The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
A dithiocarbamate chemical, used commercially in the rubber processing industry and as a fungicide. In vivo studies indicate that it inactivates the enzyme GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE. It has mutagenic activity and may induce chromosomal aberrations.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A growth differentiation factor that is closely-related in structure to BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 3. Growth differentiation factor 10 is found at high levels in BONE, however it plays an additional roles in regulating EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. In addition to a conserved HMG-BOX DOMAIN, members of this group contain a leucine zipper motif which mediates protein DIMERIZATION.
An autosomal dominant disorder that is the most frequent form of short-limb dwarfism. Affected individuals exhibit short stature caused by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs, characteristic facies with frontal bossing and mid-face hypoplasia, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, limitation of elbow extension, GENU VARUM, and trident hand. (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man,, MIM#100800, April 20, 2001)
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.

Spatiotemporal expression of alternatively spliced IGF-I mRNA in the rat costochondral growth plate. (1/822)

IGF-I acts as a local proliferation and maturation factor for chondrocytes in the growth plate. However, the expression of different alternative IGF-I mRNA classes in the growth plate has not been characterized. Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, the abundance of each alternative IGF-I mRNA class in resting, proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocytes was measured in rat costochondral growth plates. Class 1Ea mRNA was the most abundant IGF-I transcript overall and was highly expressed in proliferative chondrocytes at 2 and 4 weeks of age; by 6 weeks, the majority of 1Ea mRNA expression had shifted to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Class 1Eb mRNA was the second most abundant transcript and its distribution was uniform across all the cell types at 2 weeks of age. The expression pattern changed with increasing age such that at 6 weeks a gradient existed with hypertrophic chondrocytes expressing higher levels of 1Eb than resting chondrocytes. Class 2Ea mRNA was constitutively expressed at low levels across the growth plate at all ages, while class 2Eb mRNA expression was negligible. The distribution of total IGF-I mRNA also shifted across growth plate cell types as the animals aged from 2 to 6 weeks. These findings suggest that IGF-I class 1 mRNA plays the predominant role in the maturation of the growth plate.  (+info)

The bcl-2 knockout mouse exhibits marked changes in osteoblast phenotype and collagen deposition in bone as well as a mild growth plate phenotype. (2/822)

Histological examination of long bones from 1-day-old bcl-2 knockout and age-matched control mice revealed no obvious differences in length of bone, growth plate architecture or stage of endochondral ossification. In 35-day-old bcl-2 knockout mice that are growth retarded or 'dwarfed'. the proliferative zone of the growth plate appeared slightly thinner and the secondary centres of ossification less well developed than their age-matched wild-type controls. The most marked histological effects of bcl-2 ablation were on osteoblasts and bone. 35-day-old knockout mouse bones exhibited far greater numbers of osteoblasts than controls and the osteoblasts had a cuboidal phenotype in comparison with the normal flattened cell appearance. In addition, the collagen deposited by the osteoblasts in the bcl-2 knockout mouse bone was disorganized in comparison with control tissue and had a pseudo-woven appearance. The results suggest an important role for Bcl-2 in controlling osteoblast phenotype and bone deposition in vivo.  (+info)

A mouse model for achondroplasia produced by targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. (3/822)

Achondroplasia, the most common form of dwarfism in man, is a dominant genetic disorder caused by a point mutation (G380R) in the transmembrane region of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3). We used gene targeting to introduce the human achondroplasia mutation into the murine FGFR3 gene. Heterozygotes for this point mutation that carried the neo cassette were normal whereas neo+ homozygotes had a phenotype similar to FGFR3-deficient mice, exhibiting bone overgrowth. This was because of interference with mRNA processing in the presence of the neo cassette. Removal of the neo selection marker by Cre/loxP recombination yielded a dominant dwarf phenotype. These mice are distinguished by their small size, shortened craniofacial area, hypoplasia of the midface with protruding incisors, distorted brain case with anteriorly shifted foramen magnum, kyphosis, and narrowed and distorted growth plates in the long bones, vertebrae, and ribs. These experiments demonstrate that achondroplasia results from a gain-of-FGFR3-function leading to inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation. These achondroplastic dwarf mice represent a reliable and useful model for developing drugs for potential treatment of the human disease.  (+info)

Aberrant death in dark chondrocytes of the avian growth plate. (4/822)

Growth plate chondrocytes of embryonic chick femurs were examined by electron microscopy, cytophotometry and autoradiography. Apart from the well-described 'light' chondrocyte, a different 'dark' type of chondrocyte was present, comprising 10 - 35% of the cell population. They were found at all stages of chondrocyte differentiation and in all ages of the femurs studied. Well developed rough endoplasmatic reticulum and Golgi complex, many secretory vesicles, energetically active mitochondria and a lot of glycogen, indicating high activity of the cytoplasm, were combined with low RNA synthesis, gentle margination and scattered compaction of the chromatin. DNA cytometry revealed that most of dark cells were diploid, but 15 - 30% were tetraploid, with the absence of an S-phase. Substantial loss of DNA was found in about 10% of dark chondrocytes. The TUNEL reaction demonstrated a limited number of DNA strand breaks. Advanced dark cells possessed the nuclear features of both apoptosis and necrosis. Besides chromomeric-chromonemic compaction, a chromatin arrangement similar to that of prometaphase and metaphase, as well as amitotic nuclear segregation, all of them degenerative, were found. Our interpretation is that the dark chondrocytes undergo an aberrant type of cell death which may be combined with aberrant cell cycle. Cell death of dark chondrocytes is preceded by a pre-mortal burst of secretion.  (+info)

Growth plate cartilage formation and resorption are differentially depressed in growth retarded uremic rats. (5/822)

To characterize the modifications of growth plate in individuals with growth impairment secondary to chronic renal failure, young rats were made uremic by subtotal nephrectomy (NX) and, after 14 d, their tibial growth plates were studied and compared with those of sham-operated rats fed ad libitum (SAL) or pair-fed with NX (SPF). NX rats were growth retarded and severely uremic. Growth plate height (mean +/- SD) was much greater (P<0.05) in NX (868.4+/-85.4 microm) than SAL (570.1+/-93.5 microm) and SPF (551.9+/-99.7 microm) rats as a result of a higher (P<0.05) hypertrophic zone (661.0+/-89.7 versus 362.8+/-71.6 and 353.0+/-93.9 microm, respectively). The increased size of the growth plate was associated with a greater number of chondrocytes and modifications in their structure, particularly in the hypertrophic zone adjacent to bone. In this zone, chondrocytes of NX animals were significantly (P<0.05) smaller (12080.4+/-1158.3 microm3) and shorter (34.1+/-2.5 microm) than those of SAL (16302.8+/-1483.4 microm3 and 37.8+/-2.0 microm) and SPF (14465.8+/-1521.0 microm3 and 36.3+/-1.8 microm). The interface between the growth plate cartilage and the metaphyseal bone appeared markedly irregular in NX rats. Kinetics of chondrocytes was also modified (P<0.05) in the NX rats, which had lower cell turnover per column per day (5.4+/-0.9), longer duration of hypertrophic phase (89.0+/-15.2 h), and reduced cellular advance velocity (7.4+/-2.2 microm/h) compared with SAL (8.0+/-1.6, 32.1+/-6.7 h, and 11.3+/-2.7 microm/h) and SPF (7.2+/-1.1, 34.8+/-5.1 h, and 10.1+/-2.5 microm/h). Cell proliferation was no different among the three groups. Because the growth plates of SPF and SAL rats were substantially not different, modifications observed in the NX rats cannot be attributed to the nutritional deficit associated with renal failure. These findings indicate that chronic renal failure depresses both the activity of the growth plate cartilage by altering chondrocyte hypertrophy and the replacement of cartilage by bone at the metaphyseal end. The two processes are differentially depressed since cartilage resorption is more severely lowered than cartilage enlargement and this leads to an accumulation of cartilage at the hypertrophic zone.  (+info)

Measurement of biological activity of somatotropin in hypophysectomized rats. (6/822)

AIM: To develop a method for measurement of biological activity of recombinant DNA-derived somatotropin (rhGH). METHODS: The effects of varying the route, frequency and period of administration of GH, the sex of test animals on the biological responses, body weight gain (BWG), and tibial epiphyseal width (TEW), of hypophysectomized (Hypox) rats were compared, respectively. 4-d BWG, 6-d BWG, and 6-d TEW tests were carried out simultaneously in the same group of Hypox rats to determine the biopotency of GH preparations according to a parallel line bioassay (6-point assay). The final result was chosen from the test which had smaller values for the index of precision (lambda) and the average rate of fiducial limits (ARFL) than other tests. RESULTS: No significant differences in the responses between male and female rats, between sc and im, once daily and twice daily injections of bGH were found. But the BWG and TEW of Hypox rats injected with 0.045 and 0.135 IU.d-1 of bGH for 6 d were significantly greater than that for 4 d. Both 4-d BWG test and 6-d BWG test in the range from 0.020 to 0.500 IU.d-1 had values for lambda = 0.0660 and 0.1747, and for r = 0.9000 and 0.9237, respectively. Three estimates of rhGH preparation compared with the International Standard for somatotropin (IShGH), 4.6132, 3.9829, and 4.8023 IU/ampoule, were obtained separately from 4-d BWG test, 6-d BWG test and 6-d TEW test. And the result from 6-d BWG test was reported finally because it had smaller values for lambda and ARFL (0.0608 and 37.907%) than other two tests. CONCLUSION: Both BWG test and TEW test can be carried out simultaneously in the same group of Hypox rats. 6-d BWG test seemed to be more suitable for potency determination of GH preparations than 4-d BWG test and 6-d TEW test.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical observations on the initial disorders of the epiphyseal growth plate in rats induced by high dose of vitamin A. (7/822)

The initial disorders of the epiphyseal growth plate cartilage were immunohistochemically examined in the proximal tibia of rats administered a high dose of vitamin A. Male Wistar rats were given 100,000 IU/100 g body weight/day of vitamin A for administration periods of 1 to 5 days (Day 1 to 5) from 4 weeks after birth or were given deionized water and used as control. They were sacrificed after 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) injection on Day 1 to Day 5 to remove the tibiae. The tibiae were processed for immunohistochemical examinations using antibodies against type I, II, X collagens and BrdU. BrdU-incorporated chondrocytes and type X collagen-negative area were reduced since Day 2 and type X collagen-positive area was reduced since Day 4. The cartilage matrix partially lost type II collagen and deposited type I collagen in the epiphyseal growth plate near the periosteum on Day 5. These findings suggest that a high dose of vitamin A initially disturbed the differentiation from resting to proliferating chondrocytes, subsequently inhibited the differentiation from proliferating to hypertrophic chondrocytes, caused the chondrocytes to deviate from the process of normal differentiation, and finally resulted in the deformation of the epiphyseal growth plate.  (+info)

Cathepsin expression during skeletal development. (8/822)

Cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B, H, K, L and S, have been implicated in several proteolytic processes during development, growth, remodeling and aging, as well as in a variety of pathological processes. For systematic analysis of cathepsin gene expression we have produced cDNA clones for mouse and human cysteine cathepsins. Northern analysis of a panel of total RNAs isolated from 16-19 different human and mouse tissues revealed the presence of mRNAs for cathepsin B, H, K, L and S in most tissues, but each with a distinct profile. Of the different cathepsin mRNAs, those for cathepsin K were clearly the highest in bone and cartilage. However, relatively high mRNA levels for the other cathepsins were also present in these tissues. To better understand the roles of different cathepsins during endochondral ossification in mouse long bones, cathepsin mRNAs were localized by in situ hybridization. Cathepsin K mRNAs were predominantly seen in multinucleated chondroclastic and osteoclastic cells at the osteochondral junction and on the surface of bone spicules. The other cathepsin mRNAs were also seen in osteoclasts, and in hypertrophic and proliferating chondrocytes. These observations were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and suggest that all cysteine cathepsins are involved in matrix degradation during endochondral ossification.  (+info)

The term "Osteochondrodysplasias" comes from the Greek words "osteo," meaning bone; "chondro," meaning cartilage; and "dysplasia," meaning abnormal growth or development. These disorders can affect people of all ages, but are most commonly seen in children and young adults.

There are many different types of OCDs, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some of the most common types include:

* Brittle bone disease (osteogenesis imperfecta): This is a condition in which the bones are prone to fractures, often without any obvious cause.
* Camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome: This is a rare condition that affects the hands, feet, and joints, causing stiffness, pain, and limited mobility.
* Diaphyseal dysplasia: This is a condition in which the bones in the arms and legs are abnormally short and brittle.
* Epiphyseal dysplasia: This is a condition in which the growth plates at the ends of the long bones are abnormal, leading to short stature and other skeletal deformities.

There is no cure for OCDs, but treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include physical therapy, braces or orthotics, medications to manage pain and inflammation, and in some cases, surgery. Early diagnosis and intervention are important to help manage the condition and prevent complications.

There are several types of hypertrophy, including:

1. Muscle hypertrophy: The enlargement of muscle fibers due to increased protein synthesis and cell growth, often seen in individuals who engage in resistance training exercises.
2. Cardiac hypertrophy: The enlargement of the heart due to an increase in cardiac workload, often seen in individuals with high blood pressure or other cardiovascular conditions.
3. Adipose tissue hypertrophy: The excessive growth of fat cells, often seen in individuals who are obese or have insulin resistance.
4. Neurological hypertrophy: The enlargement of neural structures such as brain or spinal cord due to an increase in the number of neurons or glial cells, often seen in individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's.
5. Hepatic hypertrophy: The enlargement of the liver due to an increase in the number of liver cells, often seen in individuals with liver disease or cirrhosis.
6. Renal hypertrophy: The enlargement of the kidneys due to an increase in blood flow and filtration, often seen in individuals with kidney disease or hypertension.
7. Ovarian hypertrophy: The enlargement of the ovaries due to an increase in the number of follicles or hormonal imbalances, often seen in individuals with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Hypertrophy can be diagnosed through various medical tests such as imaging studies (e.g., CT scans, MRI), biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options for hypertrophy depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery.

In conclusion, hypertrophy is a growth or enlargement of cells, tissues, or organs in response to an excessive stimulus. It can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, and ovaries. Understanding the underlying causes and diagnosis of hypertrophy is crucial for effective treatment and management of related health conditions.

1. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): This is a genetic disorder that affects the formation of collagen, which is essential for bone strength and density. People with OI have brittle bones that are prone to fractures, often from minimal trauma.
2. Achondroplasia: This is the most common form of short-limbed dwarfism, caused by a genetic mutation that affects the development of cartilage and bone. People with achondroplasia have short stature, short limbs, and characteristic facial features.
3. Cleidocranial dysostosis: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the skull and collarbones. People with cleidocranial dysostosis may have misshapen or absent collarbones, as well as other skeletal abnormalities.
4. Fibrous dysplasia: This is a benign bone tumor that can affect any bone in the body. It is caused by a genetic mutation that causes an overgrowth of fibrous tissue in the bone, leading to deformity and weakness.
5. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED): This is a group of disorders that affect the growth plates at the ends of long bones, leading to irregular bone growth and deformity. MED can be caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

These are just a few examples of developmental bone diseases. There are many other conditions that can affect the formation and development of bones during fetal life or childhood, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics.

1. Medical Definition: In medicine, dwarfism is defined as a condition where an individual's height is significantly below the average range for their age and gender. The term "dwarfism" is often used interchangeably with "growth hormone deficiency," but the two conditions are not the same. Growth hormone deficiency is a specific cause of dwarfism, but there can be other causes as well, such as genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
2. Genetic Definition: From a genetic perspective, dwarfism can be defined as a condition caused by a genetic mutation or variation that results in short stature. There are many different genetic causes of dwarfism, including those caused by mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene, the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene, and other genes involved in growth and development.
3. Anthropological Definition: In anthropology, dwarfism is defined as a physical characteristic that is considered to be outside the normal range for a particular population or culture. This can include individuals who are short-statured due to various causes, including genetics, nutrition, or environmental factors.
4. Social Definition: From a social perspective, dwarfism can be defined as a condition that is perceived to be different or abnormal by society. Individuals with dwarfism may face social stigma, discrimination, and other forms of prejudice due to their physical appearance.
5. Legal Definition: In some jurisdictions, dwarfism may be defined as a disability or a medical condition that is protected by anti-discrimination laws. This can provide legal protections for individuals with dwarfism and ensure that they have access to the same rights and opportunities as others.

In summary, the definition of dwarfism can vary depending on the context in which it is used, and it may be defined differently by different disciplines and communities. It is important to recognize and respect the diversity of individuals with dwarfism and to provide support and accommodations as needed to ensure their well-being and inclusion in society.

The diagnosis of achondroplasia is typically made based on physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. There is no cure for achondroplasia, but treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, and surgery to correct associated health problems such as spinal curvature or bowed legs.

The prognosis for individuals with achondroplasia varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any associated health problems. With proper medical care and support, many individuals with achondroplasia can lead active and fulfilling lives. However, they may face challenges related to social stigma, access to education and employment, and other aspects of daily life.

The prevalence of achondroplasia is estimated to be about 1 in 25,000 to 1 in 40,000 births. It affects both males and females equally, and there is no known ethnic or racial predilection. There is a high risk of recurrence in families, with a 50% chance that an affected parent will pass the mutated gene to each child.

In conclusion, achondroplasia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the development of cartilage and bone, leading to short stature and characteristic physical features. While there is no cure for the condition, proper medical care and support can help individuals with achondroplasia lead fulfilling lives. With increased awareness and understanding of the condition, more individuals with achondroplasia are able to access education, employment, and other resources that support their well-being and independence.

The condition is caused by mutations in genes that are involved in the formation of bones. It is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. However, some cases may be caused by spontaneous mutations and not inherited from either parent.

The symptoms of multiple hereditary exostoses can vary in severity and may include:

* Painful bone growths
* Limited mobility
* Deformity of affected limbs
* Short stature
* Difficulty walking or standing

There is no cure for multiple hereditary exostoses, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Pain medication
* Physical therapy
* Orthotics or assistive devices
* Surgery to remove or reshape the bone growths

If you suspect that you or your child may have multiple hereditary exostoses, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. A geneticist or orthopedic specialist can perform tests such as imaging studies (X-rays, CT scans) and blood tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the condition.

This condition typically occurs in the joints of children and adolescents, although it can also affect adults. It is caused by a variety of factors, including injury, overuse, or genetics.

Osteochondritis can cause symptoms such as pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and locking or catching sensations within the affected joint. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, and medication, as well as surgery in severe cases.

There are different types of hyperostosis, including:

1. Hyperostosis fibrosa: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the thickening of the cortical bone, leading to a hard and firm consistency. It can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skull, spine, or long bones.
2. Hyperostosis iritis: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the iris of the eye, leading to symptoms such as vision loss, pain, and light sensitivity.
3. Hyperostosis mediastinitis: This is a rare condition where there is excessive bone growth in the mediastinum, a region between the lungs and the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
4. Hyperostosis of the sacrum: This is a condition where there is excessive bone growth in the sacrum, a triangular bone at the base of the spine. It can cause compression of nearby structures and lead to symptoms such as lower back pain, sciatica, and difficulty walking.

Hyperostosis can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy, or surgery to remove excess bone growth.

Rickets is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, usually due to inadequate sunlight exposure, breastfeeding, or a diet that is low in calcium and vitamin D. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as kidney disease, or by taking certain medications that interfere with vitamin D production.

Symptoms of rickets may include:

* Bowed legs or other deformities of the bones
* Pain in the bones and joints
* Softening of the bones (osteomalacia)
* Difficulty walking or standing
* delayed tooth development
* Frequent infections

If rickets is suspected, a doctor may perform a physical examination, take a medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as X-rays or blood tests to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment typically involves correcting any underlying nutritional deficiencies and managing any related health issues. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged bones.

Prevention is key in avoiding rickets, so it's important for parents to ensure their children are getting enough vitamin D and calcium through a balanced diet and adequate sunlight exposure. In regions with limited sunlight, fortified foods such as milk and cereal can be helpful. Breastfeeding mothers may need to supplement their diets with vitamin D to ensure their babies are getting enough.

Some common types of growth disorders include:

1. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD): A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, leading to short stature and slow growth.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females, causing short stature, incomplete sexual development, and other health problems.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes excessive hunger, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities.
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function over time, leading to growth retardation and other health problems.
5. Thalassemia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
6. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to slow growth and other health problems.
7. Cushing's syndrome: A rare hormonal disorder that can cause rapid growth and obesity.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and other physical abnormalities.
9. Noonan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the heart, lungs, and other organs, leading to short stature and other health problems.
10. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes growth delays, cardiovascular problems, and other health issues.

Growth disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level assessments or genetic testing. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with growth disorders.

Heterotopic ossification can cause a range of symptoms depending on its location and severity, including pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and difficulty moving the affected limb or joint. Treatment options for heterotopic ossification include medications to reduce inflammation and pain, physical therapy to maintain range of motion, and in severe cases, surgical removal of the abnormal bone growth.

In medical imaging, heterotopic ossification is often diagnosed using X-rays or other imaging techniques such as CT or MRI scans. These tests can help identify the presence of bone growth in an abnormal location and determine the extent of the condition.

Overall, heterotopic ossification is a relatively rare condition that can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life if left untreated. Prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent long-term complications.

The epiphyseal plate (or epiphysial plate, physis, or growth plate) is a hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end ... There are important clinical implications of the growth plate physiology. For example guided growth surgery, also known as ... but the growth plate is the place where the long bone grows longer (adds length). The plate is only found in children and ... The growth plate has a very specific morphology in having a zonal arrangement as follows: Defects in the development and ...
"Urban Plates readies-and steadies-for growth". 26 September 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2020. "Why ... Urban Plates is an American casual dining restaurant chain. The chain is primarily based in Southern California where 14 of its ... "New Restaurant 'Urban Plates' To Open In Manhattan Beach". (Press release). 18 November 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2020 ... "Urban Plate's Healthy Casual Rapidly Expanding Across Southern California". (Press release). 7 February 2018. ...
Territory Growth Brings Change to Number Plates". Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 9 ... 1933 to 1953 Plates were made in the style similar to Q plates in Qld, with NT shown on a white band at the left and the ... The plate is produced with blue text on a reflective white base. June 2020: a new general release number plate "Territory ... Special purpose plates Special purpose plates offered are MO (Buses), MB (Mini Buses), Private Hire PH, Taxi, SUB taxi series, ...
This is followed by the refinement and growth of neural plate cells. The third step of primary neurulation does not involve the ... If the neural plate is separated by itself, it will still develop to make a thinner plate but will not form a neural tube. If ... When the neural plate begins to fold, rostral areas of the neural plate do not express Pax3 and MSX proteins. Areas caudal to ... The newt neural plate doubles in length, decreases in apical width, and increases in thickness. The plate edges rise dorsally ...
Growth plates are the areas in bones where the bones grow. In children the growth plates are open, which helps to manage a ... Most growth plate fractures heal without any lasting effects. Rarely, bridging bone may form across growth plates, causing ... A growth plate fracture may also stimulate growth, causing a longer bone than the corresponding bone on the other side. ... "Growth Plate Fractures"., by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved 2018-02-05. Last ...
Kronenberg HM (May 2003). "Developmental regulation of the growth plate". Nature. 423 (6937): 332-6. Bibcode:2003Natur.423.. ... highly irregular cartilage accumulation beneath the growth plate and defects in osteocyte maturation and functionality. Other ... Generally this disease is caused by mutations in Col1a1 or Col1a2 which are regulators of collagen growth. OI-causing mutations ... Disregulation of the TNF pathway blocking appropriate bone growth by osteoblasts is a partial cause of the abnormal degradation ...
... the growth plate, metaphysis, and epiphysis: 10% incidence Type V - A compression fracture of the growth plate (resulting in a ... A growth plate fracture may also stimulate growth, causing a longer bone than the corresponding bone on the other side. ... A Salter-Harris fracture is a fracture that involves the epiphyseal plate (growth plate) of a bone, specifically the zone of ... Most growth plate fractures heal without any lasting effects. Rarely, bridging bone may form across the fracture, causing ...
... blood agar plates are made by enriching TSA plates with blood. TSA plates support growth of many semifastidious bacteria, ... Agar plates may also be indicator plates, in which the organisms are not selected on the basis of growth, but are instead ... Replica plating is another technique in order to plate out cells on agar plates. These four techniques are the most common, but ... An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a growth medium solidified with agar, used to culture microorganisms. Sometimes ...
Involved in growth plate morphogenesis and function. Integrin α11β1 is expressed by mesenchymal cells in some parts of embryo ... Functions include: Chondrocyte proliferation and bone growth; regulation of cell proliferation, cell adhesion and induction of ...
In Heterophragma sulfureum the following traits are present: diffuse solitary vessels; parenchyma marking growth rings; simple ... perforation plates; scanty paratracheal axial parenchyma; parenchyma are 3-4 cells per strand, 2-4-seriate short rays (. ...
The underlying mechanism is repeated tension on the growth plate of the upper tibia. It also occurs frequently in male pole ... The underlying mechanism is repeated tension on the growth plate of the upper tibia. Diagnosis is typically based on the ... Typically symptoms resolve as the growth plate closes. Physiotherapy is generally recommended once the initial symptoms have ... After growth slows, typically age 16 in boys and 14 in girls, the pain will no longer occur despite a bump potentially ...
In patients who are near the end of skeletal growth, complete curettage of the growth plate is an option. In addition to ... because of the spatial relationship of chondroblastoma with the growth plate and its typical occurrence before growth plate ... "Expression of cartilage growth plate signalling molecules in Chondroblastoma." Journal of Pathology 202 (2004): 113-120. Web. 6 ... important for development of the epiphyseal growth plate, are active in chondroblastoma leading to greater proliferation among ...
Stress around the hip causes a shear force to be applied at the growth plate. While trauma has a role in the manifestation of ... Abnormal movement along the growth plate results in the slip. The term slipped capital femoral epiphysis is actually a misnomer ... is a medical term referring to a fracture through the growth plate (physis), which results in slippage of the overlying end of ... The almost exclusive incidence of SCFE during the adolescent growth spurt indicates a hormonal role. Obesity is another key ...
Pritchett JW (Mar 1992). "Longitudinal growth and growth-plate activity in the lower extremity". Clin Orthop Relat Res. 275 ( ...
Rib and limb bone growth plate cells are not transcribed. Thus, the inability of the rib cage to expand prevents the newborn's ... Ligands that bind to RTKs include fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, platelet-derived growth factors, and ... Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) Growth factor and clotting factors are paracrine signaling agents. The local action ... Paracrine signaling of growth factors between nearby cells has been shown to exacerbate carcinogenesis. In fact, mutant forms ...
De Luca F, Barnes KM, Uyeda JA, De-Levi S, Abad V, Palese T, Mericq V, Baron J (2001). "Regulation of growth plate ... Eswarakumar V, Lax I, Schlessinger J (2005). "Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors". Cytokine & Growth ... In mice, one gene known to regulate limb growth is prx1, which encodes a transcription factor. The expression patterns of prx1 ...
The underlying mechanism involves insufficient calcification of the growth plate. Diagnosis is generally based on blood tests ... Guided growth surgery has almost replaced the use of corrective osteotomies. The functional results of guided growth surgery in ... January 2020). "Growth Modulation for Knee Coronal Plane Deformities in Children With Nutritional Rickets: A Prospective Series ... These changes are seen predominantly at sites of rapid growth, including the proximal humerus, distal radius, distal femur and ...
Anderson HC, Garimella R, Tague SE (January 2005). "The role of matrix vesicles in growth plate development and ... whereas PS in growth plate vesicles is necessary for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals and subsequent bone ... Matching the in vivo unstirred water layer thickness by individual-well stirring in microtitre plates". European Journal of ... which can act as the local defect point to nucleate stalk growth between two bilayers. Lipid bilayers can be created ...
The plate should show the heaviest growth in the first section. The second section will have less growth and a few isolated ... The bacteria growth can be supported by this media greatly due in part to the high amounts of nutrients. Choice of which growth ... of the plate has been covered. The loop then is re-sterilized and the plate is turned 90 degrees. Starting in the previously ... Samples can then be taken from the resulting colonies and a microbiological culture can be grown on a new plate so that the ...
Growth continues until the individual is about 20 years old or until the cartilage in the plate is replaced by bone. The point ... Masson Goldner trichrome stain of growth plate in a rabbit tibia. Section of fetal bone of cat. ir. Irruption of the ... This is called interstitial growth. The process of appositional growth occurs when the cartilage model also grows in thickness ... The growth in diameter of bones around the diaphysis occurs by deposition of bone beneath the periosteum. Osteoclasts in the ...
Gdoutos, E.E.; Papakaliatakis, G. (January 1986). "The influence of plate geometry and material properties on crack growth". ... Gdoutos, E. E. (1981-07-01). "Failure of a bimaterial plate with a crack at an arbitrary angle to the interface". Journal of ... Gdoutos, E. E. (1981-06-01). "Brittle fracture of a plate with two cracks emanating from a circular hole under inclined tension ... His main scientific accomplishments include the solution of many problems of crack growth under combination of opening-mode and ...
... binds to growth factors involved in growth plate development. Perlecan isolated from developing growth plates has been ... indicating a role for perlecan in muscle development as well as in cartilage growth plate mediated long bone growth. Studies ... Perlecan in the growth plate of mouse long bones shows glycosylation changes in the chondrocyte progression from the resting ... Smith SM, West LA, Govindraj P, Zhang X, Ornitz DM, Hassell JR (April 2007). "Heparan and chondroitin sulfate on growth plate ...
Fetal Bovine Serum increases cellular growth and plating efficiency. In 2020, there was an estimated total of 684,996 deaths ... The L-15 medium was created in 1963 for the rapid growth of the MDA-MB-453 cell line. Also, it is recommended that the cells ... When growing the MDA-MB-453 cells, the recommended media for growth according to Lonza is a L-15 (Leibovitz). The medium does ... When Heregulin (HRG), a secreted growth factor, is exposed to the MDM-MB-453 cells, a signal transduction pathway is induced. ...
Effectively, FGF-3 inhibits proliferation of chondrocytes within growth plate. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and ... FGF-3 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. FGF3 binds to Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) to serve as ... a nuclear fibroblast growth factor 3 binding protein, is cell cycle regulated and promotes cell growth". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 ( ... Antoine M, Reimers K, Wirz W, Gressner AM, Müller R, Kiefer P (2006). "Fibroblast growth factor 3, a protein with a dual ...
If a glass plate has been subject to large amounts of moisture, it could result in the growth of mold on the plate's emulsion. ... It is recommended to stack broken plates only 5 plates high due to the weight of the plates. This will prevent further breakage ... There are two types of photographic glass plates; collodion wet plates and gelatin dry plates. Structurally, collodion wet ... separate from other photographic plates and in the following ways: Broken glass plates are stored flat, unlike intact plates ...
... plate, and encrusting. Branching adopts a calcareous structure which branches off, to rounded, finger-like tips. Plate growth ... In encrusting growth, the fire coral forms on the calcareous structure of other coral or gorgonian structures. The gonophores ... They appear in small brush-like growths on rocks and coral. Divers often mistake fire coral for seaweed, and accidental contact ... Fire coral has several common growth forms; these include branching, ...
Following the allotted time, the plate is removed and checked for bacterial growth. If the broth became cloudy or a layer of ... Varying concentrations of the antibiotics and the bacteria to be tested are then added to the plate. The plate is then placed ... Other advantages include the commercial availability of plates, the ease of testing and storing the plates, and the ability for ... During testing, multiple microtiter plates are filled with a certain broth, according to the needs of target bacteria. ...
In 2009, Douglas suffered a fracture in the growth plate of her wrist. Due to this injury, she was not able to compete and ...
The tibial cartilage does not mature enough to ossify (turn into bone). This leaves the growth plate prone to fracture, ... Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic disease of young poultry that affects the growth of bone and cartilage. Often ... occurs in broilers (chickens raised for meat) and other poultry which have been bred for fast growth rates. ...
There can be longterm ulceration and damage to growth plates. In fourth degree frostbite, structures below the skin are ...
Clay Revisions: Plate, Cup, Vase, Seattle, WA: Seattle Art Museum; American Federation of Arts, 1987. Retrieved April 22, 2022 ... Their slightly threatening strangeness calls up simultaneously one's fears of tumorous growth and of machinery gone berserk." ...
By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein ... Derda R, Tang SK, Whitesides GM (July 2010). "Uniform amplification of phage with different growth characteristics in ... Target proteins or DNA sequences are immobilized to the wells of a microtiter plate. Many genetic sequences are expressed in a ... can lead to a decrease in phage infectivity leading to problems such as selection bias caused by difference in phage growth ...
Using the existing floor plate as a guide, Iron Stone repositioned the former YMCA to house commercial office spaces, municipal ... This development utilizes historic tax credits, NJ Economic Redevelopment and Growth tax credits (ERG), CDBG funds, and HMFA "A ...
Growth and Consolidation, David and Charles, Newton Abbot, 1973, ISBN 0 7153 5940 1, page 78 Mitchell and Smith, caption to ... plate 88 David Brown, Southern Electric, volume 1, Development of the London Suburban Network and Its Trains, Capital Transport ...
Each subunit has three different structural domains: a short N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) domain; an α-helical ... Presence of gene is found in the chorionic plate, in the amnion epithelium, syncytiotrophoblasts, villous fibroblasts, ... chorionic trophoblasts, amniotic trophoblasts, as well as the basal plate of the placenta, in the decidual cells and ...
A pronotum is a plate-like structure that covers all or part of the dorsal surface of the thorax of certain insects. They also ... These traits, along with enlarged groups of genes relating to detoxification, the immune system, and growth and reproduction, ... The abdomen is divisible into 10 segments, each of which is surrounded by chitinous exoskeleton plates called sclerites, ... Nowel, M. S. (1981). "Postembryonic growth of the compound eye of the cockroach". Journal of Embryology and Experimental ...
The prepuce in both sexes is formed by the growth of a solid plate of ectoderm into the superficial part of the phallus; on ... Instead, a solid plate, the urethral plate, is formed. The remainder of the phallic portion is for a time tubular, and then, by ... Meanwhile, the urethral plate of the glans breaks down centrally to form a median groove continuous with the primitive ostium. ... The labia minora, in contrast, arise by the continued growth of the lips of the groove on the under surface of the phallus; the ...
In the 1730s and 1740s, he began taking notes on population growth, finding that the American population had the fastest growth ... In 1748, he constructed a multiple plate capacitor, that he called an "electrical battery" (not a true battery like Volta's ... Emphasizing that population growth depended on food supplies, he emphasized the abundance of food and available farmland in ... In a 1751 pamphlet on demographic growth and its implications for the Thirteen Colonies, he called the Pennsylvania Germans " ...
"Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement. Richards, ... Over his tenure, Kennedy fostered the growth of the university's endowment to $2 billion, which was the fifth-largest in the ... In 1990 he received the American Academy of Achievement's Golden Plate Award at a ceremony in Chicago, Illinois. ...
The growth of Talmudic scholarship in Poland was coincident with the greater prosperity of the Polish Jews; and because of ... and served meals on silver plates. By 1764, there were about 750,000 Jews in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The worldwide ... The difficult situation in the private sector led to enrolment growth in higher education. In 1923 the Jewish students ...
"Growth-Phase Sterigmatocystin Formation on Lactose Is Mediated via Low Specific Growth Rates in Aspergillus nidulans". Toxins. ... TLC plates must be sprayed with aluminium chloride and heated. Analytical methods for the determination of sterigmatocystin ...
... an icon of learning and growth), and a stack of ancient Chinese ingots or money boxes (a symbol of abundance). Popular humor ... consists of 41 circular steel plates of varying diameters, each 125 mm (4.92 in) thick, welded together to form a 5.5-meter- ...
Li H, Guo X, Shao L, Plate M, Mo X, Wang Y, Han W (March 2010). "CMTM5-v1, a four-transmembrane protein, presents a secreted ... Cai B, Xiao Y, Li Y, Zheng S (August 2017). "CMTM5 inhibits renal cancer cell growth through inducing cell-cycle arrest and ... Xu G, Dang C (2017). "CMTM5 is downregulated and suppresses tumour growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through regulating PI3K- ... "CMTM5 is reduced in prostate cancer and inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo". Clinical & Translational Oncology. ...
Freelance: The growth of the Internet has facilitated a practice similar to "compensated dating" or "escorting" with amateur ... To attract attention, brothels were displaying large street number plates, and the area became known as "Big Number Brothels". ...
Rubin, Michael G. "Woodcut prints testify to Sylvia Walters' growth," St. Louis Globe Democrat, January 1982. Key, Donald. ... old newspaper printing plates-of achieving refined textural variations among print areas. Reviews noted later portraits for ...
In 1876, the town of Hartford City would still have not experienced the Gas Boom that caused much of its growth. Walnut Street ... Among other names this line was eventually called were the Lake Erie and Western Railroad, the Nickel Plate Road, and Norfolk ... By 1964, Overhead Door's growth enabled the company's stock to be listed in the American Stock Exchange, and it had multiple ... The phenomenal growth ended after the boom, but the city was able to retain much of its workforce, as some of the glass ...
However, Hong Kong registered vehicles may apply for secondary mainland Chinese registration plates, and these can be driven ... issued a report stating that the growth of private cars is too fast and must be contained so as to alleviate congestion ... issued a report on the much worsened congestion problem in Hong Kong and pointed at the excessive growth of private cars during ... cars seen in Hong Kong are usually primarily registered in mainland China and carry supplementary Hong Kong registration plates ...
On the other hand, demand has been growing due to the rapid growth of international trade. Also, many users require a guarantee ... by the last digit of the license plate, which has been in force 1996. The proposed charge is R$4 (~ US$2) per day and it is ... such as a driving restriction scheme based upon the last digits on their license plates. Also a vehicle quota system was ...
Secondary growth, which has replaced the original forest and consists to a large extent of traveller's trees, raffia palm, and ... It is geologically located within the Somali plate. Madagascar has been called the "Great Red Island" because of the prominence ...
As a result of activities at its four major uranium mines, Bancroft experienced rapid population and economic growth throughout ... from Madawaska Mine A hair-like cluster of acicular uranophane crystals in the middle of a matrix plate, from Madawaska Mine ...
He said it was not a coincidence that he led the Majors in walks in 1993, going from 40 in 392 plate appearances in 1992 to 129 ... ecstasy and the human growth hormone (HGH) known as Somatropin. He first pleaded not guilty to the charges, but later changed ... In 1994, Dykstra walked 68 times in 386 plate appearances. Dykstra would play on two more All-Star teams in 1994 and 1995. ... He played in 161 games, setting a then major league record with 773 plate appearances. Despite being overlooked for the 1993 ...
... is the result of the tectonic subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Eurasian plate. The tertiary ocean floor, made ... The pre-War Bali as "paradise" was revived in a modern form, and the resulting large growth in tourism has led to a dramatic ... Copper plate inscriptions of king Jayapangus, Old Balinese script, 12th century. The Majapahit Empire rule over Bali became ... The local deformation of the Eurasian plate created by the subduction has encouraged the fissuring of the crust, leading to the ...
Slope failures due to volcanic island growth are among the largest on earth, involving volumes of several cubic kilometres. The ... Hilina Slump Kaikōura Canyon List of landforms Megatsunami Olistostrome Physical oceanography Plate tectonics Submarine canyon ... volcanic island growth, and ix) oversteepening. The presence of weak geological layers is a factor which contributes to ... with some slides barely keeping up with the growth on the upper part of the volcano while others may surge forward great ...
1980 the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research 1981 the Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement 1982 ... followed in 1979 by a growth hormone. In 1976, Boyer founded Genentech with venture capitalist Robert A. Swanson. Genentech's ... "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". American Academy of Achievement. "2009 ...
Thus, tumor growth can impinge nerve function and result in vision loss and diplopia. As the tumor metastasizes to the oral ... For cases with cribriform plate involvement, tumors are resected bilaterally using a transfacial and craniotomy approach. In a ... Craniofacial resection can help preserve the optic nerves and brain while removing the cribriform plate, olfactory bulb, dura ...
Alternative to Low-growth Era) (PDF) (Report) (in Korean). SK Securities. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October ... round was able to perforate the sloped front section plate but not the turret armour of the T-72 tank. In response, the Soviets ... an active hydropneumatic suspension and spaced armour on the glacis plate and front turret. The new tank concept also had ...
Eilish also took dance classes until 2016, when a growth plate injury put an end to her dancing career and she turned her focus ... The resulting video was a side-by-side time capsule of both interviews showing her growth in popularity over one year. She ...
The growth of spa activities and the town's development continued into World War II. Among other things the Kurpark (spa garden ... On the church and the downhill-situated Widukind spring plates explain this further. A few metres from the church a 13th- ...
Molloy, Thomas (15 April 2010). "Stock exchange told it must 'step up to the plate'". Irish Independent. Retrieved 28 August ... the first time trading has reached over 6m trades and the sixth consecutive year of growth in trade numbers. The ISE is among ... for high-growth companies raising equity in earlier stages of development The Atlantic Securities Market (ASM), for ... "senior management of the exchange should step up to the plate" after failing to help charities, credit unions and rich ...
The growth of lesbian feminism in the 1970s at times so conflicted with the gay liberation movement that some lesbians refused ... A riot ensued, with the cafeteria patrons slinging cups, plates, and saucers and breaking the plexiglass windows in the front ...
A fracture involving a growth plate (the cartilage plate near the end of the bone of a growing child ... A fracture involving a growth plate (the cartilage plate near the end of the bone of a growing child where growth occurs) can ... lead to disturbances in growth of the bone, even if treated properly. ... Fractures across a growth plate. URL of this page: // Fractures across a growth plate ...
... sprains and strains often result in potentially serious growth plate fractures and physeal fractures (see the image below). ... encoded search term (Growth Plate Fractures (Physeal Fractures)) and Growth Plate Fractures (Physeal Fractures) What to Read ... Growth plate (physeal) fractures. Scanograms to assess leg lengths after growth plate arrest following Salter-Harris II ... Growth disturbance after distal femoral growth plate fractures in children: a meta-analysis. J Orthop Trauma. 2009 Oct. 23 (9): ...
Growth plate injuries happen when a bone is broken or fractured near the end. Learn more about these injuries & the problems ... Investigating the factors that regulate growth plate chondrocytes. These cells are essential to growth at the ends of the bones ... Exploring the molecular mechanisms regulating growth plate development and the mechanisms responsible for growth. ... Research Progress Related to Growth Plate Injuries. The NIAMS and the National Institutes of Health support research and ...
The identification of genetic basis of growth failure will have a significant impact on the care of children affected with ... and cartilage matrix formation associated with impaired growth plate chondrogenesis. In particular we focused on growth plate ... Linear growth is determined primarily by chondrogenesis at the growth plate. This process results from chondrocyte ... Growth plate gene involment and isolated short stature Maria Felicia Faienza 1 , Mariangela Chiarito 2 , Giacomina Brunetti 3 ...
This resource contains general information about growth plate injuries. It describes symptoms and causes, as well as ... and other strategies for living with growth plate injuries. ...
... growth of long bones occurs at the growth plate, a cartilage structure that contains three principal layers: the resting, ... In mammals, growth of long bones occurs at the growth plate, a cartilage structure that contains three principal layers: the ... The role of the resting zone in growth plate chondrogenesis Veronica Abad 1 , Jodi L Meyers, Martina Weise, Rachel I Gafni, ... The role of the resting zone in growth plate chondrogenesis Veronica Abad et al. Endocrinology. 2002 May. ...
Histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of the tibia growth plate shows disrupted growth plate morphology and ... Histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of the tibia growth plate shows disrupted growth… ... Growth plate extracellular matrix defects and short stature in children. Saltarelli MA, Quarta A, Chiarelli F. Saltarelli MA, ... B) IHC using an anti-matrilin-3 antibody on NB, day 7 and 21 tibia growth plates from wt, wt/m and m/m mice (ethanol/acetic ...
Growth Plate Fractures - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Locating Growth Plates. Growth plates (indicated by the pink lines) are areas of cartilage near the ends of long bones, such as ... A growth plate is the area of cartilage near the end of a bone. Growth plates are where bones grow. Only children and ... A crushed growth plate causes problems with the way the bone grows. Children who have a growth plate fracture should see a ...
Epiphyseal Growth Plate Overuse Injuries. The epiphyseal growth plate may fail because of repeated microtraumas. In particular ... In the child, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the ligaments, and valgus and varus stresses injure the growth plate instead ... Some injuries may involve the articular aspect of the epiphysis, with no direct trauma to the growth plate. In such cases, the ... X-ray films demonstrate widening of the growth plate, with failure of the zone of calcification. The prognosis of these changes ...
... sprains and strains often result in potentially serious growth plate fractures and physeal fractures (see the image below). ... or epiphyseal plate. The epiphysis is not the cartilaginous growth plate-epiphysis and growth plate are not synonyms-but, ... the horizontal growth plate (physis) and the spherical growth plate (which enables epiphyseal growth). For the purposes of this ... Participation in sports increases the risk of growth plate injury. [8] Injuries to the growth plates in young athletes has been ...
A childs growth is dependent on the proper functioning of the growth plate, a specialized cartilage structure located at the ... such as growth hormone and IGF-I, and paracrine factors, such as CNP, could allow therapy targeted specifically to growth plate ... Failure of the growth plate to function properly can result in short stature or sometimes a skeletal dysplasia, such as ... The primary function of the growth plate is to generate new cartilage, which is then converted into bone tissue and results in ...
Growth Plate/injuries. Salter-Harris Fractures. In Vivo Dosimetry/instrumentation. Radiation Dosimeters. ...
This knowledge will then be applied to improve medical treatment in disorders of bone growth and in disorders of bone structure ... The goal of our research is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing skeletal growth. ... This growth deceleration occurs not only in linear growth, which reflects growth of chondrocytes in the growth plate, but also ... Growth-limitation: depletion of progenitor cells. Growth deceleration that occurs in the growth plate, and consequently in ...
Growth Plate Injuries (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases). Available in Spanish ... Whats on Your Plate? (1,400-1,600 calories/day) (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) ... Whats on Your Plate? (1,800-2,000 calories/day) (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) ... Whats on Your Plate? (1,400-1,600 calories/day) (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) ...
Effects of lead on growth plate chondrocyte phenotype. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 140:164-172. 8806882. . Crossref, Medline, Google ... The cells were plated at 2 × 106 cells per 6-cm plate for nodule formation assays, and medium was changed every 3 days. After ... 1992) and demonstrated that Pb suppresses the expression of phenotypic markers in growth plate chondrocytes (Hicks et al. 1996 ... 2002). Histomorphometric studies have demonstrated a significant Pb-associated decrease in length of rat femoral growth plate ...
o Regulation of chondrocyte maturation in the growth plate. o Mechanisms of signal transduction in the growth plate. o ... o Effects of distraction and compression on growth plate function. o Identification and role of growth factors, transcription ... in skeletal growth and development. Applications are encouraged to study skeletal growth and development from the perspectives ... and craniofacial skeletal growth and development. The purpose of this Skeletal Growth and Development Program Announcement (PA ...
Spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in the mammalian growth plate.. Lui JC, Andrade AC, Forcinito P, Hegde A, ... Coordinated postnatal down-regulation of multiple growth-promoting genes: evidence for a genetic program limiting organ growth. ... Spatial regulation of gene expression during growth of articular cartilage in juvenile mice.. Lui JC, Chau M, Chen W, Cheung CS ... Changes in gene expression associated with aging commonly originate during juvenile growth.. Lui JC, Chen W, Barnes KM, Baron J ...
... delayed maturation of growth plates; and decreased bone strength, bone volume fraction, and trabecular thickness [6,35]. ... It is a structural component of plant cell walls and is required for plant growth, pollination, and seed formation [1]. ... Boron might be important for bone growth and formation, possibly by affecting osteoblast and/or osteoclast activity or by ...
Growth Plate/drug effects*; Growth Plate/metabolism; Growth Plate/pathology; Liver/drug effects; Liver/metabolism; Male; ... These data suggest the toxic effects of PCB 126 on bone are mediated by AhR, which has direct effects on the growth plate and ... which regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the bone growth plate and cell-matrix interactions. ... Novel targets significantly induced by PCB 126 included Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf/Ccn2), ...
... and no mold growth was found on any of the agar plates that were direct-plated. Although the sample containing H. capsulatum ... All plates were observed for growth for 4 weeks. Results. H. capsulatum was isolated from all 4 mice inoculated with material ... Bird excreta provides nutrients that promote the growth of the organism in the soil, although the requirements for growth are ... were subjected to direct plating by adding 100 ul of the diluted material to culture plates that contained the same agar as ...
To evaluate past exposures, a toenail sample was taken down to the growth plate, which was negative. These results were used to ... With respect to growth rates, the difference between the very young and the very old is significant.. ...
Growth Plate (Physeal) Fractures * Osteoarthritis * Joint Assessment using Bedside Ultrasonography * Reduction of Posterior Hip ... The calcar femorale is a vertically oriented plate of dense cancellous bone from the posteromedial portion of the femoral shaft ...
2. Recent research on the growth plate: Advances in fibroblast growth factor signaling in growth plate development and ... Fibroblast growth factor expression in the postnatal growth plate.. Lazarus JE; Hegde A; Andrade AC; Nilsson O; Baron J. Bone; ... 7. Cellular signaling by fibroblast growth factor receptors.. Eswarakumar VP; Lax I; Schlessinger J. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ... A truncated form of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 inhibits signal transduction by multiple types of fibroblast growth ...
  • Growth plates are made up of cartilage that has the potential to become new bone growth. (
  • A fracture involving a growth plate (the cartilage plate near the end of the bone of a growing child where growth occurs) can lead to disturbances in growth of the bone, even if treated properly. (
  • Growth plates are areas of developing cartilage tissue near the ends of long bones. (
  • Growth plates, also known as epiphyseal plates, are specialized regions of cartilage at the ends of long bones found in children and adolescents. (
  • The growth plates consist of cartilage and divide the ends of the bones into two parts, allowing for growth in length. (
  • Growth plates, also known as epiphyseal plates, are areas of cartilage found near the end of long bones. (
  • Growth plates are made up of a specialized cartilage that contains progenitor cells, which divide and grow to form new bone. (
  • A child's growth is dependent on the proper functioning of the growth plate, a specialized cartilage structure located at the ends of long bones and within the vertebrae. (
  • The primary function of the growth plate is to generate new cartilage, which is then converted into bone tissue and results in the lengthening of bones. (
  • Researchers at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute on Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Section on Growth and Development , collaborating with the NCI Laboratory of Experimental Immunology , created human monoclonal antibody fragments that bind to matrilin-3, a protein specifically expressed in cartilage tissue. (
  • Coupling these cartilage-binding antibodies to growth-stimulating endocrine factors, such as growth hormone and IGF-I, and paracrine factors, such as CNP, could allow therapy targeted specifically to growth plate, and also articular cartilage, thereby opening up broad new pharmacological approaches to treat skeletal dysplasias and short stature. (
  • This growth plate (called the physis) is made of cartilage, which is weaker than bone. (
  • It is expressed both in growth plate, providing an explanation for the short stature and advanced bone age, and also in articular and vertebral disc cartilage, providing an explanation for the joint disease. (
  • Applications are encouraged to study skeletal growth and development from the perspectives of mechanisms of pattern formation, cartilage induction, endochondral ossification, intramembranous bone formation, biomechanics, and the clinical treatment of the resulting disorders. (
  • With age, growth plate cartilage undergoes programmed senescence, eventually causing cessation of bone elongation and epiphyseal fusion. (
  • 7. Association of cartilage-specific deletion of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ with abnormal endochondral ossification and impaired cartilage growth and development in a murine model. (
  • 17. The Effects of Indian Hedgehog Deletion on Mesenchyme Cells: Inducing Intermediate Cartilage Scaffold Ossification to Cause Growth Plate and Phalange Joint Absence, Short Limb, and Dwarfish Phenotypes. (
  • Fracture through the growth plate: The epiphysis is completely separated from the end of the bone or the metaphysis, through the deep layer of the growth plate. (
  • The growth plate remains attached to the epiphysis. (
  • It runs through the growth plate and the metaphysis, but the epiphysis is not involved in the injury. (
  • Fracture through growth plate and epiphysis: This fracture occurs only rarely, usually at the lower end of the tibia, one of the long bones of the lower leg. (
  • It happens when a fracture runs completely through the epiphysis and separates part of the epiphysis and growth plate from the metaphysis. (
  • The outlook or prognosis for growth is good if the blood supply to the separated portion of the epiphysis is still intact and if the joint surface heals in a normal position. (
  • Fracture through growth plate, metaphysis, and epiphysis: This fracture runs through the epiphysis, across the growth plate, and into the metaphysis. (
  • Type 3 injury breaks through the growth plate of the epiphysis, the tail end of the bone. (
  • Type 4 injury fractures the growth plate, the metaphysis, and the epiphysis. (
  • In slipped capital femoral epiphysis (ih-PIF-eh-siss), the ball slips off the back through the growth plate, almost the way a scoop of ice cream might slip off a cone. (
  • Rare adverse effects of overtreatment can include slipped capital femoral epiphysis (a fracture to the growth plate) and pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension). (
  • Understanding the anatomy of long bones can help you understand the types of growth plate injuries. (
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Types of Growth Plate Injuries in minutes with SmartDraw. (
  • There are various types of growth plate injuries (fractures) and almost all of them require a form of knee surgery to repair. (
  • Once your child's growth is complete - sometime during adolescence - the growth plates close and are replaced by solid bone. (
  • The growth plates are weak areas of your child's growing skeleton. (
  • If your child's pediatrician sees growth plates on an X-ray, whether it's of their wrist, their leg, or any bone, they can assume that your kid still has some growing to do. (
  • But a child's bones are also at risk for a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. (
  • The growth plates are weak areas of your child's growing skeleton, making it easier to injure them. (
  • Thus, any injury to a child's or adolescent's growth plate should be taken seriously as it can affect their long-term growth. (
  • They play a vital role in a child's growth and development. (
  • Therefore, it's important to protect a child's growth plates by avoiding excessive stress on them, such as through activities that involve running, jumping, and high-impact sports. (
  • Current treatments for severe short stature and skeletal growth disorders are limited. (
  • The goal of our research is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing skeletal growth. (
  • The purpose of this Skeletal Growth and Development Program Announcement (PA) is to inform the scientific community of our interests, and to stimulate and foster a wide range of basic, translational and patient-oriented clinical studies, in skeletal growth and development. (
  • This PA, Research on Skeletal Growth and Development, is related to the priority area of chronic disabling conditions. (
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background Disturbances in skeletal growth and development cause a wide variety of clinical disorders. (
  • The current PA indicates our continued interest in skeletal growth and development, and is the direct outgrowth of a NIAMS, NICHD, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, and Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation-sponsored workshop on the status and future research directions on Skeletal Growth and Development, held in May 1997. (
  • Physis: the growth plate. (
  • Type I happens when the fracture passes through the physis but does not involve the area of bone around the growth plate. (
  • Also known as the physis , a growth plate is a place near the end of children's bones where cells are rapidly produced to make the bone longer and bigger. (
  • Injuries to the growth plate (fractures) can result from a single traumatic event, such as a fall or automobile accident, or from chronic stress and overuse. (
  • Children and teens with growth plate injuries often need immediate treatment to prevent problems with bone growth. (
  • Who Gets Growth Plate Injuries? (
  • Because the growth plate is the last area of bone to harden during growth, children and teens are vulnerable to growth plate fractures or injuries. (
  • Specializing in one sport and overusing certain limbs or areas of the body before puberty finishes can lead to growth plate injuries. (
  • Doctors use a classification system called the Salter-Harris to divide most growth plate injuries and fractures into five types. (
  • Sometimes, doctors include the Peterson classification when describing growth plate injuries. (
  • Growth plate injuries can happen for many reasons. (
  • A sudden accident can cause growth plate injuries. (
  • Sometimes, growth plate injuries happen when your child overuses a certain part of the body. (
  • Type I injuries generally require a cast to protect the plate as it heals. (
  • Growth Plate Injuries Surgery is sometimes necessary to restore the joint surface to normal. (
  • Common knee surgeries to repair growth plate injuries include open reduction (putting the bones back in proper place), and internal fixation, with threaded large pins. (
  • Even though the ligaments surrounding the knee are stronger than the growth plates, young athletes can still suffer injuries to the knee ligaments. (
  • Older teenagers tend to have more ligament injuries than growth plate fractures due to the increased strength of the bone and growth plate, which occurs with age. (
  • Growth plate fractures occur more often in boys than in girls. (
  • Growth plate fractures occur twice as often in boys as in girls. (
  • Unlike adult bones, which have hardened, children's growth plates are actually weaker than the tendons that attach muscle to bone and the ligaments that attach the bones together. (
  • Gigantism occurs when excess GH begins before the end of puberty, when children's growth plates fuse or close. (
  • Growth plates - also called epiphyseal plates - are small areas where bone tissue is stored, near the ends of long bones, such as the tibia, the fibula, or the femur. (
  • Growth plates are also known as epiphyseal plates, physes, or epiphysial plates. (
  • Puberty is a confusing time, so we answer all your questions about growth plates, puberty and height with input from Shari Nethersole , a physician at Children's Hospital, Boston, and an instructor in Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. (
  • The main factor that determines when the growth plates fuse is the rise in various hormones that takes place with puberty. (
  • For boys, the growth spurt occurs fairly late in puberty, after there is already a fair amount of pubic hair and the penis and testes have enlarged to almost their full size. (
  • However, there are some factors that can increase or reduce growth during childhood and puberty. (
  • Testosterone and estrogen are very important for growth during puberty. (
  • This knowledge will then be applied to improve medical treatment in disorders of bone growth and in disorders of bone structure. (
  • Testosterone, which is the major hormone in boys, promotes growth as well as maturation of bone, eventually causing the growth plates to fuse. (
  • GNAS mutations on maternally inherited alleles (PHP-1a and PHP-1c) manifest resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and gonadotropins, as well as the the phenotypic features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). (
  • Recombinant human growth hormone (GH) is typically used, but the results are often less than optimal and growth hormone has potential adverse effects. (
  • These are made in the pituitary gland and are the most important hormone for growth. (
  • For instance, children with a rare genetic condition called congenital growth hormone deficiency will grow at a much slower rate than other children. (
  • Can Growth Hormone Therapy Help Kids Reach Their Potential? (
  • We're here to get growth hormone. (
  • Growth hormone (GH) often makes the news for controversial reasons - most commonly for its abuse by elite athletes hoping to exploit its anabolic effects - causing parents to have varied opinions about its possible use in their children. (
  • Growth hormone therapy has been denied by her insurer. (
  • Acromegaly is a disorder that occurs when your body makes too much growth hormone (GH). (
  • In children, too much growth hormone causes a condition called gigantism rather than acromegaly. (
  • When GH enters the blood, this signals the liver to produce another hormone, called insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I is the hormone that actually causes bones and body tissue to grow. (
  • Some pituitary tumors that create growth hormone can also increase the levels of other hormones in the body. (
  • The growth plate is the area of tissue near the ends of long bones in children and teens that determines the future length and shape of the mature bone. (
  • Because they are even weaker than the nearby ligaments and tendons that connect bones to other bones and muscles, growth plates are vulnerable to injury. (
  • As a result, girls' bones finish growing sooner, and the growth plate is replaced with stronger, solid bone at an earlier age. (
  • Some bones, like the small bones of the wrist and feet, might fuse while other bones in the body still have open growth plates. (
  • Height will be determined primarily by the growth in the bones of the legs and the spine at this time. (
  • It is quite possible that the small bones in the wrist have closed while the growth plates in the legs are still open, and that would allow for continued increases in height. (
  • But, if they don't see any dark lines at the ends of the bones, this indicates that the growth plates are closed and your child has reached their full adult height. (
  • If your child is still growing, the long bones in their body will have growth plates on their ends. (
  • If the growth plates are not visible on an X-ray, these bones are done growing. (
  • For example, closed growth plates on the wrist cannot guarantee that the leg bones are done growing. (
  • Because growth plates are the last portion of bones to harden, they are vulnerable to fracture. (
  • Each long bone- the thigh bone, the bones in the forearm, and the bones in the hands and fingers-has at least two growth plates, one at each end. (
  • They act as a template for the growth of bones, allowing the foot to increase in size and develop properly. (
  • Growth plates are the areas of growing tissue at the end of bones in children and adolescents. (
  • They are responsible for controlling the growth of bones and are found at the ends of long bones, such as those in the arms and legs. (
  • Growth plates provide for the longitudinal growth of bones, allowing them to get longer as a child grows. (
  • If a fracture is suspected, an X-ray should be taken to make sure that no damage was done to the growth plate or nearby bones. (
  • Growth plates are located at the ends of the bones in children and adolescents. (
  • As the child grows, their bones develop and lengthen due to growth plates. (
  • Therefore, if one growth plate is damaged early in life, it can have an effect on the development of other bones that are still growing. (
  • Failure of the growth plate to function properly can result in short stature or sometimes a skeletal dysplasia, such as achondroplasia, in which the bones are not just short but also malformed. (
  • This is due to changes in the growth plates in the long bones of their arms and legs. (
  • As the growth plates make new bone, the long bones get longer, and the child gets taller. (
  • Many genetic disorders, including chondrodysplasias, and acquired disorders impair growth plate function, resulting in short and sometimes malformed bones. (
  • As children and adolescents age, the growth plates gradually harden, eventually becoming solid bone. (
  • There are multiple endocrine and paracrine factors that promote chondrogenesis at the growth plate, which could potentially be used to treat these disorders. (
  • BHIA VA agar screen plate (6 µg/ ml). (
  • Write your initials on the bottom of the agar plate. (
  • hand, all over the palm and fingers, with the sterile swab and then rub the swab gently over the agar surface of your agar plate labeled #1. (
  • We instructed participants to take a maximal inspiration and cough twice on each of 2 different agar plates, Sabouraud dextrose agar and Columbia blood agar, held at a 5-cm distance from the participant's mouth. (
  • We incubated Sabouraud dextrose agar cough plates at 28°C and Columbia blood agar cough plates at 36°C for 3 weeks and inspected daily for bacterial and fungal growth. (
  • Compression fracture through growth plate: This uncommon injury occurs when the end of the bone is crushed and the growth plate is compressed. (
  • If the force is great enough, a complete separation (fracture) of the growth plate occurs in the knee. (
  • When a non-growth plate knee injury occurs, most of the time the knee ligaments (ACL or MCL) are sprained or partially torn. (
  • Growth plates are especially vulnerable to injury during childhood and adolescence because they are softer than mature bone. (
  • Growth plates that have not yet formed into solid bone appear as a dark line on an X-ray. (
  • Once your child has finished growing, the growth plates close and are replaced by solid bone. (
  • Growth plates can be affected by hormones and nutrition, as well as genetics, trauma, and other factors. (
  • Some of these genes affect the growth plates, and others affect the production of growth hormones. (
  • The body produces hormones that instruct the growth plates to make new bone. (
  • Some health conditions can restrict the amount of growth hormones the body makes, and this can impact height. (
  • The thyroid gland makes hormones that influence growth. (
  • The growth plate regulates and helps determine the length and shape of the mature bone. (
  • 1. SHP2 Regulates the Osteogenic Fate of Growth Plate Hypertrophic Chondrocytes. (
  • 2. SHP2 regulates chondrocyte terminal differentiation, growth plate architecture and skeletal cell fates. (
  • This may involve surgical plates, screws, or wires to secure the bone as it heals. (
  • Plates and Screws " market report 2022 provides a survey of the industry's current and future situation by estimating the market by share, geography, and size in terms of volume and value. (
  • The Plates and Screws market report includes industry classifications, applications, key supply chains, product demand, sub-segments, base year and forecast period results, and significant issues faced by market players. (
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  • Occasionally, surgery is needed to put the bone back together with the help of pins, screws, rods and plates. (
  • Unless perfect alignment is achieved and maintained during healing, prognosis for growth is poor, and angulation (bending) of the bone may occur. (
  • Growth plate fractures can occur as a result of a traumatic event like a car crash. (
  • While it is true that once a growth plate has fused there will be no lengthening of that bone, not all the growth plates in the body fuse at the same time. (
  • It usually affects kids 11 to 16 years old who are going through a growth spurt. (
  • Doctors do know SCFE mostly happens in people between the ages of 11 and 16 who are going through a growth spurt. (
  • Because they are weaker than the knee ligaments, it is the growth plates that are most affected by the force (the hit from the other player). (
  • Not getting enough sleep over a long period of time may interfere with healthy growth, cause other health problems, and impair the ability of the child to focus, learn, and participate in life. (
  • Our findings indicate that ACAN mutations, can present as autosomal-dominant short stature with advanced bone age and early growth cessation (Nilsson et al, 2014) . (
  • The usual progression of fusion of growth plates is elbow first, then foot and ankle, then hand and wrist, then knee, then hip and pelvis, and last the shoulder and clavicle. (
  • For example, if a growth plate in the ankle or foot is injured, it can cause a discrepancy in leg length. (
  • Produced mainly in the pituitary gland , GH controls the physical growth of the body. (
  • abstract = "Qualitative characteristics of biomass production in ultrahigh density algal bioreactors with a small optical path (specifically, thin flat-plate reactors) are analyzed and explained in terms of models, which combine the random motion of cells across the optical path with simple models for the photosynthetic process. (
  • To address this knowledge gap, we developed a new analytic approach to identify causative genes within these GWAS loci, based on the hypothesis that many of the causative genes within these loci influence height because they are expressed in and function in the growth plate. (
  • This analysis strongly implicated a large number of novel genes that regulate human growth plate chondrogenesis and thereby contribute to the normal variations in human adult height ( Lui et al, 2012 ). (
  • Recently, there have been significant scientific advances defining the sequential expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of matrix molecules and formation and growth of the musculoskeletal system. (
  • We use pediatric-specific surgical methods to treat your child without affecting his or her growth. (
  • 14. Chondrocyte-specific knockout of Cbfβ reveals the indispensable function of Cbfβ in chondrocyte maturation, growth plate development and trabecular bone formation in mice. (
  • 16. Sox9 directs hypertrophic maturation and blocks osteoblast differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. (
  • This puts a large amount of the force from a traumatic event (such as a sporting injury or an automobile accident) into the growth plate resulting in a fracture. (
  • 12. Persistent expression of Twist1 in chondrocytes causes growth plate abnormalities and dwarfism in mice. (
  • It is important to note that growth plates are not present in adults and are only found in children and adolescents. (
  • it has a mycelial form at lower growth temperatures (optimal 25 degrees C) and a yeast form when incubated at 35 degrees C on enriched media. (
  • Approximately 15% to 30% of all childhood fractures are growth plate fractures . (
  • In athletes under age 17 or 18, the growth plates of the tibia and femur are still quite weak. (
  • Kids and teens also have a growth plate at the top of the thighbone (femur), just under the "ball" portion of the joint. (
  • Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during vascularization and ossification of normal and impaired avian growth plate. (
  • However, the growth plate fracture heals a great deal, especially in younger children. (
  • All children who are still growing are at risk for a growth plate injury. (
  • Sleep promotes growth and development in children and teenagers. (
  • Growth is one of the most important indicators of health in children. (
  • In my clinic, I've diagnosed severe hypothyroidism in a marathon runner, a brain tumor, celiac disease in a teenager with no gastrointestinal complaints, autoimmune hepatitis, and several other diseases needing treatment in children who show no symptoms other than poor growth. (
  • Sometimes, the die is cast for children to have barriers to normal growth. (
  • Children who are small for their gestational age may be GH-resistant, and those who do not catch up to their growth curve by the age of 2 years may require GH treatment to reach their height potential. (
  • Surgery is frequently needed to restore the joint surface to normal and to perfectly align the growth plate. (
  • Patients with achondroplasia with genu varum who underwent TBP surgery for growth modulation were studied. (
  • Growth modulation by TBP surgery is a reliable and simple technique to correct genu varum in achondroplasia . (
  • SCFE is always treated with surgery to stabilize the growth plate that slipped. (
  • During this process, if the growth plate is damaged, it can affect the shape of the bone, the position of the joints, and the strength of the muscles that support it. (
  • Additionally, the growth plates may be disrupted by illness or the use of certain medications, leading to disruptions in normal growth. (
  • And what happens if your child injures or fractures one of their growth plates? (
  • If your child was injured in a fall or car accident, they may require extensive medical care to prevent a growth plate injury that could result in long-term severe pain, or an inability to move or put pressure on a limb. (
  • If a child experiences an injury that affects the growth plate, it can cause stunted growth and skeletal deformities. (
  • These techniques, along with a conservative approach, help us protect special bone segments (growth plates) so your child is able to achieve his or her full growth potential. (
  • However, with proper treatment, most growth plate fractures heal without any lasting effect. (
  • Growth plate fractures are among the quickest fractures to heal due to the rich blood supply and healing factors to the area. (
  • Type 2 injury breaks through the growth plate and the metaphysis, which contains a spongy interior. (
  • Type 5 is a crush injury compressing the growth plate. (
  • Running, weight work, stretching, power skating, and practicing the specific sport are my recommendations for success and to lower the risks of growth plate injury or ligament injury to the knee. (
  • To ensure proper development, it is important to understand the role of growth plates in the development of your foot. (
  • In this blog post, we will discuss the importance of growth plates in the development of your foot. (
  • How Do Growth Plates Affect Foot Development? (
  • Growth plates are important for healthy foot development. (
  • In addition, an important factor to keep in mind is that different growth plates mature at different times during development. (
  • 15. Chondrocytes transdifferentiate into osteoblasts in endochondral bone during development, postnatal growth and fracture healing in mice. (