Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicFood Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Bacteria, AerobicDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Food, Preserved: Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Food Coloring Agents: Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Staphylococcal Food Poisoning: Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Food, Organic: Food that is grown or manufactured in accordance with nationally regulated production standards that include restrictions on the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ingredients.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Deltaproteobacteria: A group of PROTEOBACTERIA represented by morphologically diverse, anaerobic sulfidogens. Some members of this group are considered bacterial predators, having bacteriolytic properties.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Fusobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of humans and other animals. No endospores are formed. Some species are pathogenic and occur in various purulent or gangrenous infections.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.PeptidoglycanMethane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Pseudoalteromonas: A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Pseudomonas fluorescens: A species of nonpathogenic fluorescent bacteria found in feces, sewage, soil, and water, and which liquefy gelatin.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Enterobacter: Gram-negative gas-producing rods found in feces of humans and other animals, sewage, soil, water, and dairy products.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Gram-Negative Chemolithotrophic Bacteria: A large group of bacteria including those which oxidize ammonia or nitrite, metabolize sulfur and sulfur compounds, or deposit iron and/or manganese oxides.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Most ... Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, ecologists may collect, study, and report data on the quality of air, food, ... Swift advances in knowledge of genetics and organic molecules spurred growth in the field of biotechnology, transforming the ... Some conduct fundamental research to advance our knowledge of living organisms, including bacteria and other pathogens. This ...
Food Safety and Inspection Service. "Kitchen Companion: Your Safe Food Handbook". USDA. Retrieved 28 November 2012. Rombauer, ... Marinating should be done in the refrigerator to inhibit bacterial growth. Used marinade should not be made into a sauce unless ... Raw pork, seafood, beef and poultry may contain harmful bacteria which may contaminate the marinade. ... and spices to further flavor the food items. It is commonly used to flavor foods and to tenderize tougher cuts of meat. The ...
As a preservative, salt inhibits the growth of bacteria. Salt acts as a binder in sausages to form a binding gel made up of ... Salt is added to food, either by the food producer or by the consumer, as a flavor enhancer, preservative, binder, fermentation ... The salt consumption in the food industry is subdivided, in descending order of consumption, into other food processing, meat ... the salt draws water out of bacteria through osmotic pressure, keeping it from reproducing, a major source of food spoilage. ...
Nitrates help kill bacteria, produce a characteristic flavor, and give fish a pink or red color. The use of nitrates in food ... It also contributes to the growth of beneficial bacteria like Lactobacillus by feeding them. Nitrates and nitrites have been ... Food portal Brining Charcuterie Curing salt List of dried foods List of smoked foods Pickling Pickling salt Salting (food) " ... Smoking helps seal the outer layer of the food being cured, making it more difficult for bacteria to enter. It can be done in ...
PQQ stimulates growth in bacteria. It was discovered by J.G. Hauge as the third redox cofactor after nicotinamide and flavin in ... It is found in soil and foods such as kiwifruit, as well as human breast milk. Enzymes containing PQQ are called quinoproteins ... A novel aspect of PQQ is its biosynthesis in bacteria from a ribosomally translated precursor peptide, PqqA. A glutamic acid ... Hauge JG (1964). "Glucose dehydrogenase of bacterium anitratum: an enzyme with a novel prosthetic group". J Biol Chem. 239: ...
"Selective growth-inhibiting effects of compounds identified in Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark on human intestinal bacteria". ... Journal of medicinal food. 13 (3): 481-8. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.1219. PMID 20438329. Park, BS; Lee, HK; Lee, SE; Piao, XL; ... The tree has a slow growth rate. Leaves are opposite and petiolate, 2 to 3 inches long, elliptic and lanceolate, with lightly ... and has some effects on other human intestinal bacteria. Trees portal Lapacho List of plants of Cerrado vegetation of Brazil " ...
This allows growth of bacteria that could result in a food-borne illness.[citation needed] The size of the mesh makes these ... However, most often it is used as a skimming tool to add or remove foods from hot liquids such as water or oil. Spiders may be ... This kitchen utensil is most often used to retrieve foods that are being cooked in pots or pans of hot water. The spider can be ... A spider is ideal for lifting and draining foods from hot oil, soups, stocks and boiling water. It is the perfect tool for ...
The yeast in turn provides growth stimulants for the bacterium. Wing, Gänzle. "Dan Woods long posts 1-4". Retrieved Dec 15, ... "Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology: Lactic Acid Bacteria". Retrieved 2012-07-18. Yiu H. Hui (2006). Handbook of food ... Gobbetti, M., A. Corsetti (1997). "Lactobacillus sanfrancisco a key sourdough lactic acid bacterium: a review" (PDF). Food ... Micro-Organisms in Foods 6 Microbial Ecology of Food Commodities. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 2005. pp. 409- ...
... s have the potential for promoting the growth of Listeria bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes can also cause serious ... Food portal Beef jerky Deli meat List of sandwiches List of sausages List of smoked foods Montreal-style smoked meat New York- ... In modern days, the enhanced flavor of smoked foods makes them a delicacy in many cultures. Smoking of meat and fish has been ... Its purpose is to preserve these protein-rich foods, which would otherwise spoil quickly, for long periods. There are two ...
EBI Food Safety and Intralytix both have products suitable for treatment of the bacterium. The U.S. Food and Drug ... At refrigeration temperature, such as 4 °C, the amount of ferric iron can affect the growth of L. monocytogenes. The primary ... Because L. monocytogenes is an intracellular bacterium, some studies have used this bacterium as a vector to deliver genes in ... whereas PrfA up-regulates gene expression when the bacterium is present in blood. Little is known about how this bacterium ...
... the tender flesh of sturgeon is more susceptible to growth of Clostridium botulinum bacteria. Food portal List of dried foods " ...
... acts to prevent the growth of mold, bacteria, and yeast. Nipastat is a mixture of five common parabens: methylparaben ... Parabens are a type of compound used as a preservative in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food. Nipastat is a white powder at ... and food. "Product Fact Sheet NIPASTAT®". Clariant International LTD, May 2013 Ash M, Ash I Handbook of Preservatives p. 166. ...
Cheesemakers often refer to the growth of the bacteria as a smear. The cheese is placed on wooden shelves, then gets washed ... The US Code of Food Regulations defines what the fat and moisture content of brick cheese must be. This Standard of Identity ... Brevibacterium linens is also the bacterium responsible for the aging of Limburger cheese and many French cheese varieties. ...
Food Chem. 50:15 4210-14 Bashan, Y., et al. (2000). Growth promotion of seawater irrigated oilseed halophyte Salicornia ... bigelovii inoculated with mangrove rhizosphere bacteria and halotolerant Azospirillum spp. Biol Fertil Soils 32:265-72. ...
Sabouraud agar is used to culture fungi and has a low pH that inhibits the growth of most bacteria; it also contains the ... It is also used to culture possible Salmonella that may be present in a food sample. Most Salmonella colonies produce a black ... The addition of bile salts and crystal violet to the agar inhibits the growth of most Gram-positive bacteria, making MacConkey ... As it is enriched, it allows the growth of certain fastidious bacteria, and allows indication of haemolytic activity in these ...
... enhances the growth and activities of bacteria or inhibits growth or activities of certain pathogenic bacteria. Results ... Inulin-containing foods can be rather gassy, in particular for those unaccustomed to inulin, and these foods should be consumed ... Inulin also stimulates the growth of bacteria in the gut. Inulin passes through the stomach and duodenum undigested and is ... It increases calcium absorption and possibly magnesium absorption, while promoting the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria ...
Proteins form an important part in foods like milk, eggs, meat, fish, beans, spinach, and nuts. There are four factors that ... They are used for growth and repair, as well as for strengthening the bones. They help to make tissue and cells. They are in ... animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, and also in the human body. Muscles contain a lot of protein. When protein is digested, it is ... There are nine essential amino acids for humans, which are obtained from food. The nine essential amino acids are: histidine, ...
Hydrosols of anise, cumin, oregano, summer savory and black thyme have been shown to decrease bacteria growth in incubation. In ... Rosemary, oregano and thyme are very popular hydrosols for food production. Herbal distillates are produced in the same or ... they tend to inhibit bacterial growth but not fungal growth. They are not sterile. They are a fresh product, like milk, and ... Since this antibacterial activity occurs naturally, it can be used to prevent the deterioration of food, especially in organic ...
In one experiment, leaf extracts of Breonadia salicina helped prevent the growth of bacteria that cause food poisoning. In a ... Min, Byeng R. (March 2007). "Effect of tannins on the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and in vivo growth of generic ... Tannins are polyphenols that have been found to help with reducing growth of E. coli in digestive tracts. Leaf extracts of B. ... It is believed that these same anti-bacterial properties of B. salicina can be used for the preservation of foods. Possible ...
Its relatively long shelf-life is due to one of its primary ingredients, vinegar, which inhibits the growth of bacteria. ... Early Filipinos cooked their food normally by roasting, steaming or boiling methods. To keep it fresh longer, food was often ... Outside of the dish itself, the flavor of adobo has been developed commercially and adapted to other foods. A number of local ... 2006). The Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-19-280681-5. Sifton, Sam. (January 5, 2011 ...
Removal of pathogenic bacteria and viruses occurs mainly by inactivation. Pathogens are inactivated as a result of a complex ... Heavy algal growth may block sunlight from penetrating into the pond. This decreases the potential for photosynthesis to ... The organic matter is measured as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). This pond biome uses waste material as food. Nutrients are ... In most ponds both bacteria and algae are needed in order to maximize the decomposition of organic matter and the conversion of ...
Released bacteria dissolve the internal tissues of the insect which becomes food for nematode growth and development. Matured ... Once found, nematodes enter the body of the insect and release a powerful bacterium which quickly kills the pest. ... A serious threat to European apiculture The Food and Environment Research Agency, UK Nov 2010, accessed Dec 2011 Somerville, ...
... sulfites are antioxidants that inhibit growth of aerobic bacteria and a useful food additive in small amounts. At high ... via bacteria) as food to be oxidized. The so-called sulfate-reducing bacteria, by contrast, "breathe sulfate" instead of oxygen ... The photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria and some lithotrophs use elemental oxygen to carry out such ... Sulfur is converted to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) through reduction, partly by bacteria. H2S kills bacteria (possibly including ...
"Biotin for Hair Growth: Does It Work?".. *^ a b National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board ... Vitamin B10: para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA or PABA), a chemical component of the folate molecule produced by plants and bacteria ... 457.100 Pangamic Acid and Pangamic Acid Products Unsafe for Food and Drug Use". Compliance Policy Guidance Manual. US Food and ... Bender DA (29 January 2009). A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Oxford University Press. p. 521. ISBN 978-0-19-157975-2. .. ...
... s are bacteria and archaea that fix atmospheric nitrogen gas into a more usable form such as ammonia. A diazotroph is ... These systems are used because of their genetic tractability and their fast growth. Diazotroph: "Di": two + "A": without + "Zoo ... ": life + "Troph": pertaining to food or nourishment. "Azote": Nitrogen (French). Named by French chemist and biologist Antoine ... Oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria generate oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, yet some are able to fix nitrogen as well. ...
... and population growth". Diabetes Care. 35 (12): 2515-20. doi:10.2337/dc12-0669. PMC 3507562. PMID 23173134. Archived from the ... The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been connected with type 2 diabetes.[31] ... "Food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies". European ...
Eating organic meat reduces the risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria.. The only disappointment of the report was they did not ... ice cream or cheese from the United States you are exposing you and your children to excessive genetically modified growth ... This particular study strangely concluded that organically grown food has the same nutrition than conventionally grown food. ... Organic food is a controversial topic and this review is a positive follow up to the poorly constructed study published by ...
The activity of these preserving agents covers yeasts, molds and bacteria. The activity increases with decreasing pH and is ... sulfur in food,what foods have sulfites,sulfate allergy symptoms,sulfates in food, preservatives used in food,sulfur dioxide in ... sulfites in food, sulfites in foods,sulfites in red wine, common food preservatives, food preservatives chemistry, examples of ... food,reaction to sulfites,list of food preservatives,preservatives in wine,foods with sulfites, sulfite containing foods,sodium ...
Bacteria discovery could enhance crop growth. Set up an interview. Media Relations. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. 1-866-345 ... Beneficial bacteria, such as Paenibacillus polymyxa CR1, can enhance crop growth by producing naturally occurring plant growth ... One bacterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa CR1, has been found to fix nitrogen and produce naturally occurring growth hormones which ... Plant root bacteria are of particular interest because they could lead to clues about improving plant growth sustainably, Dr. ...
This additional information was identified during the Canadian Food Inspection Agencys (CFIA) food safety investigation. ... The food recall warning issued on July 4, 2016 has been updated to include additional distribution information. ... Updated Food Recall Warning - Fjord Laks brand fish products recalled due to potential growth of dangerous bacteria if sold ... 2016-07-15 - H. Van Wijnen brand Smoked Atlantic Salmon Filet Royal recalled due to potential growth of dangerous bacteria if ...
You are here: Home / Food Safety Training / Stop Bacteria Growth, Cool Hot Food Quickly ... Stop Bacteria Growth, Cool Hot Food Quickly. By Dennis Keith - Leave a Comment ... Protect your business by being proactive in fighting bacteria growth, and always cool food quickly.. ... bacteria will grow, leading to poisoning customers who eat the contaminated food. Reheating will kill some bacteria, but other ...
Cooking oil coating prevents bacteria growth on food processing equipment. By Tyler MacDonald , 12 months ago ... Hattons team is continuing to test new combinations of foods, oils, and biofilm types to improve the bacteria barriers. The ... And although surface scratches are not aesthetically appealing, they can also trap food bacteria and residue, increasing the ... and more effective ways of preventing bacteria growth in these machines. One of their new proposals is using a thin layer of ...
Top 100 Food and Beverage Companies for 2018: A Return to Topline Growth?. The new tax law inflated profits, but sales figures ... Research Data for Top 100 Food and Beverage Companies 2005 - 2008. Food Processing presents research data for the top 100 Food ... Leaving Pinnacle Foods to replace founder/CEO Irwin Simon.. *03 Big Data Drives Food Safety Programs at Amazon and Costco. ... Probiotic Bacteria May Protect Against Autoimmune Diseases. Source: Wellness Foods, FoodProcessing.com ...
Tumor Growth in Stomach Cancer may be Slowed Down by Botox. Countless of Hollywood stars have used Botox to freeze their faces ... Magnetic Bacteria That can Help Diagnose Stomach Cancer Created by Scientists. Scientists have developed a much-needed ... Types of Food Allergies. If you are allergic to certain food items-Watch out for what you eat ... The importance of eating food and the physiological, psychological and social functions of food. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Food supply easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... and pictures about Food supply at Encyclopedia.com. ... see also Aflatoxin; Bacteria, growth and reproduction; ... See also Food Supply and the Global Food Market ; Food Supply, Food Shortages . ... Food security has similar connotations in relation to food. According to the 1996 World Food Summit, food security exists "when ...
Let your light shine - bacteria sensor lights up when exposed to toxins. ... Since root and tuber crops are a major food source in tropical Africa, the genomic analysis of orphan crops such as the white ... White Guinea yam genome sequencing could help millions in Africa with staple food crop. By ... Guinea yam promotes efforts to improve food security and the sustainability of tropical agriculture. Researchers believe that ...
The food bowl that produces the countrys most of the staples like rice, fish and fowl is now under threat. A vast region of ... Worms, Bacteria, Beetles Form Part of the.... March 24, 2006 Can Advertising Help Save Our environment?!. December 24, 2005 ... Will Vietnams Economic Growth Compromise on Ecology? was last modified: June 24th, 2014 by DrPrem Jagyasi ... An eternal antagonism true, but its of great concern the Vietnams food bowl, the ecologically sensitive wetlands is now ...
What Are Some Foods That Stunt Your Growth?. * Q: How Long Does It Take to Digest Lettuce?. ... What Bacteria Is Used to Make Yogurt?. * Q: What Is Considered Tunisian Cuisine?. ... How Many Pounds of Food Does the Average Adult Eat in a Day?. ... What Is the Largest Fast Food Chain in the World?. * Q: What Is ...
3.4.1.2 Growth of the global functional food industry 3.4.1.3 Effectiveness of probiotic bacteria 3.4.2 Market restraint ... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the Probiotics Dietary Supplements Market Analysis By Application (Food ... 4.2.1 Food supplements 4.2.2 Nutritional Supplements 4.2.3 Specialty Nutrients 4.2.4 Infant Formula ... Development of superior probiotics strains intended for a specific purpose and focus on R&D is aiding the segment growth. ...
Hundreds of resistant bacteria are able to actively feed on antibiotics. Now we know how - and we may be able to use it to ... "But we saw exceptional growth on antibiotics," says Dantas. His team found that some strains were around 50 times above the ... SOME types of bacteria dont just resist antibiotics, they eat them too - and now we have worked out their trick. ... They were growing soil bacteria in the presence of penicillin, expecting that it would stop them from growing. ...
Federal guidelines recommend food safety practices for retail delis, but not all delis follow them. ... Retail Delis Can Address Gaps in Food Safety - Key Takeaways from 4 Scientific Articles. ... Storing food at this temperature helps reduce bacteria growth.. *Using sanitizer solution at proper concentrations for cleaning ... Food Safety and Inspection Service recommend these food safety practices to reduce growth and contamination of bacteria like ...
Whether youre in your kitchen or helping friends or family in theirs, follow the four simple steps to food safety-clean, ... Refrigerate perishable foods within 2 hours. Cold temperatures slow the growth of illness-causing bacteria. So its important ... use a food thermometer to make sure food reaches 165°F to make sure harmful bacteria have been killed in your foods. ... Separate Foods. Keep meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs separate from all other foods at the grocery and in the fridge. Bacteria ...
Bacteria: …addition to oxygen concentration, the oxygen reduction potential of the growth medium influences bacterial growth. ... The oxygen reduction potential is a relative measure of the oxidizing or reducing capacity of the growth medium. ... In food preservation: Bacteria. …addition to oxygen concentration, the oxygen reduction potential of the growth medium ... The oxygen reduction potential is a relative measure of the oxidizing or reducing capacity of the growth medium. ...
... or those preparing your food - are always careful with food handling and preparation. ... Cold temperatures slow the growth of harmful bacteria. Keep-ing a constant refrigerator temperature of 40 °F or below is one of ... Some foods are more risky for you than others. In general, the foods that are most likely to contain harmful bacteria or ... Reheating these foods until they are steaming hot destroys these dangerous bacteria and makes these foods safe for you to eat. ...
A new study has found that men who eat yogurt regularly have a lower risk of abnormal growths in the bowel, or adenomas, which ... Common foods alter gut bacteria by influencing viruses. *. Sugar alters brain chemistry after only 12 days ... Colon cancer: Could yogurt prevent precancerous growths?. Written by Maria Cohut, Ph.D. on June 20, 2019. - Fact checked by ... Moreover, men who ate two or more servings of yogurt per week were 26% less likely to develop abnormal growths with a high ...
Handling refrigerated and frozen food during a power failure. *Freezing stops the growth of bacteria. Do not open the ... Be sure to carefully inspect all food items and do not eat any food you think may not be safe. Spoiled food may not look ... Cleaning and drying stored food and food surfaces after a flood. Only undamaged, commercially-prepared foods in sealed, ... and any food that has an obvious unusual colour or odour. Keep in mind that food contaminated with bacteria does not ...
... most foods) and a source of food for the bacteria, such as sugars, and protein. All bacteria need to grow in conditions such as ... 4 hours on average) Sadly, the Human body is one of the most optimal places for bacterial growth. We have many nooks and ... crannies where sweat can gather in a dark place (such as under our clothing) and sit for long enough for bacteria to grow. This ... Most bacteria will grow in dark, moist, warm areas with a neutral PH balance (ph7, water, sweat, ...
Includes Bacteria, Eukaryotic Cells, Cell membrane, etc... Characteristics of Bacteria: Bacteria are all ar... ... Read this full essay on Essay on Bacteria; ... Impact of bacteria and chemichemical enhancement of food on ... For instance, when certain types of bacteria are. Investigating the Effect ofTeeth Cleaning Agents on the Growth of Bacteria. ... There are 3 things bacteria needs in order to live: water, warmth and food. Without these three things, the bacteria become ...
This is because certain bacteria in rice can survive the cooking process. In fact, it is safe to eat reheated rice if it is ... In this article, we discuss the best ways to manage leftover rice to limit the risk of food poisoning. ... To further reduce bacteria growth, cool food quickly by:. *Dividing the food into shallow food containers and sealing them with ... It is essential to practice food safety and hygiene whenever cooking.. Following specific steps will reduce bacteria growth and ...
Food Additives Affect Gut Bacteria. By Heidi Wachter Research indicates that certain emulsifiers - used in many processed foods ... Growth Rate of Bacteria in Gut May Signal Disease. By Craig Cox New research could help doctors diagnose some chronic diseases ... When intestinal bacteria dont get enough prebiotic food, they start to feed off the colons mucosal lining. Lacking ... The whole foods shown here are rich in resistant starch (note that cooking sometimes affects the amount in food). Experiment ...
It could also indicate an excessive growth of bacteria.. 4. Food Allergies and Intolerances. If youre allergic or intolerant ... 8. Undigested Food in Stools. Theres a very high chance you have low stomach acid if you can see undigested food in your stool ... Unfortunately, low stomach acid leads to excessive bacteria growth, which can cause skin issues. This explains why 40 percent ... Again, this has to do with the overgrowth of bad bacteria. When your stomach has lots of bad bacteria and low amounts of ...
  • Crushed grapes or must are treated with sulfur (by the addition of sulphites or an aqueous solution of sulfurous acid or by adding liquid SO 2 ) immediately after grape crushing to preserve the constituents that are sensitive to oxidation, prevent enzymatic browning via phenol oxidation and suppress the growth of undesirable microorganisms (acetic acid bacteria, molds) . (blogspot.com)
  • The biggest advantage of GML is the"not preservatives,but more than preservatives".Its bacteriostatic effect will not change with the change of PH value suppose PH value is wihtin the scope of 4-8.Its antibacterial spectrum was wide,it has strong interaction in the common bacteria,fungi,yeast in food,and also can inhibit variety of viruses and protozoa. (wellgochem.com)
  • However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Disinfectants kill or prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. (aapcc.org)
  • Bacteria and fungi are probably not the first ingredients that come to mind when thinking about healthy food. (prweb.com)
  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can stimulate the plant growth. (scirp.org)
  • Cruz, A.F., Ishii, T. and Kadoya, K. (2000) Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Tree Growth, Leaf Water Potential, and Levels of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid and Ethylene in the Roots of Papaya under Water-Stress Conditions. (scirp.org)
  • It is the branch of science that deals with the study of small critters such as bacteria, virus, protozoa, fungi, algae etc. (answers.com)
  • A food preservative which prevents decomposition of food by preventing the growth of fungi or bacteria. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The bright science behind it lies in the humble hen egg - and in particular, lysozyme - which we found is extremely effective against gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria that can cause spoilage in the wine fermentation process (or inhibits Clostridia species causing late blowing defects in naturally ripened cheeses). (dsm.com)
  • A team of researchers from the University of Toronto is researching safer, cheaper, and more effective ways of preventing bacteria growth in these machines. (technologr.com)
  • While researchers can't explain how stomach acid affects allergies and food sensitivities, they say there's a strong link. (care2.com)
  • Using a participant questionnaire, researchers discovered certain lifestyle factors also increased the type and amount of bacteria present in the towels. (nbcconnecticut.com)
  • Altering the makeup of our gut microbiome could have an impact on muscle growth and function, say researchers who hope the new findings will have promise for age-related muscle loss. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Trials by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada researchers are providing insight into the importance of micronutrients, such as copper and vitamins A and D, to the health of piglets and how to administer them. (gc.ca)
  • While the researchers found some evidence that cavity formation was inhibited by certain polyols, in particular the 'tooth-kind' sweetener xlylitol, they say they could not find clear evidence on whether tooth enamel was damaged by sugar-free foods and beverages containing acidic flavourings and preservatives alongside polyols. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In this study, researchers have examined and discussed data on one group of popular sugar substitutes called 'sugar alcohol polyols', which are often used to sweeten chewing gum, sweets, foods and drinks. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The finding may help researchers learn how to manipulate the types and amounts of people's gut bacteria, which can contribute to health and disease. (sciencenews.org)
  • The ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori can directly interact with stomach stem cells, causing the cells to divide more rapidly, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine . (healthcanal.com)
  • It would first need approval from food regulators, then the researchers would have to bring down the cost of mass production. (cbc.ca)
  • This is the topic of a new peer-reviewed paper led by Maria Marco, Ph.D. , University of California, Davis and Robert Hutkins Ph.D. , University of Nebraska, together with an international team of researchers, including California Dairy Research Foundation Executive Director Gonca Pasin, Ph.D. The authors report on the numerous potential and known health benefits of consuming fermented foods. (prweb.com)
  • One of the largest ecoli bacteria outbreaks in the United States occurred in 2006 with a strain known as O157:H7, a bacterium that causes bloody diarrhea and heavy dehydration. (brighthub.com)
  • Building on the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (CARB) released in March 2015 and endorsed by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, the administration's budget for fiscal year 2017, released Feb. 9, proposes $1.1 billion in federal funding to combat the growing public health crisis of antibiotic resistance. (pewtrusts.org)
  • In some areas of the world, notably south Asia , girls and women in poor households often receive less food than they need even though the household has sufficient amounts. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even if I give you the very best probiotics - and large amounts of them - those bacteria live less than an hour, then they're gone," says Robynne Chutkan, MD, author of The Microbiome Solution . (experiencelife.com)
  • When your stomach has lots of bad bacteria and low amounts of friendly bacteria, you're likely to suffer constipation, diarrhea and bloating. (care2.com)
  • The acid is a preservative and examples of foods that contain high amounts of this salt include sauces and pickles. (livestrong.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, however, considers acids approved for use as food additives safe for humans when consumed in small amounts. (livestrong.com)
  • Food manufacturers add tremendous amounts of sugar and salt to make foods taste good. (drmirkin.com)
  • Storage practices are another potential hazard, such as when large amounts of prepared food are placed in a single container and then refrigerated or frozen. (deseretnews.com)
  • Normal heating of canned products in the course of food preparation will neutralize the toxin but will not kill the bacterial spores. (jrank.org)
  • Two sibling colonies (colonies taken from the same mother colony or from the same LB growth) of the P. dendritiformis inoculated side by side can inhibit each other from growing into the territory between them and induce the death of those cells close to the border using a special toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these foods are rich in lactobacilli , a type of bacteria that can benefit your health. (healthline.com)
  • Reproduction is usually possible with an acidity of as low as 4.5, although this depends on the type of bacteria. (reference.com)
  • An immune system reaction that occurs soon after eating a certain food and can cause severe symptoms. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Diagnosis is made through observation of the symptoms and by culturing the bacterium from the suspected food source. (jrank.org)
  • According to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimates, about 1 person out of every 100 has allergic symptoms after exposure to sulfites, chemical additives widely used in the food industry. (healthychildren.org)
  • Current methods cannot detect sulfite concentrations below 10 parts per million (ppm) in food, although many experts believe that a sulfite-sensitive person may experience symptoms at even lower concentrations. (healthychildren.org)
  • Ben-Jacob's bacteria belong to the Paenibacillus genus comprises facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria originally included within the genus Bacillus and then reclassified as a separate genus in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria belonging to this genus have been detected in a variety of environments such as: soil, water, rhizosphere, vegetable matter, forage and insect larvae, as well as clinical samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Have items on hand that do not require refrigeration, such as shelf-stable foods, including canned goods and water. (gc.ca)
  • They were growing soil bacteria in the presence of penicillin, expecting that it would stop them from growing. (newscientist.com)
  • In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, before modern processing techniques existed, food preservation consisted primarily of heat sterilization used in combination with the addition of salts and spices. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Seek out research-based advice taught by university extension agents, information from the National Center for Home Food Preservation and Ball/Kerr. (spokesman.com)
  • The discovery was made using lab techniques that isolate bacteria for study and application in agriculture. (gc.ca)
  • A study conducted on healthy persons at the Sahlgrenska Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden, investigated the effect of Probi's bacteria on various types of white blood cells. (foodprocessing.com)
  • 1987 words - 8 pages Introduction Bacteriology is the study of bacteria, especially as it pertains to medicine (Carter 323). (brightkite.com)
  • A new study found that kitchen towels, especially those used for multiple jobs, are likely to be packed with bacteria such as staph and E. coli. (nbcconnecticut.com)
  • Aronia berry supplementation can increase signaling associated with muscle protein synthesis but doesn't result in more muscle growth in the end, a study in rats has found. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Could microplastics study put a cap on bottled water growth? (packaging-gateway.com)
  • In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Food Science : A study of the chemistry and functionality of the major components comprising food systems, such as water, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. (mcgill.ca)
  • Food Science: A study of the chemistry and functionality of the minor components comprising food systems, such as enzymes, anthocyanins, carotenoids, additives, vitamins and essential oils. (mcgill.ca)
  • This study aims to test the growth-promoting effect of maize inoculated with six indigenous PGPB isolates. (mdpi.com)
  • This is because the more species of bacteria you have, the greater number of health benefits they may be able to contribute to ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (healthline.com)
  • In fact, it is estimated that 75% of the world's food is produced from only 12 plant and 5 animal species ( 5 ). (healthline.com)
  • Food webs are limited representations of real ecosystems as they necessarily aggregate many species into trophic species, which are functional groups of species that have the same predators and prey in a food web. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scaling laws, for example, predict a relationship between the topology of food web predator-prey linkages and levels of species richness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The base or basal species in a food web are those species without prey and can include autotrophs or saprophytic detritivores (i.e., the community of decomposers in soil, biofilms, and periphyton). (wikipedia.org)