrez Gene: Rho GTPase activating protein 21". Retrieved 2017-01-30. Rosa LRO; Soares, G. M.; Silveira, L. R.; Boschero, A. C ... a novel human gene coding for a potentially cytoskeletal Rho-GTPase activating protein". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 294 (3 ... "β-Arrestin 1 inhibits the GTPase-activating protein function of ARHGAP21, promoting activation of RhoA following angiotensin II ...
rho GTPase-activating protein 27. Names. CIN85-associated multi-domain-containing Rho GTPase-activating protein 1. SH3 domain ... ARHGAP27 Rho GTPase activating protein 27 [Homo sapiens] ARHGAP27 Rho GTPase activating protein 27 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID: ... Src Homology 3 domain of Rho GTPase-activating protein 27. * NM_199282.3 → NP_954976.1 rho GTPase-activating protein 27 isoform ... mRNA and Protein(s) * NM_001282290.1 → NP_001269219.1 rho GTPase-activating protein 27 isoform d ...
Term: GTPase activating protein SPBC530.01. ID: PIRSF017220 Mouse Protein Superfamily Annotations. Select one or more mouse ... MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein ... The number of protein sequences returned does not always match the numbers of homologs shown, because the same protein sequence ... You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, ...
GTPase-activating protein;. MEF,. mouse embryonic fibroblast;. ROS,. reactive oxygen species;. SA-β-gal,. senescence-associated ... Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein deficiency promotes genomic instability and premature aging-like phenotypes. Lei Wang, Linda ... Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein (Cdc42GAP; also known as p50RhoGAP or ARHGAP1) is a ubiquitously expressed negative regulator ... Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein deficiency promotes genomic instability and premature aging-like phenotypes ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q08484 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) 2 * D6W2D3 - ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... Stimulates specifically the GTPase activity of YPT1. Functions on the Golgi as a negative regulator of YPT1. UniProt ...
... is a basic principle of GTP-binding-protein downregulation. Recently, the molecular mechanism behind this reaction has been ... Stimulation of the intrinsic GTPase activity of GTP-binding proteins by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) ... Stimulation of the intrinsic GTPase activity of GTP-binding proteins by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) is a basic principle ... GTPase-activating proteins: helping hands to complement an active site Trends Biochem Sci. 1998 Jul;23(7):257-62. doi: 10.1016/ ...
Ab160478 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam… ... Buy our Recombinant Human Rho GTPase activating protein 29. ... Rho GTPase-activating protein 29. *Rho-type GTPase-activating ... Rho GTPase activating protein 29 isoform CRA_b. * ... Rho GTPase activating protein 29. *Rho GTPase activating ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
G protein GAPs include two functional groups of proteins, effectors and regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins, whose ... Rapid GTP binding and hydrolysis by Gq promoted by receptor and GTPase-activating proteins. Suchetana Mukhopadhyay and Elliott ... Abbreviations used: GAP, GTPase activating protein; GTPγS, guanosine 5′-[γ-thio]triphosphate; PLC-β1, phospholipase C-β1; ... Receptor-promoted GTP binding and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-promoted GTP hydrolysis determine the onset and termination ...
... acting via the ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) (PubMed:16971514). Transduces SRC-dependent signals from cell-surface ... Regulates axon outgrowth, guidance and fasciculation (PubMed:11283609). Modulates Rho GTPase-dependent F-actin polymerization, ... Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Binds several acidic phospholipids which inhibits the Rho GAP activity to promote the Rac ... GTPase activating protein binding Source: MGI. *GTPase activator activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> , ...
J:83822 Chiang SH, et al., TCGAP, a multidomain Rho GTPase-activating protein involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport ... protein coding gene. Chr7:30522225-30535093 (-). 129S1/SvImJ MGP_129S1SvImJ_G0032024. protein coding gene. Chr7:29520126- ... protein coding gene. Chr7:29755835-29768287 (-). CAST/EiJ MGP_CASTEiJ_G0031061. protein coding gene. Chr7:23165995-23181665 (-) ... protein coding gene. Chr7:29914359-29927164 (-). C57BL/6NJ MGP_C57BL6NJ_G0032474. protein coding gene. Chr7:30482109-30494860 ...
GTPase activator for the Rho-type GTPases by converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. Has a substantial GAP activity ... Rho GTPase-activating protein 9Add BLAST. 750. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... "Isolation of a novel human gene, ARHGAP9, encoding a rho-GTPase activating protein.". Furukawa Y., Kawasoe T., Daigo Y., ... "Isolation of a novel human gene, ARHGAP9, encoding a rho-GTPase activating protein.". Furukawa Y., Kawasoe T., Daigo Y., ...
Compare Anti-RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 2 Antibody Products from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... Anti-RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 2 Antibody Products. RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 2, or RAB3 GTPase ... It may also be known as: Rab3 GTPase-activating protein non-catalytic subunit; Rab3 GTPase-activating protein 150 kDa subunit; ... The encoded protein has an amino acid length of 1393 and a mass of 156.0 kDa. RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 2 is a ...
... "ras GTPase-Activating Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "ras GTPase-Activating Proteins" ... "ras GTPase-Activating Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... ras GTPase-Activating Proteins*ras GTPase-Activating Proteins. *GTPase-Activating Proteins, ras ... Below are the most recent publications written about "ras GTPase-Activating Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
2009 P120-Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP): a multi-interacting protein in downstream signaling. Biochimie 91: 320-328. ... Here we report that C. elegans gene eat-17 encodes a Rab GTPase-activating protein (Rab GAP) specific for RAB-6.2, a Rab6 ... In this study we mapped and characterized eat-17, a new GTPase-activating protein gene in C. elegans. Using two different ... eat-17 encodes a GTPase activating protein with coiled-coil domains at the C terminus. Previous work placed eat-17 on ...
Compare ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3 Biomolecules from Aviva Systems Biology from leading suppliers on ... ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3 Biomolecules from Aviva Systems Biology. Clear ... ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3 Biomolecules from Aviva Systems Biology. ... ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3 Biomolecules from Aviva Systems Biology. ...
Mutation in Rab3 GTPase-activating protein (RAB3GAP) noncatalytic subunit in a kindred with Martsolf syndrome. Aligianis, I.A ... Biochemical characterization of Rab3-GTPase-activating protein reveals a mechanism similar to that of Ras-GAP. Clabecq, A., ... A novel rabconnectin-3-binding protein that directly binds a GDP/GTP exchange protein for Rab3A small G protein implicated in ... We identified homozygous inactivating mutations in RAB3GAP, encoding RAB3 GTPase activating protein, a key regulator of the ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE SALMONELLA TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE AND GTPASE ACTIVATING PROTEIN SPTP BOUND TO RAC1. *DOI: 10.2210/ ... a tyrosine phosphatase and GTPase activating protein (GAP) that targets Cdc42 and Rac1. The 2.3 A resolution crystal structure ... a tyrosine phosphatase and GTPase activating protein (GAP) that targets Cdc42 and Rac1 ... ... utilize a specialized protein secretion system to deliver a battery of effector proteins into host cells. Several of these ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits calcium ion binding (ortholog); calmodulin binding (ortholog); MAP-kinase scaffold activity ( ... IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1) Sus scrofa (pig) : IQGAP1 (IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1) ... ras GTPase-activating-like protein IQGAP1. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : IQGAP1 (IQ motif containing GTPase activating ... IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1) Canis lupus familiaris (dog) : IQGAP1 (IQ motif containing GTPase activating ...
... Lundmark, Richard Umeå University, Faculty of ... Here we show that the Rho-GAP-domain-containing protein GRAF1 marks, and is indispensable for, a major Clathrin-independent ... This pathway is characterized by its ability to internalize bacterial exotoxins, GPI-linked proteins, and extracellular fluid. ... This CLIC/GEEC pathway relies upon cellular signaling and activation through small G proteins, but mechanistic insight into the ...
GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine exchange factors (GEFs), play important roles in axon guidance. By means of a ... Cross GTPase-activating protein (CrossGAP)/Vilse links the Roundabout receptor to Rac to regulate midline repulsion Proc Natl ... The regulators of the Rho-family GTPases, GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine exchange factors (GEFs), play important ... Drosophila Proteins / genetics * Drosophila Proteins / metabolism* * GTPase-Activating Proteins / genetics * GTPase-Activating ...
Ral GTPase activating protein catalytic alpha subunit 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol ... GTPase activator activity GTPase activator activity extracellular space nucleus cytoplasm cytoplasm cytosol plasma membrane ... GTPase activator activity GTPase activator activity extracellular space nucleus cytoplasm cytoplasm cytosol plasma membrane ... protein heterodimerization activity regulation of small GTPase mediated signal transduction activation of GTPase activity NDEx ...
IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1, human; IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1, mouse; IQG1 protein, S ... IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 Summary Description: a calmodulin-binding rasGAP-related protein that shares 92 ... Also Known As: CYK1 protein, S cerevisiae; IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1, Xenopus; ... Key Diseases for which IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 is Relevant. * Multiple Myeloma : 1 study in 2 results ...
Abstract 16094: RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 1 is a Novel Candidate Gene for Sudden Cardiac Death. Adriana Huertas- ... Abstract 16094: RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 1 is a Novel Candidate Gene for Sudden Cardiac Death ... Abstract 16094: RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 1 is a Novel Candidate Gene for Sudden Cardiac Death ... Abstract 16094: RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 1 is a Novel Candidate Gene for Sudden Cardiac Death ...
It appears that Sec23p represents a new class of GTPase-activating protein because its sequence shows no similarity to any ... Requirement for a GTPase-activating protein in vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum ... Requirement for a GTPase-activating protein in vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum ... Requirement for a GTPase-activating protein in vesicle budding from the endoplasmic reticulum ...
MgcRacGAP, together with Rac1 and two other protein candidates, regulates mitosis. The MgcRacGAP labeled with a GST is loaded ... The identification of a Male germ cell Rac GTPase-activating protein (MgcRacGAP) inhibitor with the hope of dissecting its ... The identification of a Male germ cell Rac GTPase-activating protein (MgcRacGAP) inhibitor with the hope of dissecting its ... Discovery of MINC1, a GTPase-Activating Protein Small Molecule Inhibitor, Targeting MgcRacGAP ...
Amino Acid Deprivation Inhibits TORC1 Through a GTPase-Activating Protein Complex for the Rag Family GTPase Gtr1 ... Amino Acid Deprivation Inhibits TORC1 Through a GTPase-Activating Protein Complex for the Rag Family GTPase Gtr1 ... Amino Acid Deprivation Inhibits TORC1 Through a GTPase-Activating Protein Complex for the Rag Family GTPase Gtr1 ... Amino Acid Deprivation Inhibits TORC1 Through a GTPase-Activating Protein Complex for the Rag Family GTPase Gtr1 ...
  • GTPase-activating proteins or GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) are a family of regulatory proteins whose members can bind to activated G proteins and stimulate their GTPase activity, with the result of terminating the signaling event. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAPs are also known as RGS protein, or RGS proteins, and these proteins are crucial in controlling the activity of G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this sense, GAPs function is opposite to that of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which serve to enhance G protein signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This whole process is regulated by GAPs, which can down regulate the activity of G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that GAPs serve to make GTP on the G protein a better substrate for nucleophilic attack and lower the transition state energy for the hydrolysis reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, many GAPs of the small G proteins have a conserved finger-like domain, usually an arginine finger, which changes the conformation of the GTP-bound G protein to orient the GTP for better nucleophilic attack by water. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAPs, then, work to enhance the GTP hydrolysis reaction of the G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAPs, then, are critical in the regulation of G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, GAPs tend to be pretty specific for their target G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, GAPs may have particular amino acid domains that recognize only a particular G protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAPs can, therefore, regulate specific G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GAPs that act on small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily have conserved structures and use similar mechanisms, An example of a GTPase is the monomer Ran, which is found in the cytosol as well as the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most GAPs that act on alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins belong to a distinct family, the RGS protein family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active conformation is promoted by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors, and the inactive state by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) which stimulate the intrinsic GTPase activity of small G proteins. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Stimulation of the intrinsic GTPase activity of GTP-binding proteins by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) is a basic principle of GTP-binding-protein downregulation. (nih.gov)
  • While the rate of GNBP-mediated GTP hydrolysis is intrinsically slow, direct interaction with GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) accelerates the reaction by up to five orders of magnitude in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • Eighteen years after the discovery of the first GAP, biochemical and structural research has been accumulating evidence that GAPs employ a much wider spectrum of chemical mechanisms than had originally been assumed, in order to regulate the chemical players on the catalytic protein-protein interaction stage. (nih.gov)
  • The discovery of this inhibitor (MINC1) and its ability to interfere with biological functions of the protein in cells suggest the possibility of developing inhibitors for other small GTPase GAPs. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The mechanistic details of how amino acids modulate the configuration of the Rag or Gtr heterodimers are still a matter of debate, but likely involve both specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). (sciencemag.org)
  • The RGS proteins act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for certain Gα subunits and as effector antagonists for Gqα. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chimaerins: GAPs that bridge diacylglycerol signalling and the small G-protein Rac. (semanticscholar.org)
  • GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) from pathogenic bacteria and eukaryotic host organisms deactivate Rab GTPases by supplying catalytic arginine and glutamine fingers in trans and utilizing the cis-glutamine in the DXXGQ motif of the GTPase for binding rather than catalysis. (umassmed.edu)
  • Although they are negatively regulated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), the roles of RhoGAPs in the nervous system have not been fully investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • The rate of GTP hydrolysis for small GTPases is generally too slow to create physiologically relevant transient signals, and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins containing a TBC domain have been shown in some cases to act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and function through the interaction with Rab-like small G proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • GAPs turn off (inactivate) proteins called GTPases, which play an important role in chemical signaling within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We defined the role of Ras GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) in the constitutive activity of Ras signaling during human hepatocarcinogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurofibromin, the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene product, contains a central domain homologous to a family of proteins known as Ras-GTPase-activating proteins (Ras-GAPs), which function as negative regulators of Ras. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • We used the 38 human Rab GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) to identify which of the 60 Rabs encoded in the human genome function at the Golgi complex. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, this screen identified only two GAPs, RN-tre and TBC1D20, disrupting both Golgi organization and protein transport. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the role of the Rab GTPases in coordinating the assembly process by overexpressing 37 human Rab GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) and assessing infectious titers. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Your search returned 1 ADP ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3 Biomolecules across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that RGS14 is a GAP for Giα subfamily members and it attenuates interleukin-8 receptor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, using bovine neutrophils we examined the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) in the signaling pathways of the NADPH oxidase activation. (elsevier.com)
  • In recent years, germline mutations that affect components of the RAS/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway as PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1 , and RAF1 genes were shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of Noonan syndrome as well as of four rare syndromes with phenotype overlapping with Noonan syndrome: LEOPARD syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type 1. (springer.com)
  • Detection of mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human melanoma," Clin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is activated in prostate tumors but not mediated by B-RAF mutations," Eur Urol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • An Arf GTPase-activating protein of the centaurin β family, ASAP1 (also known as centaurin β4), binds Arf and two other known regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, the tyrosine kinase Src and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (pnas.org)
  • In yeast, activated TORC1 propagates nutrient signals mainly through the AGC protein kinase Sch9 and Tap42, a regulator of type 2A (and type 2A-like) protein phosphatases, to favor anabolic processes and inhibit catabolic processes and stress response programs ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Insulin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (Akt activators) or activation of conventional/novel (c/n) protein kinase C (PKC) and 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) all promote a rise in membrane GLUT4 in skeletal muscle and cultured cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In particular, activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and atypical protein kinase C (PKC) by insulin is essential for elevating GLUT4 at the plasma membrane and for glucose uptake ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, unlike insulin, the signaling cascades that mediate the effects of muscle contraction and metabolic stressors are independent of the PI3K/Akt pathway and may partially rely on activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Ca 2+ /calmodulin kinase (CaMK), and/or selective PKC isoforms ( 20 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Recently, we described a 160 kDa protein (designated AS160, for A kt s ubstrate of 160 kDa) with a predicted Rab GAP (GTPase-activating protein) domain that is phosphorylated on multiple sites by the protein kinase Akt. (biochemj.org)
  • Because the tyrosine kinase Csk is a potential negative regulator of lymphocyte activation, we examined the effects of BCR and FcγRIIB1 engagement on the binding of Csk to phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Also known as ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT1 (ARF GAP GIT1) (Cool-associated and tyrosine-phosphorylated protein 1) (CAT-1) (CAT1) (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 1) (GRK-interacting protein 1). (mybiosource.com)
  • Regulates PLC-gamma activation by c-Src and integrates signal transduction by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR)s and tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as ARF GTPase-activating protein GIT2 (ARF GAP GIT2) (Cool-interacting tyrosine-phosphorylated protein 2) (CAT-2) (CAT2) (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2) (GRK-interacting protein 2). (mybiosource.com)
  • NME proteins are reported to influence signal transduction activity of small GTPases from the Ras superfamily by diverse mechanisms in addition to their generic NDP kinase activity, which replenishes the cytoplasmic pool of GTP. (nature.com)
  • It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that proteins believed to be involved in the maintenance of a 10-fold surplus of intracellular GTP compared to GDP, such as nucleoside-diphosphate kinases from the NME family, would modulate the activity of small GTPases primarily through their nucleoside-diphosphate (NDP) kinase activity. (nature.com)
  • Among 10 members of NME protein family in humans, those from the group I (NMEs 1-4) exhibit a significant NDP kinase activity and catalyze transfer of the γ-phosphate from nucleoside triphosphates (mainly ATP) to nucleoside diphosphates [ 7 ]. (nature.com)
  • It was, therefore, postulated early on that the NDP kinase activity of NME proteins is pivotal in maintaining the proper balance between NTP and NDP species, including guanine nucleotides, in cellular nucleotide pools (Fig. 1a ) [ 8 ]. (nature.com)
  • a Production of GTP by generic NDP kinase activity of NME proteins. (nature.com)
  • We have recently uncovered that integrin membrane traffic is controlled by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy stress sensing kinase within cells at becomes activated upon energy stress such as by an increase in cell AMP:ATP ratio. (ryerson.ca)
  • This is a cyclin dependant protein kinase called cyclin B-cdc2 (cdk1) kinase (cyclins are regulatory proteins that mediate the enzymatic activity of protein kinases) that plays a major role in the regulation of cell cycle. (scribd.com)
  • p21-turned on kinase 1 (PAK1) (9), Wiskott-Aldrich symptoms protein (WASP) (10), p67phox, an associate from the NADPH oxidase family members (11), and semaphorin receptor Plexin B1 (12, 13) along with the IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein (IQGAPs) (14, 15). (technuc.com)
  • Using a genetic intercross between Nf1 +/ − and Rac2 − / − mice, we now provide genetic evidence to support a biochemical model where hyperactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) via the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, directly contributes to the hyperproliferation of Nf1 -deficient mast cells in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Phosphorylation of synapsin Ia at serine 9 by either cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase or p21-activated protein kinase (PAK1) attenuates its potency as a GAP inhibitor more than 7-fold. (elsevier.com)
  • Interactions between M-CSF and its receptor c-fms induce receptor dimerization and activate its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Superfamily of plant monomeric GTP-binding proteins: 2. (springer.com)
  • In plants, Rab proteins represent the largest family of monomeric GTP-binding proteins (mG-proteins). (springer.com)
  • ARHGAP21 functions preferentially as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for CDC42 (MIM 116952) and regulates the ARP2/3 complex (MIM 604221) and F-actin dynamics at the Golgi through control of CDC42 activity (Dubois et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we report that EAT-17 , a novel GTPase-activating protein (GAP), regulates RAB-6.2 function in grinder formation in Caenorhabditis elegans . (genetics.org)
  • We identified EAT-17 as a novel RabGAP that interacts with RAB-6.2 , a protein that presumably regulates vesicle trafficking between Golgi, the endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane to form a functional grinder. (genetics.org)
  • MgcRacGAP, together with Rac1 and two other protein candidates, regulates mitosis. (moleculardevices.com)
  • The Rag family of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) regulates eukaryotic cell growth in response to amino acids by activating the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). (sciencemag.org)
  • GIT1: a multidomain, adaptor protein that regulates cellular processes, such as migration and protrusive activity, by bringing together various signaling molecules, including PIX, PAK, and paxillin. (mybiosource.com)
  • The protein interacts with synaptotagmin-like protein 1 and Rab27 and regulates secretion of dense granules from platelets at sites of endothelial damage. (nih.gov)
  • This multifaceted approach will explain, at the molecular level, how a synaptic protein that regulates signaling dynamics, such as SynGAP, can support the formation of new memories in animals. (grantome.com)
  • I demonstrated that AMPK regulates Arf6 localization, a key protein which regulates β1-integrin membrane traffic. (ryerson.ca)
  • Neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1, negatively regulates p21 ras activity by accelerating the conversion of Ras-GTP to Ras-GDP. (rupress.org)
  • Members of the Rho family of small G proteins transduce signals from plasma-membrane receptors and control cell adhesion, motility and shape by actin cytoskeleton formation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Arf family GTP-binding proteins are best characterized as regulators of membrane traffic, but recent studies indicate an additional role in cytoskeletal organization. (pnas.org)
  • These membrane carriers are relatively devoid of caveolin1 and flotillin1 but are associated with activity of the small G protein Cdc42. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study provides the first specific noncargo marker for CLIC/GEEC endocytic membranes and demonstrates how GRAF1 can coordinate small G protein signaling and membrane remodeling to facilitate internalization of CLIC/GEEC pathway cargoes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Upon amino acid deprivation, Iml1 transiently interacted with Gtr1 at the vacuolar membrane to stimulate its intrinsic GTPase activity and consequently decrease the activity of TORC1. (sciencemag.org)
  • A genome-wide screen for regulators that inhibit TORC1 in response to amino acid deprivation identified the yeast proteins Npr2 and Npr3 ( 14 ), which together with Iml1 assemble into a complex that is embedded within the larger, vacuolar membrane-associated SEA complex (SEAC) ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • These regulatory proteins oscillate between a cytosolic GDP-bound inactive form and a membrane-linked GTP-bound active form, orchestrating the actin cytoskeleton assembly and dynamics. (ovid.com)
  • Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase‐activating protein. (embopress.org)
  • Intracellular membrane fusion has been mimicked in vitro using a mix of 17 purified proteins and lipid bilayers. (nature.com)
  • About half of all biological processes involve membrane proteins, which must be delivered, and eventually removed, with great accuracy to regulate the constancy of structural identity. (nature.com)
  • 2 describe an enormous technical accomplishment - the self-assembly of 17 individual purified proteins into a fusion 'machine' whose activity and regulation recapitulate those of membrane fusion in an intact cell. (nature.com)
  • These include the SNARE family of membrane proteins and the Rab proteins, a subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTPase enzymes. (nature.com)
  • The membrane-bound SNARE proteins link the two membranes destined for fusion. (nature.com)
  • They do this by interacting with partner SNARE proteins on the opposing membrane to form a stable, four-coiled bundle consisting of helices from several individual SNARE proteins 4 ( Fig. 1 ). (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Proteins work together to mediate endosomal membrane fusion. (nature.com)
  • SNARE complexes are structurally similar to viral envelope proteins known to catalyse membrane fusion 6 , so a paradigm emerged casting these rod-shaped helical bundles into the central role of 'minimal fusion machine', with all other proteins assigned to supporting roles such as regulation of the SNARE complex 7 . (nature.com)
  • However, direct tests comparing the contributions of SNAREs alone with SNAREs plus all the other proteins essential for fusion have not been performed because of the complexities of assembling microgram quantities of membrane proteins in defined lipid environments together with other fragile purified proteins - requirements that stretch the limits of current biochemical technologies. (nature.com)
  • Binding of the encoded protein by filamin A targets it to sites of membrane protrusion, where it antognizes Rac. (genecards.org)
  • Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs), including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93, and SAP97, are scaffolding proteins for ionotropic glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses. (jneurosci.org)
  • Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of Rho and Rab small GTPases and not only prevent exchange (maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevent the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is their place of action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report that overexpression of OsAGAP, an ARF-GTPase-activating protein in rice, stimulates vesicle transport from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants and induces the accumulation of early endosomes and AUX1. (qxmd.com)
  • Rab GTPases are key cellular regulators of membrane trafficking events that, by their membrane association and binding of effector proteins, ensure the appropriate fusion of membranes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These data support a role for an Arf GTPase-activating protein, ASAP1, as a regulator of cytoskeletal remodeling and raise the possibility that the Arf pathway is a target for PDGF signaling. (pnas.org)
  • A key regulator of the Ran GTP/GDP cycle is the 70-kD Ran-GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1. (rupress.org)
  • Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a family of approximately 20 proteins that negatively regulate signaling through heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In haploid cells, the relevant landmark proteins are concentrated at the site of the preceding cell division, to which they recruit Cdc24, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the conserved polarity regulator Cdc42. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we show that the actin‐binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo‐selective CME. (embopress.org)
  • Tem1 is a Ras-like protein and is the critical regulator of mitotic exit, sitting atop the mitotic exit network (MEN). (mysciencework.com)
  • The p120-RasGAP protein is a negative regulator of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, which means it is involved in turning off these signals when they are not needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Regulator of G proteins signaling 2 (RGS2) is a GTPase-activating proteins for Gq/11 and Gi/o subunits. (cloudlegalproject.org)
  • Gain-of-function mutations of ARHGAP31, a Cdc42/Rac1 GTPase regulator, cause syndromic cutis aplasia and limb anomalies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • GTPase-activating Protein Activity of RGS Proteins by Synapsin I'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (elsevier.com)
  • This entry is a Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GAP domain, that is found in a wide variety of large, multi-functional proteins [ PMID: 9009196 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cdc42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family known to regulate cell actin cytoskeleton organization, polarity, and growth, but its function in mammalian organismal physiology remains unclear. (pnas.org)
  • Cdc42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family known to regulate multiple eukaryotic cell functions, including actin cytoskeleton reorganization, polarity establishment, and cell growth ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The current biochemical model depicts that, upon ligand binding to cell surface receptors or in response to cellular stress, Cdc42 can be activated to recognize specific downstream effectors to mediate multifacet cell functions. (pnas.org)
  • Cdc42 polarization in the first step and its proper positioning depend on Rsr1 and its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) Bud2. (biologists.org)
  • These Bud proteins closely interact with the Cdc42 GTPase and its regulators to trigger bud emergence at a proper site (see Bi and Park, 2012 and references therein). (biologists.org)
  • Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor 1 (CNF1) is a protein toxin from Escherichia coli that constitutively activates the Rho, Rac and Cdc42 GTPases. (ovid.com)
  • Here, we show that the Cdc42 guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein (GAP) Rga1 establishes an exclusion zone at the division site that blocks subsequent polarization within that site. (rupress.org)
  • Dendritic spines are rich in actin filaments, and small GTP-binding protein (Rac/Rho/cdc42) signaling is a key determinant for actin cytoskeleton dynamics. (jneurosci.org)
  • illustrates a big change within the binding properties of the two IQGAP1 protein assessed in using mGDP-bound, inactive types of CDC42, RAC1, and RHOA. (technuc.com)
  • The ARHGAP31 protein inactivates GTPases known as Cdc42 and Rac1 by stimulating a reaction that turns the attached GTP into GDP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The large G proteins, for example, are involved in transduction of signaling from the G protein-coupled receptor for a variety of signaling processes like hormonal signaling, and small G proteins are involved in processes like cellular trafficking and cell cycling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This CLIC/GEEC pathway relies upon cellular signaling and activation through small G proteins, but mechanistic insight into the biogenesis of its tubular and tubulovesicular carriers is lacking. (diva-portal.org)
  • This protein is unique because it is a core PSD component that also stimulates the dynamic regulation of small G-proteins. (grantome.com)
  • RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 2, or RAB3 GTPase activating non-catalytic protein subunit 2, is a human gene encoded by RAB3GAP2. (biocompare.com)
  • RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 2 is a member of the Rab3-GAP regulatory subunit family. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 70 RAB3 GTPase Activating Protein Subunit 2 Antibodies across 19 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • The most significant SNP was an intronic variant within the RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1(RAB3GAP1) gene (rs6730157, P =1.22x10- 14 , OR=1.60). (ahajournals.org)
  • Mutation in Rab3 GTPase-activating protein (RAB3GAP) noncatalytic subunit in a kindred with Martsolf syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that the Rho-GAP-domain-containing protein GRAF1 marks, and is indispensable for, a major Clathrin-independent endocytic pathway. (diva-portal.org)
  • This pathway is characterized by its ability to internalize bacterial exotoxins, GPI-linked proteins, and extracellular fluid. (diva-portal.org)
  • G3BP1 belongs to the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins and is also an element of the Ras signal transduction pathway. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Also, other proteins which involved in the same pathway with Tagap1 were listed below. (creativebiomart.net)
  • All metazoan genomes encode multiple RAS GTPase activating proteins (RasGAPs) that negatively regulate the conserved RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. (uzh.ch)
  • Bud2 is a GTPase activating protein (GAP), and the only known substrate of Bud2 was Rsr1/Bud1, a Ras-like GTPase and a central component of the bud-site-selection pathway. (mysciencework.com)
  • This protein helps regulate the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway, which transmits signals from outside the cell to the cell's nucleus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Methods of treating a tumor in a subject include identifying a subject having, at risk for, or suspected of having a tumor, and administering to the subject an effective amount of an IGFBP7 agent if the tumor has increased Ras-BRAF-MEK-Erk signaling, is dependent for growth and/or survival upon the Ras-BRAF-MEK-Erk signaling pathway, and/or expresses an activated or oncogenic BRAF or RAS. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The binding and hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by the small GTP-binding protein Sar1p is required to form transport vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (sciencemag.org)
  • RAB18 is important for the organization of a cell structure called the endoplasmic reticulum, which is involved in protein processing and transport. (nih.gov)
  • Rho GTPase activating protein 21 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARHGAP21 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results delineate a potentially conserved mechanism by which the Iml1, Npr2, and Npr3 orthologous proteins in humans may suppress tumor formation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Gene expression in CD4+ T cells from healthy humans was greatest 4 h after activation and protein expression was greatest after 24 h. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mouse IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Protein 2 (IQGAP2) in Tissue homogenates and other biological fluids. (thescientistconnect.com)
  • Known also as IQ Motif Containing GTPase Activating Protein 2 elisa. (thescientistconnect.com)
  • Furthermore, YopE is a protein domain that is a Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which targets small GTPases such as RhoA, Rac1, and Rac2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all other GTPases, Rho proteins act as molecular switches, with an active GTP-bound form and an inactive GDP-bound form. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • GTPase activator for the Rho-type GTPases by converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. (abcam.com)
  • We selected most pathways Tagap1 participated on our site, such as Rho GTPase cycle, Signal Transduction, Signaling by Rho GTPases, which may be useful for your reference. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Comprehensive evidence shows that NME proteins modulate the activity of Ras GTPases, in particular members of the Rho family, via binding to their major activators GEFs. (nature.com)
  • Early suggestions that NMEs can activate small GTPases by direct phosphorylation of the bound GDP, or by high-rate loading of GTP onto a closely apposed GTPase, were largely dismissed. (nature.com)
  • Small GTP-hydrolases (GTPases) from the Ras superfamily are omnipresent signaling proteins that play important roles in a wide range of vital cellular processes [ 1 , 2 ]. (nature.com)
  • Small GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that facilitate the release of GDP from inactivated, GDP-bound protein. (nature.com)
  • However, as we will outline in this short review, the interplay between NME proteins and small GTPases is far more complex. (nature.com)
  • c GAP activity of NME proteins toward small GTPases. (nature.com)
  • d Direct interaction of small GTPases with NME proteins. (nature.com)
  • Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Activation and deactivation of small GTPases can be regarded as occurring in a cycle, between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The RAB3GAP2 gene provides instructions for making a protein that helps regulate the activity of specialized proteins called GTPases, which control a variety of functions in cells. (nih.gov)
  • Like p21 ras , the small Rho GTPases exist in an inactive (GDP-bound) and active (GTP-bound) conformation, and interact with target proteins in their GTP-bound state ( 9 ). (rupress.org)
  • The ARHGAP31 protein appears to regulate these GTPases specifically during development of the limbs, skull, and heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Experiments revealed that an interaction between Sar1p and the Sec23p subunit of an oligomeric protein is also required for vesicle budding. (sciencemag.org)
  • The isolated Sec23p subunit and the oligomeric complex stimulated guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity of Sar1p 10- to 15-fold but did not activate two other small GTP-binding proteins involved in vesicle traffic (Ypt1p and ARF). (sciencemag.org)
  • Activation of GTPase was inhibited by an antibody to Sec23p but not by an antibody that inhibits the budding activity of the other subunit of the Sec23p complex. (sciencemag.org)
  • This hydrolysis reaction, however, occurs very slowly, meaning G proteins have a built-in timer for their activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • G proteins have a window of activity followed by slow hydrolysis, which turns them off. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydrolysis of GTP by Ran is thought to provide the energy needed to transport nuclear proteins into the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein promotes hydrolysis of ARF1-bound GTP and is required for the dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi-derived membranes and vesicles. (mybiosource.com)
  • Importantly, biochemical analyses demonstrate that the GTPase activity of FeoB is activated by K(+), which leads to a 20-fold acceleration in its hydrolysis rate. (edu.au)
  • In several examples, NMEs were proposed to perform the role of GAP proteins by promoting hydrolysis of the bound GTP, but this activity still requires additional verification. (nature.com)
  • Inactivation of the active small GTPase is achieved through hydrolysis of the GTP by the small GTPase's intrinsic GTP hydrolytic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • for instance, inhibition from the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis result of the RHO protein, which determines the equilibrium inhibition continuous (were rapidly combined and used in a fluorescence recognition cell within 4 ms. mGppNHp- or mGDP-bound RHO protein were found in this research because the fluorescent reporter organizations. (technuc.com)
  • Mammalian Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP), p120 Ras-GAP, has been implicated as both a downregulator and effector of Ras proteins, but its precise role in Ras-mediated signal transduction pathways is unclear. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The RASA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called p120-RasGAP. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of the mutations responsible for CM-AVM prevent the production of functional p120-RasGAP protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like the RASA1 gene mutations that cause CM-AVM, the mutations responsible for Parkes Weber syndrome prevent the production of functional p120-RasGAP protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers suspect that the RASA1 gene mutations lead to a loss of p120-RasGAP protein function, which may allow RAS/MAPK signaling to proceed in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) has been implicated in mitogenic signal transduction downstream of oncogenic and receptor tyrosine kinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The activity of G proteins comes from their ability to bind guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • The conversion of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (P(i)) by guanine nucleotide binding proteins (GNBPs) is a fundamental process in living cells and represents an important timer in intracellular signalling and transport processes. (nih.gov)
  • In yeast, amino acids promote binding of GTP (guanosine 5′-triphosphate) to the Rag family GTPase Gtr1, which, in combination with a GDP (guanosine diphosphate)-bound Gtr2, forms the active, TORC1-stimulating GTPase heterodimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Further, using a specific Rab-binding assay, we have shown that EVI5 preferentially interacts with the guanosine triphosphate-bound form of Rab11, and in a GAP activity assay, we have confirmed that EVI5 functions as a GAP for the Rab11 GTPase. (elsevier.com)
  • In cases in which it is highly likely that the recombinant protein with the default tag will be insoluble our protein lab may suggest a higher molecular weight tag (e.g. (antibodies-online.com)
  • This project focuses on the molecular mechanisms that are activated by learning and support long-term memory formation in the brain. (grantome.com)
  • Like its mammalian homolog, Drosophila RasGAP stimulated the intrinsic GTPase activity of normal mammalian H-Ras but not that of the oncogenic Val12 mutant. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Although multiple small GTPase Rab proteins are required for the process, few regulators of Rabs are known. (genetics.org)
  • GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • As distinct from animal cells comprising 40 subfamilies of Rab proteins, which are the key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport, numerous Rab proteins in Arabidopsis and other plant species could be grouped in only eight subfamilies on the basis of their functional properties. (springer.com)
  • GTPase-activating protein for the ADP ribosylation factor family. (mybiosource.com)
  • Possesses ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. (mybiosource.com)
  • This protein is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) which associates with the Golgi apparatus and which interacts with ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). (mybiosource.com)
  • Endosomal recycling of PIN1 is mediated by an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)ribosylation factor (ARF)-GTPase exchange factor protein, GNOM. (qxmd.com)
  • The analgesic response due to CNF1 requires both the sustained activation of the Rac GTPase, with consequent cerebral actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and the up-regulation of the μ-opioid receptors (MORs), the most important receptors controlling pain perception. (ovid.com)
  • Synapsins are neuronal proteins that bind and cluster synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic space, presumably by anchoring to actin filaments, but specific regulatory functions of the synapsins are unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Narciclasine, a potential allelochemical, affects subcellular trafficking of auxin transporter proteins and actin cytoskeleton dynamics in Arabidopsis roots. (qxmd.com)
  • Binding of GTP inherently changes the activity of the G proteins and increases their activity, through the loss of inhibitory subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • GAP accelerates this G protein timer by increasing the hydrolytic GTPase activity of the G proteins, hence the name GTPase-activating protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, ASAP1, with a mutation that disrupted GTPase-activating protein activity, had a reduced effect on cell spreading and increased the number of cells forming dorsal ruffles in response to PDGF. (pnas.org)
  • Stimulates specifically the GTPase activity of YPT1. (rcsb.org)
  • PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS. (harvard.edu)
  • Semaphorin-mediated growth cone collapse may result from the GTPase-activating protein activity of dimerized plexin receptors for Rap. (sciencemag.org)
  • Whether this represents an ancestral mode of the regulation of Rag GTPase activity remains to be determined because yeast cells do not express apparent orthologs of critical components of the Ragulator complex and may promote GTP loading of Gtr1 through the GEF Vam6 ( 6 , 11 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Protein has not been tested for activity yet. (antibodies-online.com)
  • AS160 has a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain with an essential arginine at position 973 ( 2 ) that exhibits GAP activity toward Rabs 2, 8, 10, and 14 ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The activity of this protein is stimulated by phosphoinosides and inhibited by phosphatidylcholine. (mybiosource.com)
  • DLC2, a Rho GTPase-activating protein with specific activity for RhoA, was shown to be involved in pain signaling. (hku.hk)
  • Mice deficient for this protein (DLC2-/-) have increased RhoA activity in their peripheral nerves, and have heightened pain responses compared to wild type (DLC2+/+) in acute pain tests, displaying increased sensitivity to noxious thermal and inflammatory stimuli. (hku.hk)
  • A defining feature of FeoB is that it includes an N-terminal 30-kDa soluble domain with GTPase activity, which is required for iron transport. (edu.au)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include GTPase activator activity . (genecards.org)
  • Among its related pathways are G-protein signaling_Regulation of RAC1 activity and p75 NTR receptor-mediated signalling . (genecards.org)
  • Proposed mechanisms for the modulation of small GTPase activity and signaling by NME proteins. (nature.com)
  • b Inhibition of RhoGEF activity by NME proteins. (nature.com)
  • Despite the identification of over 50 TBC-containing proteins, and over 70 Rab-like proteins, only three combinations have been shown to have Rab/GAP activity to date. (elsevier.com)
  • Reduction or loss of this protein likely impairs the formation or function of the RAB3GAP complex, leading to a shortage (deficiency) of RAB18 activity. (nih.gov)
  • Because Warburg micro syndrome and Martsolf syndrome can be caused by mutations in other genes that disrupt normal RAB18 activity, loss of control of this GTPase is thought to underlie the conditions. (nih.gov)
  • We found that a sub-population of brain synapsin Ia, a splice variant of one of three synapsin isoforms, inhibits the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity of several RGS proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Phosphorylation-regulated Inhibition of the G z GTPase-activating Protein Activity of RGS Proteins by Synapsin I . Journal of Biological Chemistry , 278 (52), 52273-52281. (elsevier.com)
  • Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1) has potential tumour-suppressive activity in human lung cancer," J. Pathol. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Mammalian intracellular ribonuclease L (RNase L) is a latent endoribonuclease that functions against viral infections as an apoptosis-inducing protein, and its activity requires intracellular 5′-end-triphosphorylated-2′,5′ oligoadenylates (2-5A) as an activator. (elsevier.com)
  • Surprisingly, the isolated protein has GAP activity on Rap but not on Ras. (mpg.de)
  • This gene encodes a GTPase-activating protein that activates the small guanine-nucleotide-binding protein Rap1 in platelets. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes a Rho-GTPase activating protein, which is specific for the small GTPase family member Rac. (genecards.org)
  • utilize a specialized protein secretion system to deliver a battery of effector proteins into host cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Subsequent autophosphorylation of intracellular c-fms domains leads to the recruitment and docking of PTB- (phosphotyrosine-binding) and SH2- (Src homology region 2) domain-containing effector proteins and activation of the signaling pathways that promote OC proliferation, survival, and motility. (hindawi.com)
  • Mouse RGS14 encodes a 547-amino-acid protein with an N-terminal RGS domain, which is highly expressed in lymphoid tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Interacts with G protein-coupled receptor kinases. (mybiosource.com)
  • Rho family GTPase Rnd2 interacts and co-localizes with MgcRacGAP in male germ cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To perform its function, the RAB3GAP2 protein interacts with another protein called RAB3GAP1 (produced from the RAB3GAP1 gene) to form the RAB3GAP complex. (nih.gov)
  • Among binding domains of p62, the ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain interacts with polyubiquitinated proteins and mediates their degradation via autophagic or proteasomal pathways [ 10 ], which are reportedly central to OC activities [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Stimuli that activate c/n PKC or AMPK also elevated AS160 phosphorylation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TBC1D1 mutations affected Ser237-phosphorylation or protein stability and thereby act as hypomorphs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • g Direct phosphorylation of GTPase-bound GDP by NME proteins (phosphorylation in situ ). (nature.com)
  • phosphorylation sites Ser-1441 and Ser-1443, constructs, and protein highly relevant to this MB05032 research. (technuc.com)
  • We found that the IQ motif-containing Ras GTPase-activating-like protein 1 (IQGAP1) can associate with RNase L, and that phosphorylation occurs on the IQGAP1. (elsevier.com)
  • By doing so, they accelerate the G protein's built-in timer, which inactivates the G proteins more quickly, and along with the inactivation of GEFs, this keeps the G protein signal off. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rho GTPase-activating protein involved in cell polarity, cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization. (genecards.org)
  • Regulation of G proteins is important because these proteins are involved in a variety of important cellular processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings have specific implications for Ran function and broad implications for protein regulation by ubiquitin-like modifications. (rupress.org)
  • In HeLa cells, however, the concentration of NTPs, including GTP, remained virtually unchanged upon inactivation of NME1 and NME2 by siRNA [ 9 ], indicating that the influence of NME proteins on GTPase proteins does not have to be mediated by the regulation of bulk GTP concentration, or that the amounts of NME that are still expressed after the siRNA silencing are sufficient. (nature.com)
  • Down-regulation of T1A12/mac25, a novel insulin-like growth factor binding protein related gene, is associated with disease progression in breast carcinomas," Oncogene, 16:2459-67 (1998). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Whole-exome sequencing identifies mutations of TBC1D1 encoding a Rab-GTPase-activating protein in patients with congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Martsolf syndrome is caused by RAB3GAP2 gene mutations that reduce the amount of functional RAB3GAP2 protein. (nih.gov)
  • Warburg micro syndrome occurs when the gene mutations prevent the production of any RAB3GAP2 protein or completely eliminate its function. (nih.gov)
  • Friedman E, Gejman PV, Martin GA, McCormick F. Nonsense mutations in the C-terminal SH2 region of the GTPase activating protein (GAP) gene in human tumours. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations lead to production of an abnormally short ARHGAP31 protein that is more active than normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Crystal structure of a small G protein in complex with the GTPase-activating protein rhoGAP. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Human RhoGAP domain-containing proteins: structure, function and evolutionary relationships. (nih.gov)
  • Tcherkezian J, Lamarche-Vane N. Current knowledge of the large RhoGAP family of proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif of FcγRIIB1 represents a docking site for the SH2 domains of at least two proteins, the tyrosine phosphatase SHP1 (( 16 )) and the inositide phosphatase SHIP (( 17 )), either of which may mediate inhibitory effects. (rupress.org)
  • GAP are heavily linked to the G-protein linked receptor family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification and characterization of a novel Rho GTPase activating protein implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin coupling to its receptor activates multiple signaling cascades to elicit its metabolic actions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ectopic expression of RasGAP in the wing imaginal disc reduced the size of the adult wing by up to 45% and suppressed ectopic wing vein formation caused by expression of activated forms of Breathless and Heartless, two Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases) RN - EC 3.6.1. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Rab proteins alternate between GDP-bound and GTP-bound forms, a switch controlled by proteins called guanine-nucleotide exchange factors. (nature.com)
  • Like that of other members of the Ras superfamily, the nucleotide-dependent switch of Rab proteins is thought to control a downstream catalytic process. (nature.com)
  • GoLoco motif proteins act as guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) for G-protein alpha subunits of the adenylyl cyclase-inhibitory (Gα i/o ) class. (unthsc.edu)
  • A directed yeast two-hybrid screen using EAT-17 as bait and each of the 25 RAB proteins as prey identifies RAB-6.2 as the interacting partner of EAT-17 , confirming that RAB-6.2 is a specific substrate of EAT-17 . (genetics.org)
  • Cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are born carrying localized transmembrane landmark proteins that guide the subsequent establishment of a polarity axis and hence polarized growth to form a bud in the next cell cycle. (rupress.org)
  • Resveratrol induces apoptosis by directly targeting Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 1. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Here we investigated the Rho GTPase activating protein 15 [ArhGAP15] gene knock-down effect on apoptosis induced by ethanol in bovine fibroblast cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Further, the normal cells exposed to a 100 mM ethanol concentration showed a reduction in cell viability and induced the ratio of apoptosis related Bax/Bcl-2 proteins compared with ArhGAP15 siRNA transfected ethanol treated cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • CELLS constitutively transport newly synthesized proteins, lipids, and other molecules to their periphery through vesicle trafficking. (genetics.org)
  • When active, RAB18 is involved in a process called vesicle trafficking, which moves proteins and other molecules within cells in sac-like structures called vesicles. (nih.gov)
  • The available data concerning the involvement of these mG-proteins in the control of vesicle trafficking agree generally with the paradigms accepted for other eukaryotes. (springer.com)
  • MGI protein superfamily detail pages represent the protein classification set for a homeomorphic superfamily from the Protein Information Resource SuperFamily ( PIRSF ) site. (jax.org)
  • You can select a given mouse superfamily member and download (or forward to NCBI BLAST) FASTA formatted protein sequences of that mouse gene and its mouse, human and rat homologs, as defined in the corresponding HomoloGene Class. (jax.org)
  • You can also "Select all" mouse superfamily members to obtain their protein sequences and the protein sequences for all mouse, human and rat homologs of the mouse superfamily members. (jax.org)
  • For mouse superfamily members not included in any HomoloGene Class, only the mouse protein sequence is returned. (jax.org)
  • Although RGS14 is constitutively expressed in lymphoid cells, agents that activate B or T lymphocytes further enhance its levels. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is suggested that the active, GTP-bound form of Rac is required for sustained catalytic function and Rac-GAP proteins are involved in the downregulation of the oxidase. (elsevier.com)
  • In this more active state, G proteins can bind other proteins and turn on downstream signalling targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • We believe that SynGAP lies downstream of learning-activated NMDARs, which would impart this protein with the unique ability to trigger rapid structural and functional plasticity at synapses. (grantome.com)
  • e Inhibition of signaling downstream of Ras by NME proteins. (nature.com)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Small volumes of ARFGAP1 recombinant protein vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • Activation of the enzyme was carried out under in vitro conditions and a shift from the active to the inactive form of the GTP-binding protein was attained (i) by addition of an excess of GDP to the assembled enzyme complex or (ii) by variation of the Rac-GTPase activating (Rac-GAP) capacity of the constituents of the cell-free system. (elsevier.com)
  • T cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP) is upregulated in clinical and experimental arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One of these is T cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, SB203580 abolished the OZ-elicited activation of Rac, which was assessed by detecting the GTP-bound form of this protein. (elsevier.com)
  • We suggest that this, together with a second asparagine residue that we show is critical for the structure of the Switch I loop, allows the prediction of K(+)-dependent activation in G proteins. (edu.au)
  • The p62 scaffolding protein (sequestosome1) provides a functional link between RANKL and TRAF6-mediated NF- κ B activation and has been shown to propagate RANKL-activating signals [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Neurofibromin, the protein encoded by NF1 , functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for p21 ras by accelerating the conversion of active p21 ras -GTP to inactive p21 ras -GDP ( 1 )( 2 ). (rupress.org)
  • The encoded protein has an amino acid length of 1393 and a mass of 156.0 kDa. (biocompare.com)
  • Thus in this research paper in-silico techniques are used to develop Rho GTPase protein inhibitors for treatment of glaucoma and it is predicted that ZINC17465958 and ZINC05124957 molecules are potent inhibitors of the Rho GTPase protein. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Some of the functions are cooperated with other proteins, some of the functions could acted by Tagap1 itself. (creativebiomart.net)
  • We selected most functions Tagap1 had, and list some proteins which have the same functions with Tagap1. (creativebiomart.net)
  • On the other hand, these proteins play an important role in plant responses to abiotic and biotic factors, indicating specific for plants functions of Rab proteins. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide in late G2 phase has no apparent affect on nuclear assembly in telophase indicating that no new protein synthesis is required for reassembly of the nuclear envelope. (scribd.com)
  • Rasal, belonging to the GAP1 subfamily of Ras GTPase-activating proteins (RasGAPs) with dual RasGAP/RapGAP specificity, is epigenetically silenced in several tumor types. (mpg.de)
  • Rap1GAP2 is a newly identified GoLoco motif- and RapGAP domain-containing protein, and thus is considered a potential integrator of heterotrimeric and monomeric GTPase signaling. (unthsc.edu)
  • Binding to Rac1 induces a dramatic stabilization in SptP of a four-helix bundle that makes extensive contacts with the Switch I and Switch II regions of the GTPase. (rcsb.org)
  • It coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis and cell division by regulating gene expression. (scribd.com)