Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Prolactinoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Adenoma, Chromophobe: A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Pituitary Apoplexy: The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.Pituitary Diseases: Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Adenoma, Acidophil: A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Adenoma, Pleomorphic: A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Adenoma, Villous: An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bromocriptine: A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Somatotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Craniopharyngioma: A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Octreotide: A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Adenoma, Basophil: A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Receptors, Somatostatin: Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Nelson Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.Adenoma, Liver Cell: A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Transcription Factor Pit-1: A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Corticotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Hyperprolactinemia: Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Pituitary Irradiation: Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.Pneumoencephalography: Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Endocrine Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Ergolines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Empty Sella Syndrome: A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Galactorrhea: Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gigantism: The condition of accelerated and excessive GROWTH in children or adolescents who are exposed to excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE before the closure of EPIPHYSES. It is usually caused by somatotroph hyperplasia or a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. These patients are of abnormally tall stature, more than 3 standard deviations above normal mean height for age.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Colonic Polyps: Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Lactation Disorders: Disturbances of MILK secretion in either SEX, not necessarily related to PREGNANCY.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Thyrotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rats, Inbred WFHormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Rats, Inbred F344Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.HMGA2 Protein: An AT-hook-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) nuclear protein that is expressed predominantly in proliferating and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Adenomatous Polyps: Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia: A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Carcinoid Tumor: A usually small, slow-growing neoplasm composed of islands of rounded, oxyphilic, or spindle-shaped cells of medium size, with moderately small vesicular nuclei, and covered by intact mucosa with a yellow cut surface. The tumor can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract (and in the lungs and other sites); approximately 90% arise in the appendix. It is now established that these tumors are of neuroendocrine origin and derive from a primitive stem cell. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1182)Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Lactotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that produce PROLACTIN.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Receptors, Prolactin: Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.Central Nervous System Cysts: Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Ganglioneuroma: A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that coordinates the activation of CYCLIN and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES during the CELL CYCLE. It interacts with active CYCLIN D complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 4 in proliferating cells, while in arrested cells it binds and inhibits CYCLIN E complexed to CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
... of all pituitary adenomas. Some growth hormone (GH)-producing tumors also co-secrete prolactin. Microprolactinomas are much ... A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. It is the most ... population have small pituitary tumors. Forty percent of these pituitary tumors produce prolactin, but most are not considered ... Women with prolactin-secreting tumors may experience further pituitary enlargement and must be closely monitored during ...
Patients with CNC develop growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors and in some instances these same tumors also secrete ... Unlike tumors of the posterior Pituitary, Pituitary adenomas are classified as endocrine tumors (not brain tumors). Pituitary ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories ... luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL). Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma can be made, or at least ...
... due to both pituitary and non-pituitary growth hormone-secreting tumors, and the management of symptoms caused by ... In the United Kingdom, it is also indicated in the treatment of thyrotrophic adenoma, a rare tumor of the pituitary gland which ... a naturally occurring inhibitory hormone which blocks the release of several other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid- ... secretes TSH. Lanreotide also shows activity against non-endocrine tumors, and, along with other somatostatin analogues, is ...
Acromegaly and gigantism (growth hormone and IGF-1 excess), usually due to pituitary tumors. Use of certain medications such as ... as well as adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary adenomas (as in Cushing's syndrome). hCG-secreting tumors Inborn errors of ... Male hormones such as testosterone stimulate hair growth, increase size and intensify the growth and pigmentation of hair. ... Ovarian tumors such as granulosa tumors, thecomas, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (androblastomas), and gynandroblastomas, as well ...
About 25% of pituitary tumors secrete growth hormone or growth hormone and prolactin. Excess prolactin may cause galactorrhea, ... Pituitary tumors in MEN 1 patients appear to be larger and behave more aggressively than sporadic pituitary tumors. Adenomas ... Non-β-cell tumors are somewhat more likely to be malignant. Most islet cell tumors secrete pancreatic polypeptide, the clinical ... Pancreatic islet cell tumors occur in 60 to 70% of patients. Tumors are usually multicentric. Multiple adenomas or diffuse ...
... "growth"). The anterior pituitary is the anterior, glandular lobe of the pituitary gland. Tropic hormones Pituitary adenoma ... Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary are trophic hormones (Greek: trophe, "nourishment") and tropic hormones. Trophic ... The most common type of pituitary tumour is a prolactinoma which hypersecretes prolactin. A third type of pituitary adenoma ... For example, acromegaly results from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) often being released by a pituitary adenoma. ...
The main types of pituitary adenomas are: PRL-secreting or prolactinomas: These are the most common pituitary tumors. They are ... GH-secreting: A very rare condition that is a result of the increase in the secretion of growth hormone. There are currently ... The tumor is first treated pharmacologically in two ways: controlling the levels of hormones that the pituitary gland secretes ... Despite the rarity of this condition, these tumors constitute 16% of the pituitary tumors that are removed. The tumor normally ...
... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.145.500 --- nelson syndrome MeSH C19.344.609.292 --- growth hormone-secreting ... pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.792 --- prolactinoma MeSH C19.344.762.500 --- sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.894.800 ... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.700.734.145.500 --- nelson syndrome MeSH C19.700.734.292 --- growth hormone-secreting ... sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.410.765 --- thecoma MeSH C19.344.421.249 --- adenoma, islet cell MeSH C19.344.421.249. ...
GH-secreting tumors are typically recognized in the fifth decade of life. It is extremely rare for such a tumor to occur in ... with the most common cause being a pituitary adenoma.[42] Other adult causes include a continuation of a childhood problem, ... known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 (placental growth hormone; growth ... Main articles: Growth hormone 1 and Growth hormone 2. Genes for human growth hormone, ...
Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control the following body processes: Growth Blood pressure Some aspects of ... Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be ... The release of pituitary hormones by both the anterior and posterio The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. ... Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control: growth, blood pressure, management of energy, all functions of the sex ...
... tumors of the pituitary gland secrete extra ACTH. Most people with the disorder have a single adenoma. This form of the ... hormone by the hypothalamus triggers cells in the neighboring anterior pituitary to secrete another hormone, the ... Zhou X, Xie M, Niu C, Sun R (June 2003). "The effects of dietary vitamin C on growth, liver vitamin C and serum cortisol in ... pituitary tumor resulting in Cushing's disease, pseudo-Cushing's syndrome) Secondary hypocortisolism (pituitary tumor, ...
GH-secreting tumors are typically recognized in the fifth decade of life. It is extremely rare for such a tumor to occur in ... However, deficiency is rare in adults, with the most common cause being a pituitary adenoma. Other adult causes include a ... known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 (placental growth hormone; growth ... These cells release the peptides Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ...
... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.609.145.500 --- nelson syndrome MeSH C04.588.322.609.292 --- growth hormone- ... neuroendocrine tumors MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.025 --- adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557.465.625.650.075 --- adenoma, basophil ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510 --- mesothelioma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510.515 --- ... adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.012 --- acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.025 --- adenoma, acidophil MeSH ...
These tests are based on the glucocorticoid sensitivity of pituitary adenomas compared to non-pituitary tumors. Administration ... Hypopituitarism specifically growth hormone deficiency has been reported as the only most common late morbidity of this ... A CT or MRI of the pituitary may also show the ACTH secreting tumor if present. However, in 40% of Cushing's disease patients ... Some tumors do not contain a discrete border between tumor and pituitary gland; therefore, careful sectioning through pituitary ...
... pituitary tumours are adenomas of anterior cells, typically prolactinomas or growth hormone-secreting. Pancreatic tumours ... Lytras A, Tolis G (2006). "Growth hormone-secreting tumors: genetic aspects and data from animal models". Neuroendocrinology. ... "Recent advances in MEN1 gene study for pituitary tumor pathogenesis". Frontiers of Hormone Research. Frontiers of Hormone ... of sporadic pituitary adenomas. Consequently, alterations of the gene represent a candidate pathogenetic mechanism of pituitary ...
While some adrenal adenomas do not secrete hormones at all, often some secrete cortisol, causing Cushing's syndrome, ... An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (/ˌædɪˈnoʊmə/; plural adenomas or adenomata /ˌædɪˈnoʊmɪtə ... Pituitary adenomas are seen in 10% of neurological patients. A lot of them remain undiagnosed. Treatment is usually surgical, ... Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells ...
... growth hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and ... Almost all cases of pituitary apoplexy arise from a pituitary adenoma, a benign tumor of the pituitary gland. In 80%, the ... Treatment of prolactinomas (pituitary adenomas that secrete prolactin) with dopamine agonist drugs, as well as withdrawal of ... Pituitary apoplexy or pituitary tumor apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland at the base of ...
Radiation allows for the limitation of the growth of the pituitary gland and the adenomas. If the adenomas start to affect the ... In the rare case, ACTH-secreting tumors can become malignant. Morbidity from the disease can occur due to pituitary tissue ... pituitary hormone loss, and the effect the tumor has on the surrounding structures within the body. The first case of Nelson's ... Screening can also be done with the help or an MRI in order to visualize the pituitary for tumors. If tumors are not present ...
The possibility of a nodule which secretes thyroid hormone (which is less likely to be cancer) or hypothyroidism is ... Often these abnormal growths of thyroid tissue are located at the edge of the thyroid gland and can be felt as a lump in the ... Thyroid adenoma "New York Thyroid Center: Thyroid Nodules". Vanderpump, MP (2011), "The epidemiology of thyroid disease", Br ... Focused ultrasounds have been used to treat other benign tumors, such as breast fibroadenomas and fibroid disease in the uterus ...
... although most commonly it involves a tumor called pituitary adenoma, derived from a distinct type of cell (somatotrophs). It ... IGF-1 is a primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone (GH). Growth hormone is made in the anterior pituitary gland, is ... Wade N (17 February 2011). "Ecuadorean Villagers May Hold Secret to Longevity". New York Times. Giustina A, Chanson P, ... Production is stimulated by growth hormone (GH) and can be retarded by undernutrition, growth hormone insensitivity, lack of ...
The adrenal gland secretes a number of different hormones which are metabolised by enzymes either within the gland or in other ... The most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a pituitary adenoma which causes an excessive production of ACTH. The ... Causes for this condition are bilateral hyperplasia (excessive tissue growth) of the glands, or aldosterone-producing adenomas ... Adrenal tumors are commonly found as incidentalomas, unexpected asymptomatic tumors found during medical imaging. They are seen ...
... is a hormonal condition resulting from over-secretion of the growth hormone somatotropin from the pituitary gland. The hormone ... The pituitary gland produces a hormone that signals the adrenal gland to produce cortisol; a tumor can cause it to produce the ... Acromegaly is also possible from a somatotroph adenoma. The hormone somatostatin can also be useful in treatment. Since ... Cushing's syndrome, also known as hyperadrenocorticism, is characterized by an increase in glucocorticoids secreted by the ...
Acromegaly and gigantism (growth hormone and IGF-1 excess), usually due to pituitary tumors.[9] ... Adrenal gland tumors, adrenocortical adenomas, and adrenocortical carcinoma, as well as adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary ... hCG-secreting tumors. *Inborn errors of steroid metabolism such as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, most commonly caused by ... Male hormones such as testosterone stimulate hair growth, increase size and intensify the growth and pigmentation of hair. ...
adjunctive therapy of acromegaly, cabergoline has low efficacy in suppressing growth hormone levels and is highly efficient in ... Lactation suppression hyperprolactinemia adjunctive therapy of prolactin-producing pituitary gland tumors (prolactinomas); ... to lower ACTH levels and cause regression of ACTH producing pituitary adenomas. Cabergoline was first synthesized by scientists ... 2004). "Effect of cabergoline treatment on Cushing's disease caused by aberrant adrenocorticotropin-secreting macroadenoma". ...
King's College London Agonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone as a potential effector for survival and proliferation of ... 1998). Aberrant interleukin-1 receptors in a cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma causing Cushing's syndrome.. In: N Engl J Med. ... 1998). Chronic Effects of a Nonpeptide Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Type I Receptor Antagonist on Pituitary-Adrenal Function ... 1999). Adrenocortical tumors: recent advances in basic concepts and clinical management. In: Ann Intern Med.doi:10.7326/0003- ...
... caused by excessive and unregulated release of growth hormone from a growth hormone-secreting adenoma of the anterior pituitary ... selectively involving his tumor but not the remainder of his own pituitary gland. In selective pituitary tumor apoplexy, the ... Most importantly, absent the abnormally elevated levels of growth hormone that were released by the tumor, the features of ... "Selective pituitary tumor apoplexy apparently reversed acromegaly in Governor Pio Pico between 1858 and 1873". Pituitary. 13 (3 ...
Pituitary adenomas can cause elevated levels of hormones such as growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1, which cause ... June 1999). "Clinical and morphological features of undifferentiated monomorphous GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma". Eur. J. ... Benign tumors generally have a slower growth rate than malignant tumors and the tumor cells are usually more differentiated ( ... The growth rates of benign and malignant tumors also differ; benign tumors generally grow more slowly than malignant tumors. ...
Two of the six men who had subnormal growth hormone secretion before treatment had normal growth hormone secretion during ... Management of Pituitary Tumors Annals of Internal Medicine; 129 (6): 472-483 ... Bromocriptine Treatment of Prolactin-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas May Restore Pituitary Function ANNA WARFIELD, M.D., Ph.D.; ... Six men with prolactin-secreting pituitary macroadenomas and deficiencies of pituitary hormones other than gonadotrophins were ...
Learn more about treatment options for hormone-making pituitary tumors here. ... The treatment of functional pituitary tumors depends on which type of hormone they make. ... Management of aggressive growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2017;20(1):169-178. ... Treatment of Functional (Hormone-Making) Pituitary Tumors * Treatment of Non-Functional Pituitary Tumors (Tumors That Dont ...
... is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional trans-septal microscopic method for the treatment of pituitary tumour. ... Endonasal endoscopic removal of growth-hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.. Lui WM1, Leung GK, Hui Y, Lee KK, Fan YW. ... is herein reported in five consecutive patients with growth-hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas seen at a teaching hospital in ... All five patients demonstrated complete tumour removal on postoperative imaging and hormonal assessment following the procedure ...
Genetics Home Reference related topics: Familial isolated pituitary adenoma MedlinePlus related topics: Hormones Pituitary ... The Observational Study of Growth Hormone-secreting Pituitary Tumors. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... purpose of this study is to evaluate the changes of multiple organs in patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumors ... The Observational Study of the Structures and Functions of Multiple Organs in Patients With Growth Hormone-secreting Tumors. ...
Growth Hormone Secreting Tumor of Pituitary Gland; Mutant Activation of Gsa Causing Pituitary Adenoma or Hyperplasia; R ... Pituitary Macroadenoma; Gigantism or Acromegaly; Acromegaly due to Pituitary Tumor; etc..." Disorders of the Adrenal Gland ... Pituitary Tumor; Hyperprolactinemia and Prolactinoma; Pheochromocytoma; Pancreatic Islet Cell Hyperfunction; Thyroid; Thyroid ... Examples of "Acromegaly" Course Lectures include "...Normal Growth Hormone Secretion and Control; Etiology of Acromegaly; ...
The Observational Study of Growth Hormone-secreting Pituitary Tumors. *Acromegaly. *Pituitary Tumor ... A Pilot Study of Rosiglitazone in the Treatment of GH Secreting Pituitary Adenomas. *Pituitary Tumor ... Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Growth Hormone Deficient Patients With Nonsecreting Pituitary Adenomas. *Growth ... 121 Studies found for: familial isolated pituitary adenoma OR Pituitary Neoplasms. Also searched for Pituitary tumor. See ...
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY. ... GH-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas; Pituitary Adenoma, GH Secreting; Pituitary Adenomas, GH-Secreting; Pituitary Growth Hormone ... Subscribe to New Research on Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In ... Secreting Adenoma; Somatotroph Adenomas; Pituitary Adenoma, GH-Secreting; Pituitary Growth Hormone-Secreting Adenoma; ...
The Pituitary Network Association is an international non-profit organization for patients with pituitary tumors and disorders ... TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) Secreting Tumor. The Prevalence of Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review. By Shereen Ezzat ... Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas in childhood and adolescence: features and results of transnasal surgery. ... Special problems with neurosurgical treatment of hormone secreting pituitary adenomas in children. Prog Exp Tumor Res. 30:362- ...
This novel GHR mutation provides evidence for impaired hormone autofeedback in the pathogenesis of these pituitary tumors. It ... hormone excess, and histomorphologic features. Those that cause growth hormone (GH) excess and acromegaly are subdivided into ... Pharmacologic GH antagonism recapitulates the morphologic phenotype of pituitary tumors from which this mutation was identified ... in a morphologic subtype of human GH-producing pituitary tumors that is characterized by the presence of cytoskeletal ...
... concomitantly in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas; which one has a role in tumor behavior ?. Yarman S, Kurtulmus N, ... concomitantly in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas; which one has a role in tumor behavior ? Neuro Endocrinol Lett. ... Tumor:metabolism, Early Diagnosis, Female, Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma:complications, Humans, ... CONCLUSION: VEGF becomes an independent stimulator of angiogenic growth and progression for GH-secreting adenomas with >25% ...
A pituitary tumor was increasing his growth hormone levels and needed to be removed. ... Tyler White welcomed a growth spurt in high school. But when that was followed by carpal tunnel, shooting pains in his wrists ... Not all of these tumors secrete growth hormone, but when they do during childhood, they cause rapid growth and joint pain, a ... The medical term for such a tumor is pituitary adenoma. Some dont cause any symptoms at all. Others grow large enough that ...
Somatostatin receptors are expressed in many tissues including neuroendocrine tumors (e.g., growth hormone secreting pituitary ... adenomas). Pasireotide binds to SSTR2 and SSTR5 subtype receptors which may be relevant for inhibition of GH secretion. In vivo ... Randomization was stratified based on previous pituitary surgical status. The starting dose of Signifor LAR was 40 mg. Dose ...
Growth of hormone and prolactin secretion by a tumor of the pharyngeal pituitary WARNER BA. ... Supradiaphragmatic ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenoma * * Jung Shin JUNG Shin * Departments of Neurosurgery ... Ectopic Growth Hormone-Releasing Adenoma in the Cavernous Sinus : Case Report MITSUYA Koichi , NAKASU Yoko , NIOKA Hirofumi , ... Selective excision of adenomas originating in or extending into the pituitary stalk with preservation of pituitary function ...
... tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland. The tumor secretes excessive amounts of growth hormone, causing many of the signs and ... these tumors actually secrete GH. In other cases, the tumors produce a hormone called growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH ... Acromegaly is caused by the pituitary gland overproducing growth hormone (GH) over time. The pituitary, a small gland situated ... When GH is secreted into your bloodstream, it triggers your liver to produce a hormone called insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF ...
... Endocr J. 2019 Sep 04;: ... She was diagnosed with Carney complex (CNC). Her pituitary tumor was suspected as growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenoma, ... Based on clinical course, the patient was diagnosed with pituitary apoplexy in pituitary adenoma, following which she was ... More News: Depression , Endocrinology , Girls , Headache , Hormones , Insulin , Migraine , MRI Scan , PET Scan , Pituitary ...
They cause problems for patients by either disrupting pituitary function (too much or too little hormone production) or causing ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the pituitary gland. They are relatively common in the population and are generally benign. ... Newer treatments with drugs known as somatostatin analogs also have been show to decrease tumor growth and TSH secretion in ... If the pituitary tumor cell type is derived from a TSH secreting pituitary cell it is called a TSH secreting pituitary adenoma ...
Growth hormone (GH) nadir (GHnadir) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is an important tool in diagnosing acromegaly, ... Growth Hormone-secreting Pituitary Adenoma. A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH ... Glycemic Fluctuations in Newly Diagnosed Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma and Cushing Syndrome Subjects ... Human Growth Hormone. A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), ...
... clinicaltrials.gov The protein polymorphism of the growth hormone receptor characterized by the genomic deletion of exon 3 has ... Growth Hormone-secreting Pituitary Adenoma. A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH ... Human Growth Hormone. A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), ... D3-Growth Hormone Receptor Polymorphism and Total Effect of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone on Growth in Girls With Turner ...
Patients with CNC develop growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors and in some instances these same tumors also secrete ... Unlike tumors of the posterior Pituitary, Pituitary adenomas are classified as endocrine tumors (not brain tumors). Pituitary ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland. Pituitary adenomas are generally divided into three categories ... luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL). Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma can be made, or at least ...
A child with one of these tumors is unusually tall and... ... if the tumor is an adenoma that secretes growth hormone, ... A pituitary tumor can cause growth problems if the tumor is an adenoma that secretes growth hormone, according to the American ... What Is a Pituitary Adenoma?. A: A pituitary adenoma is a slow-growing, benign type of brain tumor that develops from ... However, if an adult contracts a pituitary tumor that secretes hormones, she does not grow any taller but suffers from a ...
... are tumor cells that have shed from a primary tumor and circulate in the peripheral blood. Recent experimental and clinical ... Nuclear E-cadherin is common in nonfunctioning PAs and a subset of growth hormone-secreting adenomas, in which it is associated ... growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and ... Pituitary adenomas Pituitary carcinomas Circulating tumor cells β-catenin Ki-67 p53 ...
... of all pituitary adenomas. Some growth hormone (GH)-producing tumors also co-secrete prolactin. Microprolactinomas are much ... A prolactinoma is a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces a hormone called prolactin. It is the most ... population have small pituitary tumors. Forty percent of these pituitary tumors produce prolactin, but most are not considered ... Women with prolactin-secreting tumors may experience further pituitary enlargement and must be closely monitored during ...
Brain tumors are named after the type of cell from which they grow- some are benign, others malignant. ... A tumor is an abnormal growth of cells. ... pituitary adenoma: a tumor arising from cells in the pituitary ... gland; tumor may be hormone-secreting (prolactin, adrenocorticotropic, growth hormone) or not.. radiation: high-energy rays or ... Pituitary gland tumors may cause: increased secretion of hormones (Cushings Disease, acromegaly), a stop in menstruation, ...
Find in-depth information on the different types of adenomas, as well as related conditions like Cushings disease and ... a condition that arises when a pituitary tumor secretes growth hormone. ... Functioning pituitary adenomas are pituitary tumors that produce hormones. They are the most common type of pituitary adenoma ... Find more in-depth information about hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas.. *Cushings Disease (ACTH-Secreting Pituitary ...
Our focus initially is on pituitary adenomas including growth hormone-secreting tumors (somatotrophinomas) and prolactin ... familial pituitary adenoma. Familial acromegaly. Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma. FIPA. Pituitary adenoma predisposition. ... a disease resulting from a pituitary adenoma secreting growth hormone.. To establish if the candidate gene is also causing ... Adenoma. Pituitary Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Acromegaly. Gigantism. Pituitary Diseases. Disease Susceptibility. ...
  • Patients with homozygous intronic pseudoexon GH receptor(GHR) mutations(6Ψ) have growth hormone Insensitivity(GHI) (growth failure, IGF1 deficiency and normal/elevated serum GH). (bioportfolio.com)
  • We therefore aimed to develop and validate a reliable risk category system for aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein () mutations in patients with pituitary adenomas. (pubfacts.com)
  • Thus, it is not surprising that a high number of human tumors arise due to mutations or deletions in the genes coding for the various TGF β signaling components. (hindawi.com)
  • A significant proportion of growth hormone- and adrenocorticotrophin-secreting adenomas have activating somatic mutations in the GNAS and USP8 genes, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pituitary tumors have also been described in association with neurofibromatosis type 1, DICER1 syndrome, and SDHx mutations. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Factors hypothesized to contribute to pituitary neoplasia initiation and proliferation include altered growth factors and cell-cycle regulators that are the result of epigenetic changes ( 6 ), abnormal hormonal milieu, abnormal intrapituitary microenvironment ( 7 ), and inherited or somatic mutations ( Fig. 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the following brief overview of the underlying pathomechanisms, we will concentrate on germline and somatic mutations that lead to pituitary adenomas. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These include somatic mutations in the gsp oncogene, overexpression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene ( PTTG ), disruptions in cell cycle regulation and intracellular signaling pathways and, rarely, mutations of classic oncogenes (4,5). (scielo.br)
  • The vast majority of pituitary adenomas, however, arise sporadically, and inherited germline mutations in different genes are few in number, accounting for approximately 5% of all pituitary tumors (6). (scielo.br)
  • Beckers A (2013) Means, motive, and opportunity: SDH mutations Are suspects in pituitary tumors. (els.net)
  • This syndrome, which is typically caused by germline mutations in the MEN1 gene, is diagnosed when a patient manifests at least two of these tumor types. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Herman V, Drazin NZ, Gonsky R, Melmed S. Molecular Screening of Pituitary Adenomas for Gene Mutations and Rearrangaments. (edu.pl)
  • Somatic mutations in a subset of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors convert the gene for the alpha polypeptide chain (alpha s) of Gs into a putative oncogene, termed gsp. (sciencemag.org)
  • The likelihood that similar mutations would activate other G proteins prompted a survey of human tumors for mutations that replace either of these two amino acids in other G protein alpha chain genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first gene so far tested, which encodes the alpha chain of Gi2, showed mutations that replaced arginine-179 with either cysteine or histidine in 3 of 11 tumors of the adrenal cortex and 3 of 10 endocrine tumors of the ovary. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings suggest that human tumors may harbor oncogenic mutations in various G protein alpha chain genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Plasma, DNA samples and pituitary tumor tissues will be kept for further analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When GH is secreted into your bloodstream, it triggers your liver to produce a hormone called insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In turn, IGF-I stimulates the growth of bones and other tissues. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In addition to assessing the size of the pituitary tumor, doctors also look for damage to surrounding tissues, and perform tests to assess whether production of other pituitary hormones is normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF β ) superfamily encompasses widespread and evolutionarily conserved polypeptide growth factors that regulate and orchestrate growth and differentiation in all cell types and tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show how much the tumor has invaded the surrounding tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • GH is needed for growth and has important effects on protein, lipids, and carbohydrate metabolism, which are accomplished directly as a result of GH binding to its receptor on target cells or indirectly primarily through insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a hormone secreted from the liver and other tissues in response to GH. (medscape.com)
  • Its formation from the soft tissues of the upper palate contrasts with the posterior pituitary, which originates from neuroectoderm . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tropic hormones are named for their ability to act directly on target tissues or other endocrine glands to release hormones, causing numerous cascading physiological responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • When GH is secreted in the blood, it stimulates the liver to produce IGF-1, to trigger the growth of bones and other tissues. (healthmagaz.com)
  • Excessive IGF-1 levels in the body may lead to the abnormal growth of the soft tissues and skeletal system. (healthmagaz.com)
  • Tumors can also develop in organs and tissues other than endocrine glands. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and regulate the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. (thefullwiki.org)
  • tumors can also develop in other organs and tissues. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Tumor tissues from 28 corticotroph adenomas (female 26, male 2, mean age 39.21 ± 10.39 years) were subject to immunohistochemical study using the following antibodies: pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), cyclin D1, p16, p27, brahma related-gene 1 (Brg1), and Ki-67. (springer.com)
  • All five patients demonstrated complete tumour removal on postoperative imaging and hormonal assessment following the procedure. (nih.gov)
  • Medical therapy of pituitary tumors is directed at decreasing the overall effects of the hormonal oversecretion of these tumors. (springer.com)
  • In parallel with improved medical therapy, hormonal assays for assessing tumor activity have improved in sensitivity, necessitating new standards for treatment optimization. (nih.gov)
  • While they regulate asymmetric cell division and cell fate determination during early development and embryogenesis, TGF β family members play a major regulatory role in hormonal and immune responses, cell growth, cell death and cell immortalization, bone formation, tissue remodeling and repair, and erythropoiesis throughout adult life. (hindawi.com)
  • 13 , 14 Pituitary adenomas may manifest clinically by hormonal hypersecretion, which is dependent on increased activity-dependent calcium influx. (ajnr.org)
  • We hypothesized that pituitary tumors would have a corresponding increase in the calcium influx required to trigger hormonal release. (ajnr.org)
  • The most common multi-hormonal tumor secretes both growth hormone and prolactin. (pituitarydisorder.net)
  • None of them experienced any tumor recurrence during our monitoring period and nearly 70 percent of those with hormonal imbalances caused by the adenomas returned to normal levels. (eurekalert.org)
  • Such so-called secretory pituitary adenomas are usually found due to hormonal imbalances that affect bodily functions. (drsghosh.com)
  • Tumors can grow from the brain tissue itself (primary), or cancer from elsewhere in the body can spread to the brain (metastasis). (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • As a result, the tumor compresses and displaces normal brain tissue. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Adenoma" refers to a benign tumor that begins in glandular tissue. (mskcc.org)
  • RNA expression studies from blood or adenoma tissue samples will be performed by RT−PCR. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • MR imaging provides morphologic information by using both T1-weighted and fast spin-echo T2-weighted pulse sequences to delineate adenoma from normal tissue. (ajnr.org)
  • The tumor can be either solid or cystic or mixed, and most (up to 90%) of craniopharyngiomas contain calcium deposits, an indication of diseased tissue readily observable on x rays. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An important prognostic factor for the surgical outcome and recurrence of a pituitary adenoma is its invasiveness into parasellar tissue, particularly into the space of the cavernous sinus (CS). (thejns.org)
  • After administration of 10 mL of IV gadolinium, two nonenhancing foci, separated by normally enhanced pituitary tissue, were revealed ( Fig 2B-E ). The appearance was consistent with two separate 4-mm pituitary adenomas. (ajnr.org)
  • B , Coronal T1-weighted (637/14/2), fat-saturated, contrast-enhanced MR scan shows two nonenhancing foci, separated by normally enhancing pituitary tissue. (ajnr.org)
  • C - E , T1-weighted (637/14/2), fat-saturated, contrast-enhanced sagittal scans from right to left reveal two adenomas ( C, E ). Interposed between the two adenomas is normal pituitary tissue and the infundibulum ( D ). (ajnr.org)
  • Trophic hormones directly affect growth either as hyperplasia or hypertrophy on the tissue it is stimulating. (wikipedia.org)
  • e) One of the best and most reliable histopathologic features is the lack of reticulin network within tumour and compression of reticulin fibres around the tumour in hyperplastic and/or normal pituitary tissue. (els.net)
  • He employs molecular, cellular, transgenic animal and human tissue models to understand the biology of these commonly encountered hormone-secreting adenomas. (csmc.edu)
  • As the adenoma grows, it may disrupt other pituitary tissue, interfering with the release of other hormones. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of postoperative tissue materials and subtypes of pituitary adenomas were evaluated by an experienced cytopathologist. (turkjem.org)
  • The most important predictor of recurrence in functioning adenomas is the basal postoperative hormone level, whereas in nonfunctioning adenomas, no single convincing factor could be identified. (springer.com)
  • In each case, postoperative MRI was performed to evaluate the gross-total resection (GTR) rate and the rate of endocrinological remission (ER) in functioning adenomas. (thejns.org)
  • We investigated the association between the expression of cellular markers regarding pituitary tumor progression and initial or postoperative hormone levels in patients with CD. (springer.com)
  • If the surgery doesn't remove the tumor completely or if it grows back, the main options are a second surgery or radiation therapy . (cancer.org)
  • The camera lets your surgeon watch on a television screen while inserting other special instruments through the scope to remove the tumor. (lifebridgehealth.org)
  • Treatment options aim to remove the tumor or control its growth and restore normal hormone function. (conservativeunderground.com)
  • The otorhinolaryngologist will create the approach to the tumor and the neurosurgeon will remove the tumor. (uth.edu)
  • The intact parathyroid hormone level was 6.4 pmol/L (normal range 1.1-5.3), plasma cortisol was 324 nmol/L (normal range 140-690 nmol/L), and 24-hour urinary cortisol was 93 nmol/d (normal range 80-280). (ajnr.org)
  • Previous imaging included sonography and scintigraphy of the neck, which showed no evidence of a parathyroid adenoma. (ajnr.org)
  • and parathyroid adenomas and/or hyperplasia. (wellspan.org)
  • Since hyperparathyroidism is the most common initial manifestation of this syndrome, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium measurements (total and ionized) are an important diagnostic. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Islet cell tumors - stabilization of blood glucose levels in persons with functioning islet cell tumors (insulinomas or glucagonomas). (aetna.com)
  • Pituitary apoplexy after cardiac surgery in a 14-year-old girl with Carney complex: a case report. (medworm.com)
  • Classical tumor predisposition syndromes include multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and type 4 (MEN4) syndromes, Carney complex, and McCune-Albright syndrome. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Carney complex(CNC) is a rare genetic syndrome, characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin, cardiac myxomas and multiple endocrine tumors. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Various cardiac tumors occur in the setting of a genetic syndrome such as myxomas in Carney complex and rhabdomyomas in tuberous sclerosis. (readbyqxmd.com)