Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Sublingual Gland: A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Harderian Gland: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Adrenal Cortex HormonesSteroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Adrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseChild Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Tuberculosis, Endocrine: Infection of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Salivary Gland DiseasesDehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Brunner Glands: The abundant submucosal mucous glands in the DUODENUM. These glands secrete BICARBONATE IONS; GLYCOPROTEINS; and PEPSINOGEN II.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Salivary Glands, Minor: Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.19-Iodocholesterol: 19-Iodocholest-5-en-3 beta-ol. A cholesterol derivative usually substituted with radioactive iodine in the 19 position. The compound is an adrenal cortex scanning agent used in the assessment of patients suspected of having Cushing's syndrome, hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma and adrenal remnants following total adrenalectomy.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Submandibular Gland DiseasesChild Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: A methyltransferase that catalyzes the reaction of S-adenosyl-L-methionine and phenylethanolamine to yield S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and N-methylphenylethanolamine. It can act on various phenylethanolamines and converts norepinephrine into epinephrine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.1.28.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.17-Ketosteroids: Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Apocrine Glands: Large, branched, specialized sweat glands that empty into the upper portion of a HAIR FOLLICLE instead of directly onto the SKIN.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Submandibular Gland NeoplasmsTestis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Metrial Gland: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Carney Complex: Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).Fetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Fludrocortisone: A synthetic mineralocorticoid with anti-inflammatory activity.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cortodoxone: 17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Perianal GlandsVeratridine: A benzoate-cevane found in VERATRUM and Schoenocaulon. It activates SODIUM CHANNELS to stay open longer than normal.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Chromogranin A: A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Chlormadinone Acetate: An orally active synthetic progestational hormone used often in combinations as an oral contraceptive.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Salivary Gland Calculi: Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Acromegaly is a syndrome that results when the anterior pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (GH). Approximately 90- ... For example, insufficient adrenocorticotropic hormone means that the adrenal glands will not produce sufficient cortisol, ... insufficient growth hormone in children and adolescents leads to diminished stature but which can have many other explanations ... The pituitary gland is divided into two lobes, the anterior lobe (which accounts for two thirds of the volume of the gland), ...
... premature adrenarche occurs more often in children with intrauterine growth retardation and in overweight children. Some of ... Others have proposed that adrenarchal maturation is a gradual process intrinsic to the adrenal glands that has no distinct ... Many children born small for gestational age (SGA) because of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have an earlier onset of ... from congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and from androgen-producing tumors of the adrenals or gonads. Pediatric endocrinologists ...
Children experience growth retardation and short stature. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency leads to adrenal ... If the insulin tolerance test yields an abnormal result, a further test measuring the response of the adrenal glands to ... In children, hypothyroidism leads to delayed growth and in extreme inborn forms to a syndrome called cretinism. Prolactin (PRL ... Growth hormone deficiency is almost certain if all other pituitary tests are also abnormal, and insulin-like growth factor 1 ( ...
An ultrasound examination shows accumulation of chalky material (calcification) in the adrenal gland in about half of infants ... Generalized xanthomatosis with calcified adrenals. AMA J Dis Child. 1956 Mar;91(3):282-6. PMID 13301142 Fredrickson DS. Newly ... They may have diarrhoea, stomach pain, vomiting, or poor growth, a sign of malabsorption. They may have signs of bile duct ... Older children or adults with LAL-D may remain undiagnosed or be misdiagnosed until they die early from a heart attack or ...
... and growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH), or somatostatin. Hypersecretion causes gigantism in children and acromegaly in ... thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys in humans and in front of the kidneys in other animals. The adrenal glands ... Addison's disease is an endocrine disease that results from hypocortisolism caused by adrenal gland insufficiency. Adrenal ...
... often of the adrenal gland, which is detected when diagnostic imaging is used for the analysis of unrelated symptoms. With the ... A study in 2017 in nearly 4000 children between 8 and 12 reported that approximately 1 in 200 children showed asymptomatic ... Incidentalomas are common, with up to 7% of all patients over 60 harboring a benign growth,[citation needed] ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 15% of intracranial neoplasms. They ...
Analysis of the fatalities due to BPF showed hemorrhage in the skin, lungs, and adrenal glands. Histopathology showed ... They require preformed growth factors that are present in blood, specifically hemin (X factor) and NAD or NADP (V factor). The ... Also children residing in warmer geographic areas have been associated with a higher risk of BPF infection. The basic method ... Older children and adults have much higher titers of bactericidal antibodies, which serve as a protective measure. ...
... via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) Critically, pituitary gland growth during adolescence can be altered by ... Children who experience early adrenarcheal development tend to have larger pituitary gland volume compared to children with ... Pituitary gland[edit]. The Greek physician Galen referred to the pituitary gland by only using the (Ancient Greek) name ἀδήν,[ ... Pituitary gland. Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella ...
Wound Healing, Growth Factors. Emedicine.com. After the Injury- Children's Hospital Of Philadelphia. ... In the recall phase the adrenal glands increase production of cortisol which shuts down eicosanoid production and inflammation ... Presented by Children's Hospital Boston. Wound Healing and Repair Lorenz H.P. and Longaker M.T. Wounds: Biology, Pathology, and ... Anti-inflammatory eicosanoids include lipoxins, epi-lipoxins, and resolvins, which cause release of growth hormones. Oxford ...
In children, the two main symptoms are obesity and decreased linear growth. The clinical diagnosis must be based on the ... that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous ... In such cases, the next step is adrenal imaging with CT. If plasma corticotropin concentrations are consistently above 3.3 pmol ... External-beam pituitary RT is more effective treatment for pediatric CD in children with cure rates of 80%-88%. Hypopituitarism ...
Chronic stress has also been shown to impair developmental growth in children by lowering the pituitary gland's production of ... ACTH may then stimulate the adrenal glands to secrete cortisol. The HPA axis is subject to negative feedback regulation as well ... This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, ... growth hormone, as in children associated with a home environment involving serious marital discord, alcoholism, or child abuse ...
The anterior pituitary gland contributes to growth, metabolism, and sexual development. The most common pituitary ... Thyroid hormone is critical for growth and brain development, especially during the first few weeks to months of life. Children ... Approximately one-quarter of patients with ONH have adrenal insufficiency, meaning they do not produce enough cortisol on a ... Hyperprolactinemia often correlates with development of obesity in children with ONH. The posterior pituitary gland produces ...
1) Dysfunction of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands 2) Numerous diseases of the pancreas 3) Severe increases in blood ... Impairment of growth and susceptibility to certain infection can occur as a result of chronic hyperglycemia. Acute ... Ketoacidosis may be the first symptom of immune-mediated diabetes, particularly in children and adolescents. Also, patients ... Encephalitis, brain tumors (especially those located near the pituitary gland), brain bleeds, and meningitis are prime examples ...
... glucocorticoids or sex steroids from cholesterol by the adrenal glands (steroidogenesis). Most of these conditions involve ... children, or adults. The symptoms of CAH vary depending upon the form of CAH and the sex of the patient. Symptoms can include: ... early pubic hair and rapid growth in childhood precocious puberty or failure of puberty to occur (sexual infantilism: absent or ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are any of several autosomal recessive diseases resulting from mutations of genes for ...
Cancer (including neoplasms in the mammalian lung, oral/nasal cavities, thyroid and adrenal glands, and liver, squamous cell ... Breast fed children usually still have higher dioxin body burdens than non breast fed children. The WHO still recommends breast ... Furthermore, alterations in multiple endocrine and growth factor systems have been reported. The most sensitive effects, ... Children are passed substantial body burdens by their mothers, and breastfeeding increases the child's body burden. Dioxin ...
If the affected child's growth is particularly slow, growth hormone treatment can be used to augment growth. Plastic surgeries ... These include underdevelopment or agenesis of the pancreas, adrenal glands, thymus, gallbladder, and thyroid; Hirschsprung's ... Deletions from the centromere to 13q32 or any deletions including the 13q32 band are associated with slow growth, intellectual ... Special educators, speech and occupational therapists, and physiotherapists can help a child develop skills in and out of ...
ACTH stimulates growth of the adrenal cells and increases LDL receptors to amplify transport of cholesterol into the cells of ... Similar to the adrenal gland, cholesterol accumulation damages the Leydig cells of the testes. In the ovary, the damage begins ... Most XY children are so undervirilized that they are raised as girls. The testes are uniformly nonfunctional and undescended; ... Also of note, enlargement of the adrenal gland is not always found in the patient, especially in cases where a mutation in the ...
The R1α loss caused the adult adrenal gland became hyperactive and hyperplastic on both sides, as seemingly the foetal adrenal ... This established tumoral growths. This mouse KO model phenocopies what happens in human cases of PPNAD. Inactivation of PDE11A4 ... PPNAD is unique as it often causes Cushing's at a young age, in children and adolescents. In addition to the other symptoms of ... PPNAD arises due to the enlargement of the cortex of the adrenal glands, resulting in Cushing's syndrome that is independent of ...
MEN2A (which affects 60% to 90% of MEN2 families):Medullary thyroid carcinoma; Pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands); ... and delayed growth. Diagnosis suspected in infants or young children with painful swelling of the hands and feet, pallor, ... which is responsible for normal growth in children and normal protein use throughout their lifetime. If there is a buildup of ... Newborn screening can detect the presence of PKU, allowing children to be placed on special diets to avoid the effects of the ...
... adrenal glands, pancreas and spine. In 2012, he took sabbatical from his full time position in Gallup to focus on writing a new ... Since the time of the diagnosis, Rath has been researching and experimenting with various ways of slowing down growth of tumors ... For Kids, ISBN 978-1-59562-027-9 2009 Strengths Based Leadership: Great Leaders, Teams, and Why People Follow, ISBN 978-1-59562 ...
Androgen-producing tumors of the ovaries adrenal glands (see adrenal tumor) pituitary gland (see pituitary adenoma) Polycystic ... Typical effects of virilization in children are pubic hair, accelerated growth and bone maturation, increased muscle strength, ... These effects include growth of the penis and testes, accelerated growth, development of pubic hair, and other androgenic hair ... of a genetically female fetus can occur when an excessive amount of androgen is produced by the fetal adrenal glands or is ...
... is produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads. The production of adrenal androstenedione is governed by ... In children aged 6 to 8 years old, there is a rise in androstenedione secretion along with DHEA during adrenarche. This rise in ... However, he could not because there is no proof of it promoting muscle growth. Androstenedione is banned by the World Anti- ... In premenopausal women, the adrenal glands and ovaries each produce about half of the total androstenedione (about 3 mg/day). ...
... and growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH), or somatostatin. Hypersecretion causes gigantism in children and acromegaly in ... Endocrine glands. The major endocrine glands: 1 Pineal gland 2 Pituitary gland 3 Thyroid gland 4 Thymus 5 Adrenal gland 6 ... Adrenal glandsEdit. Main article: Adrenal gland. The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys in humans and in front of the ... pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus ...
When it coexists with tumors of the parathyroid gland and medullary component of the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma) it is ... DNA analysis makes it possible to identify children who carry the mutant gene; surgical removal of the thyroid in children who ... Clinical trials of protein kinase inhibitors, which block the abnormal kinase proteins involved in the development and growth ... Hereditary medullary thyroid cancer is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, meaning that each child of an affected parent ...
Radiation allows for the limitation of the growth of the pituitary gland and the adenomas. If the adenomas start to affect the ... Additionally, adrenal steroid replacement should be assessed, especially in children who have prior insufficiency associated ... Nelson's syndrome is a rare disorder and occurs in patients who have had both adrenal glands removed owing to Cushing's disease ... Specifically for a child who might have Nelson's syndrome, the patient should be questioned about the symptoms of the disease, ...
In children, the two main symptoms are obesity and decreased linear growth.[7] ... that stimulates the synthesis of cortisol by the adrenal glands. Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous ... In such cases, the next step is adrenal imaging with CT. If plasma corticotropin concentrations are consistently above 3.3 pmol ... excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion led to the production of large amounts of cortisol by the adrenal glands. ...
Adrenals may produce too much hormones or too little hormones. ... Adrenal gland disorders arise when the adrenal glands do not ... Slow growth rates in children. Abnormal hair growth and menstrual irregularities in women; decreased fertility and reduced or ... it is due to an abnormal growth of the glands.. Symptoms of Adrenal Gland Disorders. Adrenal gland disorders produce a broad ... What are Adrenal Gland Disorders?. Significant disorders arise when the adrenal glands do not work properly. Adrenals may ...
in children: retarded growth, blunted mental acuity, rickets; in adults: senility, hair loss, dull skin, loose teeth, tinnitus ... Stress and the Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands are very sensitive to stress. Their response to chronic stress, in ... The adrenal glands are located at the top of each kidney. In describing the function of these glands, physiologist Mr. Walter ... TCM Approach to Adrenal Gland Exhaustion. Tom Fung, R.Ac., R.TCMP December 4, 2015 ...
Study Pathology of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands flashcards from Devon Stutzman ... What is a Growth Hormone adenoma? functional pituitary adenoma causing:. - GIGANTISM in children. - ACROMEGALY in adults. - ... resulting in the shrinking of both adrenal glands. 2. PRIMARY ADRENAL ADENOMA, HYPERPLASIA, or CARCINOMA= one adrenal gland ... Pathology of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview Endocrinology , Pathology of Pituitary and Adrenal Glands , ...
Targeting a Single Gene Could Inhibit Bone Decay and Stimulate Bone Growth. 8. Researchers Find Stem-cell Therapy Effective in ... New Asthma Medicine Targeting Vulnerable Inner-City Children Tested. 7. ... the adrenal gland. It discovered that in heart failure, the extra hormones "desensitize" the adrenals alpha 2 adrenergic ... Targeting the Adrenal Gland Could Be Key Against Heart Failure. Scientists have staved off heart failure in animals by using ...
adrenal gland problems, including low levels of cortisol. *osteoporosis or lower bone mineral density ... slowed growth in children. *lower potassium levels. *higher blood sugar levels. *Can occur with both Combivent Respimat and ... This helps prevent others, including children and pets, from taking the drug by accident. It also helps keep the drug from ... But its not known how this affects children who breastfeed.. Another ingredient in Combivent Respimat called albuterol has ...
Study Pathology of the Adrenal Glands flashcards from Laura Barry ... Pathology of the Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview Endocrine , ... Adrenal CT - adenoma Sometimes adrenal vein sampling to confirm adenoma is true source of aldosterone excess ... Adrenal adenoma - Conns syndrome Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia Rare - genetic mutations and unilateral hyperplasia ... 10% exra-adrenal 10% bilateral 10% malignant 10% not associated with HTN 10-25% familial ...
Growth hormone deficiency means the pituitary gland does not make enough growth hormone. ... The adrenal glands and their production of cortisol, DHEA, and other hormones ... Children with growth hormone deficiency have a slow or flat rate of growth. The slow growth may not show up until a child is 2 ... Review your childs growth chart with the pediatrician at each checkup. If there is concern about your childs growth rate, ...
Decrease in the production of natural steroids by the adrenal glands.. *Effects on the eyes, such as raised pressure inside the ... Slowed growth in children and adolescents.. *Blood clots in the blood vessels (thromboembolism). ... Corticosteroids are hormones that are produced naturally by the adrenal glands. They have many important functions in the body ... When administered for long periods or repeatedly during pregnancy, corticosteroids may increase the risk of slowed growth in ...
an excess of the hormone cortisol produced by the adrenal glands. , which are small glands located on top of each kidney. ... Cushing syndrome causes weight gain in the face and upper body, slowed growth in children, fragile skin, fatigue, and other ... The pituitary gland. (a structure at the base of the brain that makes several hormones) may produce too much growth hormone. ... The thyroid gland. , a butterfly-shaped organ at the base of the neck, may become enlarged (a condition called a goiter) or ...
Bone destruction has been correlated with adrenal gland hormone alterations.7 Usually children with CAH present with ... However, attachment loss measurement cannot be clinically reliable in children because of continuous growth and tooth eruption. ... Adrenal gland and bone. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;503(1):137-145pmid:20542010. ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: update on prenatal diagnosis and treatment. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1999;69(1-6):19-29pmid: ...
NICHD conducts and supports research to understand and ultimately treat adrenal gland disorders. Read how families and NICHD ... Hes watched me and my kids grow up.". Today, at 32, a young mother of three girls, Kelly continues to participate in research ... Although it too is small, it wields major influence on the endocrine system, particularly on growth and development. Tumors on ... Understanding Adrenal Gland Disorders. The adrenal glands, part of the endocrine system, are small. From their perch on top of ...
The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamu ... The pituitary gland is a small oval-shaped gland found inside ... It is needed for normal growth in children. It helps maintain body tissues in adults. Growth hormone is also called ... The following hormones are made by the anterior pituitary gland:. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) tells the adrenal glands ... The pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland found inside the skull and below the brain. As part of the ...
See also adrenal glands, hormones; Table 1.. Table 1: Hormones. Site of production. Name of hormone. Main targets. Involved in ... Use in children can lead to premature fusion of the epiphyses, stunting skeletal growth. Side effects are common and ... Human) growth hormone (H)GH. Most cells. Growth and metabolism. Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood ... A group of drugs derived from the male sex hormone testosterone, most commonly prescribed to promote growth or to help the body ...
Some of the hormones that trigger this new hair growth come from your adrenal glands. Other hormones come from your pituitary ( ... say: puh-TOO-uh-ter-ee) gland (a pea-shaped gland located at the bottom of your brain). These pituitary hormones travel through ... Eating nutritious food and being active (like riding your bike, swimming, and playing sports) will help you be a kid whos ...
Learn more about treatment options at Childrens Health. ... several Pediatric Adrenal Disorders that can affect children. ... They release hormones that are important to your childs health and growth. Adrenal gland hormones manage blood sugar levels, ... How are Pediatric Adrenal Disorders diagnosed?. Exactly what your childs doctor does to diagnose your child depends on which ... What are Pediatric Adrenal Disorders?. The adrenal glands are located at the top of both kidneys. ...
... growth, development, sexual function and other bodily functions. Disorders of the adrenal... ... Endocrine disorders refer to disease states affecting the glands that produce hormones regulating metabolism, ... Growth and puberty are obviously unique to the care of children. Thyroid and adrenal disorders in children have similarities to ... growth, development, sexual function and other bodily functions. Disorders of the adrenal glands, growth, puberty, and the ...
Make research projects and school reports about Congenital adrenal hyperplasia easy with credible articles from our FREE, ... and pictures about Congenital adrenal hyperplasia at Encyclopedia.com. ... CAH, a genetic disorder, is the most common adrenal gland disorder in infants and children, occurring in one in 10,000 total ... CAH causes abnormal growth for both sexes; those affected will be tall as children but short as adults because of early bone ...
Effects of growth and weight in children *Skin irritation. If you get too much skin irritation at the site of application, your ... have diabetes, adrenal gland problems or liver problems. *are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. If you use DUOBRII and ... If too much DUOBRII passes through your skin it can cause adrenal glands to stop working ... A negative pregnancy test must be obtained before females of child-bearing age start using DUOBRII Lotion and they must use ...
NICHD supports and conducts a variety of research on adrenal gland disorders. ... The Pediatric Growth and Nutrition Branch (PGNB), within the Division of Extramural Research, supports research about genetic ... Adrenal Gland Disorder Research Activities and Advances Through its intramural and extramural organizational units, NICHD ... Other units within the DIR focus on adrenal gland disorders and disorders of female reproduction. Researchers are evaluating ...
Corticosteroids are hormones that are produced naturally by the adrenal glands. They have many important functions in the body ... Returning hormone levels to normal in a disorder of the adrenal glands called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. ... Children and adolescents having long-term treatment with this medicine should have their growth regularly monitored. ... Decrease in the production of natural steroids by the adrenal glands (adrenal suppression - see warning above). ...
List of 36 causes for Dacryoadenitis and Decreased hair growth, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient ... AND Adrenal carcinoma (1 match). *AND Adrenal gland symptoms (1 match). *AND AIDS-like recurring respiratory infections (1 ... AND Infectious causes of cough in preschool children (1 match). *AND Infectious causes of cough in school-age children (1 match ... Decreased hair growth:*Causes: Decreased hair growth *Introduction: Decreased hair growth *Decreased hair growth: Add a 3rd ...
... children, find a doctor, complications, outcomes, recovery and follow-up care for Growth hormone deficiency - children. ... The adrenal glands and their production of cortisol, DHEA, and other hormones ... Children with growth hormone deficiency have a slow or flat rate of growth. The slow growth may not show up until a child is 2 ... Review your childs growth chart with the pediatrician at each checkup. If there is concern about your childs growth rate, ...
... prescribed to treat perennial non-allergic rhinitis in adults and children 4 years of age or older. Side effects, drug ... Some children may experience growth suppression when using fluticasone. A bloody nasal discharge (nosebleed) and septum ... High doses, and rarely normal doses, may suppress the adrenal glands and impair their ability to make natural cortisone. People ... Fluticasone mimics the naturally-occurring hormone produced by the adrenal glands, cortisol or hydrocortisone. The exact ...
Adrenal Gland Disorders (1) *Antibody Disorders (20) *Biliary Tract Disorders (4) *Bladder Disorders (2) ...
Serum insulin levels are depressed and growth. hormone (GH) are elevated. The adrenal glands are atrophic at autopsy but plasma ... Children with marasmus shows clinical manifestastion, such as:. Children looked very thin and have old-man face. Mental status ... worlds malnourished children live in Asia. (Oshikoya and Senbanjo, 2009). Child with malnutrition is susceptible to infection ... child every morning before feeding, and plot the weight. Calculate and record the. weight gain every 3 days as g/kg per day. If ...
  • Problems in other organs and systems, such as noncancerous (benign) gastrointestinal growths called polyps and other abnormalities, can also occur in McCune-Albright syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Possible causes that center on the fetus rather than the mother include chromosomal abnormalities, genetic and other syndromes that impair skeletal growth, and defects of the placenta or umbilical cord. (healthofchildren.com)
  • When lesions occur in the bones of the skull and jaw it can result in uneven (asymmetric) growth of the face. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, the independence of adrenarche and gonadal puberty is apparent in children with atypical or abnormal development, when one process may occur without the other. (bionity.com)
  • While both usually occur, sometimes a child has a problem only with the structure of the brain and at other times, a child has a problem only with the function of the brain. (magicfoundation.org)
  • When untreated, skeletal growth is extremely slow, and puberty may or may not occur. (healthofchildren.com)
  • The same genetic mutationan error in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) genethat causes unusually small stature in Laron syndrome also confers seeming immunity from two of the most common diseases that plague mankind. (scribd.com)
  • There are some hormones, such as melatonin from the pineal gland and the locally acting prostaglandins , which cannot be included in any of these groups, but may share a number of their characteristics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Pineal Gland is responsible for smooth transition between various states of consciousness - from walking to sleeping, sleep to dream, and for psychic activity. (scribd.com)
  • There's no doubt that the discovery of steroids a half century ago was a major advance in medicine a life saver for those like the late President John F Kennedy, who suffered from Addison's disease, a disease of the adrenal glands causing insufficient hormone production. (healthy.net)