Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Proteins that bind to the 3' polyadenylated region of MRNA. When complexed with RNA the proteins serve an array of functions such as stabilizing the 3' end of RNA, promoting poly(A) synthesis and stimulating mRNA translation.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A poly(A) binding protein that has a variety of functions such as mRNA stabilization and protection of RNA from nuclease activity. Although poly(A) binding protein I is considered a major cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein it is also found in the CELL NUCLEUS and may be involved in transport of mRNP particles.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Peptide Elongation Factor G catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A to the P site of bacterial ribosomes by a process linked to hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
Factors that utilize energy from the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP for peptide chain elongation. EC 3.6.1.-.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A carbon-nitrogen ligase. During purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of adenylosuccinate from GTP; IMP; and aspartate with the formation of orthophosphate and GDP. EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A family of secreted multidomain proteins that were originally identified by their association with the latent form of TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTORS. They interact with a variety of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and may play a role in the regulation of TGB-beta bioavailability.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A protein involved in transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A family of GTP-binding proteins that were initially identified in YEASTS where they were shown to initiate the process of septation and bud formation. Septins form into hetero-oligomeric complexes that are comprised of several distinct septin subunits. These complexes can act as cytoskeletal elements that play important roles in CYTOKINESIS, cytoskeletal reorganization, BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, and membrane dynamics.
A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which bind with RETINOL. The retinol-binding protein found in plasma has an alpha-1 mobility on electrophoresis and a molecular weight of about 21 kDa. The retinol-protein complex (MW=80-90 kDa) circulates in plasma in the form of a protein-protein complex with prealbumin. The retinol-binding protein found in tissue has a molecular weight of 14 kDa and carries retinol as a non-covalently-bound ligand.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A subtype of dynamin found primarily in the NEURONS of the brain.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Peptide Elongation Factor 2 catalyzes the translocation of peptidyl-tRNA from the A site to the P site of eukaryotic ribosomes by a process linked to the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A large family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that function as negative regulators of HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. RGS PROTEINS act by increasing the GTPase activity of the G alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein, causing it to revert to its inactive (GDP-bound) form.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.
A cytosolic ribonucleoprotein complex that acts to induce elongation arrest of nascent presecretory and membrane proteins until the ribosome becomes associated with the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It consists of a 7S RNA and at least six polypeptide subunits (relative molecular masses 9, 14, 19, 54, 68, and 72K).
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A positively charged protein found in peripheral nervous system MYELIN. Sensitive immunological techniques have demonstrated that P2 is expressed in small amounts of central nervous system myelin sheaths of some species. It is an antigen for experimental allergic neuritis (NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC), the peripheral nervous system counterpart of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p133)
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotamase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.

Cell polarization: chemotaxis gets CRACKing. (1/11034)

An early stage in the establishment of cell polarity during chemotaxis of Dictyostelium dicoideum has been identified by a recent study; the new results also show that the development of cell polarity does not rely upon cytoskeletal rearrangement, and may use a spatial sensing mechanism.  (+info)

Transformation mediated by RhoA requires activity of ROCK kinases. (2/11034)

BACKGROUND: The Ras-related GTPase RhoA controls signalling processes required for cytoskeletal reorganisation, transcriptional regulation, and transformation. The ability of RhoA mutants to transform cells correlates not with transcription but with their ability to bind ROCK-I, an effector kinase involved in cytoskeletal reorganisation. We used a recently developed specific ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, and ROCK truncation mutants to investigate the role of ROCK kinases in transcriptional activation and transformation. RESULTS: In NIH3T3 cells, Y-27632 did not prevent the activation of serum response factor, transcription of c-fos or cell cycle re-entry following serum stimulation. Repeated treatment of NIH3T3 cells with Y-27632, however, substantially disrupted their actin fibre network but did not affect their growth rate. Y-27632 blocked focus formation by RhoA and its guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Dbl and mNET1. It did not affect the growth rate of cells transformed by Dbl and mNET1, but restored normal growth control at confluence and prevented their growth in soft agar. Y-27632 also significantly inhibited focus formation by Ras, but had no effect on the establishment or maintenance of transformation by Src. Furthermore, it significantly inhibited anchorage-independent growth of two out of four colorectal tumour cell lines. Consistent with these data, a truncated ROCK derivative exhibited weak ability to cooperate with activated Raf in focus formation assays. CONCLUSIONS: ROCK signalling is required for both the establishment and maintenance of transformation by constitutive activation of RhoA, and contributes to the Ras-transformed phenotype. These observations provide a potential explanation for the requirement for Rho in Ras-mediated transformation. Moreover, the inhibition of ROCK kinases may be of therapeutic use.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (3/11034)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

Plasma membrane recruitment of RalGDS is critical for Ras-dependent Ral activation. (4/11034)

In COS cells, Ral GDP dissociation stimulator (RalGDS)-induced Ral activation was stimulated by RasG12V or a Rap1/Ras chimera in which the N-terminal region of Rap1 was ligated to the C-terminal region of Ras but not by Rap1G12V or a Ras/Rap1 chimera in which the N-terminal region of Ras was ligated to the C-terminal region of Rap1, although RalGDS interacted with these small GTP-binding proteins. When RasG12V, Ral and the Rap1/Ras chimera were individually expressed in NIH3T3 cells, they localized to the plasma membrane. Rap1Q63E and the Ras/Rap1 chimera were detected in the perinuclear region. When RalGDS was expressed alone, it was abundant in the cytoplasm. When coexpressed with RasG12V or the Rap1/Ras chimera, RalGDS was detected at the plasma membrane, whereas when coexpressed with Rap1Q63E or the Ras/Rap1 chimera, RalGDS was observed in the perinuclear region. RalGDS which was targeted to the plasma membrane by the addition of Ras farnesylation site (RalGDS-CAAX) activated Ral in the absence of RasG12V. Although RalGDS did not stimulate the dissociation of GDP from Ral in the absence of the GTP-bound form of Ras in a reconstitution assay using the liposomes, RalGDS-CAAX could stimulate it without Ras. RasG12V activated Raf-1 when they were coexpressed in Sf9 cells, whereas RasG12V did not affect the RalGDS activity. These results indicate that Ras recruits RalGDS to the plasma membrane and that the translocated RalGDS induces the activation of Ral, but that Rap1 does not activate Ral due to distinct subcellular localization.  (+info)

Arrestin function in G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis requires phosphoinositide binding. (5/11034)

Internalization of agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by non-visual arrestins, which also bind to clathrin and are therefore thought to act as adaptors in the endocytosis process. Phosphoinositides have been implicated in the regulation of intracellular receptor trafficking, and are known to bind to other coat components including AP-2, AP180 and COPI coatomer. Given these observations, we explored the possibility that phosphoinositides play a role in arrestin's function as an adaptor. High-affinity binding sites for phosphoinositides in beta-arrestin (arrestin2) and arrestin3 (beta-arrestin2) were identified, and dissimilar effects of phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate on arrestin interactions with clathrin and receptor were characterized. Alteration of three basic residues in arrestin3 abolished phosphoinositide binding with complete retention of clathrin and receptor binding. Unlike native protein, upon agonist activation, this mutant arrestin3 expressed in COS1 cells neither supported beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization nor did it concentrate in coated pits, although it was recruited to the plasma membrane. These findings indicate that phosphoinositide binding plays a critical regulatory role in delivery of the receptor-arrestin complex to coated pits, perhaps by providing, with activated receptor, a multi-point attachment of arrestin to the plasma membrane.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (6/11034)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity opposes other Ras effectors in PC12 cells by inhibiting neurite outgrowth. (7/11034)

Ras proteins can activate at least three classes of downstream target proteins: Raf kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate (PI3) kinase, and Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ral-GEFs). In NIH 3T3 cells, activated Ral-GEFs contribute to Ras-induced cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation by complementing the activities of Raf and PI3 kinases. In PC12 cells, activated Raf and PI3 kinases mediate Ras-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation into a neuronal phenotype. Here, we show that in PC12 cells, Ral-GEF activity acts opposite to other Ras effectors. Elevation of Ral-GEF activity induced by transfection of a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Ral-GEFs, or by transfection of the catalytic domain of the Ral-GEF Rgr, suppressed cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment. In addition, Rgr reduced neurite outgrowth induced by a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Raf kinases. Furthermore, inhibition of Ral-GEF activity by expression of a dominant negative Ral mutant accelerated cell cycle arrest and enhanced neurite outgrowth in response to NGF treatment. Ral-GEF activity may function, at least in part, through inhibition of the Rho family GTPases, CDC42 and Rac. In contrast to Ras, which was activated for hours by NGF treatment, Ral was activated for only approximately 20 min. These findings suggest that one function of Ral-GEF signaling induced by NGF is to delay the onset of cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by other Ras effectors. They also demonstrate that Ras has the potential to promote both antidifferentiation and prodifferentiation signaling pathways through activation of distinct effector proteins. Thus, in some cell types the ratio of activities among Ras effectors and their temporal regulation may be important determinants for cell fate decisions between proliferation and differentiation.  (+info)

Cell growth inhibition by farnesyltransferase inhibitors is mediated by gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB. (8/11034)

Recent results have shown that the ability of farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) to inhibit malignant cell transformation and Ras prenylation can be separated. We proposed previously that farnesylated Rho proteins are important targets for alternation by FTIs, based on studies of RhoB (the FTI-Rho hypothesis). Cells treated with FTIs exhibit a loss of farnesylated RhoB but a gain of geranylgeranylated RhoB (RhoB-GG), which is associated with loss of growth-promoting activity. In this study, we tested whether the gain of RhoB-GG elicited by FTI treatment was sufficient to mediate FTI-induced cell growth inhibition. In support of this hypothesis, when expressed in Ras-transformed cells RhoB-GG induced phenotypic reversion, cell growth inhibition, and activation of the cell cycle kinase inhibitor p21WAF1. RhoB-GG did not affect the phenotype or growth of normal cells. These effects were similar to FTI treatment insofar as they were all induced in transformed cells but not in normal cells. RhoB-GG did not promote anoikis of Ras-transformed cells, implying that this response to FTIs involves loss-of-function effects. Our findings corroborate the FTI-Rho hypothesis and demonstrate that gain-of-function effects on Rho are part of the drug mechanism. Gain of RhoB-GG may explain how FTIs inhibit the growth of human tumor cells that lack Ras mutations.  (+info)

Author: Praefcke, G. J. K. et al.; Genre: Other; Published in Print: 2000; Title: Identification of regions in human guanylate binding protein 1 (hGBP1) responsible for oligomerization and GTPase activity
Itsui, Y., Sakamoto, N., Kakinuma, S., Nakagawa, M., Sekine-Osajima, Y., Tasaka-Fujita, M., Nishimura-Sakurai, Y., Suda, G., Karakama, Y., Mishima, K., Yamamoto, M., Watanabe, T., Ueyama, M., Funaoka, Y., Azuma, S. and Watanabe, M. (2009), Antiviral effects of the interferon-induced protein guanylate binding protein 1 and its interaction with the hepatitis C virus NS5B protein. Hepatology, 50: 1727-1737. doi: 10.1002/hep.23195 ...
LOW-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins are strong candidates for regulators of membrane traffic1-3. In yeast, mutations in the sec4 or ypt1 genes encoding small GTP-binding proteins inhibit constitutive membrane flow at the plasma membrane or Golgi complex, respectively4-6. It has been suggested that membrane fusion-fission events are regulated by cycling of small GTP-binding proteins between a membrane-bound and free state7, but although most of these small proteins are found in both soluble and tightly membrane-bound forms, there is no direct evidence to support such cycling. In rat brain a small GTP-binding protein, rab3A, is exclusively associated with synaptic vesicles, the secretory organelles of nerve terminals8,9. Here we use isolated nerve terminals to study the fate of rab3A during synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that rab3A dissociates quantitatively from the vesicle membrane after Ca2+-dependent exocytosis and that this dissociation is partially reversible during recovery ...
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the G protein beta gamma subunits are essential for pheromone signaling. The Galpha subunit Gpa1 can also promote signaling, but the effectors in this pathway are not well characterized. To identify candidate Gpa1 effectors, we expressed the constitutively active Gpa1(Q323L) mutant in each of nearly 5000 gene-deletion strains and measured mating-specific responses. Our analysis reveals a requirement for both the catalytic (Vps34) and regulatory (Vps15) subunits of the sole phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in yeast. We demonstrate that Gpa1 is present at endosomes, where it interacts directly with both Vps34 and Vps15 and stimulates increased production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Notably, Vps15 binds to GDP-bound Gpa1 and is predicted to have a seven-WD repeat structure similar to that of known G protein beta subunits. These findings reveal two new components of the pheromone signaling pathway. More remarkably, these proteins appear to comprise a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. AU - Spiegel, Allen M.. PY - 1987/1. Y1 - 1987/1. N2 - High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Subsets of this family include cytosolic initiation and elongation factors involved in protein synthesis, and cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin (Hughes S.M. (1981) FEBS Lett. 164, 1-8). A distinct subset of guanine nucleotide binding proteins is membrane-associated; members of this subset include the ras gene products (Ellis R.W. et al. (1981) Nature 292, 506-511) and the heterotrimeric G-proteins (also termed N-proteins) (Gilman A.G. (1984) Cell 36, 577-579). Substantial evidence indicates that G-proteins act as signal transducers by coupling receptors (R) to effectors (E). A similar function has been suggested but not proven for the ras gene products. Known G-proteins include Gs and Gi, the G-proteins ...
This gene encodes a member of the guanylate-binding protein (GBP) family. GBPs specifically bind guanine nucleotides (GMP, GDP, and GTP) and contain two of the three consensus motifs found in typical GTP-binding proteins. The encoded protein interacts with a member of the germinal center kinase family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
Ras-homologous GTPases constitute a large family of signal transducers that alternate between an activated, GTP-binding state and an inactivated, GDP-binding state. These proteins represent cellular switches that are operated by GTP-exchange factors and factors that stimulate their intrinsic GTPase activity. All GTPases of the Ras superfamily have in common the presence of six conserved motifs involved in GTP/GDP binding, three of which are phosphate-/magnesium-binding sites (PM1-PM3) and three of which are guanine nucleotide-binding sites (G1-G3). Transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) are monomeric G proteins with a low molecular weight of 20 to 40 kDa. A small G protein acts as a molecular switch that cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. Thus far, ,100 small G proteins have been identified in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. The small G proteins in this superfamily are structurally classified into ≥5 families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Sar/Arf, and Ran families. In general, the Ras family mainly regulates gene expression, the Rho family regulates both cytoskeletal reorganization and gene expression, the Rab and Sar1/Arf families regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking, and the Ran family regulates nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization during the cell cycle.1. Multiple downstream effectors of small G proteins, some of them being protein kinases, have been identified. Ras mediates its effect on cell proliferation mainly by activation of its effector Raf to initiate the mitogen-activated protein ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of specific antibodies to quantitate the guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) in brain. AU - Gierschik, P.. AU - Milligan, G.. AU - Pines, M.. AU - Goldsmith, P.. AU - Codina, J.. AU - Klee, W.. AU - Spiegel, A.. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - We immunized rabbits with purified guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) from bovine brain and obtained an antiserum, RV3, that reacts specifically with the α subunit (39 kDa) of a G protein of unknown function, termed G(o), as well as with the β subunit (35 kDa) common to all G proteins. RV3 showed no crossreactivity with the α subunits of the stimulatory (G(s) or inhibitory (G(i)) G proteins associated with adenylate cyclase, nor with that of the rod outer segment G protein, transducin. Immunoblots with crude and affinity-purified antiserum showed that RV3 specifically recognizes the G(o) α subunit and the β subunit in crude brain membranes. Using RV3, we found approximately equal amounts of G(o) in brain ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibiting ras signaling in the therapy of breast cancer. AU - Li, Tianhong. AU - Sparano, Joseph A.. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - Ras is a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that plays an important role in signal transduction pathways that influence cellular proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organization, and other important biological processes. Prenylation of Ras proteins by the enzyme farnesyltransferase renders the protein hydrophobic, causing localization to the inner surface of the cell membrane, where it exerts its biological effects. Ras mutations that result in constitutive activation of the Ras pathway are common in certain human cancers, and transfection of cell lines with mutant Ras renders them tumorigenic. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) were initially developed to inhibit growth of cancers harboring Ras mutations, but preclinical data suggests that they also have antiproliferative effects in cell lines with wild-type Ras. Preclinical data ...
US28 is a viral G protein (heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein)-coupled receptor encoded by the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In addition to binding and internalizing chemokines, US28 constitutively activates signaling pathways linked to cell proliferation. Here, we show increased concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in supernatants of US28-expressing NIH 3T3 cells. Increased IL-6 was associated with increased activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) through upstream activation of the Janus-activated kinase JAK1. We used conditioned growth medium, IL-6-neutralizing antibodies, an inhibitor of the IL-6 receptor, and short hairpin RNA targeting IL-6 to show that US28 activates the IL-6-JAK1-STAT3 signaling axis through activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor κB and the consequent production of IL-6. Treatment of cells with a specific inhibitor of STAT3 inhibited US28-dependent ...
Exposure of mammalian cells to radiation triggers the ultraviolet (UV) response, which includes activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B). This was postulated to occur by induction of a nuclear signaling cascade by damaged DNA. Recently, induction of AP-1 by UV was shown to be mediated by a pathway involving Src tyrosine kinases and the Ha-Ras small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein, proteins located at the plasma membrane. It is demonstrated here that the same pathway mediates induction of NF-kappa B by UV. Because inactive NF-kappa B is stored in the cytosol, analysis of its activation directly tests the involvement of a nuclear-initiated signaling cascade. Enucleated cells are fully responsive to UV both in NF-kappa B induction and in activation of another key signaling event. Therefore, the UV response does not require a signal generated in the nucleus and is likely to be initiated at or near the plasma membrane. ...
Schuermann A., Brauers A., Massmann S., Becker W., Joost H.-G.. cDNA clones of two novel Ras-related GTP-binding proteins (RagA and RagB) were isolated from rat and human cDNA libraries. Their deduced amino acid sequences comprise four of the six known conserved GTP-binding motifs (PM1, -2, -3, G1), the remaining two (G2, G3) being strikingly different from those of the Ras family, and an unusually large C-terminal domain (100 amino acids) presumably unrelated to GTP binding. RagA and RagB differ by seven conservative amino acid substitutions (98% identity), and by 33 additional residues at the N terminus of RagB. In addition, two isoforms of RagB (RagBs and RagB1) were found that differed only by an insertion of 28 codons between the GTP-binding motifs PM2 and PM3, apparently generated by alternative mRNA splicing. Polymerase chain reaction amplification with specific primers indicated that both long and short form of RagB transcripts were present in adrenal gland, thymus, spleen, and kidney, ...
médecine/sciences (M/S), revue internationale dans le domaine de la recherche biologique, médicale et en santé
G-protein-linked receptor. Illustration of G-protein-mediated intracellular signalling. A chemical signal (ligand, orange, upper left) attaches to a receptor (red) in the cell membrane (blue). This causes the receptor to bind to a G-protein (yellow). A series of reactions is triggered and the G-protein activates a membrane enzyme called adelynate cyclase (red, centre right). Further reactions involving cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), various enzymes, and ATP (adenosine triphosphate), result in the target protein (bottom right, yellow) being phosphorylated, controlling its activity. For this artwork with labels, see C023/8845. - Stock Image C023/8846
The protein kinase homologue Ste20p is required to link the yeast pheromone response G-protein beta gamma subunits to downstream signalling components ...
Whilst investigating whether GTP hydrolysis may be required for the import of preproteins into mitochondria we have found that a GTP-binding protein is located at the contact sites between mitochondrial inner and outer membranes. When mitochondrial outer membranes purified from rat liver were UV-irradiated in the presence of [alpha-32P]GTP, a 52 kDa protein was radiolabelled, whereas [alpha-32P]ATP did not label this protein. GTP-binding proteins were also labelled in the cytosolic and microsomal fractions, but the 52 kDa protein was concentrated in mitochondrial membranes and was the only protein specifically labelled by GTP in these membranes. Fractionation of mitochondrial membrane vesicles into outer membranes, inner membranes and contact sites between outer and inner membranes showed that the GTP-binding activity was highly enriched in contact sites, the location at which preprotein import is believed to occur. A protein of almost identical size was also found to be labelled in mitochondria ...
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) transmit a variety of extracellular signals from cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to intracellular effector molecules. Heterotrimeric G proteins are classified according to the α subunit into four subfamilies: Gs, Gi, Gq, and G12. The G12 subfamily, which is comprised of two members, Gα12 (GNA12) and Gα13 (GNA13), has been implicated in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. G12 signaling promotes prostate, breast and ovarian cancer cell invasion in vitro, and these proteins are highly expressed in metastatic cancer tissues. As part of a program to elucidate the mechanisms by which GNA12 and GNA13 expression is upregulated in cancer cells, we assessed the potential involvement of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) in post-transcriptional control of GNA13 expression. The initial focus was on prostate cancer; LnCAP (with the lowest GNA13 protein level) and PC3 (with the highest GNA13 level) were employed as the model system. ...
Introduction. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest family of integral membrane receptors. These receptors are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins that respond to a wide variety of stimuli including light, odour, taste, hormones and neurotransmitters. Activation of a GPCR results in the modulation of intracellular second messenger levels and/or ionic conductances via the coupling of receptors to a wide variety of effector systems via heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Agonist activation of a GPCR induces the isomerization of the receptor to a high-affinity agonist-binding conformation catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on the G protein a-subunit (1). This exchange of GDP for GTP allows the dissociation of the Ga-subunit from the Gßg-subunits, which when dissociated from one another regulate the activity of effector systems such as adenylyl cyclase and potassium channels.. Shortly following exposure to an agonist, GPCR responsiveness wanes as ...
The present understanding of the role of membrane organization in functional coupling between δ-opioid receptor (DOR) and the cognate G proteins is unclear. G protein activation is impaired by cholesterol depletion but receptor agonist binding is unchanged. The aim of this project is the detailed correlation between structural and dynamic parameters of plasma membranes gained by fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy and functional state of DOR-initiated signaling cascade (ligand binding studies, high-affinity GTPγS binding, GTPase assays, adenylyl cyclase). These studies will be performed in intact cells, isolated plasma membranes (PM) and their compartments (membrane domains) prepared from brain cortex and stable cell lines expressing DOR-Gi1α (Cys351-Ile351), DOR and its fluorescent analog DOR-YFP. PM will be reconstituted into model membranes, e.g. into giant unilamellar vesicles. Using cutting edge microscopy techniques (raster image correlation spectroscopy, FLIM) membrane ...
Press Release issued Sep 14, 2012: G protein coupled receptors which are also known by other names such as heptahelical receptors, G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), serpentine receptor and 7TM receptors comprises of a large family of protein. They are found in eukaryotes and choanoflagellates. GPCRs are targeted by approximately 45% to 50% of medicinal drugs.The major factors which are driving the growth of the GPCRs market include: growing researcher interest in targeting GPCR for medicinal drugs, development in indentifying new membrane structure and newer structures and the advancement in technologies used.
Chemoattractants induce cell migration through the activation of a distinct family of structurally related heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. Over the past few years, several receptors in this family have been identified that recognize different classes of chemoattractants but do not induce cell migration. These atypical chemoattractant receptors are unable to activate transduction events that lead directly to cell migration, but appear nonetheless to play a nonredundant role in leukocyte recruitment by shaping the chemoattractant gradient, either by removing, transporting, or concentrating their cognate ligands.. ...
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Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems.
Nagata K et al. (1989) Purification, identification, and characterization of two GTP-binding proteins with molecular weights of 25,000 and 21,000 in human platelet cytosol. One is the rap1/smg21/Krev-1 protein and the other is a novel GTP-binding protein.. ...
The biological function of eukaryotic ERA-like proteins is not known. The human ERA homolog has been cloned, and consists of a typical GTPase/GTP-binding domain, and a putative K homology (KH) RNA-binding domain. Studies indicate that the human ERA homolog regulates G1 phase progression via an unknown molecular mechanism that involves RNA recognition by ERA. It is also known as Era G-protein-like 1 (E. coli), Era (E. coli G-protein homolog)-like 1, conserved ERA-like GTPase, ERA-like protein 1, GTPase Era mitochondrial, ERAL1, ERA, ERA-W, HERA-A, HERA-B, H-ERA, and CEGA.. This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes human ERA homolog protein. The antibody was raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide, and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human ERA homolog protein.. ...
The biological function of eukaryotic ERA-like proteins is not known. The human ERA homolog has been cloned, and consists of a typical GTPase/GTP-binding domain, and a putative K homology (KH) RNA-binding domain. Studies indicate that the human ERA homolog regulates G1 phase progression via an unknown molecular mechanism that involves RNA recognition by ERA. It is also known as Era G-protein-like 1 (E. coli), Era (E. coli G-protein homolog)-like 1, conserved ERA-like GTPase, ERA-like protein 1, GTPase Era mitochondrial, ERAL1, ERA, ERA-W, HERA-A, HERA-B, H-ERA, and CEGA.. This product is an affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes human ERA homolog protein. The antibody was raised in rabbit using a synthetic peptide, and can be used for Western blot (WB) detection or immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human ERA homolog protein.. ...
Anti-G Protein Gq / 11a Subunit, Internal Sequence, a.a. 115-133 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated from CHEMICON,Recognizes the 41 and 43 kDa G-proteins present in liver plasma membranes and Gq/11alpha expressed in the Sf9 insect cell expression system. Negative for recombinant G(I)alpha subtypes.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Author: Wittinghofer, Alfred; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-04-01; Title: Diverse mechanims for GTP hydrolysis by GTP-binding proteins
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are critically important mediators of many signal-transduction systems. Several important sites regulating stimulus-secretion coupling and release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells are modulated by G proteins. Gs mediates increases in intracellular cAMP associated with hormone-induced stimulation of insulin secretion. GI, mediates decreases in intracellular cAMP caused by inhibitors of insulin secretion, e.g., epinephrine, somatostatin, prostaglandin E2, and galanin. G proteins also regulate ion channels, phospholipases, and distal sites in exocytosis. Cholera and pertussis toxins irreversibly ADP ribosylate G proteins and are important tools that can be used both to manipulate G-protein-dependent modulators of insulin secretion and detect and quantify G proteins by electrophoretic techniques. The stage is set to pursue these initial observations in greater depth and ascertain whether G-protein research will provide important new insights into ...
G protein-coupled receptors induce intracellular signals via interaction of with cytosolic/peripheral membrane proteins, mainly G proteins. There has been much debate about the mode of interaction between the receptors, G proteins and effectors, their mobility and the ways of determining the specificity of interaction. Additional complexity has been added to system upon the discovery of i) coupling of single receptors to several G proteins and ii) active direction of this by different ligands (stimulus trafficking). These data suggest that the most primary unit in the signal transduction is the receptor complexed with a specific G protein, making the investigation of the mechanism of receptor-G protein selection and interaction even more important. In this review, I will summarize the general knowledge of receptor interaction with G proteins and effectors and the ways of investigating this.. ...
It has been debated whether the potassium channel of the atrium is activated by the alpha subunit or by the beta gamma subunits of guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins, which dissociate on activation with guanosine triphosphate (GTP). Therefore, the channel-activating effectiveness of these subunits on isolated guinea pig atrial cells was tested. The activated alpha K subunit from human erythrocytes activated the channel in subpicomolar concentrations. The beta gamma dimer from bovine brain activated the channel in nanomolar concentrations. These results support the view that, physiologically, the alpha subunit activates the channel. ...
Q9NYS0: NF-kappa-B inhibitor-interacting Ras-like protein 1; I-kappa-B-interacting Ras-like protein 1; Kappa B-Ras protein 1; KappaB- ...
We previously reported that the xanthine nucleotide binding Goα mutant, GoαX, inhibited the activation of Gi-coupled receptors. We constructed similar mutations in G11α and G16α and characterized their nucleotide binding and receptor interaction. First, we found that G11αX and G16αX expressed in COS-7 cells bound xanthine 5-O-(thiotriphosphate) instead of guanosine 5-O-(thiotriphosphate). Second, we found that G11αX and G16αX interacted with βγ subunits in the presence of xanthine diphosphate. These experiments demonstrated that G11aαX and G16αX were xanthine nucleotide-binding proteins, similar to GoαX. Third, in COS-7 cells, both G11αX and G16αX inhibited the activation of Gq-coupled receptors, whereas only G16αX inhibited the activation of Gi-coupled receptors. Therefore, when in the nucleotide-free state, empty G11αX and G16αX appeared to retain the same receptor binding specificity as their wild-type counterparts. Finally, we found that GoαX, G11αX, and G16αX all ...
Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie...
Encodes a putative GTP-binding protein. Associates with organelles on a pathway from the Golgi to the plasma membrane in interphase. In dividing cells acts at the cell plate ...
Principal Investigator:TAKAI Yoshimi, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:一般, Research Field:General medical chemistry
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Looking for online definition of ras-related GTP-binding protein 4b in the Medical Dictionary? ras-related GTP-binding protein 4b explanation free. What is ras-related GTP-binding protein 4b? Meaning of ras-related GTP-binding protein 4b medical term. What does ras-related GTP-binding protein 4b mean?
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Non-hydrolysable analogues of GTP, such as GTP gamma S and GMP-PNP, have previously been shown to inhibit the formation of constitutive secretory vesicles (CSVs) and immature secretory granules (ISGs) from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Using a cell-free system, we show here that the formation of these vesicles is also inhibited by [A1F4]-, a compound known to act on trimeric G-proteins. Addition of highly purified G-protein beta gamma subunits stimulated, in a differential manner, the cell-free formation of both CSVs and ISGs. ADP-ribosylation experiments revealed the presence of a pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein alpha subunit in the TGN. We conclude that trimeric G-proteins regulate the formation of secretory vesicles from the TGN.
In many tissues, inwardly rectifying K channels are coupled to seven-helix receptors via the Gi/Go family of heterotrimeric G proteins. This activation proceeds
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rac2 concentrations in umbilical cord neutrophils. AU - Meade, Virginia M.. AU - Barese, Cecilia N.. AU - Kim, Chaekyun. AU - Njinimbam, Charles G.. AU - Marchal, Christophe C.. AU - Ingram, David A.. AU - Clapp, D. Wade. AU - Dinauer, Mary C.. AU - Yoder, Mervin C.. PY - 2006/9/1. Y1 - 2006/9/1. N2 - Background: Human newborn infants display a variety of immunodeficiencies of immaturity, including diminished neutrophil adhesion, chemotaxis, and migration. Rac2, a guanosine triphosphate-binding protein, is an essential regulator of human neutrophil migration and chemotaxis. Since human subjects and mice deficient in Rac2 display deficiencies in neutrophil functions similar to newborn infants, we postulated that newborn neutrophils may be deficient in Rac2. Objectives: The aim of the study was to measure Rac1 and Rac2 concentrations in neutrophils from umbilical cord blood. Methods: Neutrophils from cord and adult blood were isolated, total cell lysates extracted, and Rac protein ...
Many microbes create and maintain pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) as an intracellular niche permissive for microbial growth and survival. The destruction of PVs by IFNγ-inducible guanylate binding protein (GBP) and immunity-related GTPase (IRG) host proteins is central to a successful immune response directed against numerous PV-resident pathogens. However, the mechanism by which IRGs and GBPs cooperatively detect and destroy PVs is unclear. We find that host cell priming with IFNγ prompts IRG-dependent association of Toxoplasma- and Chlamydia-containing vacuoles with ubiquitin through regulated translocation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This initial ubiquitin labeling elicits p62-mediated escort and deposition of GBPs to PVs, thereby conferring cell-autonomous immunity. Hypervirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii evade this process via specific rhoptry protein kinases that inhibit IRG function, resulting in blockage of ...
Caspase-11 directly detects LPS within the host cell cytosol (6). To explain how LPS gains access to the host cell cytosol, four distinct LPS delivery pathways were proposed: (i) some intracellular Gram-negative bacteria escape vacuoles to enter the host cell cytosol, where they release LPS (30); (ii) host GBPs execute membranolytic activities to extrude intracellular Gram-negative bacteria from PVs and extract LPS through bacteriolysis (10, 19-21); (iii) endocytosed bacterial OMVs release LPS into the host cell cytosol potentially through fusion with or transport across endosomal membranes (15, 31); and (iv) circulating free LPS (in the form of aggregates or bound to LPS-binding proteins) is consumed in vivo by an undefined cell population able to present LPS for caspase-11-mediated recognition (4, 5). Here, we present evidence that GBPs play previously unknown roles in the latter two pathways.. GBPs assist caspase-11 activation in response to infections with Gram-negative bacteria (10-12). It ...
Inflammatory mediators, including interleukin 8, leukotriene B4 and monocyte chemotactic activating factor, are pivotal in this inflammatory response.4 Another recent study identified a signaling pathway of the small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein Rho and its target protein ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil-forming protein kinase) as a possible mechanism. Clinical presentations include cough, chest discomfort and hypoxemia; if the edema is severe, shock and death may ensue. ISSN 1488-2329 (e) 0820-3946 (p). … and pulmonary edema can complicate volume resuscitation and administration of sodium bicarbonate, two mainstays of treatment in this setting. 2017; doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000000509. 1 The diversity of aetiologies and precipitants of HF and their specific pathophysiologic mechanisms, may result in distinct clinical profiles requiring specific treatment approaches. Being ready to answer them may reserve time to go over any points you want to spend more time on. 2012 Dec 12;16(2):212. ...
abstract = {The midgut epithelium of the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles is a hostile environment for Plasmodium, with most parasites succumbing to host defenses. This study addresses morphological and ultrastructural features associated with Plasmodium berghei ookinete invasion in Anopheles gambiae midguts to define the sites and possible mechanisms of parasite killing. We show by transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence that the majority of ookinetes are killed in the extracellular space. Dead or dying ookinetes are surrounded by a polymerized actin zone formed within the basal cytoplasm of adjacent host epithelial cells. In refractory strain mosquitoes, we found that formation of this zone is strongly linked to prophenoloxidase activation leading to melanization. Furthermore, we identify two factors controlling both phenomena: the transmembrane receptor frizzled-2 and the guanosine triphosphate-binding protein cell division cycle 42. However, the disruption of actin ...
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) which are also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein-linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses. Coupling with G proteins, they are called seven-transmembrane receptors because they pass through the cell membrane seven times. G protein-coupled receptors are found only in eukaryotes, including yeast, choanoflagellates, and animals. The ligands that bind and activate these receptors include light-sensitive compounds, odors, pheromones, hormones, and neurotransmitters, and vary in size from small molecules to peptides to large proteins. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in many diseases, and are also the target of approximately 34% of all modern medicinal drugs. There are two principal signal transduction pathways ...
387554453 - EP 1118621 A4 2003-06-25 - NOVEL G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR PROTEIN AND DNA THEREOF - [origin: WO0020456A1] A human-origin G protein-coupled receptor protein or its peptide fragment or its salt, a nucleic acid encoding this receptor protein and its derivative, etc. The human hippocampus-origin G protein-coupled receptor protein or the nucleic acid encoding the same and its derivative are usable in determining a ligand (an agonist) to the G protein-coupled receptor protein, as preventives and/or remedies for diseases in association with dysfunction of the G protein-coupled receptor protein, as gene diagnostics, in a method for screening a compound capable of varying the expression dose of the G protein-coupled receptor protein or its peptide fragment, etc.[origin: WO0020456A1] A human-origin G protein-coupled receptor protein or its peptide fragment or its salt, a nucleic acid encoding this receptor protein and its derivative, etc. The human hippocampus-origin G protein-coupled receptor
In this study, we have shown that basal MOR activity is detectable in mouse brain tissue and that it is up-regulated by morphine treatment. A role for basal MOR signaling in narcotic dependence is buttressed by the finding that changes in basal MOR activity persist for prolonged time periods, consistent with prolonged signs of antagonist-induced withdrawal after exposure to morphine.. The basal signaling activity of MOR was detected with the use of inverse agonists, β-CNA and BNTX (Wang et al., 2001b). Since basal MOR signaling spontaneously increases receptor/G protein coupling, inverse agonists are expected to decreased basal receptor/G protein coupling. We used two assays to test basal MOR activity, [35S]GTPγS binding and adenylyl cyclase activity assays. [35S]GTPγS binding measures direct receptor/G protein coupling, whereas adenylyl cyclase activity is an immediate downstream event, capable of amplifying the signal, and therefore, a potentially more sensitive assay (Wang et al., 2001b). ...
Agonists stimulate guanylyl 5-[gamma-[35S]thio]-triphosphate (GTP[gamma-35S]) binding to receptor-coupled guanine nucleotide binding protein (G proteins) in cell membranes as revealed in the presence of excess GDP. We now report that this reaction can be used to neuroanatomically localize receptor-activated G proteins in brain sections by in vitro autoradiography of GTP[gamma-35S] binding. Using the mu opioid-selective peptide [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) as an agonist in rat brain sections and isolated thalamic membranes, agonist stimulation of GTP[gamma-35S] binding required the presence of excess GDP (1-2 mM GDP in sections vs. 10-30 microM GDP in membranes) to decrease basal G-protein activity and reveal agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding. Similar concentrations of DAMGO were required to stimulate GTP[gamma-35S] binding in sections and membranes. To demonstrate the general applicability of the technique, agonist-stimulated GTP[gamma-35S] binding in tissue sections was ...
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Adipocytes of hypothyroid rats display an increased responsiveness to agents which function by inhibiting the production of cyclic AMP. Anti-peptide antisera which selectively recognise the alpha subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gi) detected a 40 kDa polypeptide in adipocyte plasma membranes of both euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Amounts of the alpha subunit of Gi were elevated some 2-fold in the hypothyroid preparations in comparison with the euthyroid controls, when equal amounts of membrane protein of the two treatments were examined. As cells from the hypothyroid animals contained 2.7 times as much membrane protein as those from the control animals, the amounts of alpha subunit of Gi are elevated some 5.6-fold per cell in adipocytes of the hypothyroid animals compared with the euthyroid controls. Amounts of the 36 kDa beta subunit of G-proteins were also elevated in plasma membranes of adipocytes of hypothyroid animals, in this case by some 50% when compared on ...
Chemokines orchestrate cell migration for development, immune surveillance, and disease by binding to cell surface heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The array of interactions between the nearly 50 chemokines and their 20 GPCR targets generates an extensive signaling network to which promiscuity and biased agonism add further complexity. The receptor CXCR4 recognizes both monomeric and dimeric forms of the chemokine CXCL12, which is a distinct example of ligand bias in the chemokine family. We demonstrated that a constitutively monomeric CXCL12 variant reproduced the G protein-dependent and β-arrestin-dependent responses that are associated with normal CXCR4 signaling and lead to cell migration. In addition, monomeric CXCL12 made specific contacts with CXCR4 that are not present in the structure of the receptor in complex with a dimeric form of CXCL12, a biased agonist that stimulates only G protein-dependent signaling. We produced an ...
Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed person in the transglutaminase family members, with the capacity of mediating a transamidation response between a number of proteins substrates. to raise intracellular calcium mineral amounts. We demonstrate in live cells that inhibitors of TG2 transamidation activity can differentially impact the conformation from the enzyme. The irreversible inhibitor of TG2, NC9, pushes the enzyme into an open up conformation, whereas the reversible inhibitor CP4d traps TG2 in the shut conformation. Hence, this biosensor provides brand-new mechanistic insights in to the actions of two TG2 inhibitors and defines two brand-new classes predicated on capability to alter TG2 GBR-12909 conformation furthermore to inhibiting transamidation activity. Upcoming applications of the biosensor is to discover little molecules that particularly alter TG2 conformation to have an effect on GDP/GTP or calcium mineral binding. Launch Transglutaminase type 2 (TG2; EC ...
RAC2 Human Recombinant fused with 20 amino acid His tag at N-terminus produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 209 amino acids (1- 189 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 23.3kDa. The RAC2 is purified by proprietary
Small GTPases largely control membrane traffic, which is essential for the survival of all eukaryotes. Among the small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 (ADP-ribosylation factor 1) and SAR1 (Secretion-Associated RAS super family 1) are commonly conserved among all eukaryotes with respect to both their functional and sequential characteristics. The ARF1 and SAR1 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the formation and budding of vesicles throughout plant endomembrane systems. ARF1 has been shown to play a critical role in COPI (Coat Protein Complex I)-mediated retrograde trafficking in eukaryotic systems, whereas SAR1 GTPases are involved in intracellular COPII-mediated protein trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. This review offers a summary of vesicular trafficking with an emphasis on the ARF1 and SAR1 expression patterns at early growth stages and in the de-etiolation process.
Chemoattractants control lymphocyte recruitment from the blood, contributing to the systemic organization of the immune system. The G protein-linked receptor GPR15 mediates lymphocyte homing to the large intestines and skin. Here we show that the 9 kDa CC-motif containing cationic polypeptide AP57/colon-derived SUSD2 binding factor (CSBF), encoded by C10orf99 in the human and 2610528A11Rik in the mouse, functions as a chemokine ligand for GPR15 (GPR15L). GPR15L binds GPR15 and attracts GPR15-expressing T cells including lymphocytes in colon draining lymph nodes and Vγ3+ thymic precursors of dermal epithelial T cells. Patterns of GPR15L expression by epithelial cells in adult mice and humans suggest a homeostatic role for the chemokine in lymphocyte localization to the large intestines, as well as a role in homing to the epidermis during wound healing or inflammation. GPR15L is also significantly expressed in squamous mucosa of the oral cavity and esophagus with still poorly defined regulation.
Regardless of the discovery of heterotrimeric αβγ G proteins ~25 years back their selective perturbation by cell-permeable inhibitors continues to be a simple challenge. the hallmark features that are central towards the malignancy of melanoma cells thus providing new possibilities for healing intervention. Just like pertussis toxin can be used thoroughly to probe and inhibit the signalling of Gi/o protein we anticipate that FR will at least end up being its similar for looking into the natural relevance of Gq. Many extracellular stimuli propagate mobile activity via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) the biggest category of cell surface area signalling molecules composed of ~800 associates in human beings1 2 Four groups of heterotrimeric αβγ guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) located on the cytoplasmic encounter from the plasma membrane suffice to get interpret and path these indicators to diverse pieces of downstream focus on protein3 4 5 6 7 8 Hence the mammalian GPCR-G ...
The phosphorylation of heptahelical receptors by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) is a universal regulatory mechanism that leads to desensitization of G protein signaling and to the activation of alternative signaling pathways.We determined the crystallographic structure of bovine GRK2 in complex with G protein beta1gamma2 subunits.Our results show how the three domains of GRK2-the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) homology, protein kinase, and pleckstrin homology domains-integrate their respective activities and recruit the enzyme to the cell membrane in an orientation that not only facilitates receptor phosphorylation, but also allows for the simultaneous inhibition of signaling by Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits ...
Functional modification of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein after desensitization of turkey erythrocytes by catecholamines.
rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
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Guanylate-binding protein is a GTPase that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens. These GTPases are classified into three groups: the small 47-kd GTPases, the Mx proteins, and the large 65- to 67-kd GTPases. Guanylate-binding proteins (GBP) fall into the last class. In humans, there are seven GBPs (hGBP1-7) [(PUBMED:17266443)]. Structurally, hGBP1 consists of two domains: a compact globular N-terminal domain harbouring the GTPase function, and an alpha-helical finger-like C-terminal domain (IPR003191). Human GBP1 is secreted from cells without the need of a leader peptide, and has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis virus and Encephalomyocarditis virus, as well as being able to regulate the inhibition of proliferation and invasion of endothelial cells in response to IFN-gamma [(PUBMED:16936281)].. ...
Looking for the definition of rab2 gtp-binding protein? Find out what is the full meaning of rab2 gtp-binding protein on! Protein Kinase C is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Purchase Recombinant Human Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(z) subunit alpha(GNAZ). It is produced in E.coli. High purity. Good price.
The Rho family small GTP-binding proteins are subjected to regulation by Rho GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) in the course of transmitting diverse intracellular signals. To understand the mechanism of GAP-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis of Rho GTPases, we have studied the interaction between RhoA and p190, the RasGAP binding phosphoprotein which has been implicated as a Rho-specific GAP, by delineating the structural determinants of RhoA and p190 GAP domain (p190GD) that are involved in their functional coupling. Besides the conserved residues Tyr34, Thr37, and Phe39 in the switch I region of RhoA which are required for p190GD interaction, chimeras made between RhoA and Cdc42, a close relative of RhoA with which p190GD interacts 50-fold less efficiently, revealed that residues outside the switch I and neighboring regions of RhoA, residues 85-122 in particular, contain the major p190GD-specifying determinant(s). Mutation of the unique Asp90 of RhoA in this region mostly abolished p190GD stimulation, ...
Die monoklonale Proliferation maligner Plasmazellen im Knochenmark ist charakteristisch für das multiple Myelom (MM) und kann bei Erkrankten zu Störungen in der Hämatopoese sowie zu Knochenläsionen und Niereninsuffizienz führen. Die Weiterentwicklung und der Einsatz neuer Therapieoptionen konnten das Überleben von MM-Patienten zwar erheblich verbessern, jedoch gilt diese Krankheit weiterhin als unheilbar. Onkogene Mutationen und das Knochenmarkmikromilieu führen in MM-Zellen zur Entstehung eines onkogenen Signalnetzwerks, das das Wachstum und Überleben der Zellen aufrechterhält. Mutationen der GTPase RAS treten bei bis zu 50 % der MM-Patienten auf und tragen zum Überleben von MM-Zellen bei. Trotz der Häufigkeit und Bedeutsamkeit von onkogenem RAS, auch in anderen Tumorentitäten, ist die GTPase nach wie vor therapeutisch nicht angreifbar. Die GTPase RAL aus der Familie der RAS-GTPasen wird als Downstream-Effektor von RAS angesehen, der damit ebenfalls zur Aufrechterhaltung des
Amino Acid SequenceMGSSHHHHHH SSGLVPRGSH MGSMPALHIE DLPEKEKLKM EVEQLRKEVK LQRQQVSKCS EEIKNYIEER SGEDPLVKGI PEDKNPFKEK GSC.DescriptionGNG11 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is. a single polypeptide chain containing 93 amino acids (1-70) and having a molecular mass of 10.6kDa. GNG11 is fused to a 23 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.FormulationThe GNG11 solution (1mg/ml) contains 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), 0.15M NaCl, 10% glycerol and 1mM DTT.Physical AppearanceSterile Filtered clear solution.PurityGreater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.SourceEscherichia Coli.StabilityStore at 4°C if entire vial will be used within 2-4 weeks. Store frozen at -20°C for longer periods of time. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles.SynonymsGNGT11, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11, GNG11.Link
Gene Information Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins are composed of an alpha a beta and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
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CONTACT: [email protected] GENBANK UPDATE: 22 July 1997 28 unique yeast ORFs ORF NAME LOCUS PRODUCT/DESCRIPTION -------- ----- ---------------------------------------- YFL039C ACT1 Actin YDL192W ARF1 ADP-ribosylation factor YDL137W ARF2 ADP-ribosylation factor 2 YJR121W ATP2 F(1)F(0)-ATPase complex beta subunit, mitochondrial YER177W BMH1 Homolog of mammalian 14-3-3 proteins YLR229C CDC42 member of the Rho subfamily of Ras-like proteins YER133W GLC7 protein phosphatase type I YLR293C GSP1 GTP-binding protein YOR185C GSP2 GTP-binding protein YBR009C HHF1 Histone H4 (HHF1 and HHF2 code for identical proteins) YNL030W HHF2 Histone H4 (HHF1 and HHF2 code for identical proteins) YBR010W HHT1 Histone H3 (HHT1 and HHT2 code for identical proteins) YNL031C HHT2 Histone H3 (HHT1 and HHT2 code for identical proteins) YDR224C HTB1 Histone H2B (HTB1 and HTB2 code for nearly identical proteins) YBL002W HTB2 Histone H2B (HTB1 and HTB2 code for nearly identical proteins) YBL087C RPL17A Ribosomal protein ...
Diversity of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signal Transduction PathwaysReceptors coupled to heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) are integral transmembrane proteins that transduce extracellular signals to the cell interior. G-protein-coupled receptors exhibit a common structural motif consisting of seven membrane spanning regions. Receptor occupation promotes interaction between the receptor and the G-protein on the interior surface of the membrane. This induces an exchange of GDP for GTP on the G-protein α subunit and dissociation of the α subunit from the β γ heterodimer. Depending on its isoform, the GTP α subunit complex mediates intracellular signaling either indirectly by acting on effector molecules such as adenylate cyclase (AC) or phospholipase C (PLC), or directly by regulating ion channel or kinase function. References:Schoneberg, T., et al., Structural basis of G-protein-coupled receptor function. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 151, 181-193 (1999).
The results of the current study show the operation of two distinct mechanisms for the inhibitory regulation of adenylyl cyclase types V/VI in smooth muscle cells: a G protein-dependent mechanism and a Ca2+-dependent mechanism that seems to operate only in the absence of inhibitory G protein regulation. The mechanisms could be activated separately by agonists acting on G protein-coupled receptors (UTP, ATP, CCK-8) and ligand-gated receptors (α,β-methylene-ATP and ATP) and by agents that bypass receptors, such as the sarcoplasmic Ca2+/ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, and ionomycin. The agonists acting on G protein-coupled receptors provided distinctive patterns of G protein activation that facilitated analysis of the role of each inhibitory mechanism. The Ca2+-dependent mechanisms had in common the ability to induce Ca2+ influx via voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and did not involve activation of a Ca2+-stimulated PDE1.. During the initial 1-min period of agonist stimulation that coincided with ...
G protein GAPs allow rapid termination of a signal on removal of agonist, but can also substantially inhibit signaling in the presence of agonist by shortening the activation lifetime of the G protein during the GTPase cycle. The data presented here describe how the individual steps in the GTPase cycle combine to produce both robust activation by agonist and rapid deactivation on agonist removal. Such balance is particularly important for G protein-regulated effectors, such as PLC-β1, that use intrinsic GAP activity to modulate the kinetics of their own activation.. The most striking outcome of this study was the speed of GAP-stimulated hydrolysis of Gq-bound GTP, with an average khydrol of 25 s−1 for RGS4 and 15 s−1 for the effector PLC-β1 at 30°C. This represents a 2,000-fold increase over the basal rate of 0.013 s−1 (12), comparable to the 10,000-fold effect of ras GAP on p21ras (23). Moreover, G protein GAPs accelerate GTP hydrolysis by an allosteric mechanism, whereas GAPs for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormonal stimulation of adenylyl cyclase through Gi-protein βγ subunits. AU - Federman, Alex D.. AU - Conklin, Bruce R.. AU - Schrader, Karen A.. AU - Reed, Randall R. AU - Bourne, Henry R.. PY - 1992/3/12. Y1 - 1992/3/12. N2 - AGONIST-BOUND receptors activate heterotrimeric (αβγ) G proteins by catalysing replacement by GTP of GDP bound to the α subunit, resulting in dissociation of γ-GTP from the βγ subunits. In most cases, α-GTP carries the signal to effectors, as in hormonal stimulation1-4 and inhibition5,6 of adenylyl cyclase by αs and αi respectively. By contrast, genetic evidence in yeast7 and studies in mammalian cells8-10 suggest that βγ subunits of G proteins may also regulate effector pathways. Indeed, of the four recombinant mammalian adenylyl cyclases available for study11-14, two, adenylyl cyclases II and IV, are stimulated by βγ . This effect of βγ requires costimulation by αs-GTP14,15. This conditional pattern of effector responsiveness led to ...
Takai Y, Sasaki T, Matozaki T (January 2001). "Small GTP-binding proteins". Physiological Reviews. 81 (1): 153-208. doi:10.1152 ... which govern the intracellular trafficking of proteins in coat protein (COP)-coated vesicles. Mutations in the SAR1B gene are ... SAR1 gene homolog B (S. cerevisiae), also known as SAR1B, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SAR1B gene. SAR1B ... Schekman R, Orci L (March 1996). "Coat proteins and vesicle budding". Science. 271 (5255): 1526-33. doi:10.1126/science. ...
They are also called small or monomeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins, small or monomeric GTP-binding proteins ... bound to GTP) only for a short time before deactivating themselves by converting bound GTP to bound GDP. However, many GTPases ... G protein signaling is terminated by hydrolysis of bound GTP to bound GDP. This can occur through the intrinsic GTPase activity ... For heterotrimeric G proteins and many small GTP-binding proteins, GEF activity is stimulated by cell surface receptors in ...
... the protein has GTPase activity and shuttles between a GDP-bound form and a GTP-bound form, and farnesylation of the protein is ... allowing RHEB to activate the protein. RHEB acts as an activator for mTORC1 in its GTP-bound form, therefore GTP-bound RHEB ... is a GTP-binding protein that is ubiquitously expressed in humans and other mammals. The protein is largely involved in the ... The protein is a lipid-anchored, cell-membrane protein with five repeats of the RAS-related GTP-binding region. Also present ...
G proteins can bind either GDP or GTP. When bound to GDP, G proteins are inactive. When a ligand binds a GPCR, an allosteric ... GTP is essential for signal transduction, especially with G proteins. G proteins are coupled with a cell membrane bound ... GTP activates the alpha subunit of the G protein, causing it to dissociate from the G protein and act as a downstream effector ... The activity site can bind either ATP or dATP. When bound to ATP, RNR is active. When ATP or dATP is bound to the S site, RNR ...
"Small GTP-binding proteins in human endothelial cells". Br J Haematol. 103 (1): 15-9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.1998.00965.x. ... Ras-related protein Rab-14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB14 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Mol. Syst. Biol. 3 (1): 89. doi: ...
The mammalian RAB proteins show striking similarities to the S. cerevisiae YPT1 and SEC4 proteins, Ras-related GTP-binding ... Members of the Rab protein family are nontransforming monomeric GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily that contain 4 ... Zahraoui A, Touchot N, Chardin P, Tavitian A (Jul 1989). "The human Rab genes encode a family of GTP-binding proteins related ... highly conserved regions involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. Rabs are prenylated, membrane-bound proteins involved in ...
"GTP-binding proteins in human platelet membranes serving as the specific substrate of islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i), alpha-1 subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAI1 gene. Click on ... "Entrez Gene: GNAI1 Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1". Schiaffino MV, ... "Identification of GTP-binding proteins in human glomeruli". Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 36 (1): 9-12. PMID 8107314. Law SF, Zaina S ...
Shin OH, Ross AH, Mihai I, Exton JH (1999). "Identification of arfophilin, a target protein for GTP-bound class II ADP- ... A functionally conserved family of GTP-binding proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (4): 2606-14. PMID 1899243. Stearns T, Willingham ... These genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera ... "Identification of a novel Rab11/25 binding domain present in Eferin and Rip proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (42): 38966-70. doi: ...
A functionally conserved family of GTP-binding proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (4): 2606-14. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)52288-2. ... a novel role for a GTP-binding protein". Cell. 67 (2): 239-53. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90176-Y. PMID 1680566. S2CID 9766090. ... including 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins, constitute a family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized ... The family members encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of ...
de Leeuw HP, Koster PM, Calafat J, Janssen H, van Zonneveld AJ, van Mourik JA, Voorberg J (1998). "Small GTP-binding proteins ... Ras-related protein Rab-9A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB9A gene. RAB9A has been shown to interact with ... Orzaez D, de Jong AJ, Woltering EJ (2001). "A tomato homologue of the human protein PIRIN is induced during programmed cell ... Soldati T, Riederer MA, Pfeffer SR (1993). "Rab GDI: a solubilizing and recycling factor for rab9 protein". Mol. Biol. Cell. 4 ...
"Entrez Gene: GTPBP3 GTP binding protein 3 (mitochondrial)". Li X, Guan MX (2002). "A human mitochondrial GTP binding protein ... The GTPBP3 gene encodes a GTP-binding protein that is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to mammals and which is localized ... The GTPBP3 gene contains 10 exons, and encodes a ~44 kDa GTP-binding protein that is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to ... Li X, Guan MX (Nov 2002). "A human mitochondrial GTP binding protein related to tRNA modification may modulate phenotypic ...
1994). "Identification of GTP-binding proteins in human glomeruli". Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi. 36 (1): 9-12. PMID 8107314. ... 1991). "Structure of the human gene and two rat cDNAs encoding the alpha chain of GTP-binding regulatory protein Go: two ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAO1 gene. Mutations in ... Wu HC, Lin CT (1994). "Association of heterotrimeric GTP binding regulatory protein (Go) with mitosis". Lab. Invest. 71 (2): ...
Kaziro focused on GTP binding proteins, the role of GTPases in signal transduction, and the role of GTP in mRNA gene expression ... Kaziro focused on GTP mechanisms and proposed signaling pathways involved with GTP-binding proteins. He researched the role of ... the characterization of G nucleotide binding protein complexes, and the role the GTP hydrolysis in protein mechanisms. His ... In 1971, Kaziro led research on identifying the properties of the two H-GTP binding proteins in E. coli. Factor T is one of two ...
protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein ... ubiquitin protein ligase activity. • apolipoprotein A-I receptor binding. • GTP-dependent protein binding. • GTPase activity. • ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ... which promote the exchange of bound GDP for free GTP, GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) which increase GTP hydrolysis activity ...
Pereira-Leal JB, Seabra MC (Nov 2001). "Evolution of the Rab family of small GTP-binding proteins". J Mol Biol. 313 (4): 889- ... Ras-related protein Rab-15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB15 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Strick DJ, Elferink LA (2006). "Rab15 effector protein: a novel protein for receptor recycling from the endocytic recycling ... Fukuda M (2003). "Distinct Rab binding specificity of Rim1, Rim2, rabphilin, and Noc2. Identification of a critical determinant ...
Pereira-Leal JB, Seabra MC (Nov 2001). "Evolution of the Rab family of small GTP-binding proteins". J Mol Biol. 313 (4): 889- ... Ras-related protein Rab-40A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB40A gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "The Slp homology domain of synaptotagmin-like proteins 1-4 and Slac2 functions as a novel Rab27A binding domain". J. Biol. Chem ... domain-containing proteins based on their Rab-binding activity". Genes Cells. 11 (9): 1023-37. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006. ...
Dynamins represent one of the subfamilies of GTP-binding proteins. These proteins share considerable sequence similarity over ... Dynamins bind many proteins that bind actin and other cytoskeletal proteins. Dynamins can also self-assemble, a process that ... a member of the large GTP-binding protein family". Gene. 163 (2): 301-6. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(95)00275-B. PMID 7590285. Klocke ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), WASP-interacting protein (WIP), and ELMO1". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (31): 28238-46. doi: ...
Pereira-Leal JB, Seabra MC (Nov 2001). "Evolution of the Rab family of small GTP-binding proteins". J Mol Biol. 313 (4): 889- ... Rab21 is an apically located GTP-binding protein in polarised intestinal epithelial cells". Eur J Cell Biol. 79 (5): 308-16. ... Ras-related protein Rab-21 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB21 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2001). "Systematic subcellular localization of novel proteins identified by large-scale cDNA sequencing". EMBO Rep. 1 (3): 287- ...
Pereira-Leal JB, Seabra MC (November 2001). "Evolution of the Rab family of small GTP-binding proteins". J Mol Biol. 313 (4): ... Goldenring JR, Shen KR, Vaughan HD, Modlin IM (1993). "Identification of a small GTP-binding protein, Rab25, expressed in the ... 1997). "Increased immunoreactivity for Rab11, a small GTP-binding protein, in low-grade dysplastic Barrett's epithelia". Lab. ... Ras-related protein Rab-25 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAB25 gene. It is thought to act as a promoter of ...
ATP/GTP binding protein 1 is gene that encodes the protein known as cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 (CCP1), originally named NNA1 ... "Entrez Gene: ATP/GTP binding protein 1". Retrieved 2018-06-13. Fernandez-Gonzalez A, La Spada AR, Treadaway J, Higdon JC, ... a novel ATP/GTP-binding protein related to zinc carboxypeptidases". Mol Cell Neurosci. 16 (5): 578-96. doi:10.1006/mcne. ... with alleles containing a zinc carboxypeptidase domain and an ATP/GTP binding motif, a protein first identified in alpha- ...
Nucleolar GTP-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTPBP4 gene. GTPases function as molecular ... a GTP-binding protein that interacts with the neurofibromatosis 2 protein". Mol. Cell. Biol. 27 (6): 2103-19. doi:10.1128/MCB. ... "Entrez Gene: GTPBP4 GTP binding protein 4". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap ... The switch is turned off when the G protein hydrolyzes its own bound GTP, converting it back to GDP. But before that occurs, ...
GTP-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GTPBP1 gene. This gene is upregulated by interferon-gamma ... "Entrez Gene: GTPBP1 GTP binding protein 1". Goretzki L, Mueller BM (1999). "Low-density-lipoprotein-receptor-related protein ( ... and encodes a protein that is a member of the AGP11/GTPBP1 family of GTP-binding proteins. A structurally similar protein has ... interacts with a GTP-binding protein". Biochem. J. 336 (2): 381-6. doi:10.1042/bj3360381. PMC 1219882. PMID 9820815. Dunham I, ...
Rho-related GTP-binding protein RhoJ is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RHOJ gene. ARHJ belongs to the Rho family of ... small GTP-binding proteins. Rho proteins regulate the dynamic assembly of cytoskeletal components for several physiologic ... 2004). "The GTP/GDP Cycling of Rho GTPase TCL Is an Essential Regulator of the Early Endocytic Pathway". Mol. Biol. Cell. 14 ( ...
GTP-binding protein GEM is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GEM gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ... Ward Y, Yap SF, Ravichandran V, Matsumura F, Ito M, Spinelli B, Kelly K (Apr 2002). "The GTP binding proteins Gem and Rad are ... "Entrez Gene: GEM GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle". Cohen L, Mohr R, Chen YY, et al. (1995). " ... Kelly K (2006). "The RGK family: a regulatory tail of small GTP-binding proteins". Trends Cell Biol. 15 (12): 640-3. doi: ...
GTP-binding proteins, in particular, are well-established in bAREs pathophysiology. For examples, cholera and heat-labile ... Furthermore, C. Botulinum C3 ADP-ribosylates GTP-binding proteins Rho and Ras, and Pertussis toxin ADP-Ribosylates Gi, Go, and ... in multi-protein complexes with A and B domains bound by non-covalent interactions; and, third, in multi-protein complexes with ... The PBZ domain is present in many proteins involved in DNA repair and allows for the binding of the PARP and thus ADP- ...
Developmentally-regulated GTP-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRG1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Mahajan MA, Park ST, Sun XH (1996). "Association of a novel GTP binding protein, DRG, with TAL oncogenic proteins". Oncogene. ... Schenker T, Lach C, Kessler B, Calderara S, Trueb B (Nov 1994). "A novel GTP-binding protein which is selectively repressed in ... Sazuka T, Tomooka Y, Ikawa Y, Noda M, Kumar S (Dec 1992). "DRG: a novel developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein". Biochem ...
eIF-2b regenerates the GTP-bound form of eIF-2 for an additional cycle in protein synthesis initiation, i.e., its binding to ... GTP generally binds in its place, as the cytosolic ratio of GTP is much higher than GDP at 10:1. The binding of GTP to the ... Cherfils J, Chardin P (August 1999). "GEFs: structural basis for their activation of small GTP-binding proteins". Trends in ... The binding of GEFs to their GTPase substrates catalyzes the dissociation of GDP, allowing a GTP molecule to bind in its place ...
"A recombinant inwardly rectifying potassium channel coupled to GTP-binding proteins". The Journal of General Physiology. 107 (3 ... Huang CL, Jan YN, Jan LY (April 1997). "Binding of the G protein betagamma subunit to multiple regions of G protein-gated ... "Binding of the G protein betagamma subunit to multiple regions of G protein-gated inward-rectifying K+ channels". FEBS Letters ... G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ5 gene and is a type ...
Developmentally-regulated GTP-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRG2 gene. The DRG2 gene encodes ... "Entrez Gene: DRG2 developmentally regulated GTP binding protein 2". Sprang SR (1998). "G proteins, effectors and GAPs: ... Schenker T, Lach C, Kessler B, Calderara S, Trueb B (Nov 1994). "A novel GTP-binding protein which is selectively repressed in ... Schenker T, Trueb B (Jun 1998). "Assignment of the gene for a developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein (DRG2) to human ...
Five subunits of the TOC complex have been identified-two GTP-binding proteins Toc34 and Toc159, the protein import tunnel ... In the middle is its GTP binding domain, which is very similar to the homologous GTP-binding domain in Toc34.[38][48] At the C- ... This loss of GTP makes the Toc34 protein release the chloroplast preprotein, handing it off to the next TOC protein.[38] Toc34 ... 14-3-3 proteins only bind to chloroplast preproteins.[43] It is also bound by the heat shock protein Hsp70 that keeps the ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ... Mutations in the RPS6KA3 disturb the function of the protein, but it is unclear how a lack of this protein causes the signs and ... The RPS6KA3 gene makes a protein that is involved with signaling within cells. Researchers believe that this protein helps ... The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some substrates like CREB and histone H3 ...
GTP binding. • ربط بروتيني. • structural molecule activity. • GTPase activity. • protein complex scaffold activity. • binding, ... v2 is a parkin-binding protein". Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 117 (2): 179-89. PMID 14559152. doi:10.1016/S0169- ... protein ligase and promotes the degradation of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein, CDCrel-1". Proceedings of the National ... Beites CL، Xie H، Bowser R، Trimble WS (May 1999). "The septin CDCrel-1 binds syntaxin and inhibits exocytosis". Nature ...
The dye molecules bind to proteins including wool (keratin) to form a protein-dye complex. The formation of the complex ... The binding of the dye to a protein causes a shift in the absorbance maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm. The increase of ... On binding to a protein the negatively charged Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye molecule will give an overall negative charge ... Under the acid conditions the dye is normally a brownish colour but on binding to the protein the blue form of the dye is ...
In 1993, Alan Hall was awarded the Feldberg Foundation Prize for his work on the role GTP-binding proteins played on signal ... "The small GTP-binding protein rac regulates growth factor-induced membrane ruffling". Cell. 70 (3): 401-410. doi:10.1016/0092- ... "The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth ... another Ras-related GTP-binding protein, is implicated in the regulation of the actin organisation in presence of extracellular ...
WASp and N-WASP are analogs, they contain an N-terminal EVH1 domain, a C-terminal VCA domain and central B and GBD (GTP binding ... SH3 domain binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ... "Fyn-binding protein (Fyb)/SLP-76-associated protein (SLAP), Ena/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) proteins and the ...
Rouaux C, Loeffler JP, Boutillier AL (September 2004). "Targeting CREB-binding protein (CBP) loss of function as a therapeutic ... "Family-wide characterization of the DENN domain Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors". primary. The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): ... The UBQLN2 gene encodes the protein ubiquilin 2 which is responsible for controlling the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins ... As that gene's name suggests, BACE1 is an enzymatic protein that cleaves the Amyloid Precursor Protein into the insoluble ...
... that aluminum fluoride can bind to and activate heterotrimeric G proteins has proven to be useful for the study of G protein ... and for understanding the biochemical mechanism of GTP hydrolysis, including the role of GTPase-activating proteins.[16] ... as phosphoric acid anhydrides such as ATP and GTP control most of the reactions involved in metabolism, growth and ...
proteins. In enzymology, a GTP cyclohydrolase II (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... GTP + 3 H2O ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. formate + 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5-phosphoribosylamino)pyrimidine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (diphosphate-forming). Other names in common use include ... Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are GTP and H2O, whereas its 3 products are formate, 2,5-diamino-6-hydroxy-4-(5- ...
Protons bind at various places on the protein, while carbon dioxide binds at the α-amino group.[63] Carbon dioxide binds to ... Fish use both ATP and GTP. These bind to a phosphate "pocket" on the fish hemoglobin molecule, which stabilizes the tense state ... Each subunit is composed of a protein chain tightly associated with a non-protein prosthetic heme group. Each protein chain ... in which CO2 is bound to the heme protein. The molecule also carries the important regulatory molecule nitric oxide bound to a ...
... and the A1 subunit is freed to bind with a human partner protein called ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6).[29] Binding exposes ... O'Neal CJ, Jobling MG, Holmes RK, Hol WG (August 2005). "Structural basis for the activation of cholera toxin by human ARF6-GTP ... The bacteria stop producing the protein flagellin to conserve energy and nutrients by changing the mix of proteins that they ... cholerae bacteria turn off the production of some proteins and turn on the production of other proteins as they respond to the ...
... regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. ... They are active or 'ON' when it is bound to GTP and inactive or 'OFF' when bound to GDP.[1] Activation and deactivation of ... GTP-Binding+Protein+Regulators at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
proteins. In enzymology, a succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical ...
Tahikininski receptor 1 (TACR1, neurokininski 1 receptor, NK1R, ili receptor supstance P, SPR) je G protein spregnuti receptor ... 1992). „Localisation and characterisation of substance P binding to human synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis.". Ann. Rheum ... Thöny B, Heizmann CW, Mattei MG (1995). „Human GTP-cyclohydrolase I gene and sepiapterin reductase gene map to region 14q21-q22 ... signalni put G-protein spregnutog receptora. • G-proteinska signalizacija, spregnuta sa IP3 sekundarnim glasnikom (aktivacija ...
GAD is activated when bound to PLP and inactive when not bound to PLP.[12] Majority of GAD67 is bound to PLP at any given time ... In order to aid in neurotransmission, GAD65 forms a complex with Heat Shock Cognate 70 (HSC70), cysteine string protein (CSP) ... Some have proposed that an immediate early gene, Zif268, which normally binds to the promoter region of GAD67 and increases ... Wei J, Davis KM, Wu H, Wu JY (May 2004). "Protein phosphorylation of human brain glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GAD67 ...
Saylor P, Wang C, Hirai T, Adams J (1998). "A second magnesium ion is critical for ATP binding in the kinase domain of the ... Prisotnost magnezija zmanjša Kd ATP za vezavo na protein, ne da bi to vplivalo na sposobnost encima za katalizo reakcije, ko je ... GTP; je ekvivalent ATP), tri molekule reduciranega koencima NADH in ena molekula reduciranega koencima FADH2. Obe od zadnjih ... Lin X, Ayrapetov M, Sun G (2005). "Characterization of the interactions between the active site of a protein tyrosine kinase ...
Deficiencies of intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. GTP-binding protein regulators. GTPase-activating protein. * ...
Protein binding. 93%. Metabolism. Liver (CYP450). Elimination half-life. 18 hours. Excretion. Feces; ,1% urine. ... The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ... the MDR1 gene mutation affects function of this protein). Crossing may still become significant if ivermectin is given at high ...
受體蛋白(英语:Template:Signal transducing adaptor proteins). *GTP-binding(英语:Template:GTP-binding protein regulators) ... G-protein coupled serotonin receptor activity. • trace-amine receptor activity. • identical protein binding. • neurotransmitter ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide ... Simmen U, Kelber O, Okpanyi SN, Jaeggi R, Bueter B, Weiser D. Binding of STW 5 (Iberogast) and its components to intestinal 5- ...
adaptor proteins. *GTP-binding. *MAP kinase. *Calcium signaling. *Lipid signaling. *Pathways *hedgehog ... Template:DNA and protein biosynthesis navs(edit talk links history)- Genetics ({{Protein biosynthesis navs}}, R) ...
"The cytotoxin YopT of Yersinia enterocolitica induces modification and cellular redistribution of the small GTP-binding protein ... "En Ladant, Daniel; Alouf, Joseph E.; Popoff, Michel R. The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins. Academic Press ... Galyov EE, Håkansson S, Forsberg A, Wolf-Watz H (1993). "A secreted protein kinase of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an ... and the associated accumulation of these proteins in peripheral focal adhesions". EMBO J. 16 (9): 2307-18. PMC 1169832. PMID ...
When the molecule GDP is bound to the G-protein subunit, the G-protein is in an inactive state. Following binding of the ... allowing the exchange of GDP for another molecule called GTP, and the dissociation of the different G protein subunits. The ... The N-terminal end of a chemokine receptor binds to chemokine(s) and is important for ligand specificity. G-proteins couple to ... Fifty chemokines have been discovered so far, and most bind onto CXC and CC families.[4] Two types of chemokines that bind to ...
"The small GTP-binding protein, Rhes, regulates signal transduction from G protein-coupled receptors". Oncogene. 23 (2): 559-68 ... protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • insulin receptor substrate binding. • ATP binding. • ... nucleotide binding. • protein kinase activator activity. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase activity. • ... protein phosphorylation. • inflammatory response. • innate immune system. • cell chemotaxis. • G-protein coupled receptor ...
The structural basis for binding of RNA to the argonaute protein was examined by X-ray crystallography of the binding domain of ... "Effective relief of neuropathic pain by adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of a small hairpin RNA against GTP ... Such 3'-UTRs often contain both binding sites for microRNAs (miRNAs) as well as for regulatory proteins. By binding to specific ... This protein only binds long dsRNAs, but the mechanism producing this length specificity is unknown.[15] This RNA-binding ...
RAs-related Nuclear protein), also known as GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran, a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAN ...
Ensuing binding of ephrin-B3 to the cytoplasmic adaptor protein, Grb4, leads to the recruitment and binding of Dock180 and p21 ... The binding of Dock180 increases Rac-GTP levels, and PAK mediates the downstream signaling of active Rac that leads to the ... Reverse signaling between ephrin-B proteins and their Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have been found to initiate the retraction ... This suggests that pruning is triggered once the ligand reaches threshold protein levels within a few days after detectable ...
GO:0001948 protein binding. • metal ion binding. • GTP binding. • protein domain specific binding. ... GDP binding site, a catalytic domain, two beta barrel and a beta-sandwich.[16] Crystal structures of TG2 with bound GDP, GTP, ... tTG binds to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM),[9] binding particularly tightly to fibronectin.[10] Extracellular tTG ... Multiple Ca2+ can bind to a single tTG molecule.[6] Specifically, tTG binds up to 6 calcium ions at 5 different binding sites. ...
The binding protein ModA is in a closed conformation with substrate bound in a cleft between its two lobes and attached to the ... Maegley KA, Admiraal SJ, Herschlag D (Aug 1996). "Ras-catalyzed hydrolysis of GTP: a new perspective from model studies". ... Although that is the case, the key point is that the NBD does not dimerize unless ATP and binding protein is bound to the ... Gram-positive microorganisms lack a periplasm such that their binding protein is often a lipoprotein bound to the external face ...
transcription factor binding. • GTP-dependent protein binding. • ‏GO:0001948 ربط بروتيني. • Rho GTPase binding. • protein ... Joberty G، Petersen C، Gao L، Macara IG (2000). "The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C to ... "The mammalian homologue of the Caenorhabditis elegans polarity protein PAR-6 is a binding partner for the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and ... "Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human Par protein complexes reveals an interconnected protein network.". J. Biol. Chem. 279 ...
GTP-binding protein regulators. *see GTP-binding protein regulators. Other. *Activating transcription factor 6 ... protein complex binding. • signal transducer activity. • protein binding. • GTPase activity. • GTPase binding. • G-protein ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene.[5] ... Huang CL, Jan YN, Jan LY (1997). "Binding of the G protein betagamma subunit to multiple regions of G protein-gated inward- ...
GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. Small GTPases act as molecular switches in ... between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. ... They are active or ON when it is bound to GTP and inactive or OFF when bound to GDP.[1] Activation and deactivation of ... GTP-Binding+Protein+Regulators at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Rap GTP-binding protein also known as Ras-related proteins or simply RAP is a type of small GTPase, similar in structure to Ras ... rap+GTP-Binding+Proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... These proteins share approximately 50% amino acid identity with the classical RAS proteins and have numerous structural ... The most striking difference between RAP proteins and RAS proteins resides in their 61st amino acid: glutamine in RAS is ...
Definition of GTP binding proteins. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... Synonym(s): G proteins. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on ... GTP binding proteins. ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Nucleolar GTP-binding protein 1 is involved in the biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit [PMID: 12808088]. It is found as ... Sequential protein association with nascent 60S ribosomal particles.. Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 4449-60 2003 ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ...
Bacterial toxins inhibiting or activating small GTP-binding proteins.. Boquet P1. ... However, exoenzyme C3 is not a toxin, and chimeric proteins fusing C3 with the B moiety of either diphtheria toxin or ... Glucosylation of Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 blocks the binding of these GTPases on their downstream effectors. C. sordellii lethal ...
Small GTP-binding proteins and their role in transport.. Goud B1, McCaffrey M. ... GTP Phosphohydrolases/physiology*. *GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics. *GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism. *GTP-Binding Proteins/ ... rab GTP-Binding Proteins*. *rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins*. *rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins ... rab GTP-Binding Proteins. *rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins. *rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins ...
GTP-binding protein Rho7 variantImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,Q59EN3,Q59EN3_HUMAN GTP-binding protein Rho7 variant (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 PE=2 SV=1 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR027417. P-loop_NTPase. IPR005225. Small_GTP-bd_dom. IPR001806. Small_GTPase. IPR003578. Small_ ... View protein in InterPro. IPR027417. P-loop_NTPase. IPR005225. Small_GTP-bd_dom. IPR001806. Small_GTPase. IPR003578. Small_ ...
Inflammasome Activation by Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicles Requires Guanylate Binding Proteins Ryan Finethy, Sarah Luoma, ...
View protein in InterPro. IPR012675 Beta-grasp_dom_sf. IPR031662 GTP-binding_2. IPR027417 P-loop_NTPase. IPR004095 TGS. ... View protein in InterPro. IPR012675 Beta-grasp_dom_sf. IPR031662 GTP-binding_2. IPR027417 P-loop_NTPase. IPR004095 TGS. ... Developmentally regulated GTP binding protein 2 variantImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ... tr,Q59FW9,Q59FW9_HUMAN Developmentally regulated GTP binding protein 2 variant (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) are monomeric G proteins with a low molecular weight of 20 to 40 kDa. A small G protein ... Also, eIF4E is released from eIF4E binding protein/PHAS-I on phosphorylation of eIF4E binding protein/PHAS-I regulated through ... Angiotensin II Signal Transduction Through Small GTP-Binding Proteins. Haruhiko Ohtsu, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hidekatsu Nakashima, ... Angiotensin II Signal Transduction Through Small GTP-Binding Proteins. Haruhiko Ohtsu, Hiroyuki Suzuki, Hidekatsu Nakashima, ...
GTP binding, the activation step, is promoted by G protein-coupled receptors; hydrolysis of bound GTP, and consequent ... G protein GAPs accelerate GTP hydrolysis by an allosteric mechanism, whereas GAPs for small monomeric GTP-binding proteins ... we measured the rate of GDP/GTP exchange, a combination of GDP release and GTP binding, to test the role of GTP binding to ... Receptor-promoted GTP binding and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-promoted GTP hydrolysis determine the onset and termination ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q02892 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) 4 * Q9CT02 - Mus ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... beta bind their substrates only in the absence of GTP-bound RAN and release them upon direct interaction with GTP-bound RAN, ... and a nuclear GTP-bound state by nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis (PubMed:7819259, PubMed:8896452, PubMed:8636225, PubMed ... GTP-bound form) triggers microtubule assembly at mitotic chromosomes and is required for normal mitotic spindle assembly and ...
GTP-binding proteins then were added. To avoid light scattering from the beads, GTP-binding proteins used here were eluted by ... bound with 1-2 mg/ml GST-fusions of GTP-binding proteins then were added to start the reaction. Five microliters of the ... The Arp2/3 complex mediates actin polymerization induced by the small GTP-binding protein Cdc42. Le Ma, Rajat Rohatgi, and Marc ... The small GTP-binding protein Cdc42 is thought to induce filopodium formation by regulating actin polymerization at the cell ...
Research Grants about gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins*gi go gtp binding protein ... heterotrimeric gtp binding proteins , gtp binding protein alpha subunits , gq g11 gtp binding protein alpha subunits ... protein kinase c*gtp binding proteins*enzyme activation*muscarinic receptors*signal transduction*gs gtp binding protein alpha ... gtp binding protein alpha subunits*cyclic amp*knockout mice*g12 g13 gtp binding protein alpha subunits*patch clamp techniques* ...
GTP analogues cause release of the a subunit of the GTP binding protein, Go, from the plasma membrane of NG10815 cells. Biochem ... The ßy subunits of GTP-binding proteins activate the muscarinic K* channel in heart. Nature 1987; 325: 321-326.PubMedCrossRef ... The a-subunit of the GTP binding protein Gk opens atrial potassium channels. Science 1987; 236: 536-538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Tyrosine kinase and GTP-binding protein activating receptors appear to be essentially different in terms of their lateral ...
... on Shapeways. Learn more before you buy, or discover other cool products in ... The crystal structure of human rac1, a member of the rho family of small G-proteins, complexed with the non-hydrolysable GTP ... with the structure of H-ras indicates that rac1 has an extra alpha-helical domain that is characteristic of the rho G proteins ...
"GTP-Binding Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "GTP-Binding Proteins" was a major or minor ... "GTP-Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... GTP-Binding Proteins*GTP-Binding Proteins. *GTP Binding Proteins. *Proteins, GTP-Binding ... Below are the most recent publications written about "GTP-Binding Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
Guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate these GTP-binding proteins in response to a variety … ... Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal ... GEFs catalyze the dissociation of GDP from the inactive GTP-binding proteins. GTP can then bind and induce structural changes ... GEFs: structural basis for their activation of small GTP-binding proteins Trends Biochem Sci. 1999 Aug;24(8):306-11. doi: ...
GTP-binding protein regulators,state=collapsed}}. or {{GTP-binding protein regulators,state=uncollapsed}}. to instantiate the ... GTP-binding protein regulators,state=autocollapse}}. to collapse the template only if there is another template of the same ... Retrieved from "" ...
... "rho GTP-Binding Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "rho GTP-Binding Proteins" was a major or ... "rho GTP-Binding Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and ... rho GTP-Binding Proteins*rho GTP-Binding Proteins. *GTP-Binding Proteins, rho ...
The Rab family of low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins are thought to guide membrane fusion between a transport vesicle and ... The small GTP-binding protein Rab3A regulates a late step in synaptic vesicle fusion Nature. 1997 Jun 19;387(6635):810-4. doi: ... The Rab family of low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins are thought to guide membrane fusion between a transport vesicle and ... The docking and fusion of vesicles is, however, a complex multistep reaction, and the precise point at which Rab proteins act ...
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm ... Proteins: 90489*Carrier Proteins: 11456*GTP-Binding Proteins: 5070*Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: 286*ran GTP-Binding Protein ... GTP-Binding Proteins: 5070*Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: 286*ran GTP-Binding Protein: 16*RanGTP-binding protein 17: 2 ... ran Proteins; ras-Related Nuclear Protein; GTP-Binding Protein, ran; Nuclear Protein, ras-Related; ran GTP Binding Protein; ras ...
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin ... ARHB GTP Binding Protein; GTP-Binding Protein, ARHB; GTP-Binding Protein, arh6; GTP-Binding Protein, rhoB; arh6 GTP Binding ... GTP-Binding Proteins: 5070*Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: 286*rho GTP-Binding Proteins: 320*rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: 4 ... GTP-Binding Proteins: 5070*Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: 286*rho GTP-Binding Proteins: 320*rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: 4 ...
GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... mitotic cell cycle magnesium ion binding GTPase activity protein binding calmodulin binding GTP binding nucleus immune response ... mitotic cell cycle magnesium ion binding GTPase activity protein binding calmodulin binding GTP binding nucleus immune response ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. P55040 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ...
GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... ion binding GTPase activity calcium channel regulator activity protein binding calmodulin binding GTP binding GTP binding ... ion binding GTPase activity calcium channel regulator activity protein binding calmodulin binding GTP binding GTP binding ... Protein : pattern, domain, 3D structure. UniProt/SwissProt. P55040 [function] [subcellular_location] [family_and_domains] [ ...
... mG-proteins). As distinct from animal cells comprising 40 subfamilies of Rab proteins, which are the key... ... Rab proteins represent the largest family of monomeric GTP-binding proteins ( ... In plants, Rab proteins represent the largest family of monomeric GTP-binding proteins (mG-proteins). As distinct from animal ... plants monomeric GTP-binding proteins Rab proteins exocytosis endocytosis biotic and abiotic factors signal transduction ...
The alpha subunit of the GTP binding protein Gk opens atrial potassium channels ... The alpha subunit of the GTP binding protein Gk opens atrial potassium channels ... The alpha subunit of the GTP binding protein Gk opens atrial potassium channels ... The alpha subunit of the GTP binding protein Gk opens atrial potassium channels ...
GTP binding protein, 25kDa)), Authors: Fátima Valdés-Mora, Teresa Gómez del Pulgar, Juan Carlos Lacal. Published in: Atlas ... Molecular cloning of the gene for the human placental GTP-binding protein Gp (G25K): identification of this GTP-binding protein ... activity GTPase activity GTPase activity protein serine/threonine kinase activity protein binding GTP binding GTP binding ... activity GTPase activity GTPase activity protein serine/threonine kinase activity protein binding GTP binding GTP binding ...
  • Inactivation of the active small GTPase is achieved through hydrolysis of the GTP by the small GTPase's intrinsic GTP hydrolytic activity. (
  • The rate of GTP hydrolysis for small GTPases is generally too slow to create physiologically relevant transient signals, and thus requires another class of regulatory proteins to accelerate this activity, the GTPase activating proteins (GAPs). (
  • In this system, the rate constant for GAP-stimulated hydrolysis of Gα q -bound GTP at 30°C was 9-12 s −1 for PLC-β1 and 22-27 s −1 for RGS4. (
  • At physiological concentrations of GTP, exchange was limited by the rate of dissociation of GDP from the receptor-G q complex, with a maximal rate of 1.8 s −1 at 30°C. Comparison of activation and deactivation rates help explain how GDP/GTP exchange balance rapid GTP hydrolysis to maintain steady-state signal amplitude. (
  • hydrolysis of bound GTP, and consequent deactivation is accelerated by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). (
  • GAPs increase the GTP hydrolysis activity. (
  • Functionally important regions of these proteins, including the "effector binding" domain, the C-terminal Cys residues for membrane attachment, and the four regions involved in GTP-binding and hydrolysis, are highly conserved. (
  • Furthermore, we show that the yeast GTPase-activating protein Gyp6, shown to be specifically required to control the GTP hydrolysis of the yeast Ypt6 protein, could interact with tobacco GTP-binding proteins. (
  • It increases in vitro the GTP hydrolysis rate of the wild-type Nt-Rab7 protein. (
  • In addition, it also increases, at different levels, the GTP hydrolysis rates of a Nt-Rab7m protein with a Rab6 effector domain and of two other chimaeric Nt-Rab6/Nt-Rab7 proteins. (
  • Hydrolysis of bound GTP by ARF protein triggers uncoating of Golgi-derived COP-coated vesicles. (
  • The cycle of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis by a small GTP-binding protein, ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), helps to provide vectoriality to vesicle transport. (
  • The conformation of Ran-GDP facilitates an interaction with RCC1 to catalyze nucleotide exchange, whereas the conformation of Ran-GTP facilitates an interaction with the GTPase-activating protein RanGAP to stimulate nucleotide hydrolysis. (
  • upon reaching the cytoplasm, disassembly of the complex is triggered by RanGAP-stimulated GTP hydrolysis ( 10 ). (
  • GTP binding and hydrolysis by the signal recognition particle during initiation of protein translocation. (
  • Miller J , Wilhelm H, Gierasch L, Gilmore R, Walter P . GTP binding and hydrolysis by the signal recognition particle during initiation of protein translocation. (
  • Binds GTP saturably and exhibits a low intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis. (
  • A more than tenfold increase in the rate of hydrolysis of membrane-bound GTP was observed when cytosol and arachidonic acid were added simultanously, i.e. under the same conditions where NADPH oxidase becomes activated. (
  • Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of Rho and Rab small GTPases and not only prevent exchange (maintaining the small GTPase in an off-state), but also prevent the small GTPase from localizing at the membrane, which is their place of action. (
  • Rap GTP-binding protein also known as Ras-related proteins or simply RAP is a type of small GTPase, similar in structure to Ras. (
  • GDP/GTP exchange, which reactivates G q , was the principal rate-limiting step for the GTPase cycle and was also faster than previously thought. (
  • First, a GAP can simply inhibit signaling by decreasing the fraction of G protein that is in the active state during the GTPase cycle. (
  • For those receptors whose signals are transduced to effector systems by GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins), a mechanistic equivalent of such a stimulus is an increased ability of agonist-bound receptor to accelerate nucleotide exchange and thus GTPase activity on the G-protein molecule. (
  • One type has no intrinsic activity, since it neither stimulates nor inhibits the GTPase activity of G proteins and its apparent affinity for the receptor is not altered by pertussis toxin-mediated uncoupling of receptor and G protein. (
  • GTPase involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, participating both to the import and the export from the nucleus of proteins and RNAs (PubMed:10400640, PubMed:8276887, PubMed:8896452, PubMed:8636225, PubMed:8692944, PubMed:9351834, PubMed:9428644, PubMed:9822603, PubMed:26272610). (
  • CDC42 encodes a 21.3 kDa, 191 amino acids small GTPase protein that belongs to the Rho family of Ras GTPases superfamily. (
  • This cycle is regulated by its intrinsic GTPase activity and its interaction with three protein families: guanine exchange factors (GEFs), guanine dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) (Bishop and Hall, 2000). (
  • Rho proteins consist only of the GTPase domain and short N-terminal and C-terminal extensions. (
  • All the members are monomeric proteins with Mrs between 20,000 and 30,000 which exhibit both GDP/GTP-binding and GTPase activities. (
  • The GTP/GDP cycle is mainly controlled by GTPase-activating proteins, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) ( Boguski and McCormick, 1993 ). (
  • RAC2 is a small signaling G protein/GTPase which is part of the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins which regulate cell growth, actin cytoskeletal organization, cell proliferation, survival, cell cycle progression, gene transcription rgulation and the activation of protein kinases. (
  • Rac2 is a small signaling G protein (more specifically a GTPase), and is a member of the Rac subfamily of the family Rho family of GTPases. (
  • Here we show that the 54K subunit (M(r) 54,000) of SRP (SRP54) is a GTP-binding protein stabilized in a nucleotide-free state by signal sequences, and that the SRP receptor both increases the affinity of SRP54 for GTP and activates its GTPase. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase that acts as a homodimer. (
  • The GTPase activity of membranes isolated from differentiated HL-60 cells was investigated to obtain information about the possible involvement of membrane-bound GTP-binding proteins in the regulation of the NADPH oxidase. (
  • Separation of the GTP-binding proteins of the solubilized membrane by sucrose density gradient centrifugation, allowed us to ascribe the observed effect to the stimulation of the GTPase activity of small GTP-binding proteins by cytosolic component(s). (
  • Indirect evidence suggests that, in contrast to the effect upon recombinant ras and ras-GTPase-activating protein, in intact HL-60 membranes the interaction of rap1A with rap-GTPase-activating protein, is strongly enhanced by arachidonic acid. (
  • There are ≥2 transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known to mediate Ang II function, namely, the type 1 and type 2 (AT 1 and AT 2 ) receptors. (
  • its affinity for receptors is increased following uncoupling from G proteins. (
  • Nuclear import receptors such as importin beta bind their substrates only in the absence of GTP-bound RAN and release them upon direct interaction with GTP-bound RAN , while export receptors behave in the opposite way. (
  • Tyrosine kinase and GTP-binding protein activating receptors appear to be essentially different in terms of their lateral mobility properties, and it seems plausible to relate these differences to their distinct signal transduction mechanisms. (
  • Tolkovsky A, Braun S, Levitzki A. Kinetics of interaction between 3-receptors, GTP-proteins and the catalytic subunit of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase. (
  • Biochemical studies of CDC42 show that, in response to external signals originating from cell surface receptors and cell adhesion molecules, GEFs engage CDC42 and form macromolecular complexes with scaffolding proteins and/or kinases and with specific effector molecules triggering a signalling cascade to direct cellular responses (Cerione, 2004). (
  • CDC42 acts as a signal transduction convergence point in intracellular signalling networks, and mediates multiple signalling pathways, including tyrosine kinase receptors, heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), cytokine receptors, integrins, and physical and chemical stress (Etienne-Manneville, 2004). (
  • A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP- BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface . (
  • While certain virally encoded receptors may also bind a number of these chemokines ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 11 ), a receptor for lymphotactin remains to be identified. (
  • Transport through the NPC requires soluble receptors that recognize a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a nuclear export signal (NES) within a protein destined for import or export, respectively. (
  • Upon binding to NLS or NES cargo, receptors mediate transport of the receptor-cargo complex through the central gated channel of the NPC in a poorly understood translocation reaction. (
  • In addition to NLS and NES receptors, nuclear import and export pathways require the direct participation of Ran, a small GTP-binding protein of the Ras superfamily ( 8 , 27 ). (
  • G proteins are membrane-bound molecules involved in coupling of surface receptors with signal transduction effector systems in multiple cell types including T lymphocytes. (
  • In view of the importance of the T cell activation process, we herein examined G proteins in untreated or antibody-modulated Jurkat T cells as well as in genetic variants lacking either CD3-Ti or CD2 surface receptors. (
  • ADAMs as mediators of EGF receptor transactivation by G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of transmembrane receptors that play critical roles in normal cellular physiology and constitute a major pharmacological target for multiple indications, including analgesia, blood pressure regulation, and the treatment of psychiatric disease. (
  • abstract = "The developmental changes in GTP-binding proteins and the regulation of their appearance by calcium ions were investigated during early sexual development in Dictyostelium discoideum. (
  • A small G protein acts as a molecular switch that cycles between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. (
  • CDC42 switches between an active GTP-bound state and inactive GDP-bound state. (
  • Active, GTP-bound Ras proteins interact with specific downstream effectors, that is, signalling or structural proteins that are ultimately responsible for mediating their cellular effects. (
  • RAC2 cycles between an active gtp-bound and inactive gdp-bound state. (
  • Guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins (subunit composition alpha beta gamma) dissociate on activation with guanosine triphosphate (GTP) analogs and magnesium to give alpha-guanine nucleotide complexes and free beta gamma subunits. (
  • The Ras superfamily is comprised of at least four large families of regulatory guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins, including the Arfs. (
  • Upon ligand binding, GPCRs catalyze the activation of intracellular G-proteins by stimulating the incorporation of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (
  • Small GTPases act as molecular switches in signaling pathways, which act to regulate functions of other proteins. (
  • Activation and deactivation of small GTPases can be regarded as occurring in a cycle, between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound form, regulated by other regulatory proteins. (
  • The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (
  • Glucosylation of Rho, Rac, and Cdc42 blocks the binding of these GTPases on their downstream effectors. (
  • Activated in response to upstream signals, small GTPases act as molecular switches (ON when GTP-bound, otherwise OFF) and control a variety of essential cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Like other Ras-related GTPases, Ran adopts different conformations in its GDP- and GTP-bound states ( 49 ). (
  • The principal attention is paid to Rop mG-proteins, unique small GTPases of eukaryotic cells functioning during various developmental stages of plants, from pollen tube and root hair growth to plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. (
  • Expression of Rab small GTPases in epithelial Caco-2 cells: Rab21 is an apically located GTP-binding protein in polarised intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • Heterotrimeric Gi proteins link Hedgehog signaling to activation of Rho small GTPases to promote fibroblast migration. (
  • These results identify a novel class of GTP-utilizing proteins, with apparently diverse functions. (
  • Ras mediates its effect on cell proliferation mainly by activation of its effector Raf to initiate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular signal regulated kinase [ERK]) cascade. (
  • Attachment of S. flexneri to CHO cells can elicit tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125 FAK and paxillin, localized accumulation of F-actin, vinculin, and talin, and activation of protein kinase C, which were all blocked by the treatment with C3 transferase. (
  • RANTES-induced PLD activation was augmented by GTPγS, but not GDPβS, and inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide, as well as the fungal metabolite brefeldin A, and C3 exoenzyme ( Clostridium botulinum ), implicating the activation of RhoA. (
  • We have demonstrated recently that the chemokine RANTES is capable of stimulating T lymphocyte activation via direct receptor-mediated activation of dual signal-transduction pathways involving pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric G proteins and tyrosine kinase enzymes ( 15 ). (
  • Liu Y, Xiao H, Tian Y, Nekrasova T, Hao X, Lee HJ, Suh N, Yang CS, Minden A. The pak4 protein kinase plays a key role in cell survival and tumorigenesis in athymic mice. (
  • Protein kinase activity is rapidly up-regulated by ethylene, the effect is inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene, and the activation is bimodal. (
  • Implicit in the presence of a putative MAPKKK in the transduction sequence is that protein phosphorylation via a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade(s) is involved in mediating responses to ethylene. (
  • Equally, there is evidence that ethylene affects protein kinase activity. (
  • Involvement of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein and rho protein, but not protein kinase C, in agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization of skinned muscle of guinea pig vas deferens. (
  • We studied the involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) and a small GTP-binding protein (G-protein), rho, in receptor-mediated Ca2+ sensitization of the contractile apparatus of smooth muscle of guinea pig vas deferens. (
  • Next the effect of phosphorylation of partially purified Gi-protein by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was studied. (
  • We purified from bovine brain a MEK kinase which activated MEK in a GTPgammaS-Ki-Ras-dependent manner in a cell-free system and identified it as B-Raf complexed with 14-3-3 proteins. (
  • A possible target for the subunits is Ste20p, whose structural homolog, the serine/threonine kinase PAK, is activated by GTP-binding p21s Cdc42 and Rac1. (
  • Angiotensin II-induced activation of p21-activated kinase 1 requires Ca2+ and protein kinase C{delta} in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • The RLIP76 N-terminus binds ARNO to regulate PI 3-kinase, Arf6 and Rac signaling, cell spreading and migration. (
  • In this review, we describe detailed mechanisms of signal transduction pathways of Ang II involving small G proteins in VSMCs together with their functional significances in mediating vascular remodeling. (
  • A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate PHOSPHOLIPASE C dependent signaling pathways. (
  • They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. (
  • Activated G-proteins then stimulate signaling pathways that elicit cellular responses. (
  • A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. (
  • Rap1 belongs to the Ras subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, which is considered to control cell growth, differentiation and survival. (
  • A subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, rab, has been shown to be involved in regulation of vesicular traffic in eukaryotic cells. (
  • GTPgammaS binding to GST-Rac was also decreased by brain Gbetagamma whereas nucleotide binding to GST-Cdc42 was not changed. (
  • Due to the exchange of GDP to GTP by CDC42 itself occurs very slowly, GEFs promote such exchange from GDP- to GTP-bound state. (
  • Thus, RhoGDIs sequester CDC42-GDP in the cytoplasm through a transfer of geranylgeranyl moiety from membrane to GDI and inhibit its spontaneous GDP/GTP exchange activity. (
  • 1991). A comparison of the RhoA-GDP and [Val14]RhoA-GTP[S] crystal structures, reveals that the conformational differences between the GTP and GDP-bound forms are restricted primarily to two surface loops, named switch regions I and II that correspond to CDC42 amino acids 26 and 59 (Bishop and Hall, 2000). (
  • cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein" by people in this website by year, and whether "cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein" by people in Profiles. (
  • Using various dominant mutants of these G proteins, we demonstrate the requirement of Cdc42 for phosphoinositide-induced actin assembly. (
  • Our results suggest that phosphoinositides may act to facilitate GTP exchange on Cdc42, as well as to anchor Cdc42 and actin nucleation activities. (
  • Isolation and characterization of proteins involved in the routing of transport vesicles in polarized cells. (
  • With the advent of enabling technologies within proteomics, it is now feasible to undertake a systematic characterization of the proteins that are released to the interstitial space by all the cell types resident in the tumor microenvironment. (
  • In addition, brain Gbetagamma, but not transducin Gbetagamma, was able to inhibit GTPgammaS binding to GST-Rho in a concentration-dependent manner. (
  • Culture with lovastatin (to inhibit synthesis of endogenous MVA) caused the accumulation in the cytosol of low-M(r) GBPs (labelled by the [alpha-32P]GTP overlay technique), suggesting a disturbance of membrane association. (
  • In yeast, mutations in the sec4 or ypt1 genes encoding small GTP-binding proteins inhibit constitutive membrane flow at the plasma membrane or Golgi complex, respectively4-6. (
  • Prototypically, the growth factor receptor on activation recruits a Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), Sos, via adaptor proteins Shc and Grb2. (
  • Guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate these GTP-binding proteins in response to a variety of signals. (
  • The encoded protein is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PREB and is involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. (
  • Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) are monomeric G proteins with a low molecular weight of 20 to 40 kDa. (
  • It is demonstrated that, in etiolated pea ( Pisum sativum ) epicotyls, ethylene affects the activation of both monomeric GTP-binding proteins (monomeric G-proteins) and protein kinases. (
  • For monomeric G-proteins, the effect may be a rapid (2 min) and bimodal up-regulation, a transiently unimodal activation, or a transient down-regulation. (
  • Immunoprecipitation studies indicate that some of the monomeric G-proteins affected may be of the Rab class. (
  • Other candidates that have emerged as possible components of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are monomeric GTP-binding proteins (monomeric G-proteins). (
  • it has been shown that ethylene at physiological concentrations activates monomeric G-proteins. (
  • 100 small G proteins have been identified in eukaryotes from yeast to humans. (
  • We demonstrate that the plant Rab5, Rab6, and Rab11 proteins, similar to their mammalian and yeast counterparts, are tightly bound to membranes and that they exhibit different solubilization characteristics. (
  • However, it does not interact with the wild-type Nt-Rab6 protein, which is most similar to the yeast Ypt6 protein. (
  • Dynamin is also homologous to the Mx proteins, involved in interferon-induced viral resistance, and the product of the yeast VPS1 gene, involved in vacuolar protein sorting. (
  • The putative Cdc42p-binding domain of Ste20p, expressed as a fusion protein, binds human and yeast GTP-binding Cdc42p. (
  • A GTP-binding protein of Escherichia coli has homology to yeast RAS proteins. (
  • By biochemical analysis, we have demonstrated that one of the small GTP-binding proteins associated with the atrial granules is a rab12 protein (rab12p), one of the proteins that are most closely related to a Sec4 protein of yeast. (
  • Small GTP-binding protein profiles were determined by [alpha-32P] GTP overlay assays. (
  • We report that ICP4 was labeled in isolated nuclei of infected cells by [alpha-32P]GTP or [alpha-32P]ATP. (
  • The labeling of ICP4 by [alpha-32P]GTP or [alpha-32P]ATP required excess GTP, ATP, GDP, and ADP and occurred also in the presence of excess GTP(gamma)S. While GDP and ADP activated the labeling process, only GTP and ATP labeled ICP4. (
  • Labeling studies with tritiated ATP and GTP showed that ICP4 is nucleotidylated, and chemical degradation of ICP4 labeled with [alpha-32P]GTP yielded ribose-5-phosphate. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. (
  • A gene on chromosome 11q23.3 that encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the CXC chemokine receptor family, which binds to B-lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC) and is involved in B-cell migration into B-cell follicles of lymph nodes, spleen and Peyer patches. (
  • The Streptomyces coelicolor obg gene, which encodes a putative GTP-binding protein of the Obg/Gtp1 family, was characterized. (
  • has shown that, in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum ) fruit, the transcription of a gene, which showed high homology to a monomeric G-protein from pea, is rapidly but transiently up-regulated by ethylene. (
  • However, although a substantial increase in Gαs protein levels was observed upon administration of TSA to primary cultures of human myometrial cells, this was not preceded by an increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) and thus an elevation in gene transcription. (
  • Infected cell protein 4 (ICP4), the product of the alpha 4 gene, regulates herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 gene expression at the transcriptional level both positively and negatively. (
  • ARF1) refers specifically to the human gene or protein, whereas when only the first letter is capitalized (e.g. (
  • An 18.2 kDa cholera toxin substrate and three toxin insensitive bands (18.6, 18.8, and 24 kDa) are novel proteins antigenically related both to mammalian G-proteins and gene products. (
  • Rac proteins play important roles in multiple cellular events, including actin cytoskeletal organization, cell proliferation and survival, cell cycle progression, and gene transcription regulation. (
  • Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. (
  • SmgGDS was able to stimulate the incorporation of guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate GTP[gamma S] into the RhoA, Rac2, Rac1, Rap1A and CDC42Hs GTP-binding proteins, but the activity was greatest toward RhoA and Rac2. (
  • Gbetagamma dimers of heterotrimeric G proteins have been shown to be important for the translocation of cytosolic proteins to membranes. (
  • The addition with lithium ion to the protein caused a decrease of the amounts of ADPribosylation of Gi protein by IAP in human platelet membranes and weekened the inhibition'of adenylate cyclase activity by activated Gi-protein, though the dissociation of the three subunits did not change. (
  • The treatment caused a decrease of the amounts of ADP-ribosylation of Gi protein by IAP in human platelet membranes, weekened the phospholipase C activity by activated Gi-protein in differentiated HL-60 cells and inhibited the dissociation of the three subunits induced by Mg2+ and GTPgamma S. Western blot showed no remarkable quantitative changes in Gi protein in the experimental conditions mentioned above. (
  • The time course of cAMP production by S49 cell membranes in the presence of forskolin and a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog can yield information about the regulation of adenylate cyclase by both the inhibitory and stimulatory GTP-binding proteins (Gi and Gs). (
  • Novel GTP-binding Proteins in Plasma Membranes of the Fungus Metarhizi" by Raymond J. St. Leger, Donald W. Roberts et al. (
  • We report the existence of several families of GTP-binding proteins in plasma membranes of Metarhizium anisopliae. (
  • The mechanism of assembly and activation of the oxidase from its cytosolic and membrane-bound components is unknown, but may require the activity of a guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding component. (
  • A cytosolic GTP-binding protein (Gox) that regulates the NADPH oxidase of neutrophils was identified. (
  • Nervous system nuclear protein induced by axotomy 1 (Nna1, AGTPBP1 or cytosolic carboxypeptidase-1) is related to zinc carboxypeptidases and contains an ATP/GTP binding motif, a basic and a bipartite nuclear localization signal. (
  • Binding of SRP to the signal sequence as it emerges from the ribosome creates a cytosolic targeting complex containing the nascent polypeptide chain, the translating ribosome, and SRP. (
  • Functional conservation of cytosolic proteins required for endosomal vesicle fusion. (
  • GTP-binding protein regulators regulate G proteins in several different ways. (
  • As distinct from animal cells comprising 40 subfamilies of Rab proteins, which are the key regulators of intracellular vesicular transport, numerous Rab proteins in Arabidopsis and other plant species could be grouped in only eight subfamilies on the basis of their functional properties. (
  • Rab proteins are the regulators of. (
  • LOW-molecular-weight GTP-binding proteins are strong candidates for regulators of membrane traffic1-3. (
  • 5-8 Importantly, recent accumulating evidence highlighted the significance of these small G proteins as essential molecular switches that trigger many of the signal transduction and functions of Ang II. (
  • Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. (
  • Small GTP-binding proteins of the Ras superfamily function as molecular switches in fundamental events such as signal transduction, cytoskeleton dynamics and intracellular trafficking. (
  • These findings are consistent with the proposed roles of small GTP-binding proteins as molecular switches that regulate fundamental cellular processes, including growth, differentiation, and maintenance of cell structure. (
  • In cultured VSMCs, Ang II stimulates the formation of Ras-GTP and Ras-Raf association. (
  • We have found that GTPγS stimulates actin assembly in the presence of endogenous membrane vesicles in low speed extracts. (
  • Indeed, NXT1 stimulates nuclear protein export of the NES-containing protein PKI in vitro. (
  • To date over 70 Rho-GEFs, 60 Rho-GAPs and 3 Rho-GDIs have been identified in mammals, reflecting the complexity of regulation of these classes of proteins. (
  • The results strongly suggested that the qualitative changes of Gi-proteins are physiologically and pathologically functional in the regulation of transmembrane signal transduction. (
  • In almost all cases, this regulation is posttranslational and the locus of this posttranslational control is not on actin, but rather on actin binding proteins that control actin dynamics in the cell. (
  • Non-steady state kinetic analysis of the regulation of adenylate cyclase by GTP-binding proteins. (
  • Experimental depletion of the essential GTP-binding proteins was examined in the context of cell morphology and chromosome replication, and it was found that two proteins, Bex and YqeH, appeared to participate in the regulation of initiation of chromosome replication. (
  • This protein remained at high levels in Ca2+-deficient cultures, suggesting that its down-regulation is linked to the events of sexual development. (
  • Thus, Gk resembles Gs, the stimulatory regulatory component of adenylyl cyclase, and transducin, the regulatory component of the visual system, in that it regulates its effector function--the activity of the ligand-gated potassium channel--through its guanine nucleotide binding subunit. (
  • We genetically and biochemically isolated the regulatory proteins (RDI1 and ROM1/ROM2) and target proteins (PKC1, BNI1/BNR1, glucan synthase) for Rho. (
  • We had isolated its regulatory protein, named Rab GDI,and its target protein, named Rabphilin-3A.In this research project, we isolated other regulatory proteins for Rab3A,Rab3 GEP and Rab3 GAP. (
  • The presence of such a large number of regulatory proteins makes it very difficult to study the physiological mechanisms controlling actin functions. (
  • ICP4, the major regulatory protein of herpes simplex virus, shares features common to GTP-binding proteins and is adenylated and guanylated. (
  • of regulatory proteins with mol wts of 20-30 kD. (
  • These structures, together with biochemical studies, have allowed a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of activation of Ras-like GTP-binding proteins and suggested how they might represent targets for therapeutic intervention. (
  • Molecular cloning analysis has revealed that dynamin contains the three consensus elements characteristic of GTP-binding proteins, and biochemical results support a role for GTP in dynamin function. (
  • The Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins comprises over 100 members, all functioning according to a unique biochemical paradigm. (
  • These data provide functional and biochemical evidence that at least certain G proteins are intact in the absence of surface expression of CD3-Ti or CD2 molecules and imply that CD3-Ti desensitization is not singularly due to G protein loss. (
  • The small G proteins in this superfamily are structurally classified into ≥5 families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Sar/Arf, and Ran families. (
  • Multiple downstream effectors of small G proteins, some of them being protein kinases, have been identified. (
  • 1,2 Recently, small G proteins have been noted as novel therapeutic targets in cardiovascular medicine. (
  • In the present research project, we studied the functions and modes of activation and action of small G proteins. (
  • RhoGDI, a guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitor for the Rho family, inhibits phosphoinositide-induced actin assembly, suggesting the involvement of the Rho family small G proteins. (
  • Chemokines are a superfamily of small molecular mass proteins, related in primary structure by the conservation of a 4-cysteine motif ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (
  • In order to know the qualitative changes of inhibitory GTPbinding(G)protein in vitro, we did ADP-ribosylation of Gi protein by pertussis toxin(islet-activating protein, IAP), an experiment about dissociation of the trimer of the three alpha beta gamma-subunits into alpha -subunits and beta gamma -subunits and western blot using an antibody for Gi-protein. (
  • Although it is relatively easy to identify the mechanism by which individual proteins act from in vitro studies, it is difficult to reveal the network of interactions that occur in vivo. (
  • Concurrently, there is rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins, including pp125 FAK , paxillin, and ZAP-70, but not TCR-ζ ( 16 ). (
  • G q and m1 muscarinic cholinergic receptor were co-reconstituted into proteoliposomes with one of two GAPs: phospholipase C (PLC)-β1, the major G q -regulated effector protein, and RGS4, a GAP commonly thought to be an inhibitor of G q signaling. (
  • Without such GAP activity, the decay of G protein signaling on termination of input from receptor would take up to 10 s at physiological temperatures, far longer than usually observed physiologically and much too slow for many signaling events (synaptic transmission, response to light, secretion, contraction, etc.) ( 4 , 7 , 16 ). (
  • According to classical models of drug-receptor interactions, competitive antagonists share with agonists the ability to bind to a common site on the receptor molecule. (
  • A vasopressin antagonist that binds to the V2-receptor of LLC-PK, renal epithelial cells is highly laterally mobile but does not effect ligand-induced receptor immobilization. (
  • Schlessinger J. The epidermal growth factor receptor as a multifunctional allosteric protein. (
  • Molecular mechanism of biased signaling in a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor. (
  • A Correction to the Perspective Titled "Endothelin Action on Pituitary Lactotrophs: One Receptor, Many GTP-Binding Proteins" by Bertram et al. (
  • Assembly and disassembly reactions of receptor-substrate complexes are coordinated by Ran, a GTP-binding protein whose nucleotide state is regulated catalytically by effector proteins. (
  • The export of mRNA from the nucleus is also thought to be receptor mediated and dependent on Ran-GTP, but the specific contributions of transport factors to this pathway are much less clear than for protein export. (
  • It has recently been proposed that modulation of T cell receptor components with MAbs results in a physical loss or functional inactivation of G protein(s). (
  • 43- and 41-kDa G protein alpha chains are ADP ribosylated with cholera (CTX) and pertussis (PTX) toxins, respectively, in wild type and receptor minus cell populations. (
  • Importantly, AlF4- can also induce polyphosphoinositide turnover in Jurkat cells whose T cell receptor proteins have been modulated with anti-CD3 MAb. (
  • This complex is directed to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane as a result of its interaction with the SRP receptor, a membrane protein composed of two subunits, SR alpha and SR beta, each of which also contains a GTP-binding domain. (
  • In the presence of GTP, SRP receptor binding to SRP causes the latter to dissociate from both the signal sequence and the ribosome. (
  • GTP is then hydrolysed so that SRP can be released from the SRP receptor and returned to the cytosol. (
  • Moshkov, I. 2007-11-07 00:00:00 The control of plant growth, differentiation, and development is considered in relation to the involvement of monomeric GTP-binding proteins (mG-proteins) in the extra-and intracellular signal transduction. (
  • Pheromone signalling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by the STE4-STE18 G-protein beta gamma subunits. (
  • The signal recognition particle (SRP) consists of one RNA and six protein subunits. (
  • GEFs catalyze the dissociation of GDP from the inactive GTP-binding proteins. (
  • These results are direct evidence for an association-dissociation cycle of a small GTP-binding protein during traffic of its host membrane. (
  • Interaction with RAN BP1 induces a conformation change in the complex formed by XPO1 and RAN that triggers the release of the nuclear export signal of cargo proteins (PubMed:20485264). (
  • GTP can then bind and induce structural changes that allow interaction with effectors. (
  • Thus, NXT1 regulates the Crm1-dependent export pathway through its direct interaction with Ran-GTP. (
  • Isoprenoid modification of these proteins was not absolutely required for the interaction with smgGDS. (
  • A GTP-Binding Protein involved in regulating a Signal Transduction pathway that controls assembly of Focal Adhesions and Actin Stress Fibers . (
  • The ERM family (Ezrin, Radixin, and Moesin), which directly interacts with actin filaments through its C-terminal region and with a transmembrane protein, CD44, through its N-terminal region, is located at these areas. (
  • Both phosphoinositides and small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family have been postulated to regulate actin assembly in cells. (
  • Vesicles containing phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate or phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate can induce actin assembly even in the absence of GTPγS. (
  • There are ∼50 actin binding proteins identified so far that directly interact with actin and modulate its assembly properties ( Kreis and Vale, 1993 ). (
  • PI(4,5)P 2 interacts with several actin binding proteins. (
  • Though lipid binding has been studied extensively in individual actin binding proteins, it is not clear which phosphoinositides are able to modulate actin assembly in cells. (
  • The Rac proteins, Rac1 and Rac2, are essential components of the NADPH oxidase system of phagocytes and regulate the actin assembly associated with membrane ruffling. (
  • The available data concerning the involvement of these mG-proteins in the control of vesicle trafficking agree generally with the paradigms accepted for other eukaryotes. (
  • Coat assembly is triggered when ARF binds GTP, initiating transport vesicle budding, and coat disassembly is triggered when ARF hydrolyzes GTP, allowing the uncoated vesicle to fuse. (
  • The Rab family of low-molecular-mass GTP-binding proteins are thought to guide membrane fusion between a transport vesicle and the target membrane, and to determine the specificity of docking(1-3). (
  • They are active or 'ON' when it is bound to GTP and inactive or 'OFF' when bound to GDP. (
  • The mechanisms whereby cells independently regulate signal kinetics and signal amplitude are therefore central to understanding G protein function. (
  • In active state, RAC2 binds to a variety of effector proteins to regulate cellular responses, such as secretory processes, phagocytose of apoptotic cells and epithelial cell polarization. (
  • Nucleolar GTP-binding protein 1 is involved in the biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit [ PMID: 12808088 ]. (
  • Analysis of substrates for cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated [32P]ADP-ribosylation in D. discoideum extracts determined that the 52-kDa protein is a G-α subunit similar to mammalian Gs. (
  • In this regard, Ras and Rho G proteins are the most investigated molecules in the cardiovascular system. (
  • The involvement of Gbetagamma in those signaling processes mediated by small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family was studied using purified proteins. (
  • In plants, Rab proteins represent the largest family of monomeric GTP-binding proteins (mG-proteins). (
  • Pretreatment of preparations with C3 exoenzyme of Clostridium botulinum, which is known to ADP-ribosylate rho family proteins, with NAD resulted in complete inhibition of NE- and GTP (GTP gamma S)-induced Ca2+ sensitization. (
  • Novikova, G. 2011-01-18 00:00:00 In plants, Rab proteins represent the largest family of monomeric GTP-binding proteins (mG-proteins). (
  • RHEB (Ras homolog Enriched in Brain) is an evolutionarily conserved member of the Ras family of small GTP binding proteins originally found to be rapidly induced by synaptic activity in the hippocampus following seizure. (
  • The Arf family includes three different groups of proteins: the Arfs, Arf-like (Arls), and SARs. (
  • Six GTP-binding proteins of the Era/Obg family are essential for cell growth in Bacillus subtilisbbThe primer sequences used for PCR in this study are shown as supplementary data on Microbiology Online ( (
  • When the complete genomic sequence of B. subtilis was surveyed for genes encoding GTP-binding proteins of the Era/Obg family, nine such genes were identified. (
  • Collectively, these results suggest that members of the GTP-binding Era/Obg family are important proteins with precise, yet still not fully understood, roles in bacterial growth and viability. (
  • A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. (
  • We offer GTP binding protein era homolog RNAi for use in common research applications. (
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  • On the other hand, these proteins play an important role in plant responses to abiotic and biotic factors, indicating specific for plants functions of Rab proteins. (
  • Functions of Rab Proteins at Presynaptic Sites. (
  • Publications] Y.Watanabe: 'Changes of ADP-ribosylation of GTP-binding protein by pertussis toxin in human platelets during long term treatment of manic depression with lithium carbonate. (
  • Publications] H.Kawamoto: 'Effects of lithium ion on ADP-ribosylation of inhibitory GTP-binding protein by pertussis toxin, islet-activating protein. (
  • An additional 23 kDa pertussis toxin substrate (the major G-protein in a crude mycelial extract) reacted strongly with antisera to G-proteins but not with anti-serum. (
  • In brain, the Rab protein Rab3A is specific to synaptic vesicles, whose exocytosis can be monitored with submillisecond resolution by following synaptic transmission. (
  • Inhibition of luteinizing-hormone exocytosis by guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate reveals involvement of a GTP-binding protein distal to second-messenger generation. (
  • A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. (
  • We recently identified dynamin as a third nucleotide-sensitive microtubule-associated protein in brain tissue, in addition to kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. (
  • Because RCC1 is nuclear and RanGAP is cytoplasmic, a steep gradient of Ran-GTP/Ran-GDP is predicted to exist across the nuclear envelope ( 11 , 39 ). (
  • In the wild type Jurkat cell line as well as in CD3- and CD2- variants, AlF4- can activate the G protein(s) presumably associated with phospholipase C to generate polyphosphoinositide turnover as well as an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ions. (