Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A specialized residential treatment program for behavior disorders including substance abuse. It may include therapeutically planned group living and learning situations including teaching of adaptive skills to help patient functioning in the community. (From Kahn, A. P. and Fawcett, J. Encyclopedia of Mental Health, 1993, p320.)
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Drugs or chemical agents whose manufacture, possession, or use are regulated by government. This may include narcotics and prescription medications.
An oligopeptide isolated from the skin of Physalaemus fuscumaculatus, a South American frog. It is a typical kinin, resembling SUBSTANCE P in structure and action and has been proposed as a sialagogue, antihypertensive, and vasodilator.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to substance abuse and mental health. It is commonly referred to by the acronym SAMHSA. On 1 October 1992, the United States Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA) became SAMHSA.
Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.
A peptide extracted from the posterior salivary glands of certain small octopi (Eledone spp., Mollusca), or obtained by synthesis. Its actions resemble those of SUBSTANCE P; it is a potent vasodilator and increases capillary permeability. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1364)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Hormones produced in the testis.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
A chemically diverse group of substances produced by various tissues in the body that cause slow contraction of smooth muscle; they have other intense but varied pharmacologic activities.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Quinuclidines are organic compounds consisting of a tricyclic structure with a three-membered ring fused to a piperidine ring, often used as building blocks in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
Persons who have committed a crime or have been convicted of a crime.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
'Prisoners,' in a medical context, refer to individuals who are incarcerated and may face challenges in accessing adequate healthcare services due to various systemic and individual barriers, which can significantly impact their health status and outcomes.
The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Sexual activities of humans.
Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.
Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports a comprehensive research portfolio that focuses on the biological, social, behavioral and neuroscientific bases of drug abuse on the body and brain as well as its causes, prevention, and treatment. NIDA, NIAAA, and NIMH were created as coequal institutes within the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration in 1974. It was established within the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH in 1992.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Biphenyl compounds are organic substances consisting of two phenyl rings connected by a single covalent bond, and can exhibit various properties and uses, including as intermediates in chemical synthesis, components in plastics and dyes, and as additives in fuels.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Illicit use of chemicals and products whose vapors can be inhaled to produce a rapid mind-altering effect. Inhalants include aerosols, gases, and volatile solvents that are often inhaled repeatedly to achieve the short-lived intoxicating effect.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.

Stimulation of thymidine uptake and cell proliferation in mouse embryo fibroblasts by conditioned medium from mammary cells in culture. (1/5472)

Undialyzed conditioned medium from several cell culture sources did not stimulate thymidine incorporation or cell overgrowth in quiescent, density-inhibited mouse embryo fibroblast cells. However, dialyzed conditioned medium (DCM) from clonal mouse mammary cell lines MCG-V14, MCG-T14, MCG-T10; HeLa cells; primary mouse adenocarcinoma cells; and BALB/c normal mouse mammary epithelial cells promoted growth in quiescent fibroblasts. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell varied from 24% (HeLa) to 213% (MCG-V14) of the activity produced by primary tumor cells. The production of growth-promoting activity was not unique to tumor-derived cells or cells of high tumorigenicity. The amount of growth-promoting activity produced per cell in the active cultures was not correlated with any of the following: tumorigenicity, growth rat, cell density achieved at saturation, cell type, or species of cell origin. It is concluded that transformed and non-transformed cells of diverse origin, cell type, and tumorigenicity can produce growth factors in culture. The growth-promoting potential of the active media from primary tumor cultures accumulated with time of contact with cells and was too great to be accounted for entirely by the removal of low-molecular-weight inhibitors by dialysis. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that conditioned medium from the active cultures contained a dialyzable, growth-promoting activity. Different cell lines exhibited differential sensitivity to tumor cell DCM and fetal bovine serum. Furthermore, quiescent fibroblasts were stimulated by primary tumor cell DCM in the presence of saturating concentrations of fetal bovine serum. These observations support the notion that the active growth-promoting principle in primary tumor cell DCM may not be a serum factor(s).  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (2/5472)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Isolation of zebrafish gdf7 and comparative genetic mapping of genes belonging to the growth/differentiation factor 5, 6, 7 subgroup of the TGF-beta superfamily. (3/5472)

The Growth/differentiation factor (Gdf) 5, 6, 7 genes form a closely related subgroup belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. In zebrafish, there are three genes that belong to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup that have been named radar, dynamo, and contact. The genes radar and dynamo both encode proteins most similar to mouse GDF6. The orthologous identity of these genes on the basis of amino acid similarities has not been clear. We have identified gdf7, a fourth zebrafish gene belonging to the Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup. To assign correct orthologies and to investigate the evolutionary relationships of the human, mouse, and zebrafish Gdf5, 6, 7 subgroup, we have compared genetic map positions of the zebrafish and mammalian genes. We have mapped zebrafish gdf7 to linkage group (LG) 17, contact to LG9, GDF6 to human chromosome (Hsa) 8 and GDF7 to Hsa2p. The radar and dynamo genes have been localized previously to LG16 and LG19, respectively. A comparison of syntenies shared among human, mouse, and zebrafish genomes indicates that gdf7 is the ortholog of mammalian GDF7/Gdf7. LG16 shares syntenic relationships with mouse chromosome (Mmu) 4, including Gdf6. Portions of LG16 and LG19 appear to be duplicate chromosomes, thus suggesting that radar and dynamo are both orthologs of Gdf6. Finally, the mapping data is consistent with contact being the zebrafish ortholog of mammalian GDF5/Gdf5.  (+info)

Expression and differential regulation of connective tissue growth factor in pancreatic cancer cells. (4/5472)

CTGF is an immediate early growth responsive gene that has been shown to be a downstream mediator of TGFbeta actions in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. In the present study hCTGF was isolated as immediate early target gene of EGF/TGFalpha in human pancreatic cancer cells by suppression hybridization. CTGF transcripts were found in 13/15 pancreatic cancer cell lines incubated with 10% serum. In 3/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines EGF/TGFalpha induced a significant rise of CTGF transcript levels peaking 1-2 h after the start of treatment. TGFbeta increased CTGF transcript levels in 2/7 pancreatic cancer cell lines after 4 h of treatment and this elevation was sustained after 24 h. Only treatment with TGFbeta was accompanied by a parallel induction of collagen type I transcription. 15/19 human pancreatic cancer tissues were shown to overexpress high levels of CTGF transcripts. CTGF transcript levels in pancreatic cancer tissues and nude mouse xenograft tumors showed a good correlation to the degree of fibrosis. In situ hybridization and the nude mouse experiments revealed that in pancreatic cancer tissues, fibroblasts are the predominant site of CTGF transcription, whereas the tumor cells appear to contribute to a lesser extent. We conclude that CTGF may be of paramount importance for the development of the characteristic desmoplastic reaction in pancreatic cancer tissues.  (+info)

Three receptor genes for plasminogen related growth factors in the genome of the puffer fish Fugu rubripes. (5/5472)

Plasminogen related growth factors (PRGFs) and their receptors play major roles in embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and neoplasia. In order to investigate the complexity and evolution of the PRGF receptor family we have cloned and sequenced three receptors for PRGFs in the teleost fish Fugu rubripes, a model vertebrate with a compact genome. One of the receptor genes isolated encodes the orthologue of mammalian MET, whilst the other two may represent Fugu rubripes orthologues of RON and SEA. This is the first time three PRGF receptors have been identified in a single species.  (+info)

Suppression subtractive hybridization identifies high glucose levels as a stimulus for expression of connective tissue growth factor and other genes in human mesangial cells. (6/5472)

Accumulation of mesangial matrix is a pivotal event in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. The molecular triggers for matrix production are still being defined. Here, suppression subtractive hybridization identified 15 genes differentially induced when primary human mesangial cells are exposed to high glucose (30 mM versus 5 mM) in vitro. These genes included (a) known regulators of mesangial cell activation in diabetic nephropathy (fibronectin, caldesmon, thrombospondin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1), (b) novel genes, and (c) known genes whose induction by high glucose has not been reported. Prominent among the latter were genes encoding cytoskeleton-associated proteins and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a modulator of fibroblast matrix production. In parallel experiments, elevated CTGF mRNA levels were demonstrated in glomeruli of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Mannitol provoked less mesangial cell CTGF expression in vitro than high glucose, excluding hyperosmolality as the key stimulus. The addition of recombinant CTGF to cultured mesangial cells enhanced expression of extracellular matrix proteins. High glucose stimulated expression of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), and addition of TGF-beta1 to mesangial cells triggered CTGF expression. CTGF expression induced by high glucose was partially suppressed by anti-TGF-beta1 antibody and by the protein kinase C inhibitor GF 109203X. Together, these data suggest that 1) high glucose stimulates mesangial CTGF expression by TGFbeta1-dependent and protein kinase C dependent pathways, and 2) CTGF may be a mediator of TGFbeta1-driven matrix production within a diabetic milieu.  (+info)

Control of neuronal precursor proliferation in the cerebellum by Sonic Hedgehog. (7/5472)

Cerebellar granule cells are the most abundant type of neuron in the brain, but the molecular mechanisms that control their generation are incompletely understood. We show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is made by Purkinje cells, regulates the division of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Treatment of GCPs with Shh prevents differentiation and induces a potent, long-lasting proliferative response. This response can be inhibited by basic fibroblast growth factor or by activation of protein kinase A. Blocking Shh function in vivo dramatically reduces GCP proliferation. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms of normal growth and tumorigenesis in the cerebellum.  (+info)

Angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor and the endometrium. (8/5472)

Angiogenesis is an essential component of endometrial renewal. The formation of new vessels depends on interactions between various hormones and growth factors, and this review focuses on the expression of angiogenic growth factors in the human endometrium. Peptide and non-peptide angiogenic factors interact during endometrial renewal, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factors (e.g. TGF-beta), platelet-derived endothelial growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP), tumour necrosis growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Their role in the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells from pre-existing vessels is described, concentrating on VGEF and its receptors (VEG-R1 and -R2), and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. The actions of the products of the VEGF gene are outlined, and the hormonal and non-hormonal control of their localization in the human endometrium and biological actions on vasculature and coagulation are described. Finally, the role of VEGF in menorrhagia is assessed.  (+info)

Growth substances, in the context of medical terminology, typically refer to natural hormones or chemically synthesized agents that play crucial roles in controlling and regulating cell growth, differentiation, and division. They are also known as "growth factors" or "mitogens." These substances include:

1. Proteins: Examples include insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). They bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

2. Steroids: Certain steroid hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, can also act as growth substances by binding to nuclear receptors and influencing gene expression related to cell growth and division.

3. Cytokines: Some cytokines, like interleukins (ILs) and hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, immune responses, and inflammation, thus indirectly affecting cell growth and differentiation.

These growth substances have essential roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue repair, and wound healing. However, abnormal or excessive production or response to these growth substances can lead to pathological conditions, including cancer, benign tumors, and other proliferative disorders.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, neuroinflammation, and emesis (vomiting).

NK-1 receptors are activated by substance P, which binds to the receptor's extracellular domain and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. This activation can ultimately result in the modulation of neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression.

In addition to their role in normal physiological processes, NK-1 receptors have also been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, NK-1 receptor antagonists have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is not a medical term per se, but rather a method used to measure lipid peroxidation in biological samples. Lipid peroxidation is a process by which free radicals steal electrons from lipids, leading to cellular damage and potential disease progression.

The TBARS assay measures the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, that reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to produce a pink-colored complex. The concentration of this complex is then measured and used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the sample.

While TBARS has been widely used as a measure of oxidative stress, it has limitations, including potential interference from other compounds that can react with TBA and produce similar-colored complexes. Therefore, more specific and sensitive methods for measuring lipid peroxidation have since been developed.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Humic Substances" are not considered medical terms with a specific clinical definition. They are organic compounds that are commonly found in soil, sediments, and water, formed by the decomposition and transformation of plant and animal materials over time. Humic substances can have various complex structures and properties, and they play important roles in nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and water quality. However, they are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions or healthcare.

Hazardous substances, in a medical context, refer to agents that pose a risk to the health of living organisms. These can include chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria or viruses), and physical hazards (like radiation). Exposure to these substances can lead to a range of adverse health effects, from acute symptoms like irritation and poisoning to chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, or genetic mutations.

The classification and regulation of hazardous substances are often based on their potential for harm, the severity of the associated health risks, and the conditions under which they become dangerous. These assessments help inform safety measures, exposure limits, and handling procedures to minimize risks in occupational, environmental, and healthcare settings.

Tachykinins are a group of neuropeptides that share a common carboxy-terminal sequence and bind to G protein-coupled receptors, called tachykinin receptors. They are widely distributed in the nervous system and play important roles as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in various physiological functions, such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and inflammation. The most well-known tachykinins include substance P, neurokinin A, and neuropeptide K. They are involved in many pathological conditions, including chronic pain, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of substance P, a neuropeptide involved in pain transmission and inflammation. These drugs work by binding to NK-1 receptors found on nerve cells, preventing substance P from activating them and transmitting pain signals. NK-1 receptor antagonists have been studied for their potential use in treating various conditions associated with pain and inflammation, such as migraine headaches, depression, and irritable bowel syndrome. Some examples of NK-1 receptor antagonists include aprepitant, fosaprepitant, and rolapitant.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

Neurokinin A (NKA) is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin B. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in various physiological functions such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response regulation. NKA exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, although it has lower affinity for these receptors compared to substance P. It is involved in several pathological conditions, including inflammation, neurogenic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Performance-enhancing substances (PES) are drugs or medications that are used to improve physical or mental performance, stamina, or recovery. These substances can include anabolic steroids, human growth hormone, stimulants, and other compounds that affect various physiological processes in the body. They are often used by athletes, soldiers, and others looking to gain a competitive edge, but their use can also have serious health consequences and is often prohibited in certain competitions or activities. It's important to note that the use of performance-enhancing substances without a prescription from a licensed medical professional is generally considered unethical and against the rules in most sports organizations.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

Residential treatment, also known as inpatient treatment, refers to a type of healthcare service in which patients receive 24-hour medical and psychological care in a residential setting. This type of treatment is typically provided for individuals who require a higher level of care than what can be provided on an outpatient basis. Residential treatment programs may include a variety of services such as medical and psychiatric evaluations, medication management, individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and recreational activities. These programs are often used to treat various mental health conditions including substance use disorders, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, and other serious mental illnesses. The goal of residential treatment is to provide a safe and structured environment where patients can focus on their recovery and develop the skills they need to manage their condition and improve their overall quality of life.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Controlled substances are drugs or chemicals that are regulated by governments to control their manufacture, distribution, and use. These substances have the potential for abuse and dependence, and therefore, they are classified into different schedules based on their medical use, abuse potential, and safety profile. The classification and regulation of controlled substances vary by country and jurisdiction, but in the United States, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is responsible for enforcing the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

The CSA divides controlled substances into five schedules:

1. Schedule I drugs have no currently accepted medical use in the United States, a high potential for abuse, and are not considered safe for use even under medical supervision. Examples include heroin, LSD, marijuana (cannabis), ecstasy (MDMA), and psilocybin.
2. Schedule II drugs have a high potential for abuse, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, or a currently accepted medical use with severe restrictions, and abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence. Examples include oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine, and amphetamine.
3. Schedule III drugs have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule II drugs, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, and abuse may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence. Examples include buprenorphine, codeine, testosterone, anabolic steroids, and ketamine.
4. Schedule IV drugs have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule III drugs, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, and abuse may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence. Examples include alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, tramadol, and zolpidem.
5. Schedule V drugs have a lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV drugs, a currently accepted medical use in the United States, and contain limited quantities of certain narcotics. Examples include cough suppressants containing small amounts of codeine or hydrocodone.

The classification and regulation of controlled substances aim to balance their medical benefits with their potential risks and harms. Healthcare providers who prescribe controlled substances must comply with strict regulations, including maintaining accurate records, using secure storage, and following specific prescribing guidelines. Patients who receive controlled substances must also follow specific rules, such as not sharing or selling their medications and properly disposing of any unused or expired drugs.

Physalaemin is defined as a polypeptide toxin that is derived from the skin of certain frog species, specifically in the genus Physalaemus. This peptide contains 24 amino acids and has been found to have various pharmacological effects, including acting as a potent vasodilator, smooth muscle relaxant, and hypotensive agent. It also interacts with opioid receptors in the brain and can produce analgesic (pain-relieving) and hyperalgesic (increased sensitivity to pain) effects. Physalaemin is primarily used in research settings for its pharmacological properties and as a tool to study the structure and function of opioid receptors.

'Marijuana smoking' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it generally refers to the act of inhaling smoke from burning marijuana leaves or flowers, which are often dried and rolled into a cigarette (known as a "joint"), pipe, or bong. The active ingredients in marijuana, primarily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are absorbed through the lungs and enter the bloodstream, leading to various psychological and physiological effects.

It's worth noting that marijuana smoking is associated with several potential health risks, including respiratory problems such as bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as potential cognitive impairments and an increased risk of mental health disorders such as psychosis and schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to and is activated by the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and neuroinflammation.

NK-2 receptors are involved in the development of hyperalgesia (an increased sensitivity to pain) and allodynia (pain caused by a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain). They have also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders.

NK-2 receptor antagonists have been developed and investigated for their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various pain disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, and other medical conditions.

The United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government agency that focuses on improving the mental health and substance abuse services in the United States. Here's a definition of SAMHSA from a reputable source:

According to the National Library of Medicine's MedlinePlus, SAMHSA is defined as:

> "An agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that leads public health efforts to advance the behavioral health of the nation. SAMHSA's mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on America's communities."

SAMHSA provides leadership and resources to address issues related to mental health and substance use disorders, including prevention, treatment, and recovery services. The agency works to improve the quality and availability of such services, as well as to promote awareness and understanding of behavioral health issues in the United States.

Tachykinin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind and respond to tachykinins, which are neuropeptides involved in various physiological functions such as neurotransmission, smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, and pain perception. There are three main subtypes of tachykinin receptors: NK1, NK2, and NK3.

NK1 receptors primarily bind substance P, a neuropeptide that plays a role in neurotransmission, inflammation, and pain signaling. NK2 receptors mainly bind neurokinin A (NKA) and are involved in smooth muscle contraction, particularly in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. NK3 receptors primarily bind neurokinin B (NKB) and are found in the central nervous system, where they play a role in regulating body temperature, feeding behavior, and sexual function.

Tachykinin receptors have been implicated in various pathological conditions such as chronic pain, inflammation, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. As a result, tachykinin receptor antagonists are being developed as potential therapeutic agents for these conditions.

Eledoisin is a tachykinin peptide that is found in the venom of certain marine cephalopods, such as the octopus and squid. It is a potent vasodilator and smooth muscle stimulant, and has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and cardiovascular disease. However, it has not yet been approved for use in medical treatments.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter and vasodilator peptide that is widely distributed in the nervous system. It is encoded by the calcitonin gene, which also encodes calcitonin and catestatin. CGRP is produced and released by sensory nerves and plays important roles in pain transmission, modulation of inflammation, and regulation of blood flow.

CGRP exists as two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP, which differ slightly in their amino acid sequences but have similar biological activities. α-CGRP is found primarily in the central and peripheral nervous systems, while β-CGRP is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract.

CGRP exerts its effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, which are widely distributed in various tissues, including blood vessels, smooth muscles, and sensory neurons. Activation of CGRP receptors leads to increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels, activation of protein kinase A, and subsequent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilation.

CGRP has been implicated in several clinical conditions, including migraine, cluster headache, and inflammatory pain. Inhibition of CGRP signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these disorders.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

In the context of medicine, risk-taking refers to the decision-making process where an individual or a healthcare provider knowingly engages in an activity or continues a course of treatment despite the potential for negative outcomes or complications. This could include situations where the benefits of the action outweigh the potential risks, or where the risks are accepted as part of the process of providing care.

For example, a patient with a life-threatening illness may choose to undergo a risky surgical procedure because the potential benefits (such as improved quality of life or increased longevity) outweigh the risks (such as complications from the surgery or anesthesia). Similarly, a healthcare provider may prescribe a medication with known side effects because the benefits of the medication for treating the patient's condition are deemed to be greater than the potential risks.

Risk-taking can also refer to behaviors that increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes, such as engaging in high-risk activities like substance abuse or dangerous sexual behavior. In these cases, healthcare providers may work with patients to identify and address the underlying factors contributing to their risky behaviors, such as mental health issues or lack of knowledge about safe practices.

Opioid-related disorders is a term that encompasses a range of conditions related to the use of opioids, which are a class of drugs that include prescription painkillers such as oxycodone and hydrocodone, as well as illegal drugs like heroin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies the following opioid-related disorders:

1. Opioid Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of opioid use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms may include a strong desire to use opioids, increased tolerance, withdrawal symptoms when not using opioids, and unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control opioid use.
2. Opioid Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses opioids and experiences significant problematic behavioral or psychological changes, such as marked sedation, small pupils, or respiratory depression.
3. Opioid Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by the development of a substance-specific withdrawal syndrome following cessation or reduction of opioid use. The symptoms may include anxiety, irritability, dysphoria, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and muscle aches.
4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders: This category includes disorders that are caused by the direct physiological effects of opioids, such as opioid-induced sexual dysfunction or opioid-induced sleep disorder.

It is important to note that opioid use disorder is a chronic and often relapsing condition that can cause significant harm to an individual's health, relationships, and overall quality of life. If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid use, it is essential to seek professional help from a healthcare provider or addiction specialist.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

"Cocaine-Related Disorders" is a term used in the medical and psychiatric fields to refer to a group of conditions related to the use of cocaine, a powerful stimulant drug. These disorders are classified and diagnosed based on the criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association.

The two main categories of Cocaine-Related Disorders are:

1. Cocaine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of cocaine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two symptoms within a 12-month period. These symptoms may include using larger amounts of cocaine over a longer period than intended, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cocaine use, spending a great deal of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cocaine, and continued use despite physical or psychological problems caused or exacerbated by cocaine.
2. Cocaine-Induced Disorders: These disorders are directly caused by the acute effects of cocaine intoxication or withdrawal. They include:
* Cocaine Intoxication: Presents with a reversible syndrome due to recent use of cocaine, characterized by euphoria, increased energy, and psychomotor agitation. It may also cause elevated heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature, as well as pupillary dilation.
* Cocaine Withdrawal: Occurs when an individual who has been using cocaine heavily for a prolonged period abruptly stops or significantly reduces their use. Symptoms include depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, vivid and unpleasant dreams, and insomnia.

Cocaine-Related Disorders can have severe negative consequences on an individual's physical health, mental wellbeing, and social functioning. They often require professional treatment to manage and overcome.

Testicular hormones, also known as androgens, are a type of sex hormone primarily produced in the testes of males. The most important and well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a crucial role in the development of male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone is responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sex organs, such as the testes and prostate, and it also promotes the development of secondary sexual characteristics like facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass.

Testicular hormones are produced and regulated by a feedback system involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, while FSH works together with testosterone to promote sperm production.

In addition to their role in male sexual development and function, testicular hormones also have important effects on other bodily functions, such as bone density, muscle mass, red blood cell production, mood, and cognitive function.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Juvenile delinquency is a term used in the legal system to describe illegal activities or behaviors committed by minors, typically defined as individuals under the age of 18. It's important to note that the specific definition and handling of juvenile delinquency can vary based on different jurisdictions and legal systems around the world.

The term is often used to describe a pattern of behavior where a young person repeatedly engages in criminal activities or behaviors that violate the laws of their society. These actions, if committed by an adult, would be considered criminal offenses.

Juvenile delinquency is handled differently than adult offenses, with a focus on rehabilitation rather than punishment. The goal is to address the root causes of the behavior, which could include factors like family environment, social pressures, mental health issues, or substance abuse. Interventions may include counseling, education programs, community service, or, in more serious cases, residential placement in a juvenile detention facility.

However, it's important to remember that the specifics of what constitutes juvenile delinquency and how it's handled can vary greatly depending on the legal system and cultural context.

Autacoids are endogenous substances that are released by various cells in the body and have a localized, hormone-like effect on nearby tissues. They include chemicals such as histamine, serotonin (5-HT), prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and bradykinin. Autacoids are involved in various physiological processes, including inflammation, pain perception, smooth muscle contraction, and blood vessel dilation or constriction. They often act as mediators of the immune response and can contribute to the symptoms of allergies, asthma, and other medical conditions.

Neurotransmitter receptors are specialized protein molecules found on the surface of neurons and other cells in the body. They play a crucial role in chemical communication within the nervous system by binding to specific neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons).

When a neurotransmitter binds to its corresponding receptor, it triggers a series of biochemical events that can either excite or inhibit the activity of the target neuron. This interaction helps regulate various physiological processes, including mood, cognition, movement, and sensation.

Neurotransmitter receptors can be classified into two main categories based on their mechanism of action: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that directly allow ions to flow through the cell membrane upon neurotransmitter binding, leading to rapid changes in neuronal excitability. In contrast, metabotropic receptors are linked to G proteins and second messenger systems, which modulate various intracellular signaling pathways more slowly.

Examples of neurotransmitters include glutamate, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine, among others. Each neurotransmitter has its specific receptor types, which may have distinct functions and distributions within the nervous system. Understanding the roles of these receptors and their interactions with neurotransmitters is essential for developing therapeutic strategies to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

In the context of public health and medical research, a peer group is a social group whose members have similar interests, concerns, or social positions. Peer groups can play an important role in shaping individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood. In research, studying peer groups can help researchers understand how social norms and influences affect health-related behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behavior, and mental health. It's worth noting that the term "peer group" doesn't have a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in public health and medical research to refer to these types of social groups.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Quinuclidines are a class of organic compounds that contain a unique cage-like structure consisting of a tetrahydrofuran ring fused to a piperidine ring. The name "quinuclidine" is derived from the Latin word "quinque," meaning five, and "clidis," meaning key or bar, which refers to the five-membered ring system that forms the core of these compounds.

Quinuclidines have a variety of biological activities and are used in pharmaceuticals as well as agrochemicals. Some quinuclidine derivatives have been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. They can also act as inhibitors of various enzymes and receptors, making them useful tools for studying biological systems and developing new drugs.

It is worth noting that quinuclidines are not typically used in medical diagnosis or treatment, but rather serve as building blocks for the development of new pharmaceutical compounds.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

A "drug user" is a person who uses or consumes illegal drugs, such as heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine, or misuses prescription medications for recreational purposes or to self-medicate. It's important to note that the term "drug user" can have stigmatizing connotations and may not accurately reflect the complexity of an individual's relationship with drugs. Many prefer terms like "person who uses drugs" or "substance user," which emphasize the personhood and agency of the individual rather than reducing them to their drug use.

It's also worth noting that there is a wide range of drug use behaviors, from occasional recreational use to heavy, dependent use. The medical community recognizes that problematic drug use can lead to negative health consequences, but it's important to approach individuals who use drugs with compassion and understanding rather than judgment. Providing access to evidence-based treatments and harm reduction services can help reduce the risks associated with drug use and support individuals in making positive changes in their lives.

Tissue extracts refer to the substances or compounds that are extracted from various types of biological tissues, such as plants, animals, or microorganisms. These extracts contain bioactive molecules, including proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and other small molecules, which can have therapeutic or diagnostic potential. The process of tissue extraction involves homogenizing the tissue, followed by separation and purification of the desired components using various techniques such as centrifugation, filtration, chromatography, or precipitation.

In medical research and clinical settings, tissue extracts are often used to study the biochemical and molecular properties of cells and tissues, investigate disease mechanisms, develop diagnostic tests, and identify potential drug targets. Examples of tissue extracts include cell lysates, subcellular fractions, organelle preparations, plasma membrane extracts, nuclear extracts, and various types of protein or nucleic acid extracts. It is important to note that the quality and purity of tissue extracts can significantly impact the accuracy and reproducibility of experimental results, and appropriate controls and validation methods should be employed to ensure their proper use.

Addictive behavior is a pattern of repeated self-destructive behavior, often identified by the individual's inability to stop despite negative consequences. It can involve a variety of actions such as substance abuse (e.g., alcohol, drugs), gambling, sex, shopping, or using technology (e.g., internet, social media, video games).

These behaviors activate the brain's reward system, leading to feelings of pleasure and satisfaction. Over time, the individual may require more of the behavior to achieve the same level of pleasure, resulting in tolerance. If the behavior is stopped or reduced, withdrawal symptoms may occur.

Addictive behaviors can have serious consequences on an individual's physical, emotional, social, and financial well-being. They are often associated with mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups to help the individual overcome the addiction and develop healthy coping mechanisms.

Doping in sports is the use of prohibited substances or methods to improve athletic performance. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) defines doping as "the occurrence of one or more of the following anti-doping rule violations":

1. Presence of a prohibited substance in an athlete's sample
2. Use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or method
3. Evading, refusing, or failing to submit to sample collection
4. Whereabouts failures (three missed tests or filing failures within a 12-month period)
5. Tampering or attempted tampering with any part of the doping control process
6. Possession, trafficking, or administration of a prohibited substance or method
7. Complicity in an anti-doping rule violation
8. Prohibited association with a person who has been serving a period of ineligibility for an anti-doping rule violation

Doping is considered unethical and harmful to the integrity of sports, as it provides an unfair advantage to those who engage in it. It can also have serious health consequences for athletes. Various international and national organizations, including WADA and the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA), work to prevent doping in sports through education, testing, and enforcement of anti-doping rules.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Neurokinin B is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin A. It is encoded by the TAC3 gene in humans and is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurokinin B exerts its effects by binding to the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) and plays a role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of feeding behavior, reproduction, and nociception (pain perception). It has also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases, chronic pain, and certain types of cancer.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "crime" is typically not used in a medical context. A crime is a violation of laws or regulations established by a government and enforced by its authorities. It's a legal concept, not a medical one. However, there are some overlaps between criminal behavior and mental health, as certain mental health conditions may increase the risk of criminal behavior. But it's essential to understand that having a mental health condition does not automatically make someone a criminal.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide hormone that has potent vasodilatory, secretory, and neurotransmitter effects. It is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is synthesized and released by nerve cells (neurons) in the intestinal mucosa. VIP plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as intestinal secretion, motility, and blood flow. It also has immunomodulatory effects and may play a role in neuroprotection. High levels of VIP are found in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and is involved in various cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and social behavior.

Family therapy, also known as family systems therapy, is a type of psychological counseling that involves all members of a nuclear or extended family. Its primary goal is to promote understanding and improve communication between family members in order to resolve conflicts and foster healthy relationships. It is based on the belief that the family system is an interconnected unit and that changes in one part of the system affect the other parts as well.

Family therapy can be used to address a wide range of issues, including behavioral problems in children and adolescents, mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, substance abuse, marital conflicts, and chronic illness or disability. The therapist will typically observe the family's interaction patterns and communication styles during sessions and provide feedback and guidance on how to make positive changes.

Family therapy can be conducted with the entire family present in the same room, or it may involve individual sessions with different family members. The number of sessions required will depend on the severity and complexity of the issues being addressed. It is important for all family members to be open and willing to participate in the therapy process in order for it to be effective.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

A criminal is an individual who has been found guilty of committing a crime or offense, as defined by law. Crimes can range from minor infractions to serious felonies and can include acts such as theft, fraud, assault, homicide, and many others. The legal system determines whether someone is a criminal through a formal process that includes investigation, arrest, charging, trial, and sentencing. It's important to note that being accused of a crime does not automatically make someone a criminal; they are only considered a criminal after they have been found guilty in a court of law.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

I apologize for any confusion, but "prisoners" is not a medical term. It generally refers to individuals who are deprived of their personal freedom and are being held in a prison or jail as a result of being convicted of a crime or while awaiting trial. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

Cannabis is a plant genus that includes three species: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. It contains psychoactive compounds called cannabinoids, the most notable of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which produces the "high" associated with marijuana use.

Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes, while Cannabis ruderalis has a lower THC content and is mainly used for industrial purposes, such as hemp fiber production.

Medicinally, cannabis is used to treat various conditions, including pain, nausea, and loss of appetite associated with cancer and HIV/AIDS, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), among others. However, its use remains controversial due to its psychoactive effects and potential for abuse. Its legal status varies widely around the world, ranging from outright prohibition to decriminalization or full legalization for medical and/or recreational purposes.

Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregard for the rights of others, lack of empathy, and manipulative behaviors. It is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), as follows:

A. A consistent pattern of behavior that violates the basic rights of others and major age-appropriate societal norms and rules, as indicated by the presence of at least three of the following:

1. Failure to conform to social norms and laws, indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest.
2. Deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure.
3. Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead; indication of this symptom may include promiscuity.
4. Irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults.
5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others.
6. Consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations.
7. Lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.

B. The individual is at least 18 years of age.

C. There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before the age of 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.

E. The individual's criminal behavior has not been better explained by a conduct disorder diagnosis or antisocial behavior that began before the age of 15 years.

It's important to note that ASPD can be challenging to diagnose, and it often requires a comprehensive evaluation from a mental health professional with experience in personality disorders.

Isoindoles are not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as they are organic compounds that do not have direct relevance to medical terminology or human disease. However, isoindole is a heterocyclic compound that contains two nitrogen atoms in its structure and can be found in some naturally occurring substances and synthetic drugs.

Isoindoles are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable ring structure with delocalized electrons. They can form the core structure of various bioactive molecules, including alkaloids, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that occur naturally in plants and animals and can have various pharmacological activities.

Some isoindole derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities. However, these compounds are still in the early stages of research and development and have not yet been approved for medical use.

Therefore, while isoindoles themselves do not have a specific medical definition, they can be relevant to the study of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

Cardenolides are a type of steroid compound that are found in certain plants and animals. These compounds have a characteristic structure that includes a five-membered lactone ring, which is attached to a steroid nucleus. Cardenolides are well known for their toxicity to many organisms, including humans, and they have been used for both medicinal and poisonous purposes.

One of the most famous cardenolides is digitoxin, which is derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). Digitoxin has been used as a medication to treat heart conditions such as congestive heart failure, as it can help to strengthen heart contractions and regulate heart rhythm. However, because of its narrow therapeutic index and potential for toxicity, digitoxin is not commonly used today.

Other cardenolides include ouabain, which is found in the seeds of the African plant Acokanthera ouabaio, and bufadienolides, which are found in the skin and parotid glands of toads. These compounds have also been studied for their potential medicinal uses, but they are not widely used in clinical practice due to their toxicity.

It is important to note that cardenolides can be highly toxic to humans and animals, and exposure to these compounds can cause a range of symptoms including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, seizures, and even death. As such, it is essential to use caution when handling or coming into contact with plants or animals that contain cardenolides.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

There is no single, universally accepted medical definition of "homeless persons." However, in the public health and healthcare contexts, homeless individuals are often defined as those who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence. This can include people who are living on the streets, in shelters, vehicles, or other temporary or emergency housing situations. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, a major federal law in the United States that provides funding for homeless services programs, defines homeless individuals as those who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, and includes people who are living in shelters, transitional housing, or doubled up with family or friends due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or similar reasons.

Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), steal electrons from lipids containing carbon-carbon double bonds, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). This results in the formation of lipid hydroperoxides, which can decompose to form a variety of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds, aldehydes, and ketones.

Malondialdehyde (MDA) is one such compound that is commonly used as a marker for lipid peroxidation. Lipid peroxidation can cause damage to cell membranes, leading to changes in their fluidity and permeability, and can also result in the modification of proteins and DNA, contributing to cellular dysfunction and ultimately cell death. It is associated with various pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

"SRS-A" is an older abbreviation for "Slow-Reacting Substance of Anaphylaxis," which refers to a group of molecules called "leukotrienes." Leukotrienes are mediators of inflammation and play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic diseases. They are produced by mast cells and basophils upon activation, and cause bronchoconstriction, increased vascular permeability, and mucus production.

The term "SRS-A" is not commonly used in modern medical literature, as it has been largely replaced by the more specific names of its individual components: LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. These leukotrienes are now collectively referred to as the "cysteinyl leukotrienes."

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

Amphetamine-related disorders are a category of mental disorders related to the use of amphetamines or similar stimulant drugs. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), there are several specific amphetamine-related disorders:

1. Amphetamine Use Disorder: This disorder is characterized by a problematic pattern of amphetamine use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. The symptoms include increased tolerance, withdrawal, unsuccessful attempts to cut down or quit using, and continued use despite negative consequences.
2. Amphetamine Intoxication: This disorder occurs when an individual uses amphetamines and experiences symptoms such as agitation, aggression, hallucinations, delusions, tachycardia, hypertension, and elevated body temperature.
3. Amphetamine Withdrawal: This disorder is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that occur after cessation or reduction in amphetamine use, including dysphoric mood, fatigue, increased appetite, sleep disturbances, vivid dreams, and slowing of psychomotor activity.
4. Other Specified Amphetamine-Related Disorder: This category is used when an individual experiences significant problems related to amphetamine use that do not meet the full criteria for any of the other disorders in this category.
5. Unspecified Amphetamine-Related Disorder: This category is used when an individual experiences significant problems related to amphetamine use, but the specific diagnosis cannot be determined due to insufficient information or because the clinician chooses not to specify the reason.

It's important to note that amphetamines are a class of drugs that include prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin, as well as illicit substances like methamphetamine. Amphetamine-related disorders can have serious consequences for an individual's physical and mental health, relationships, and overall quality of life.

A crime victim is a person who has suffered direct or threatened physical, emotional, or financial harm as a result of the commission of a crime. According to the United States Department of Justice, victims of crime may experience a range of negative effects including physical injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and financial losses.

Crime victimization can take many forms, such as assault, robbery, homicide, sexual assault, domestic violence, child abuse, identity theft, and fraud. In addition to the immediate harm caused by criminal acts, victims may also face long-term challenges related to their recovery, including emotional trauma, difficulty trusting others, and economic instability.

Many countries have laws and policies in place to support crime victims and provide them with access to resources and services. These can include victim compensation programs, counseling and therapy services, and legal assistance. In the United States, for example, the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) provides funding for victim services through a federal grant program administered by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC).

Overall, the medical definition of 'crime victims' refers to individuals who have been directly or indirectly harmed by criminal behavior and may require support and resources to help them recover from their experiences.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds the neuropeptide neurokinin B, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including the regulation of nociception (pain perception), inflammation, and reproduction.

NK-3 receptors have been identified as key mediators of female reproductive function, particularly in the hypothalamus where they are involved in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Dysregulation of NK-3 receptor signaling has been implicated in several reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis.

In addition to their role in reproduction, NK-3 receptors have also been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. As a result, NK-3 receptor antagonists have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these disorders.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Bradykinin is a naturally occurring peptide in the human body, consisting of nine amino acids. It is a potent vasodilator and increases the permeability of blood vessels, causing a local inflammatory response. Bradykinin is formed from the breakdown of certain proteins, such as kininogen, by enzymes called kininases or proteases, including kallikrein. It plays a role in several physiological processes, including pain transmission, blood pressure regulation, and the immune response. In some pathological conditions, such as hereditary angioedema, bradykinin levels can increase excessively, leading to symptoms like swelling, redness, and pain.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are a class of drugs that increase alertness, attention, energy, and/or mood by directly acting on the brain. They can be prescribed to treat medical conditions such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression that has not responded to other treatments.

Examples of CNS stimulants include amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), and modafinil (Provigil). These medications work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain.

In addition to their therapeutic uses, CNS stimulants are also sometimes misused for non-medical reasons, such as to enhance cognitive performance or to get high. However, it's important to note that misusing these drugs can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, and mental health issues.

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

Designer drugs are synthetic or chemically altered substances that are designed to mimic the effects of controlled substances. They are often created in clandestine laboratories and marketed as legal alternatives to illegal drugs. These drugs are called "designer" because they are intentionally modified to avoid detection and regulation by law enforcement agencies and regulatory bodies.

Designer drugs can be extremely dangerous, as their chemical composition is often unknown or only partially understood. They may contain potentially harmful impurities or variations that can lead to unpredictable and sometimes severe health consequences. Examples of designer drugs include synthetic cannabinoids (such as "Spice" or "K2"), synthetic cathinones (such as "bath salts"), and novel psychoactive substances (NPS).

It is important to note that while some designer drugs may be legal at the time they are manufactured and sold, their possession and use may still be illegal under federal or state laws. Additionally, many designer drugs have been made illegal through scheduling by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) or through legislation specifically targeting them.

Criminal law is a system of laws that governs criminal behavior and prescribes punishment for offenses. It defines conduct that is considered illegal and punishable by the state or federal government, and outlines the process for investigating, charging, and trying individuals accused of committing crimes. Criminal laws are designed to protect society from harm and maintain social order.

Crimes can be classified as either misdemeanors or felonies, depending on their severity. Misdemeanors are less serious offenses that are typically punishable by fines, community service, or short jail sentences. Felonies, on the other hand, are more serious crimes that can result in significant prison time and even the death penalty in some jurisdictions.

Examples of criminal offenses include murder, manslaughter, robbery, burglary, theft, assault, battery, sexual assault, fraud, and drug trafficking. Criminal laws vary from state to state and country to country, so it is important to consult with a qualified attorney if you are facing criminal charges.

Narcotics, in a medical context, are substances that induce sleep, relieve pain, and suppress cough. They are often used for anesthesia during surgical procedures. Narcotics are derived from opium or its synthetic substitutes and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, and hydrocodone. These drugs bind to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, reducing the perception of pain and producing a sense of well-being. However, narcotics can also produce physical dependence and addiction, and their long-term use can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are required to achieve the same effect. Narcotics are classified as controlled substances due to their potential for abuse and are subject to strict regulations.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Group psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which a trained therapist treats a small group of individuals together as a group. The therapy focuses on interpersonal relationships and social interactions among the members of the group. The group becomes a social microcosm for each individual, allowing them to understand and work through their issues in relation to others.

The size of the group typically ranges from 5-12 members, and meetings can be held in various settings such as hospitals, community mental health centers, or private practice offices. The duration of the therapy can vary, ranging from brief, time-limited groups that meet for several weeks to longer-term groups that meet for several months or even years.

Group psychotherapy can be used to treat a wide range of psychological issues, including depression, anxiety, personality disorders, trauma, and relational difficulties. The therapist facilitates the group process by creating a safe and supportive environment where members can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences with one another. Through this process, members can gain insights into their own behavior, develop new social skills, and improve their relationships with others.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Prescription drugs are medications that are only available to patients with a valid prescription from a licensed healthcare professional, such as a doctor or nurse practitioner. These drugs cannot be legally obtained over-the-counter and require a prescription due to their potential for misuse, abuse, or serious side effects. They are typically used to treat complex medical conditions, manage symptoms of chronic illnesses, or provide necessary pain relief in certain situations.

Prescription drugs are classified based on their active ingredients and therapeutic uses. In the United States, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) categorizes them into five schedules (I-V) depending on their potential for abuse and dependence. Schedule I substances have the highest potential for abuse and no accepted medical use, while schedule V substances have a lower potential for abuse and are often used for legitimate medical purposes.

Examples of prescription drugs include opioid painkillers like oxycodone and hydrocodone, stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin, benzodiazepines like Xanax and Ativan, and various other medications used to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, anxiety, and high blood pressure.

It is essential to use prescription drugs only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or abuse can lead to severe health consequences, including addiction, overdose, and even death.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

Substance abuse, intravenous, refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances that are introduced directly into the bloodstream through injection, for non-medical purposes. This behavior can lead to a range of short- and long-term health consequences, including addiction, dependence, and an increased risk of infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C. Intravenous substance abuse often involves drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and amphetamines, and is characterized by the repeated injection of these substances using needles and syringes. The practice can also have serious social consequences, including disrupted family relationships, lost productivity, and criminal behavior.

A halfway house, also known as a sober living house or transitional housing, is not strictly a medical term but a social service concept. However, it does have significant relevance to the medical field, particularly in mental health and substance abuse treatment. A halfway house is a supervised residential facility that provides intermediate-term housing and support services for individuals who are transitioning from institutionalized settings such as hospitals, prisons, or rehabilitation centers back into the community.

The primary goal of halfway houses is to promote the reintegration of residents into society by offering a structured living environment, counseling, vocational training, and other support services that help them develop the necessary skills for independent living. Halfway houses often have rules and regulations in place to ensure the safety and well-being of their residents, including mandatory curfews, drug testing, and participation in therapy or counseling sessions.

In the context of mental health and substance abuse treatment, halfway houses can play a crucial role in supporting individuals as they navigate their recovery journey. They provide a safe and stable living environment that allows residents to focus on their treatment while gradually adjusting to life outside of an institutional setting. This transitional period is essential for many individuals, as it helps them build confidence, develop coping strategies, and establish healthy routines before fully reintegrating into society.

In summary, a halfway house is a supportive residential facility that offers intermediate-term housing and support services to individuals transitioning from institutionalized settings back into the community. While not a medical term per se, it has significant relevance to mental health and substance abuse treatment by providing a structured living environment and essential support services during the critical transitional period.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

Tobacco Use Disorder is a clinical diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by healthcare professionals to diagnose mental health conditions. It is defined as a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Tobacco is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control tobacco use.
3. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain or use tobacco, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use tobacco, occurs.
5. Recurrent tobacco use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of tobacco use.
7. Tobacco use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by tobacco.
8. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of tobacco to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of tobacco.
9. Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for tobacco, or tobacco is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis excludes nicotine withdrawal that is a normal response to the cessation of tobacco use, intoxication, or substance/medication-induced disorders. Tobacco Use Disorder can be further specified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met.

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that affects brain chemistry, leading to mental and physical dependence. Its chemical formula is N-methylamphetamine, and it is structurally similar to amphetamine but has additional methyl group, which makes it more potent and longer-lasting.

Methamphetamine exists in various forms, including crystalline powder (commonly called "meth" or "crystal meth") and a rocklike form called "glass." It can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected after being dissolved in water or alcohol.

Methamphetamine use leads to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for reward, motivation, and reinforcement, resulting in euphoria, alertness, and energy. Prolonged use can cause severe psychological and physiological harm, including addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular issues, dental problems (meth mouth), and cognitive impairments.

"Social identification" is a psychological concept rather than a medical term. It refers to the process by which individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership(s) and the social categories to which they believe they belong. This process involves recognizing and internalizing the values, attitudes, and behaviors associated with those groups, and seeing oneself as a member of that social collective.

In medical and healthcare settings, social identification can play an important role in shaping patients' experiences, perceptions of their health, and interactions with healthcare providers. For example, a patient who identifies strongly with a particular cultural or ethnic group may have unique health beliefs, practices, or needs that are influenced by that group membership. Recognizing and understanding these social identifications can help healthcare professionals provide more culturally sensitive and effective care.

However, it's important to note that 'social identification' itself is not a medical term with a specific diagnosis or clinical definition.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Biphenyl compounds, also known as diphenyls, are a class of organic compounds consisting of two benzene rings linked by a single carbon-carbon bond. The chemical structure of biphenyl compounds can be represented as C6H5-C6H5. These compounds are widely used in the industrial sector, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, as solvents, and in the production of plastics and dyes. Some biphenyl compounds also have biological activity and can be found in natural products. For example, some plant-derived compounds that belong to this class have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Inhalant abuse refers to the deliberate inhaling of volatile substances, often found in common household or industrial products, to achieve a psychoactive effect or "high." These substances, known as inhalants, evaporate at room temperature and can be inhaled through the nose or mouth, usually from a cloth soaked in the substance, a balloon filled with the gas, or directly from the container.

Inhalant abuse is dangerous and potentially fatal, as it can lead to various short-term and long-term health consequences, including:

1. Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome (SSDS): A fatal condition that can occur after the first use or any use of inhalants, caused by heart failure or irregularities.
2. Asphyxiation: Inhaling high concentrations of fumes can displace oxygen in the lungs, leading to suffocation.
3. Brain damage: Chronic inhalant abuse can cause irreversible brain damage due to the lack of oxygen and direct toxic effects on neurons.
4. Hearing loss: Long-term exposure to certain inhalants, like toluene or solvents, can lead to permanent hearing loss.
5. Bone marrow damage: Prolonged use of some inhalants, such as benzene and n-hexane, can cause bone marrow suppression and anemia.
6. Liver and kidney damage: Long-term abuse of inhalants can lead to organ failure and death.
7. Limb spasms or weakness: Chronic inhalant abuse may result in peripheral neuropathy, characterized by muscle weakness, numbness, and tingling sensations in the limbs.
8. Memory impairment: Inhalant abuse can lead to cognitive deficits, including memory loss and difficulties with learning and problem-solving.
9. Mental health issues: Chronic inhalant abusers may develop mental health disorders like depression, anxiety, or psychosis.

Commonly abused inhalants include solvents (e.g., paint thinners, gasoline, and glue), aerosols (e.g., spray paints, deodorants, and hair sprays), gases (e.g., propane, butane, and nitrous oxide), and anesthetics (e.g., ether and chloroform). These substances are often found in household products or industrial settings and can be inhaled through various methods, such as "huffing" or "sniffing."

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

There isn't a universally accepted medical definition for "Homeless Youth." However, in the context of social work, public health, and youth services, a homeless youth typically refers to an individual who is under the age of 25 and lacks fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence. This can include young people who are:

* Living on the streets, in parks, shelters, or other inadequate housing
* Couch surfing (moving from one place to another, staying with friends or relatives)
* Living in cars, abandoned buildings, or other inappropriate settings
* Fleeing or attempting to flee domestic violence or other dangerous situations

In the medical field, homeless youth may be at higher risk for various health issues, such as mental health disorders, substance abuse problems, chronic diseases, and infectious diseases. Therefore, healthcare providers should be aware of their unique needs and challenges to provide appropriate care and support.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Neurogenic inflammation is a type of inflammatory response that is initiated by the nervous system and involves the release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and nitric oxide. These substances cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of immune cells to the site of injury or damage.

Neurogenic inflammation can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including tissue injury, infection, and chemical or physical irritants. It is thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of various clinical conditions, such as migraine headaches, neuropathic pain, asthma, and allergies.

In contrast to classical inflammation, which is mediated by the immune system, neurogenic inflammation is primarily driven by the nervous system and can occur independently of traditional immune responses. However, the two processes often interact and amplify each other, leading to a more robust and prolonged inflammatory response.

Heroin dependence, also known as opioid use disorder related to heroin, is a chronic relapsing condition characterized by the compulsive seeking and use of heroin despite harmful consequences. It involves a cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms including a strong desire or craving to take the drug, difficulty in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, tolerance (needing to take more to achieve the same effect), and withdrawal symptoms when not taking it. Heroin dependence can cause significant impairment in personal relationships, work, and overall quality of life. It is considered a complex medical disorder that requires professional treatment and long-term management.

Canellas P.L and Olivares F.L. (2014). "TPhysiological responses to humic substances as plant growth promoter". Chemical and ... Liu, Chunhua; Cooper, R. J. (August 1999). "Humic Substances Their Influence on Creeping Bentgrass Growth and Stress Tolerance ... The colour of humic substances varies from yellow to brown to black. Humic substances represent the major part of organic ... Age and origin of the source material determine the chemical structure of humic substances. In general, humic substances ...
Auxins Cytokinins IAA Growth substances, Ethylene. 7: 231-248. Arshad, Muhammad; Frankenberger, William T. (2002), "The Plant ... Affects gravitropism Stimulates nutation Inhibits stem growth and stimulates stem and cell broadening and lateral branch growth ... as well as faster growth of pea. He showed that the same growth effect could be induced by ethylene. Reporting in Nature that ... A large portion of the soil has been affected by over salinity and it has been known to limit the growth of many plants. ...
Plant Growth Regulation (Proceedings in Life Sciences). International Conference on Plant Growth Substances, 9th. Springer ... In agriculture, its sodium salt, dikegulac sodium, is used as a plant growth regulator, primarily used as a branching agent. ... "Augeo Plant Growth Regulator" (PDF). OHP, Inc. Retrieved 2017-01-07. "Pinscher , ArborSystems". Retrieved ... "Atrimmec Plant Growth Regulator". Retrieved 2017-01-08. Drahl, Carmen (2009-12-14). "Ginkgogate: ...
Growth And Growth Substances / Wachstum Und Wuchsstoffe. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p.86. Larson, P. and ... another common variation as according to Hans Burström's book Growth and Growth Substances/Wachstum und Wuchsstoffe, the leaf ... meaning the measurement will not equate to other plant growth unless they share the same growth rate even if they are co- ... A cottonwood leaf was the organ used for this research as this plant has uniform rates of growth, meaning it falls under the ...
For, whatever may prove to be the nature of these substances which cause growth of bacteria, they are largely or entirely ... When it is possible to catalogue the substances required by pathogenic bacteria for growth, it will probably be found that most ... Mueller, J. H. (1937). "Nicotinic Acid as a Growth Accessory Substance for the Diphtheria Bacillus". Journal of Bacteriology. ... Mueller, J. H. (1921). "Growth-determining substances in bacteriological culture media". Experimental Biology and Medicine. 18 ...
Mohammed, Toungos (2018-08-06). "Plant Growth Substances in crop Production: A Review". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ... For instance, competition between plants causes decreased radial growth in branches and the stem while increasing growth of the ... Growth of branches and leaf surface area decreases with age as partitioning to the trunk increases. Many biomass partitioning ... Allocation of biomass is put towards the limit to growth; a limit below ground will focus biomass to the roots and a limit ...
Production of auxin-like substances stimulate plant growth. Defense responses can be induced in the plant, which primes the ... "Pythium oligandrum in plant protection and growth promotion: Secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, elicitors and tryptamine as auxin ... of auxin-compounds produced by the antagonistic fungus Pythium oligandrum or the minor pathogen Pythium group F on plant growth ...
Influence of growth substances on the pulvini of the primary leaves of bean plants. An. Acad. brasil. Ciênc. 22. Ferri, M. G., ... Preliminary observations on the translocation of synthetic growth substances. Contrib. Boyce Thompson Inst. 14. Ferri, M. G., ... Further information on the stomatal behaviour as influenced by treatment with hormone-like substances. An. Acad. brasil. Ciênc. ... Photoinactivation of the plant-hormone indoleacetic acid by fluorescent substances. Nature 4269. Ferri, M. G., 1952. Water ...
Auxins Cytokinins IAA Growth substances, Ethylene Yang, S. F.; Hoffman N. E. (1984). "Ethylene biosynthesis and its regulation ... In 1864, it was discovered that gas leaks from street lights led to stunting of growth, twisting of plants, and abnormal ... During the life of the plant, ethylene production is induced during certain stages of growth such as germination, ripening of ... Courbier, Sarah; Hartman, Sjon (4 February 2022). "WRKYs work to limit root growth in response to shade". Plant Physiology. 188 ...
"The effect upon the growth of plants of watering with solutions of plant-growth substances and of seed dressings containing ... "The Differential Effect of Synthetic Plant Growth Substances upon Plant Species. I. Seed Germination and Early Growth Responses ... MCPA acts by mimicking the action of the plant growth hormone auxin, which results in uncontrolled growth and eventually death ... "Differential effects of plant growth substances on plant species". Nature. 155: 497-498. doi:10.1038/155497a0. S2CID 46259091. ...
Her research output included significant work on growth promoting substances. Mockeridge studied at Woolwich Polytechnic and ... and examined their growth-promoting activities. In 1922 Mockeridge took up a post as independent lecturer in Botany in charge ...
"Studies on cell growth stimulating substances of low molecular weight. Part 4. Misakimycin, a mammalian cell growth stimulating ... substance produced by Streptomyces misakiensis". The Journal of Antibiotics. 46 (8): 1323-5. doi:10.7164/antibiotics.46.1323. ...
Bactericidal substances kill microorganisms while bacteriostatic substances inhibit microbial growth. The main problem with ... These drugs are specifically designed to kill microbes or inhibit further growth within the host environment. Multiple terms ...
Dworetzky, B.; Klein, R.M.; Cook, P.W. (1980). "Effect of growth substances on "apical dominance" in Sphacelaria furcigera ( ... and leptocaulus growth (i.e. uniform size of filaments, such as their mature segments have almost the same diameter as their ...
She contributed to the study of growth-promoting substances in plants. Addoms was born in Haworth, New Jersey to Lucy M.C. ... Most notably, Addoms was interested in promoting plant growth promotion. She also contributed to several textbooks on growth- ... The Use of Special Chemicals in the Control of Plant Growth. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Emma L., Fisk; Addoms, Ruth M. ( ...
Influence of Amino Acids and Related Substances on the Growth Inhibition). 13 (4): 800-11. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.1960.tb08103 ... and allowing room for new cell growth. Zank, Alex (14 January 2020). "Carmex maker to build new HQ in Franklin". BizTimes - ...
The substance acts as an insect growth regulator. It antagonizes both ecdysteroid (mainly 20E) and juvenile hormone activities ... The substance also deters feeding, making it an antifeedant. It disrupts the sense of smell to the point that some insects ... The substance disrupts reproductive functions, going as far as sterility in some insects. This is partially due to the ... If the insect ingests the compound, the substance further inhibits digestive enzymes and could leave an aversive taste memory ...
"Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances: Infant birth weight and early life growth". Environmental Epidemiology ( ... Their rapid growth ("bloom") is related to high water temperature as well as eutrophication (resulting from enrichment with ... As stated by the Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registry, in " the US, more than 500,000 workers get exposed to toxic ... TSCA, also known as the Toxic Substance Control Act, is a federal law that regulates industrial chemicals that have the ...
Nutrients are substances needed for growth, metabolism, and for other body functions. There are three basic types of ... exogenous (of a substance or process) Originating outside of or external to a system (such as an organism, tissue, or cell), as ... exponential growth It is exhibited when the rate of change of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the ... endogenous (of a substance or process) Originating from within a system (such as an organism, tissue, or cell), as with ...
The title of his master thesis was "An investigation of growth-inhibiting substances produced by Kirchnerielle subsolitaria, a ... Goldman, Robert D. (1963). An investigation of growth-inhibiting substances produced by Kirchnerielle subsolitaria, a green ...
These microbial bacteria species foster the growth of seaweed, producing growth-promoting substances. According to studies by ... Its fast growth and size provide an important habitat not only for the fish and invertebrates that reside in kelp forests, but ... Each blade can grow up to 10 m (33 ft) long, and blade growth can reach 15 cm (5.9 in) per day. Nereocystis grows in areas ... Fisher, K; Martone, P.T. (April 2014). "Field Study of Growth and Calcification Rates of Three Species of Articulated Coralline ...
Other performance-enhancing substances used by competitive bodybuilders include human growth hormone (HGH). HGH is also used by ... "Body composition and quality of life in adults with growth hormone deficiency; effects of low-dose growth hormone replacement ... which leads to many metabolic changes detrimental to muscle growth; for instance, by diminishing growth hormone and ... It is also important to note that natural organizations also have their own list of banned substances and it is important to ...
... s are substances that are poisonous or toxic to the growth of plants. Phytotoxic substances may result from human ... They are usually found in citrus fruit, and produce a bitter substance called limonoid that deters insect feeding. Glycosides ... Toxalbumin - Toxic plant proteins Phytotoxicity - Toxic effect by a compound on plant growth Raven, Peter H, Ray F. Evert, ... Herbicides usually interfere with plant growth and often imitate plant hormones. ACCase Inhibitors kill grasses and inhibit the ...
When both nitrite and organic substances are present, cells can exhibit biphasic growth; first the nitrite is used and after a ... Chemoorganotroph growth is slow and unbalanced, thus more poly-β-hydroxybutyrate granules are seen that distort the shape and ... Nitrifying bacteria have an optimum growth between 77 and 86 °F (25 and 30 °C), and cannot survive past the upper limit of 120 ... Cells in the genus Nitrobacter have an optimum pH for growth between 7.3 and 7.5. According to Grundmann, Nitrobacter seem to ...
Fungal growth often need adequate temperatures, nutrient substances, and some level of moisture. The requirements may vary ... Therefore, in order to prevent the growth of W. sebi, the water activity should be less than 0.65 aw, which can be achieved by ... For example, dry the building material to the extent of under 0.9 aw water activity only will prevent the growth of hydrophilic ... Wallemia sebi was distinguished from the other two in that it showed growth also on media without additional solutes, while W. ...
Also substances like antioxidants, antibiotics, macromolecules, hormones and growth factors can be added. Methods to permit ... and cholesterol improve the performance of embryonic growth and development. ...
Hindmarsh authored a doctorate study on the effects of certain substances on cell division and root growth. She did a year's ... Hindmarsh, Mary Maclean (1955), A study of the effects of certain substances on cell division and root growth, retrieved 30 ... she did a doctorate study on the effects of certain substances of cell division and root growth and research on a key to ... A Study of the Effects of Certain Substances on Cell Division and Root Growth. University of Sydney. "125 Years of Women in ...
It may inhibit the growth of tree seedlings. It may be allelopathic, producing substances that chemically inhibit the growth of ...
substrate 1. The substance on which an enzyme acts. 2. The substances used for growth, e.g. the culture medium in a lab. 3. A ... matrix 1. The substance in or on which a fungus grows. 2. The mucilaginous material in which conidia and some ascospores are ... intercalary 1. (of growth) Between the apex and the base; not apical. From Latin intercalare, to insert. 2. (of cells) Between ... fungicide A substance able to kill fungi, especially at low concentration. From Latin caedere, to kill. Generally used for ...
In 2017, a study was done to see the effects of six different substances on the growth and freeze- drying of Lactobacillus. ... Three of the six substances added had a positive effect on the growth and freeze-drying of Lactobacillus, being sodium chloride ... "Effects of six substances on the growth and freeze-drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus [pdf]". Acta ... Six substances, being sodium chloride, sorbitol, mannitol, mannose, monosodium glutamate, and betaine were tested to determine ...
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341. Tel: (404) 498-0110 / Public Inquiries ... Exposure to these substances can occur from volatile air emissions, spills, fires, and explosions. This report describes ... This document is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for ... The acute health consequences to children exposed to hazardous substances used in illicit methamphetamine production, 1996-- ...
Growth promoting substances. Filed under: Plant growth promoting substances*. Garden handbook for vitamin B 1 : now, garden and ... Filed under: Plant growth promoting substances -- Bibliography*. Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on plant growth : January ... Filed under: Plant growth inhibiting substances*. Species interactions of growth inhibitors in native plants of northern ... Filed under: Plant growth promoting substances -- Law and legislation -- United States*. Diethylstilbestrol (DES) : hearing ...
It is a crystal type substance.. The PCB has been assembled for only a month so this is rapid growth.. There is also a blue, ... That explains the crystalline growth and the white flakes, but the mold-type stuff has me puzzled.. His reason for neglecting ... That explains the crystalline growth and the white flakes, but the mold-type stuff has me puzzled. ... mold type substance, growing on the PCB beneath the affected components.. The components (4 total) are BTS621L1 Two Channel ...
Plant hormones are the chemical substances that control growth in plants. Examples of plant hormones are Auxin, Gibberellins, ... Name the type of chemical substances that control the growth in plants - ... Plant hormones are the chemical substances that control growth in plants. Examples of plant hormones are Auxin, Gibberellins, ... Name the type of chemical substances that control the growth in plants.. AcademicBiologyNCERTClass 10 ...
We will investigate how exposure to PFAS during pregnancy can affect fetal growth within a large meta-analysis of European ... s prenatal and postnatal growth.", "headline": "Plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in ... Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) make up a large group of persistent anthropogenic chemicals used in industrial ... We will investigate how exposure to PFAS during pregnancy can affect fetal growth within a large meta-analysis of European ...
Canellas P.L and Olivares F.L. (2014). "TPhysiological responses to humic substances as plant growth promoter". Chemical and ... Liu, Chunhua; Cooper, R. J. (August 1999). "Humic Substances Their Influence on Creeping Bentgrass Growth and Stress Tolerance ... The colour of humic substances varies from yellow to brown to black. Humic substances represent the major part of organic ... Age and origin of the source material determine the chemical structure of humic substances. In general, humic substances ...
Treatment of the animals with hepatic stimulatory substance alone or in a mixture with insulin, transforming growth factor‐α ... Administration of hepatic stimulatory substance alone or with other liver growth factors does not ameliorate acetaminophen‐ ... Administration of hepatic stimulatory substance alone or with other liver growth factors does not ameliorate acetaminophen‐ ... The results suggest that on‐going liver injury by mechanisms other than lack of growth factors is the central problem of ...
Substance Use and Mental Health Treatment Locator. To find treatment facilities confidentially, 24/7, please call 1-800-662- ... If you or someone you know is having thoughts of suicide or experiencing a mental health or substance use crisis, help is ... The National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare offers free technical assistance to a variety of systems on making ... An official website of the Administration for Children and Families and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services ...
The growth of suicide and substance abuse during the pandemic has been shocking. Learn the truth and how you can help people in ... The Shocking Growth of Suicide and Substance Abuse During the Pandemic - And How We Can Help ... The Shocking Growth of Suicide and Substance Abuse During the Pandemic - And How We Can Help ... Suicide and substance abuse are already significant problems across the globe. The long-term effects of the pandemic on these ...
Herbicides: Substances used to stop plant growth.. Solvents: Chemicals that can dissolve other substances. ... Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. ... This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. It is important you ... The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and ...
Experiments were carried out in order to establish the effect of some growth regulators on the development of Sclerotium ... Experiments were carried out in order to establish the effect of some growth regulators on the development of Sclerotium ... Nutritional and mechanical factors involved in mycelial growth and production of sclerotia by Sclerotium rolfsii in artificial ... it caused a more compact and dense development of the mycelium and lowered the rate of growth. ...
"Growth-promoting allelopathic substance exuded from germinating Arabidopsis thaliana seeds",. abstract = "A potent growth- ... Growth-promoting allelopathic substance exuded from germinating Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. In: Phytochemistry. 1998 ; Vol. 47 ... N2 - A potent growth-promoting allelopathic substance was located from the exudates of germinating Arabidopsis thaliana (line ... AB - A potent growth-promoting allelopathic substance was located from the exudates of germinating Arabidopsis thaliana (line ...
Substances * Glycosaminoglycans Grants and funding * P30 GM114736/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States ... We comprehensively describe the growth abnormalities through height, weight, growth velocity, and BMI in each type of MPS and ... and imbalance of growth. Imbalance of growth leads to various skeletal abnormalities including disproportionate dwarfism with ... and the difference in growth impairment of each MPS are highlighted to understand the natural course of growth and to evaluate ...
The secretion of growth hormone (GH) is regulated through a complex neuroendocrine control system, especially by the functional ... Substances * GABA Agents * Receptors, GABA * Human Growth Hormone * gamma-Aminobutyric Acid * Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone ... GABA supplementation and growth hormone response Med Sport Sci. 2012:59:36-46. doi: 10.1159/000341944. Epub 2012 Oct 15. ... The secretion of growth hormone (GH) is regulated through a complex neuroendocrine control system, especially by the functional ...
Limited Farms, (JISL), Udumalpet, to investigate the response of plant growth substances on yield and quality of pomegranate cv ... Limited Farms, (JISL), Udumalpet, to investigate the response of plant growth substances on yield and quality of pomegranate cv ... The experiments was laid out in randomized block design with nine treatment of plant growth substances viz., NAA 10 ppm, GA3 50 ... The experiments was laid out in randomized block design with nine treatment of plant growth substances viz., NAA 10 ...
Growth out of Illicit substances (Rhhs) }}. This fingerprint is calculated using a SHA256 hashing algorithm. In order to ... The problem is the consumption of illicit substances as alcohol or cigarettes and people under 18 years in parks. ... The problem is the consumption of illicit substances as alcohol or cigarettes and people under 18 years in parks.,/p,,p,,strong ...
Antimicrobial agents: The drugs, chemicals, or other substances that kill or slow the growth of microbes. They include ... Antigen: Any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. Antigens are often foreign substances such as ... Antibiotic: A drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. Example: penicillin. ... The branch of science dealing with the measurement and characterization of antibodies and other immunological substances in ...
Career and Job Growth for Substance Abuse Counseling Careers. Position. Salary. Job Growth. (2018-2028). ... What Does a Substance Abuse Counselor Do? Substance abuse counselors provide mental health support for people suffering from ... Whom Do Substance Abuse Counselors Work With? Substance abuse counselors work within diverse populations, including those ... How Do Substance Abuse Counselors Make a Difference? Substance abuse counselors help resolve the psychological issues ...
Feigl, V. White mustard (Sinapis alba) root and shoot growth inhibition test for ecotoxicity assessment of chemical substances ... Its growth is inhibited in contact with toxic substances. The toxic effect can be estimated by measuring its root and shoot ... White mustard (Sinapis alba) root and shoot growth inhibition test for ecotoxicity assessment of chemical substances. ... The difference compared to the environmental samples is that for toxicity assessment of chemical substances the substance is ...
Home News Diplomatic News FOCAC Promotes the Growth of China-TZ Cooperation in Depth and Substance ... FOCAC Promotes the Growth of China-TZ Cooperation in Depth and Substance. By ... registering a year-on-year growth of 40.5%, and Chinas direct investment in Africa was US$2.96 billion, which surpassed the ...
Project Name Spinacia oleracea L. seedling emergence and early development growth responses to Perfluoroalkylated Substances ( ... Spinacia oleracea L. seedling emergence and early development growth responses to Perfluoroalkylated Substances (PFAS) ... seedling emergence and early development growth responses to Perfluoroalkylated Substances (PFAS) contaminated soil ... Results show that low concentrations of PFAS contaminated soil (50 ng/kg) can affect plant biomass and growth in young plants. ...
... including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), [27] basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF), [28] substance P, and ... Spider angiomas in patients with liver cirrhosis: role of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor ... Role of substance P in the pathogenesis of spider angiomas in patients with nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. ...
Categories: Growth Substances Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Pegaspargase is an enzyme that interferes with natural substances necessary for cancer cell growth. It works by killing or ...
Correction to: Assessing the potential of biochar aged by humic substances to enhance plant growth and soil biological activity ... Correction to: Assessing the potential of biochar aged by humic substances to enhance plant growth and soil biological activity ... Assessing the potential of biochar aged by humic substances to enhance plant growth and soil biological activity. Chem. Biol. ... Assessing the potential of biochar aged by humic substances to enhance plant growth and soil biological activity. Chem Biol ...
Plant growth substances, Hirakawa Publ. Co. (in Sumiki Y. ed.), Inc. Tokyo: ... middle level of ovary inducing substances exists, inducing both staminate and pistillate flowers, in variable ... It seems that the feminizant or masculinizant action of a certain growth regulator is species - ... sex, as well as the possibility to modify it by exogenous growth regulators, especially in polymorphic sexual ...
2g). The growth of L. agilis BKN88 was inhibited in the presence of high concentrations of bile salts [1.0-2.0% (w/v)]. The ... Bacterial strains and growth conditions. The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 1. L. agilis ... Suzuki, S., Yokota, K., Igimi, S. et al. Negative chemotaxis of Ligilactobacillus agilis BKN88 against gut-derived substances. ... This suggests that Mcp2 is a major chemoreceptor of gut-derived substances in L. agilis. Mutant strains expressing Mcp4 or Mcp5 ...
There is little existing research on factors associated with recovery capital growth by gender. The current paper uses the ... pathways to and through substance use disorder and recovery capital acquisition and maintenance. ... Between their time in active addiction and in recovery, females show greater growth in strengths, despite females reporting ... that best predict growth of recovery capital amongst people in recovery from drug addiction. The 1313 participants were drawn ...
These substances inhibit the growth of bacteria and other contaminants. After 3-4 weeks of incubation, the final identification ... This media contains a color indicator that changes from yellow to red with the growth of dermatophytes after a few days of ... Pseudofolliculitis cutis: a vexing disorder of hair growth. Br J Dermatol. 2015 Apr. 172 (4):878-84. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
  • These substances inhibit the growth of bacteria and other contaminants. (
  • Satoshi Omura cultured bacteria, which produce substances that inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. (
  • Aside from the inherent physical and physiological dangers of the drug itself, persons in and around meth laboratories can be acutely exposed to hazardous substances used in meth production. (
  • The acute health consequences to children exposed to hazardous substances used in illicit methamphetamine production, 1996--2001. (
  • This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. (
  • The focus of my scientific work is in the field of cell biology with particular emphasis on the question whether hazardous substances influence the cell cycle and apoptosis. (
  • Humic substances (HS) are coloured recalcitrant organic compounds naturally formed during long-term decomposition and transformation of biomass residues. (
  • The colour of humic substances varies from yellow to brown to black. (
  • Humic substances represent the major part of organic matter in soil, peat, coal and sediments and are important components of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) in lakes (especially, dystrophic lakes), rivers and sea water. (
  • Humic substances" is an umbrella term covering humic acid, fulvic acid, humin and hymatomelanic acid which differ in solubility. (
  • This definition of humic substances is largely operational. (
  • Aquatic humic substances were isolated for the first time later, in 1806, from spring water by Jöns Jakob Berzelius. (
  • Water solubility of humic substances is primarily governed by interplay of two factors: the amount of ionizable functional groups (mainly, carboxylic) and the molecular weight. (
  • Age and origin of the source material determine the chemical structure of humic substances. (
  • In general, humic substances derived from soil and peat (which takes hundreds to thousands of years to form) have higher molecular weight, higher amount of functional groups, more carbohydrate units and less polyaromatic units than humic substances derived from leonardite (which takes millions of years to form). (
  • A new understanding views humic substances not as high-molecular-weight macropolymers but as heterogeneous and relatively small molecular components of the soil organic matter auto-assembled in supramolecular associations and composed of a variety of compounds of biological origin and synthesized by abiotic and biotic reactions in soil. (
  • The academic definition of humic substances is under debate as "humification" becomes unsupported as a special case, leading to some radical definitions expanding HS to encompass all difficult-to-characterize soil organic matter, at the cost of clarity. (
  • The formation of humic substances in nature is one of the least understood aspects of humus chemistry and one of the most intriguing. (
  • Humic substances are formed by the microbial degradation of dead plant matter, such as lignin, cellulose and charcoal. (
  • Humic substances in the lab are very resistant to further biodegradation. (
  • Nevertheless, the average properties of lab produced humic substances from different sources are remarkably similar. (
  • Humic substances in soils and sediments can be divided into three main fractions: humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin. (
  • Prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and infant growth and adiposity: the Healthy Start Study. (
  • This study examined seedling emergence and early development growth responses of Spinacia oleracea L. (spinach) in per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) contaminated soil. (
  • The entire list of Prohibited Substances and Methods can be found here . (
  • The List of Prohibited Substances and Methods (List) indicates what substances and methods are prohibited in sport and when. (
  • Then respiration reactions coupled with photosynthesis made possible the complete and clean combustion of organic substances into carbon dioxide and water. (
  • Results show that low concentrations of PFAS contaminated soil (50 ng/kg) can affect plant biomass and growth in young plants. (
  • 8. Anti bodies - Protein substances produced on challenge by an antigen. (
  • This document is provided by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) ONLY as an historical reference for the public health community. (
  • This report describes examples of meth-associated events, summarizes the events reported to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and suggests injury prevention recommendations, such as how to recognize and properly respond to meth laboratories. (
  • Its growth is inhibited in contact with toxic substances. (
  • The problem is the consumption of illicit substances as alcohol or cigarettes and people under 18 years in parks. (
  • Plant hormones are the chemical substances that control growth in plants. (
  • The secretion of growth hormone (GH) is regulated through a complex neuroendocrine control system, especially by the functional interplay of two hypothalamic hormones, GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin. (
  • That agreement covers the use of anabolic and androgenic steroids, stimulants, human or animal growth hormones, and related substances. (
  • Micronutrients enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substances essential for proper growth and development. (
  • In 1969, the Swann Committee recommended to the British government that antimicrobial agents used for human therapy, or antimicrobial substances that selected for resistance to these agents, should not be used for growth promotion in food animals ( 1 ). (
  • The avoparcin ban called attention to the wide array of antimicrobial substances being used in food animals for growth promotion or disease control and to the risk for transfer of other resistant bacteria or resistance genes from animals to humans through the food chain. (
  • A drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. (
  • Antigens are often foreign substances such as parts of invading bacteria, viruses or parasites. (
  • Treatment of the animals with hepatic stimulatory substance alone or in a mixture with insulin, transforming growth factor‐α and insulin‐like growth factor II had no effect on mortality. (
  • We will investigate how exposure to PFAS during pregnancy can affect fetal growth within a large meta-analysis of European birth cohorts. (
  • By using existing data from the Norwegian mother and child cohort study we will investigate how exposure to PFAS during pregnancy can affect fetal growth within a large meta-analysis of European birth cohorts. (
  • Further, we will provide knowledge on how exposure to PFAS in pregnancy can affect growth, weight development and metabolic disturbances in Norwegian children. (
  • 6. Antigens - Substance that induces antibody production and interacts with it in a specific way. (
  • A bachelor's in substance abuse counseling covers basic counseling theory and group and individual counseling for substance abuse. (
  • The curriculum for an associate in substance abuse counseling degree usually covers group counseling, crisis intervention, substance abuse assessment, general psychology, crisis intervention, and the pharmacology of addiction. (
  • The difference compared to the environmental samples is that for toxicity assessment of chemical substances the substance is dissolved in distilled water then the dilution series is prepared. (
  • If so, provision of regeneration‐stimulating substance is an inappropriate therapeutic strategy. (
  • The timing, the degree, and the difference in growth impairment of each MPS are highlighted to understand the natural course of growth and to evaluate future therapeutic efficacy. (
  • Any pharmacological substance which is not addressed by any of the subsequent sections of the List and with no current approval by any governmental regulatory health authority for human therapeutic use (e.g. drugs under pre-clinical or clinical development or discontinued, designer drugs, substances approved only for veterinary use) is prohibited at all times. (
  • The National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare offers free technical assistance to a variety of systems on making policy and practice changes to improve outcomes for families affected by substance use disorders and involvement with child welfare services. (
  • At present, more than 40 states are reporting opioid-related deaths and increasing concern over substance use disorders (SUD). (
  • Throughout the program, you'll receive specialized training and tools you need to support sufferers of alcoholism, drug addiction and other substance use disorders as they endeavor to restore their lives and relationships. (
  • It also covers substances such as diuretics and agents that mask the presence of performance-enhancing drugs. (
  • Exposure to these substances can occur from volatile air emissions, spills, fires, and explosions. (
  • The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. (
  • On the basis of the carcinogenic potential of 2-nitrotoluene, for which there may be a probability of harm at any exposure level, it is concluded that 2-nitrotoluene is a substance that may be entering the environment in a quantity or concentration or under conditions that constitute or may constitute a danger in Canada to human life or health. (
  • Severity of prenatal cocaine exposure and child language functioning through age seven years: A longitudinal latent growth curve analysis. (
  • Plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in pregnant women and the association with child's prenatal and postnatal growth. (
  • context": "", "@type": "Project", "datePublished": "2018-03-01", "dateModified": "2023-11-13", "name": "Plasma concentrations of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in pregnant women and the association with child's prenatal and postnatal growth. (
  • In concentrations of 50-100 p.p.m. it caused a more compact and dense development of the mycelium and lowered the rate of growth. (
  • Curricula for substance abuse counseling programs can overlap with other mental health program curricula, such as social work and public health, especially if those degrees offer substance abuse concentrations. (
  • Name the type of chemical substances that control the growth in plants. (
  • The test procedure applied to chemical substances is identical with the one detailed in the surface water and sediment photo gallery. (
  • An active substance is a chemical, plant extract, pheromone or micro-organism that has action against plant pests, weeds or diseases. (
  • It is an organic substance that is found in Canada and elsewhere primarily as a chemical intermediate in a variety of industries. (
  • Trenbolone (17β-hydroxyestr-4,9,11-trien-3- one) and other substances with a similar chemical structure or similar biological effect(s). (
  • The overall goal is to determine whether chemical substances at the workplace are able to influence the cell cycle and to induce apoptosis, respectively, and to gain insight into their modes of action. (
  • Any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. (
  • The pro-apoptotic substance thapsigargin selectively stimulates re-growth of brain capillaries. (
  • It is the large molecular complexity of the soil humeome that confers to humic matter its bioactivity in soil and its role as plant growth promoter. (
  • Limited Farms, (JISL), Udumalpet, to investigate the response of plant growth substances on yield and quality of pomegranate cv. (
  • Superzyme Biological Growth Factor, 1-0-4 is an OMRI Listed liquid fertilizer that encourages healthy and vigorous roots and optimal plant growth. (
  • It contains a balanced blend of naturally derived plant growth substances. (
  • Plant growth regulators, defoliants, desiccants,and insect repellents are also among the many substances regulated as pesticides. (
  • Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family. (
  • As the conversation has shifted away from the punishment of drug offenses and toward prioritizing effective prevention and intervention methods, the need for highly educated community workers with a background in substance abuse has increased. (
  • Students interested in a broad counseling career may complete a master's in substance abuse counseling, because they will need a master's degree to gain general counseling licensure in addition to their substance abuse certification. (
  • Most traditional students earn the more clinical-focused BS in substance abuse counseling because it prepares them to pursue a master's in substance abuse counseling and licensure. (
  • Bolt® GR is a yield enhancer that improves the growth of your crops at both vegetative and reproductive stages. (
  • Active substances in Great Britain must meet the requirements and conditions specified in retained Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009. (
  • Superzyme Biological Growth Factor is designed for use in any soil-based growing environment. (
  • It is a free, confidential, 24-hour-a-day, 365-day-a year information service, in English and Spanish, for individuals and family members needing treatment for a mental and/or substance use disorder. (
  • Gender differences have been reported in relation to the nature and extent of substance use, pathways to and through substance use disorder and recovery capital acquisition and maintenance. (
  • If you're passionate about helping those with substance use disorder on the road to recovery, this online substance abuse counseling program serves as an important educational first step toward becoming a drug and alcohol counselor. (
  • According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the need for substance abuse, behavioral disorder and mental health counselors is expected to grow 22% through 2031 - much faster than average for all occupations. (
  • In 2021, substance abuse, behavioral disorder and mental health counselors earned a median annual salary of $48,520 . (
  • Superzyme Turf is an organic liquid fertilizer designed to stimulate healthy root growth and spur a strong turf growth response. (
  • The second, diversion, theory of the 1930s explains the phenomenon of apical dominance as auxin from the shoot apex prevents growth promoting factors synthesized in roots and cotyledons from entering into buds and stimulate bud outgrowth. (
  • The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that, as of 2019, most of the substance abuse counselors in the U.S. worked in outpatient care centers, individual and family services centers, and residential facilities for mental and behavioral health. (
  • In the first seven months of this year, the China-Africa trade volume reached US$139.1 billion, registering a year-on-year growth of 40.5%, and China's direct investment in Africa was US$2.96 billion, which surpassed the pre-pandemic level of 2019. (
  • To locate general treatment services, visit the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA's) Treatment Locator online or call 1-800-662-4357 (HELP) . (
  • Substance abuse counseling is a tough but rewarding career for those who want to help treat addiction. (
  • With social issues like the opioid crisis lingering in American society, many feel called to pursue careers helping people living with substance abuse. (
  • For these people, a career as a substance abuse counselor - also known as addiction and recovery counselors - might be the perfect fit. (
  • If you feel called to help others professionally, consider pursuing an online degree in substance abuse counseling. (
  • Read on to learn more about substance abuse counseling degree requirements and career prospects for graduates. (
  • What Can You Do With a Substance Abuse Counseling Degree? (
  • A degree in substance abuse counseling can lead to work in both public and private sectors. (
  • Most graduates work as counselors or social workers, specializing in substance abuse and addiction services. (
  • Substance abuse counseling graduates spend their days in one of these environments, interviewing and evaluating clients, conducting individual and group counseling, and creating treatment plans. (
  • The four levels of degrees for substance abuse counseling - associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctorate - suit different career goals. (
  • Other students stop at an associate or bachelor's in substance abuse degree because that is all their career aspiration requires, and they can begin working sooner. (
  • An associate in substance abuse counseling suits students seeking supervised counseling or social work positions, where they work alongside other medical professionals instead of working in private practice. (
  • Many students start their counseling education with a four-year bachelor's in substance abuse counseling program. (
  • While in most states you need a master's to practice independently, a bachelor's in substance abuse counseling can help you gain employment in supervised positions. (
  • Common courses include addictive family systems and ethical and legal issues in substance abuse counseling. (
  • They can also continue pursue a master's in substance abuse counseling, which is common for students looking to become licensed professional counselors. (
  • What Is the Difference Between a BA and a BS in Substance Abuse Counseling? (
  • A BA in this major has a broader general education curriculum and better suits those who plan to pursue other careers related to mental health rather than just substance abuse counseling. (
  • Let compassion evolve into action by earning your Bachelor's in Human Services with a concentration in Substance Abuse online at SNHU. (
  • With addiction taking a toll on individuals, families and communities across the country, substance abuse has become a topic at the forefront of American politics. (
  • By earning your online substance abuse counseling degree, you'll put yourself in a great position to provide entry-level services. (
  • Pittsburgh Steelers Martavis Bryant is facing a four-game suspension for violating the NFL's substance abuse policies, get the details as to why it is four games, and not two. (
  • The NFL's current policy on substance abuse includes improper use of prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, illegal drugs, and alcohol. (
  • The intervention program is for players who have failed a drug test, have questionable behavior (arrests or psychological signs of substance abuse), or refer themselves. (
  • He is also subject to substance abuse testing. (
  • Alcohol-related violations fall under the substance abuse policy when the player has broken the law. (
  • A potent growth-promoting allelopathic substance was located from the exudates of germinating Arabidopsis thaliana (line Shokei) seeds and identified by analysis of its spectral data as 2-O-L-rahmnopyranosyl-4- deoxy-α-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranosiduronoic acid (lepidimoic acid). (
  • Effects of certain acid growth-regulating substances and their corresponding aldehydes on the growth of roots. (
  • A basic substance is an active substance that is not placed on the market primarily as a plant protection product but which may be of value for plant protection. (
  • On May 18, 1995, the Danish Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries banned the use of avoparcin nationally because new scientific evidence showed that avoparcin used as a growth promoter in food animals constituted a potential threat to human health (Article 11 of Council Directive 84/587/EEC). (
  • Different regional patterns on NPS emergence are observed across the world, with many countries having experienced the rapid emergence of a large number of these substances, some of which are sold openly in shops or ordered online and delivered by mail services. (
  • After a long, gruelling lockdown - a time in which The Guardian reported a marked increase in alcohol consumption but declining rates of 'party drug' use - you didn't have to look far to see the warmer months dubbed as the 'third summer of love', with higher levels of substance use an assumed by-product of the return to clubbing. (
  • This substance was identified in the categorization of the Domestic Substances List (DSL) as a high priority for action under the Challenge. (
  • With the assistance of the World Health Organization, the nomenclature of some substances on the List has been updated to International Non-proprietary Names (INN). (
  • If a Substance or Method is not defined in this list, please verify with your Anti-Doping Organization. (
  • Yet, Grella and colleagues [ 16 ] argued that gender is not only relevant for its impact on the course of substance use initiation, addiction onset, and treatment participation, but also for the outcomes following treatment and recovery. (
  • The current paper uses the European Life in Recovery database to assess specific domains of the Strengths and Barriers Recovery Scale (SABRS) that best predict growth of recovery capital amongst people in recovery from drug addiction. (
  • The Effect of Some Growth-regulating Substances on the Development of Sclerotium rolfsii (Sacc. (
  • If you or someone you know is having thoughts of suicide or experiencing a mental health or substance use crisis, help is available and there are options to receive compassionate care. (
  • quiescence, paradormancy) in response to intrinsic and environmental factors in diverse species is linked to enhanced growth of the main shoot and reduced sugar level in the buds. (
  • These studies illustrate the futility of treating fulminant liver failure with exogenous growth factors that apparently are already present in large amounts in the natural response to liver injury. (
  • The results suggest that on‐going liver injury by mechanisms other than lack of growth factors is the central problem of fulminant liver failure. (
  • There is little existing research on factors associated with recovery capital growth by gender. (
  • When reviewing job growth and salary information, it's important to remember that actual numbers can vary due to many different factors-like years of experience in the role, industry of employment, geographic location, worker skill and economic conditions. (
  • Growth factors and cytokines/ chemokines as surrogate biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid and blood for diagnosing Alzheimer´s disease and mild cognitive impairment. (
  • In addition other prohibited growth factors are listed separately. (
  • A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. (
  • The substance met the ecological categorization criteria for persistence, but did not meet the ecological categorization criteria for bioaccumulation potential or inherent toxicity to aquatic organisms. (
  • In the primeval oceans the first organisms found themselves surrounded by energy-rich organic substances that had been accumulating for millions of years. (
  • A survey of agricultural technologies influencing the biosynthesis and accumulation of phenolic compounds in crop plants is presented, including observations on the effects of light, temperature, mineral nutrition, water management, grafting, elevated atmospheric CO 2 , growth and differentiation of the plant and application of elicitors, stimulating agents and plant activators. (
  • Multivariate analyses show that strengths specifically related to prosocial meaningful activities are found to be highly significant for growth of recovery capital amongst males, whereas strengths related to both prosocial meaningful activities and general health management seem particularly relevant for growth of recovery capital amongst females. (