A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes PROLACTIN, leading to HYPERPROLACTINEMIA. Clinical manifestations include AMENORRHEA; GALACTORRHEA; IMPOTENCE; HEADACHE; visual disturbances; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID RHINORRHEA.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
A benign tumor of the anterior pituitary in which the cells do not stain with acidic or basic dyes.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
The sudden loss of blood supply to the PITUITARY GLAND, leading to tissue NECROSIS and loss of function (PANHYPOPITUITARISM). The most common cause is hemorrhage or INFARCTION of a PITUITARY ADENOMA. It can also result from acute hemorrhage into SELLA TURCICA due to HEAD TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; or other acute effects of central nervous system hemorrhage. Clinical signs include severe HEADACHE; HYPOTENSION; bilateral visual disturbances; UNCONSCIOUSNESS; and COMA.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Disorders involving either the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS or the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. These diseases usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of PITUITARY HORMONES. Neoplastic pituitary masses can also cause compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.
A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A benign tumor, usually found in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, whose cells stain with acid dyes. Such pituitary tumors may give rise to excessive secretion of growth hormone, resulting in gigantism or acromegaly. A specific type of acidophil adenoma may give rise to nonpuerperal galactorrhea. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A benign pituitary-region neoplasm that originates from Rathke's pouch. The two major histologic and clinical subtypes are adamantinous (or classical) craniopharyngioma and papillary craniopharyngioma. The adamantinous form presents in children and adolescents as an expanding cystic lesion in the pituitary region. The cystic cavity is filled with a black viscous substance and histologically the tumor is composed of adamantinomatous epithelium and areas of calcification and necrosis. Papillary craniopharyngiomas occur in adults, and histologically feature a squamous epithelium with papillations. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch14, p50)
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
An adenoma of the large intestine. It is usually a solitary, sessile, often large, tumor of colonic mucosa composed of mucinous epithelium covering delicate vascular projections. Hypersecretion and malignant changes occur frequently. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
Anterior pituitary cells which produce GROWTH HORMONE.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A small tumor of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland whose cells stain with basic dyes. It may give rise to excessive secretion of ACTH, resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition when the SELLA TURCICA is not filled with pituitary tissue. The pituitary gland is either compressed, atrophied, or removed. There are two types: (1) primary empty sella is due a defect in the sella diaphragm leading to arachnoid herniation into the sellar space; (2) secondary empty sella is associated with the removal or treatment of PITUITARY NEOPLASMS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A benign epithelial tumor of the LIVER.
The condition of accelerated and excessive GROWTH in children or adolescents who are exposed to excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE before the closure of EPIPHYSES. It is usually caused by somatotroph hyperplasia or a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. These patients are of abnormally tall stature, more than 3 standard deviations above normal mean height for age.
A form of multiple endocrine neoplasia that is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the PANCREATIC ISLETS. The resulting clinical signs include HYPERPARATHYROIDISM; HYPERCALCEMIA; HYPERPROLACTINEMIA; CUSHING DISEASE; GASTRINOMA; and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. This disease is due to loss-of-function of the MEN1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) on CHROMOSOME 11 (Locus: 11q13).
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
An AT-hook-containing (AT-HOOK MOTIFS) nuclear protein that is expressed predominantly in proliferating and undifferentiated mesenchymal cells.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE.
Increased levels of PROLACTIN in the BLOOD, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the PITUITARY GLAND, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
Anterior pituitary cells that produce THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.
A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)
A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A series of structurally-related alkaloids that contain the ergoline backbone structure.
Discrete tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the COLON. These POLYPS are connected to the wall of the colon either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)
An ergot derivative that acts as an agonist at dopamine D2 receptors (DOPAMINE AGONISTS). It may also act as an antagonist at dopamine D1 receptors, and as an agonist at some serotonin receptors (SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS).
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Radiation therapy used to treat the PITUITARY GLAND.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
Benign neoplasms derived from glandular epithelium. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Excessive or inappropriate LACTATION in females or males, and not necessarily related to PREGNANCY. Galactorrhea can occur either unilaterally or bilaterally, and be profuse or sparse. Its most common cause is HYPERPROLACTINEMIA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Surgery performed on any endocrine gland.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Primary headache disorders that show symptoms caused by the activation of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. These autonomic features include redness and tearing of the EYE, nasal congestion or discharge, facial SWEATING and other symptoms. Most subgroups show unilateral cranial PAIN.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).
Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Proteins containing AT-HOOK MOTIFS that are rich in arginine and glycine residues. They bind to the minor grove of AT-rich regions of DNA.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A type of chromogranin which was first isolated from CHROMAFFIN CELLS of the ADRENAL MEDULLA but is also found in other tissues and in many species including human, bovine, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 431 to 445 amino acid residues. It contains fragments that inhibit vasoconstriction or release of hormones and neurotransmitter, while other fragments exert antimicrobial actions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Absence of menstruation.
A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
The intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. It shows considerable size variation among the species, small in humans, and large in amphibians and lower vertebrates. This lobe produces mainly MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.

Type 1 diabetes associated with asymptomatic acromegaly successfully treated with surgery after pregnancy: a case report. (1/92)

We report a rare case of type 1 diabetes in a woman associated with acromegaly who was treated with surgery after pregnancy. An 18-year-old woman came to our hospital in April, 1998, complaining of thirst, polydipsia, polyuria, appetite loss, body weight loss of 8 kg in a month, and amenorrhea beginning 2 months earlier. Based on laboratory data, she was diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although we suspected her of having acromegaly because of high growth hormone (GH) levels (6.9 or 8.5 ng/ml), blood levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) were within normal range and the circadian rhythm of her blood GH levels was normally maintained. Her blood GH level was elevated to 12.6 ng/ml 15 minutes after a TRH administration. Blood GH levels were suppressed from 49 ng/ml to 1.5 ng/ml 4 hours after an oral administration of 2.5 mg of bromocriptine. A magnetic resonance images (MRIs) showed pituitary swelling, but no nodules were found in the pituitary. Therefore, we diagnosed her as having acromegaly and observed her without surgery, while prescribing diet therapy and intensive insulin therapy for diabetes. We started a treatment of oral administration of 7.5 mg of bromocriptine per day for the acromegaly from April 28, 2000, because her elevated GH was suspected of causing her diabetes to be poorly controlled. During a pregnancy from October, 2000 to September, 2001, diabetic control was improved with increased administration of insulin under a constant dose of bromocriptine. She delivered a normal full-term infant. After the bromocriptine therapy was stopped as she hoped to breastfeed, blood levels of GH and IGF-1 became elevated and her diabetic control deteriorated. As her pituitary tumor observed in pituitary MRIs became larger during the course, a transsphenoidal surgery was performed on March 8, 2002. After the surgery, blood levels of GH and IGF-1 lowered and diabetic control improved again. We concluded as follows: to rule out acromegaly in patients with poorly controlled diabetes, 1) measurements of serum GH and IGF-1 should be performed, and 2) pituitary MRIs should be performed if blood levels of GH or IGF-1 are high.  (+info)

Dopamine receptor subtype 2 and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 expression influences somatostatin analogs effects on human somatotroph pituitary adenomas in vitro. (2/92)

Dopamine (DA) and somatostatin (SRIF) receptor agonists inhibit growth hormone (GH) secretion by pituitary adenomas. We investigated DA subtype 2 receptor (DR2) and SRIF receptor (sst) subtypes 2 and 5 expression in 25 GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and tested in primary culture the effects on GH and prolactin (PRL) secretion of sst agonists selectively interacting with sst2 (BIM-23120), sst5 (BIM-23206), and sst2 and sst5 (BIM-23244). All adenomas expressed sst2; eight adenomas expressed both sst5 and DR2, eight sst5 but not DR2, and eight DR2 but not sst5. One tissue lacked expression of DR2 and sst5. GH secretion was inhibited by BIM-23120 in all samples, while it was reduced by BIM-23206 only in adenomas not expressing DR2. BIM-23120's inhibitory effects correlated with sst2 and DR2 expression, whereas DR2 expression correlated inversely with BIM-23206 inhibitory effects on GH secretion. In seven mixed GH-/PRL-secreting pituitary adenomas, PRL secretion was inhibited in sst5-expressing tumors by BIM-23206, but not by BIM-23120. BIM-23244 reduced PRL secretion only in adenomas expressing sst2, sst5 and DR2. sst5 and DR2 expression correlated directly with BIM23206 inhibitory effects on PRL secretion. Our results suggest that adenomas expressing DR2 are less likely to respond to clinically available SRIF analogs in terms of GH secretion inhibition. Therefore, drugs interacting also with DR2 might better control secretion of pituitary adenomas.  (+info)

Acromegaly in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family with low penetrance of the disease. (3/92)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterised by the occurrence of tumours in the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas, the pituitary gland and the adrenal glands and by neuroendocrine carcinoid tumours, often at a young age. The penetrance of MEN1 among gene carriers is reported to be high; 82-99% at age 50. We present a patient with a history of parathyroid adenomas also showing signs of acromegaly. He turned out to be a carrier of a MEN1 germ-line mutation in intron 3 (IVS3-6C > G). This germ-line mutation was also found in nine of his family members. However, none of these relatives have developed any MEN1-related lesion yet, although several are older than 60 years. To our knowledge, a MEN1 family with as few clinical features as this family has not been reported to date. Because MEN1 patients have an increased risk of developing acromegaly, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) levels are monitored periodically. We investigated whether IGF-I levels might serve as a presymptomatic marker for acromegaly; 9% (3/33) of MEN1 patients showed temporary IGF-I elevations. One patient (1/3) later developed clinical signs of acromegaly. Possibly, acromegaly in MEN1 is preceded by a transient preacromegalic state.  (+info)

A case of a GH-producing pituitary adenoma associated with a unilateral headache with autonomic signs. (4/92)

A 66-year-old man suffered from a drug-resistant, left-sided headache with autonomic signs, triggered by the supine position. The acromegalic facies initially suggested a possible increase in basal plasma levels of GH, but routine haematological controls excluded abnormal values of GH. Cerebral and facial CT scan and MRI did not detect any alterations in the nasal sinuses, except for a mucous cyst. Surgical ablation of the cyst did not alleviate the pain. Further endocrinological the pain. Further endocrinological tests demonstrated an increase of IGF-1 (somatomedin C), and another MRI scan of the sellar region confirmed the presence of a pituitary macroadenoma on the left paramedian side. After an initial improvement of the symptomatology due to trans-sphenoidal ablation of a benign GH-producing macroadenoma, the headache worsened again. Pain was well correlated with the increased plasma levels of IGF-1. The patient died suddenly for myocardial infarct.  (+info)

Mechanisms of TRH-induced GH release (paradoxical response) in human somatotroph adenoma cells. (5/92)

The mechanisms of paradoxical TRH response in human somatotroph adenoma cells were investigated using intracellular calcium measurement and static incubation assay. Intracellular calcium measurement revealed that TRH induces a biphasic response: a transient increase followed by a sustained plateau. The transient phase was due to the calcium release from IP(3)-regulated intracellular calcium store and the subsequent sustained phase was due to the calcium influx through the voltage-gated calcium channels. The signal transduction mechanism of the calcium plateau involved protein kinase C. These calcium responses, especially the second phase, was responsible for the TRH-induced GH release.  (+info)

Mechanism of D(2) agonist-induced inhibition of GH secretion from human GH-secreting adenoma cells. (6/92)

The mechanism of dopamine D(2) agonist-induced inhibition of GH secretion from GH-secreting adenoma cells was investigated by measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)] (i)) and static incubation experiment. Bromocriptine decreased [Ca(2+)](i) in a concentration-dependent manner through D(2) receptor. The inhibition was abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. Bromocriptine did not decrease [Ca (2+)](i) after nitrendipine had decreased it. 8Br-cAMP increased [Ca(2+)](i) but application of bromocriptine decreased it, suggesting that bromocriptine-induced inhibition of [Ca(2+)](i) is not dependent on bromocriptine-induced inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Static incubation experiment revealed that bromocriptine inhibited GH secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was through D(2) receptor and was abolished by pertussis toxin pretreatment. 8Br-cAMP increased GH secretion. Bromocriptine decreased GH secretion even after 8Br-cAMP pretreatment. However, the GH release from cells incubated with bromocriptine alone was significantly less than that from cells incubated with bromocriptine after 8Br-cAMP pretreatment, suggesting a modulatory action of cAMP system in bromocriptine response.  (+info)

Short-term preoperative octreotide treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma: predictors of tumor shrinkage. (7/92)

We reviewed the cases of 32 patients with growth hormone (GH)-secreting macroadenoma who underwent short-term octreotide treatment before transsphenoidal surgery to determine which types of adenoma the preoperative treatment were sensitive and whether predictors of tumor shrinkage could be identified. The effects of preoperative octreotide treatment, endocrinologic effect and effect on tumor volume in 32 patients were evaluated retrospectively in relation to tumor features on magnetic resonance images and responses to endocrinologic challenge tests. At a daily dose of 300 microg for 2-3 weeks, octreotide reduced serum GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels to 31.9 % and 51.6% of pretreatment values, respectively, and led to a mean tumor volume of 68% of pretreatment volume in 52% of the patients. The endocrinologic effect and the effect on tumor volume were larger in Knosp grades 0-2 than in Knosp grades 3-4. Tumor shrinkage occurred significantly more often among patients that had a good response to both octreotide and bromocriptine challenge tests. For surgical removal of the tumor, the effect of reducing tumor to 68% of pretreatment volume will be beneficial for the macroadenomas of Knosp grades 1-2. Preoperative short-term octreotide treatment is effective for GH-secreting macroadeomas of Knosp grades 1-2 and a good response to both octreotide and bromocriptine challenge tests is a predictor of subsequent tumor shrinkage. These results will lead to more effective selection of patients for preoperative octreotide treatment.  (+info)

Subclinical adenomas in postmortem pituitaries: classification and correlations to clinical data. (8/92)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine pituitary adenomas in a series of postmortem pituitaries by use of modern technologies of immunostaining, to classify the adenomas according to the current WHO classification and to analyse the possible associations to the available clinical data. METHODS: In this study, pituitaries of 3048 autopsy cases obtained from autopsy series of the years 1991-2004 were examined. RESULTS: A total of 334 pituitary adenomas were found in 316 pituitaries. One hundred and thirty-two sparsely granulated prolactin cell adenomas (39.5%), 75 null cell adenomas (22.5%) and 31 oncocytomas were diagnosed. Forty-six ACTH cell adenomas (13.8%, 27 densely granulated, 19 sparsely granulated) and one adenoma composed of Crooke's cells were detected. Twenty-two gonadotroph cell adenomas (6.6%), seven GH cell adenomas (four sparsely granulated, three densely granulated), one mixed GH cell-PRL cell adenoma, two TSH cell adenomas, five plurihormonal adenoma type I, four plurihormonal adenoma type II and two alpha-subunit-only adenomas were seen. Six adenomas remained unclassified because the tissue was not contained in all sections for immunohistochemistry. Seventeen pituitaries included multiple tumours. The overall tumour size ranged from 0.1 to 20 mm in diameter. Among 76 adenomas (22.7%), which had a tumour size of > or = 3 mm, only three tumours were macroadenomas corresponding to a tumour size of more than 10 mm. The evaluation of the available clinical data showed 99 cases of hypertension, 65 cases of diabetes mellitus, six patients with hyperthyroidism and four with hypothyroidism. No symptoms of adenohypophyseal hormone hypersecretion were reported. The statistical correlations to clinical data were discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Adenomas in postmortem pituitaries differ from those in surgical series in proportion of adenoma types and biological behaviour.  (+info)

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Pituitary neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), with most being benign. They can vary in size and may cause various symptoms depending on their location, size, and hormonal activity.

Pituitary neoplasms can produce and secrete excess hormones, leading to a variety of endocrine disorders such as Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), acromegaly (caused by excessive GH production), or prolactinoma (caused by excessive PRL production). They can also cause local compression symptoms due to their size, leading to headaches, vision problems, and cranial nerve palsies.

The exact causes of pituitary neoplasms are not fully understood, but genetic factors, radiation exposure, and certain inherited conditions may increase the risk of developing these tumors. Treatment options for pituitary neoplasms include surgical removal, radiation therapy, and medical management with drugs that can help control hormonal imbalances.

Growth Hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone secreted by the somatotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the liver and other tissues. GH also has important metabolic functions, such as increasing glucose levels, enhancing protein synthesis, and reducing fat storage. Its secretion is regulated by two hypothalamic hormones: growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), which stimulates its release, and somatostatin (SRIF), which inhibits its release. Abnormal levels of GH can lead to various medical conditions, such as dwarfism or gigantism if there are deficiencies or excesses, respectively.

The pituitary gland is a small, endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is often called the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes the hormones that trigger many body functions. The pituitary gland measures about 0.5 cm in height and 1 cm in width, and it weighs approximately 0.5 grams.

The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis). The anterior lobe is further divided into three zones: the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis. Each part of the pituitary gland has distinct functions and produces different hormones.

The anterior pituitary gland produces and releases several important hormones, including:

* Growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and development in children and helps maintain muscle mass and bone strength in adults.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which controls the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and lactating women.

The posterior pituitary gland stores and releases two hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus:

* Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling urine production.
* Oxytocin, which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk release during breastfeeding.

Overall, the pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating various bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

A Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma (GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, or GHoma) is a type of benign tumor that develops in the pituitary gland and results in excessive production of growth hormone (GH). This leads to a condition known as acromegaly if it occurs in adults, or gigantism if it occurs in children before the closure of the growth plates.

Symptoms of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma may include:

1. Coarsening of facial features
2. Enlargement of hands and feet
3. Deepened voice due to thickening of vocal cords
4. Increased sweating and body odor
5. Joint pain and stiffness
6. Sleep apnea
7. Fatigue, weakness, or muscle wasting
8. Headaches
9. Vision problems
10. Irregular menstrual periods in women
11. Erectile dysfunction in men

Diagnosis typically involves measuring the levels of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in the blood, along with imaging tests like MRI or CT scans to locate and characterize the tumor. Treatment options include surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, and medication to control GH production. Regular follow-ups are necessary to monitor for potential recurrence.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH), also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone produced in the pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in human development and growth by stimulating the production of another hormone called insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 promotes the growth and reproduction of cells throughout the body, particularly in bones and other tissues. HGH also helps regulate body composition, body fluids, muscle and bone growth, sugar and fat metabolism, and possibly heart function. It is essential for human development and continues to have important effects throughout life. The secretion of HGH decreases with age, which is thought to contribute to the aging process.

A prolactinoma is a type of pituitary tumor that produces an excess amount of the hormone prolactin, leading to various symptoms. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing and releasing several hormones that regulate different bodily functions. Prolactin is one such hormone, primarily known for its role in stimulating milk production in women during lactation (breastfeeding).

Prolactinoma tumors can be classified into two types: microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas. Microprolactinomas are smaller tumors, typically less than 10 millimeters in size, while macroprolactinomas are larger tumors, generally greater than 10 millimeters in size.

The overproduction of prolactin caused by these tumors can lead to several clinical manifestations, including:

1. Galactorrhea: Unusual and often spontaneous milk production or leakage from the nipples, which can occur in both men and women who do not have a recent history of pregnancy or breastfeeding.
2. Menstrual irregularities: In women, high prolactin levels can interfere with the normal functioning of other hormones, leading to menstrual irregularities such as infrequent periods (oligomenorrhea) or absent periods (amenorrhea), and sometimes infertility.
3. Sexual dysfunction: In both men and women, high prolactin levels can cause decreased libido and sexual desire. Men may also experience erectile dysfunction and reduced sperm production.
4. Bone loss: Over time, high prolactin levels can lead to decreased bone density and an increased risk of osteoporosis due to the disruption of other hormones that regulate bone health.
5. Headaches and visual disturbances: As the tumor grows, it may put pressure on surrounding structures in the brain, leading to headaches and potential vision problems such as blurred vision or decreased peripheral vision.

Diagnosis typically involves measuring prolactin levels in the blood and performing imaging tests like an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to assess the size of the tumor. Treatment usually consists of medication to lower prolactin levels, such as dopamine agonists (e.g., bromocriptine or cabergoline), which can also help shrink the tumor. In some cases, surgery may be necessary if medication is ineffective or if the tumor is large and causing severe symptoms.

An ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma is a type of tumor that develops in the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. This type of tumor is also known as Cushing's disease.

ACTH stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone, which is a hormone produced and released by the pituitary gland. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands (small glands located on top of the kidneys) to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, helps the body respond to stress, and suppresses inflammation.

In an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, the tumor cells produce and release excessive amounts of ACTH, leading to overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands. This can result in a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome, which may include weight gain (especially around the trunk), fatigue, muscle weakness, mood changes, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Treatment for an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by medications to manage cortisol levels if necessary. Radiation therapy may also be used in some cases.

The anterior pituitary, also known as the adenohypophysis, is the front portion of the pituitary gland. It is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones include:

* Growth hormone (GH), which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in bones and other tissues.
* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
* Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function in both males and females by controlling the development and release of eggs or sperm.
* Prolactin, which stimulates milk production in pregnant and nursing women.
* Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), which regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

The anterior pituitary gland is controlled by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain located just above it. The hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary. These hormones are released into a network of blood vessels called the portal system, which carries them directly to the anterior pituitary gland.

Damage or disease of the anterior pituitary can lead to hormonal imbalances and various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, thyroid dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, reproductive problems, and diabetes insipidus.

A chromophobe adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically arises in the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The term "chromophobe" refers to the appearance of the cells under a microscope - they lack pigment and have a characteristic appearance with abundant clear or lightly stained cytoplasm.

Chromophobe adenomas are slow-growing tumors that can vary in size, and they may cause symptoms due to pressure on surrounding structures or by producing excess hormones. The most common hormone produced by chromophobe adenomas is prolactin, leading to symptoms such as menstrual irregularities, milk production (galactorrhea), and decreased sexual function in women, and decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility in men.

Treatment for chromophobe adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, often through a transsphenoidal approach (through the nose and sphenoid sinus). In some cases, radiation therapy or medical management with hormone-blocking drugs may also be necessary. Regular follow-up with an endocrinologist is important to monitor for any recurrence or hormonal imbalances.

Pituitary hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls several other endocrine glands and regulates various bodily functions.

There are two main types of pituitary hormones: anterior pituitary hormones and posterior pituitary hormones, which are produced in different parts of the pituitary gland and have distinct functions.

Anterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Growth hormone (GH): regulates growth and metabolism.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and other steroid hormones.
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): regulate reproductive function in both males and females.
5. Prolactin: stimulates milk production in lactating women.
6. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH): regulates skin pigmentation and appetite.

Posterior pituitary hormones include:

1. Oxytocin: stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during lactation.
2. Vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH): regulates water balance in the body by controlling urine production in the kidneys.

Overall, pituitary hormones play crucial roles in regulating growth, development, metabolism, reproductive function, and various other bodily functions. Abnormalities in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, such as dwarfism, acromegaly, Cushing's disease, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that typically occurs in middle-aged adults. It results from the pituitary gland producing too much growth hormone (GH) during adulthood. The excessive production of GH leads to abnormal growth of body tissues, particularly in the hands, feet, and face.

The term "acromegaly" is derived from two Greek words: "akros," meaning extremities, and "megaly," meaning enlargement. In most cases, acromegaly is caused by a benign tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland, which results in overproduction of GH.

Common symptoms include enlarged hands and feet, coarse facial features, deepened voice, joint pain, and sweating. If left untreated, acromegaly can lead to serious complications such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and arthritis. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, or medication to control GH production.

Pituitary apoplexy is a medical emergency that involves bleeding into the pituitary gland (a small gland at the base of the brain) and/or sudden swelling of the pituitary gland. This can lead to compression of nearby structures, such as the optic nerves and the hypothalamus, causing symptoms like severe headache, visual disturbances, hormonal imbalances, and altered mental status. It is often associated with a pre-existing pituitary tumor (such as a pituitary adenoma), but can also occur in individuals without any known pituitary abnormalities. Immediate medical attention is required to manage this condition, which may include surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and supportive care.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

Pituitary diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproduction.

Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories:

1. Pituitary tumors: These are abnormal growths in or around the pituitary gland that can affect its function. Pituitary tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size. Some pituitary tumors produce excess hormones, leading to a variety of symptoms, while others may not produce any hormones but can still cause problems by compressing nearby structures in the brain.
2. Pituitary gland dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the normal function of the pituitary gland without the presence of a tumor. Examples include hypopituitarism, which is a condition characterized by decreased production of one or more pituitary hormones, and Sheehan's syndrome, which occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to severe blood loss during childbirth.

Symptoms of pituitary diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and the hormones that are affected. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

The Sella Turcica, also known as the Turkish saddle, is a depression or fossa in the sphenoid bone located at the base of the skull. It forms a housing for the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls other glands and makes several essential hormones. The Sella Turcica has a saddle-like shape, with its anterior and posterior clinoids forming the front and back of the saddle, respectively. This region is of significant interest in neuroimaging and clinical settings, as various conditions such as pituitary tumors or other abnormalities may affect the size, shape, and integrity of the Sella Turcica.

Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion, also known as Cushing's disease, is a condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. This results in an overproduction of cortisol, a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, leading to a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome.

In Cushing's disease, a benign tumor called an adenoma develops on the pituitary gland, causing it to release excess ACTH. This in turn stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more cortisol than necessary. The resulting high levels of cortisol can cause various symptoms such as weight gain, particularly around the trunk and face (central obesity), thinning of the skin, bruising, weakness, fatigue, mood changes, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of infections.

It is important to distinguish Cushing's disease from other causes of Cushing's syndrome, such as cortisol-producing adrenal tumors or exogenous sources of corticosteroid use, as the treatment approach may differ. Treatment for Cushing's disease typically involves surgical removal of the pituitary tumor, with additional medical management and/or radiation therapy in some cases.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

An adenoma is a benign tumor that forms in glandular tissue. When referring to "acidophil," it describes the appearance of the cells under a microscope. Acidophils are cells that take up acidic dyes, giving them a distinct appearance. In the context of an adenoma, an acidophil adenoma would be a benign tumor composed of acidophil cells.

Acidophil adenomas are most commonly found in the pituitary gland and are also known as lactotroph or mammosomatotroph adenomas. These tumors can produce and release prolactin, growth hormone, or both, leading to various endocrine disorders such as hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, or gigantism. Treatment options typically include surgical removal of the tumor or medical management with dopamine agonists or somatostatin analogs.

Hormones are defined as chemical messengers that are produced by endocrine glands or specialized cells and are transported through the bloodstream to tissues and organs, where they elicit specific responses. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes such as growth, development, metabolism, reproduction, and mood. Examples of hormones include insulin, estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, and thyroxine.

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to release growth hormone (GH) into the bloodstream. GH plays a crucial role in growth and development, particularly during childhood and adolescence, by promoting the growth of bones and muscles.

GHRH is a 44-amino acid peptide that binds to specific receptors on the surface of pituitary cells, triggering a series of intracellular signals that ultimately lead to the release of GH. The production and release of GHRH are regulated by various factors, including sleep, stress, exercise, and nutrition.

Abnormalities in the production or function of GHRH can lead to growth disorders, such as dwarfism or gigantism, as well as other hormonal imbalances. Therefore, understanding the role of GHRH in regulating GH release is essential for diagnosing and treating these conditions.

Somatotropin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that binds to and gets activated by the hormone somatotropin, also known as growth hormone (GH). These receptors are found in many tissues throughout the body, including the liver, muscle, and fat. When somatotropin binds to its receptor, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate various physiological processes such as growth, metabolism, and cell reproduction.

Somatotropin receptors belong to the class I cytokine receptor family and are composed of two subunits, a homodimer of extracellular glycoproteins that bind to the hormone and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain that activates downstream signaling pathways. Mutations in the somatotropin receptor gene can lead to growth disorders such as dwarfism or gigantism, depending on whether the mutation results in a decrease or increase in receptor activity.

Hypopituitarism is a medical condition characterized by deficient secretion of one or more hormones produced by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls several other endocrine glands in the body, including the thyroid, adrenals, and sex glands (ovaries and testes).

Hypopituitarism can result from damage to the pituitary gland due to various causes such as tumors, surgery, radiation therapy, trauma, or inflammation. In some cases, hypopituitarism may also be caused by a dysfunction of the hypothalamus, a region in the brain that regulates the pituitary gland's function.

The symptoms and signs of hypopituitarism depend on which hormones are deficient and can include fatigue, weakness, decreased appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, decreased sex drive, infertility, irregular menstrual periods, intolerance to cold, constipation, thinning hair, dry skin, and depression.

Treatment of hypopituitarism typically involves hormone replacement therapy to restore the deficient hormones' normal levels. The type and dosage of hormones used will depend on which hormones are deficient and may require regular monitoring and adjustments over time.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

Anterior pituitary hormones are a group of six major hormones that are produced and released by the anterior portion (lobe) of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions and activities. The six main anterior pituitary hormones are:

1. Growth Hormone (GH): Also known as somatotropin, GH is essential for normal growth and development in children and adolescents. It helps regulate body composition, metabolism, and bone density in adults.
2. Prolactin (PRL): A hormone that stimulates milk production in females after childbirth and is also involved in various reproductive and immune functions in both sexes.
3. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH regulates the development, growth, and maturation of follicles in the ovaries (in females) and sperm production in the testes (in males).
4. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH plays a key role in triggering ovulation in females and stimulating testosterone production in males.
5. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH): TSH regulates the function of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing and releasing thyroid hormones that control metabolism and growth.
6. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH): ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.

These anterior pituitary hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus, which is located above the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus releases releasing and inhibiting factors that control the synthesis and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones, creating a complex feedback system to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

The sphenoid sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the sphenoid bone, which is one of the bones that make up the skull base. These sinuses are located deep inside the skull, behind the eyes and nasal cavity. They are paired and separated by a thin bony septum, and each one opens into the corresponding nasal cavity through a small opening called the sphenoethmoidal recess. The sphenoid sinuses vary greatly in size and shape between individuals. They develop during childhood and continue to grow until early adulthood. The function of the sphenoid sinuses, like other paranasal sinuses, is not entirely clear, but they may contribute to reducing the weight of the skull, resonating voice during speech, and insulating the brain from trauma.

Hypophysectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal or partial removal of the pituitary gland, also known as the hypophysis. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, just above the nasal cavity, and is responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones that regulate various bodily functions.

Hypophysectomy may be performed for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes. In some cases, it may be used to treat pituitary tumors or other conditions that affect the function of the pituitary gland. It may also be performed as a research procedure in animal models to study the effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on various physiological processes.

The surgical approach for hypophysectomy may vary depending on the specific indication and the patient's individual anatomy. In general, however, the procedure involves making an incision in the skull and exposing the pituitary gland through a small opening in the bone. The gland is then carefully dissected and removed or partially removed as necessary.

Potential complications of hypophysectomy include damage to surrounding structures such as the optic nerves, which can lead to vision loss, and cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Additionally, removal of the pituitary gland can result in hormonal imbalances that may require long-term management with hormone replacement therapy.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Its primary function is to regulate the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) hormones from the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin binds to receptors on the surface of thyroid follicular cells, stimulating the uptake of iodide and the synthesis and release of T4 and T3. The secretion of thyrotropin is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of thyrotropin, while T3 and T4 inhibit its release through a negative feedback mechanism.

A craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor that develops near the pituitary gland, which is a small gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors arise from remnants of Rathke's pouch, an embryonic structure involved in the development of the pituitary gland.

Craniopharyngiomas are typically slow-growing and benign (non-cancerous), but they can still cause significant health problems due to their location. They can compress nearby structures such as the optic nerves, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland, leading to symptoms like vision loss, hormonal imbalances, and cognitive impairment.

Treatment for craniopharyngiomas usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy in some cases. Regular follow-up with a healthcare team is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

A pleomorphic adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the salivary glands, although they can also occur in other areas such as the nasopharynx and skin. "Pleomorphic" refers to the diverse appearance of the cells within the tumor, which can vary in size, shape, and arrangement.

Pleomorphic adenomas are composed of a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, which can form glandular structures, squamous (scale-like) cells, and areas that resemble cartilage or bone. These tumors tend to grow slowly and usually do not spread to other parts of the body.

While pleomorphic adenomas are generally not dangerous, they can cause problems if they become large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. In some cases, these tumors may also undergo malignant transformation, leading to a cancerous growth known as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for pleomorphic adenomas, and the prognosis is generally good with proper management.

Pituitary dwarfism, also known as growth hormone deficiency dwarfism or hypopituitarism dwarfism, is a type of dwarfism that results from insufficient production of growth hormone by the pituitary gland during childhood. The medical term for this condition is "growth hormone deficiency."

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that produces several important hormones, including growth hormone. Growth hormone plays a critical role in regulating growth and development during childhood and adolescence. When the pituitary gland fails to produce enough growth hormone, children do not grow and develop normally, resulting in short stature and other symptoms associated with dwarfism.

Pituitary dwarfism can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, brain tumors, trauma, or infection. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Symptoms of pituitary dwarfism include short stature, delayed puberty, and other hormonal imbalances.

Treatment for pituitary dwarfism typically involves replacing the missing growth hormone with injections of synthetic growth hormone. This therapy can help promote normal growth and development, although it may not completely eliminate the short stature associated with the condition. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to optimize outcomes and improve quality of life for individuals with pituitary dwarfism.

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a hormone that plays a crucial role in growth and development. It is a small protein with structural and functional similarity to insulin, hence the name "insulin-like." IGF-I is primarily produced in the liver under the regulation of growth hormone (GH).

IGF-I binds to its specific receptor, the IGF-1 receptor, which is widely expressed throughout the body. This binding activates a signaling cascade that promotes cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In addition, IGF-I has anabolic effects on various tissues, including muscle, bone, and cartilage, contributing to their growth and maintenance.

IGF-I is essential for normal growth during childhood and adolescence, and it continues to play a role in maintaining tissue homeostasis throughout adulthood. Abnormal levels of IGF-I have been associated with various medical conditions, such as growth disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

A villous adenoma is a type of polyp (a growth that protrudes from the lining of an organ) found in the colon or rectum. It is named for its appearance under a microscope, which reveals finger-like projections called "villi" on the surface of the polyp.

Villous adenomas are typically larger than other types of polyps and can be several centimeters in size. They are also more likely to be cancerous or precancerous, meaning that they have the potential to develop into colon or rectal cancer over time.

Because of this increased risk, it is important for villous adenomas to be removed surgically if they are found during a colonoscopy or other diagnostic procedure. Regular follow-up colonoscopies may also be recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps or recurrence of previous ones.

Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone somatostatin, which is used in medical treatment. It is a octapeptide with similar effects to somatostatin, but with a longer duration of action. Octreotide is primarily used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome.

It works by inhibiting the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin. This results in a decrease in symptoms caused by excessive hormone secretion, such as reduced growth hormone levels in acromegaly, decreased tumor size in some GEP-NETs, and improved diarrhea and flushing in carcinoid syndrome.

Octreotide is available in several forms, including short-acting subcutaneous injections (Sandostatin®), long-acting depot intramuscular injections (Sandostatin LAR®), and a slow-release formulation for the treatment of diarrhea associated with AIDS (Mycapssa™).

The medical definition of Octreotide is:

A synthetic octapeptide analogue of somatostatin, used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome. Octreotide inhibits the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin, leading to symptomatic improvement in these conditions. It is available as short-acting subcutaneous injections, long-acting depot intramuscular injections, and a slow-release formulation for diarrhea associated with AIDS.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the release of several hormones and also has a role in slowing down digestion. It is produced by the body in various parts of the body, including the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin exists in two forms: somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28, which differ in their length. Somatostatin-14 is the predominant form found in the brain, while somatostatin-28 is the major form found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes, including:

* Inhibiting the release of several hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin
* Slowing down digestion by inhibiting the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and reducing blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
* Regulating neurotransmission in the brain

Somatostatin is used clinically as a diagnostic tool for detecting certain types of tumors that overproduce growth hormone or other hormones, and it is also used as a treatment for some conditions such as acromegaly (a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production) and gastrointestinal disorders.

Thyroid hormones are hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small endocrine gland located in the neck that helps regulate metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. The two main thyroid hormones are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which contain iodine atoms. These hormones play a crucial role in various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, digestion, and brain development. They help regulate the rate at which your body uses energy, affects how sensitive your body is to other hormones, and plays a vital role in the development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. Thyroid hormone levels are regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through a feedback mechanism that helps maintain proper balance.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Cushing syndrome is a hormonal disorder that occurs when your body is exposed to high levels of the hormone cortisol for a long time. This can happen due to various reasons such as taking high doses of corticosteroid medications or tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

The symptoms of Cushing syndrome may include:

* Obesity, particularly around the trunk and upper body
* Thinning of the skin, easy bruising, and purple or red stretch marks on the abdomen, thighs, breasts, and arms
* Weakened bones, leading to fractures
* High blood pressure
* High blood sugar
* Mental changes such as depression, anxiety, and irritability
* Increased fatigue and weakness
* Menstrual irregularities in women
* Decreased fertility in men

Cushing syndrome can be diagnosed through various tests, including urine and blood tests to measure cortisol levels, saliva tests, and imaging tests to locate any tumors. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or adjusting medication dosages.

Somatotrophs are a type of cell found within the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These cells are responsible for producing and secreting the hormone known as somatotropin or growth hormone (GH). This hormone plays a crucial role in regulating growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration. It also helps to regulate the body's metabolism and maintain proper body composition by promoting the breakdown of fats and the synthesis of proteins. Disorders related to somatotrophs can lead to conditions such as gigantism or dwarfism, depending on whether there is an overproduction or underproduction of growth hormone.

Pituitary function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that evaluate the proper functioning of the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and releasing several essential hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

These tests typically involve measuring the levels of different hormones in the blood, stimulating or suppressing the pituitary gland with specific medications, and assessing the body's response to these challenges. Some common pituitary function tests include:

1. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in the blood, often after a provocative test using substances like insulin, arginine, clonidine, or glucagon to stimulate GH release.
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) testing: Assesses the function of the thyroid gland by measuring TSH and FT4 levels in response to TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation.
3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol testing: Evaluates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by measuring ACTH and cortisol levels after a CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) stimulation test or an insulin tolerance test.
4. Prolactin (PRL) testing: Measures PRL levels in the blood, which can be elevated due to pituitary tumors or other conditions affecting the hypothalamus.
5. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) testing: Assesses reproductive function by measuring FSH and LH levels, often in conjunction with estradiol or testosterone levels.
6. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test: Evaluates gonadal function by measuring FSH and LH levels after GnRH administration.
7. Growth hormone (GH) testing: Measures GH levels in response to various stimuli, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), glucagon, or arginine.
8. Vasopressin (ADH) testing: Assesses the posterior pituitary function by measuring ADH levels and performing a water deprivation test.

These tests can help diagnose various pituitary disorders, such as hypopituitarism, hyperpituitarism, or pituitary tumors, and guide appropriate treatment strategies.

Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors that bind to the neuropeptide hormone somatostatin. There are five subtypes of SSTRs, named SSTR1 through SSTR5, each with distinct physiological roles and tissue distributions.

Somatostatin is a small peptide that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and other endocrine organs. It has multiple functions, including inhibition of hormone release, regulation of cell proliferation, and modulation of neurotransmission.

SSTRs are expressed on the surface of many different types of cells, including neurons, endocrine cells, and immune cells. They play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, such as inhibiting the release of hormones like insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone. SSTRs have also been implicated in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

In recent years, SSTRs have become an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies, particularly in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Several radiolabeled somatostatin analogues have been developed that can selectively bind to SSTRs on NET cells and deliver targeted radiation therapy. These agents have shown promising results in clinical trials and are now being used as standard of care for patients with advanced NETs.

Bromocriptine is a dopamine receptor agonist drug, which means it works by binding to and activating dopamine receptors in the brain. It has several therapeutic uses, including:

* Treatment of Parkinson's disease: Bromocriptine can be used alone or in combination with levodopa to help manage the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.
* Suppression of lactation: Bromocriptine can be used to suppress milk production in women who are not breastfeeding or who have stopped breastfeeding but still have high levels of prolactin, a hormone that stimulates milk production.
* Treatment of pituitary tumors: Bromocriptine can be used to shrink certain types of pituitary tumors, such as prolactinomas, which are tumors that secrete excessive amounts of prolactin.
* Management of acromegaly: Bromocriptine can be used to manage the symptoms of acromegaly, a rare hormonal disorder characterized by abnormal growth and enlargement of body tissues, by reducing the production of growth hormone.

Bromocriptine is available in immediate-release and long-acting formulations, and it is usually taken orally. Common side effects of bromocriptine include nausea, dizziness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects are rare but can include hallucinations, confusion, and priapism (prolonged erection).

Growth disorders are medical conditions that affect a person's growth and development, leading to shorter or taller stature than expected for their age, sex, and ethnic group. These disorders can be caused by various factors, including genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, chronic illnesses, malnutrition, and psychosocial issues.

There are two main types of growth disorders:

1. Short stature: This refers to a height that is significantly below average for a person's age, sex, and ethnic group. Short stature can be caused by various factors, including genetic conditions such as Turner syndrome or dwarfism, hormonal deficiencies, chronic illnesses, malnutrition, and psychosocial issues.
2. Tall stature: This refers to a height that is significantly above average for a person's age, sex, and ethnic group. Tall stature can be caused by various factors, including genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Klinefelter syndrome, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions like acromegaly.

Growth disorders can have significant impacts on a person's physical, emotional, and social well-being. Therefore, it is essential to diagnose and manage these conditions early to optimize growth and development and improve overall quality of life. Treatment options for growth disorders may include medication, nutrition therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain. Its main function is to regulate the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland. TRH acts on the pituitary gland to stimulate the synthesis and secretion of TSH, which then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)) into the bloodstream.

TRH is a tripeptide amino acid sequence with the structure of pGlu-His-Pro-NH2, and it is synthesized as a larger precursor molecule called preprothyrotropin-releasing hormone (preproTRH) in the hypothalamus. PreproTRH undergoes post-translational processing to produce TRH, which is then stored in secretory vesicles and released into the hypophyseal portal system, where it travels to the anterior pituitary gland and binds to TRH receptors on thyrotroph cells.

In addition to its role in regulating TSH release, TRH has been shown to have other physiological functions, including modulation of feeding behavior, body temperature, and neurotransmitter release. Dysregulation of the TRH-TSH axis can lead to various thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.

A basophilic adenoma is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the glandular cells of an endocrine gland, specifically the cells that produce and store hormones. The term "basophilic" refers to the appearance of the tumor cells under a microscope, which have a high affinity for basic dyes due to their rich content of ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Basophilic adenomas are most commonly found in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These tumors can produce and secrete excessive amounts of hormones, leading to various clinical symptoms depending on the type of hormone involved. The most common types of basophilic adenomas are prolactinomas, which secrete high levels of the hormone prolactin, and growth hormone-secreting adenomas, which produce excessive amounts of growth hormone.

Treatment for basophilic adenomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or medical management with drugs that suppress hormone production. The prognosis for patients with basophilic adenomas is generally good, with most individuals experiencing a significant improvement in symptoms and quality of life following treatment. However, regular follow-up care is necessary to monitor for recurrence and manage any residual hormonal imbalances.

Empty Sella Syndrome is a condition characterized by the absence or near-absence of the pituitary gland in the sella turcica, a bony structure at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland. This can occur due to the herniation of the arachnoid membrane, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord, into the sella turcica, compressing or replacing the pituitary gland.

In some cases, Empty Sella Syndrome may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on imaging studies. However, in other cases, it can lead to hormonal imbalances due to the disruption of the pituitary gland's function. Symptoms may include headaches, vision changes, menstrual irregularities, fatigue, and decreased libido. Treatment typically involves addressing any underlying hormonal deficiencies with medication or hormone replacement therapy.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family. It was first isolated from the ovine hypothalamus and later found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the brain, pituitary gland, and peripheral nerves.

PACAP exists in two forms, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27, which differ in their length but share the same amino acid sequence at the N-terminus. PACAP exerts its effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors, including PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the body.

PACAP has a wide range of biological activities, including neurotrophic, neuroprotective, vasodilatory, and immunomodulatory effects. In the pituitary gland, PACAP stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, leading to an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn regulates the release of various hormones, including growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Overall, PACAP is a crucial neuropeptide involved in various physiological processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, mood disorders, and cancer.

The posterior pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis, is the posterior portion of the pituitary gland. It is primarily composed of nerve fibers that originate from the hypothalamus, a region of the brain. These nerve fibers release two important hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH).

Oxytocin plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. During childbirth, it stimulates uterine contractions to help facilitate delivery, and after birth, it helps to trigger the release of milk from the mother's breasts during breastfeeding.

Vasopressin, on the other hand, helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water that is excreted by the kidneys. It does this by increasing the reabsorption of water in the collecting ducts of the kidney, which leads to a more concentrated urine and helps prevent dehydration.

Overall, the posterior pituitary gland plays a critical role in maintaining fluid balance, social bonding, and reproduction.

An adrenocortical adenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the cells of the adrenal cortex, which is the outer layer of the adrenal gland. These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as cortisol, aldosterone, or androgens, depending on the type of cells they originate from.

Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning that they do not secrete excess hormones and may not cause any symptoms. However, some functioning adenomas can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations. For example:

* Cortisol-secreting adenomas can result in Cushing's syndrome, characterized by weight gain, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruising, and mood changes.
* Aldosterone-producing adenomas can cause Conn's syndrome, marked by hypertension (high blood pressure), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), and metabolic alkalosis.
* Androgen-secreting adenomas may lead to hirsutism (excessive hair growth) or virilization (development of male secondary sexual characteristics) in women.

The diagnosis of an adrenocortical adenoma typically involves imaging tests, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal evaluations to determine if the tumor is functioning or not. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, especially if it is causing hormonal imbalances or growing in size.

Nelson's syndrome is a rare condition that occurs in some patients with a history of Cushing's disease who have undergone bilateral adrenalectomy (removal of both adrenal glands). Following the surgery, these patients may develop enlargement of the pituitary gland (pituitary tumor) and increased production of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) from the remaining pituitary tissue. This results in hyperpigmentation of the skin due to the melanocyte-stimulating property of ACTH, as well as other symptoms related to hormonal imbalance. It is named after the endocrinologist Don Nelson who first described this condition in 1958.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is identical to the naturally occurring cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress. Hydrocortisone has anti-inflammatory effects and is used to treat various inflammatory conditions such as allergies, skin disorders, and autoimmune diseases. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to reduce swelling, redness, itching, and other symptoms caused by inflammation.

Hydrocortisone is available in different forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, lotions, gels, and ointments, as well as injectable solutions. The specific use and dosage depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's medical history and current health status.

As with any medication, hydrocortisone can have side effects, especially when used in high doses or for extended periods. Common side effects include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and skin thinning. Long-term use of hydrocortisone may also increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and other health problems. Therefore, it is essential to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using this medication.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Glycoprotein hormones are a group of hormones that share a similar structure and are made up of four subunits: two identical alpha subunits and two distinct beta subunits. The alpha subunit is common to all glycoprotein hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

The alpha subunit of glycoprotein hormones is a 92 amino acid polypeptide chain that contains several disulfide bonds, which help to stabilize its structure. It is heavily glycosylated, meaning that it contains many carbohydrate groups attached to the protein backbone. The alpha subunit plays an important role in the biological activity of the hormone by interacting with a specific receptor on the target cell surface.

The alpha subunit contains several regions that are important for its function, including a signal peptide, a variable region, and a conserved region. The signal peptide is a short sequence of amino acids at the N-terminus of the protein that directs it to the endoplasmic reticulum for processing and secretion. The variable region contains several amino acid residues that differ between different glycoprotein hormones, while the conserved region contains amino acids that are identical or very similar in all glycoprotein hormones.

Together with the beta subunit, the alpha subunit forms the functional hormone molecule. The beta subunit determines the specificity of the hormone for its target cells and regulates its biological activity.

Pituitary hormone-regulating hormone receptors refer to specific protein structures found on the surface of certain cells in the body. These receptors are responsible for detecting and responding to hormones produced by the hypothalamus, which regulate the function of the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain that plays a critical role in regulating various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The hypothalamus produces hormones that either stimulate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones, which then act on target organs throughout the body to regulate their function.

Pituitary hormone-regulating hormone receptors are found on the surface of pituitary cells and are specific to individual hypothalamic hormones. When a hypothalamic hormone binds to its corresponding receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signals that ultimately result in the release or inhibition of pituitary hormones.

Examples of pituitary hormone-regulating hormone receptors include:

* Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, which responds to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus.
* Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor, which responds to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus.
* Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor, which responds to GHRH from the hypothalamus.
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor, which responds to GnRH from the hypothalamus.
* Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) receptor, which responds to dopamine from the hypothalamus.

Abnormalities in pituitary hormone-regulating hormone receptors can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's disease, acromegaly, and infertility.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

A liver cell adenoma is a benign tumor that develops in the liver and is composed of cells similar to those normally found in the liver (hepatocytes). These tumors are usually solitary, but multiple adenomas can occur, especially in women who have taken oral contraceptives for many years. Liver cell adenomas are typically asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons. In rare cases, they may cause symptoms such as abdominal pain or discomfort, or complications such as bleeding or rupture. Treatment options include monitoring with periodic imaging studies or surgical removal of the tumor.

Gigantism is a rare medical condition characterized by excessive growth and height significantly above average. This occurs due to an overproduction of growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, during the growth phase in childhood. The pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing this hormone.

In gigantism, the pituitary gland releases too much GH, leading to abnormal bone and tissue growth. This condition is different from acromegaly, which is characterized by excessive GH production in adulthood after the growth phase has ended. In both cases, the excess GH can lead to various health complications, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and joint problems.

Gigantism is typically caused by a benign tumor called a pituitary adenoma that presses against and stimulates the production of GH from the anterior pituitary gland. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor or medication to control GH levels, depending on the severity and progression of the condition. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing the symptoms and preventing long-term health complications associated with gigantism.

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the development of tumors in various endocrine glands. These tumors can be benign or malignant and may lead to overproduction of hormones, causing a variety of symptoms. The three main endocrine glands affected in MEN1 are:

1. Parathyroid glands: Over 90% of individuals with MEN1 develop multiple parathyroid tumors (parathyroid hyperplasia), leading to primary hyperparathyroidism, which results in high levels of calcium in the blood.
2. Pancreas: Up to 80% of individuals with MEN1 develop pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). These tumors can produce and release various hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), leading to specific clinical syndromes like Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, hypoglycemia, or watery diarrhea.
3. Pituitary gland: Approximately 30-40% of individuals with MEN1 develop pituitary tumors, most commonly prolactinomas, which can cause menstrual irregularities, galactorrhea (milk production), and visual field defects.

MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, located on chromosome 11, and it is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. This means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the disease-causing mutation from an affected parent. The diagnosis of MEN1 typically requires meeting specific clinical criteria or having a positive genetic test for a pathogenic MEN1 gene variant. Regular monitoring and early intervention are crucial in managing this condition to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Transcription Factor Pit-1, also known as POU1F1 or pituitary-specific transcription factor 1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and function of the anterior pituitary gland. It is a member of the POU domain family of transcription factors, which are characterized by a conserved DNA-binding domain.

Pit-1 is essential for the differentiation and proliferation of certain types of pituitary cells, including those that produce growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Pit-1 binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of these hormone genes, thereby activating their transcription and promoting hormone production.

Mutations in the gene encoding Pit-1 can lead to a variety of pituitary disorders, such as dwarfism due to GH deficiency, delayed puberty, and hypothyroidism due to TSH deficiency. Additionally, some studies have suggested that Pit-1 may also play a role in regulating energy balance and body weight, although the exact mechanisms are not fully understood.

Gonadotropins are hormones produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating reproduction and sexual development. There are two main types of gonadotropins:

1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): FSH is essential for the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries (in females) or sperm production in the testes (in males). In females, FSH stimulates the maturation of eggs within the follicles.
2. Luteinizing Hormone (LH): LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the dominant follicle. In males, LH stimulates the production and secretion of testosterone in the testes.

Together, FSH and LH work synergistically to regulate various aspects of reproductive function and sexual development. Their secretion is controlled by the hypothalamus, which releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to stimulate the production and release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Abnormal levels of gonadotropins can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as infertility or menstrual irregularities in females and issues related to sexual development or function in both sexes. In some cases, synthetic forms of gonadotropins may be used clinically to treat these conditions or for assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

Endocrine gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) that develop in the endocrine glands. These glands are responsible for producing hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various functions and processes in the body. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms tend to grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can occur in any of the endocrine glands, including:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it produces several hormones that regulate growth and development, as well as other bodily functions.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism and calcium balance.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of each kidney, they produce hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located behind the stomach, it produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels, and digestive enzymes that help break down food.
6. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
7. Gonads (ovaries and testicles): located in the pelvis (ovaries) and scrotum (testicles), they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate reproductive function and secondary sexual characteristics.

Endocrine gland neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on the type and location of the tumor. For example, a pituitary gland neoplasm may cause headaches, vision problems, or hormonal imbalances, while an adrenal gland neoplasm may cause high blood pressure, weight gain, or mood changes.

Diagnosis of endocrine gland neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to measure hormone levels. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormonal therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor.

Gonadal steroid hormones, also known as gonadal sex steroids, are hormones that are produced and released by the gonads (i.e., ovaries in women and testes in men). These hormones play a critical role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive function, and overall health.

The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are:

1. Androgens: These are male sex hormones that are primarily produced by the testes but also produced in smaller amounts by the ovaries and adrenal glands. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a key role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.
2. Estrogens: These are female sex hormones that are primarily produced by the ovaries but also produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands. The most well-known estrogen is estradiol, which plays a key role in the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle.
3. Progestogens: These are hormones that are produced by the ovaries during the second half of the menstrual cycle and play a key role in preparing the uterus for pregnancy. The most well-known progestogen is progesterone, which also plays a role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle.

Gonadal steroid hormones can have significant effects on various physiological processes, including bone density, cognitive function, mood, and sexual behavior. Disorders of gonadal steroid hormone production or action can lead to a range of health problems, including infertility, osteoporosis, and sexual dysfunction.

Thyroxine (T4) is a type of hormone produced and released by the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. It is one of two major hormones produced by the thyroid gland, with the other being triiodothyronine (T3).

Thyroxine plays a crucial role in regulating various metabolic processes in the body, including growth, development, and energy expenditure. Specifically, T4 helps to control the rate at which your body burns calories for energy, regulates protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, and influences the body's sensitivity to other hormones.

T4 is produced by combining iodine and tyrosine, an amino acid found in many foods. Once produced, T4 circulates in the bloodstream and gets converted into its active form, T3, in various tissues throughout the body. Thyroxine has a longer half-life than T3, which means it remains active in the body for a more extended period.

Abnormal levels of thyroxine can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) or hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). These conditions can cause a range of symptoms, including weight gain or loss, fatigue, mood changes, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone consisting of short chains of amino acids known as peptides. They are produced and released by various endocrine glands and play crucial roles in regulating many physiological processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions.

Peptide hormones exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. Some examples of peptide hormones include insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursor proteins called prohormones, which are cleaved by enzymes to release the active peptide hormone. They are water-soluble and cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they exert their effects through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms. Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a hormone that binds to receptors on the same cell, while paracrine signaling involves the release of a hormone that acts on nearby cells. Endocrine signaling, on the other hand, involves the release of a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells to exert its effects.

High Mobility Group AT-Hook 2 (HMGA2) protein is a non-histone chromatin protein that belongs to the HMGA family. This protein contains structural DNA-binding domains called AT-hooks, which allow it to bind to the minor groove of AT-rich sequences in the promoter or enhancer regions of genes.

HMGA2 protein plays a crucial role in regulating gene transcription, chromatin architecture, and nuclear organization during development and differentiation. It is involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, apoptosis, and senescence. Moreover, HMGA2 has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, where its overexpression is often associated with poor prognosis and aggressive tumor behavior.

In summary, HMGA2 protein is a DNA-binding protein that regulates gene expression and is involved in development, differentiation, and disease, particularly cancer.

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone, specifically the active form of thyroid hormone, that plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. It is produced by the thyroid gland through the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine with three atoms of iodine. T3 is more potent than its precursor, thyroxine (T4), which has four iodine atoms, as T3 binds more strongly to thyroid hormone receptors and accelerates metabolic processes at the cellular level.

In circulation, about 80% of T3 is bound to plasma proteins, while the remaining 20% is unbound or free, allowing it to enter cells and exert its biological effects. The primary functions of T3 include increasing the rate of metabolic reactions, promoting protein synthesis, enhancing sensitivity to catecholamines (e.g., adrenaline), and supporting normal brain development during fetal growth and early infancy. Imbalances in T3 levels can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, which may require clinical intervention and management.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small gland located in the brain. CRH plays a critical role in the body's stress response system.

When the body experiences stress, the hypothalamus releases CRH, which then travels to the pituitary gland, another small gland located at the base of the brain. Once there, CRH stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland.

ACTH then travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. ACTH stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress by regulating metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure, among other things.

Overall, CRH is an important part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates many bodily functions related to stress response, mood, and cognition. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and abnormal levels of CRH have been implicated in various psychiatric and medical conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and Cushing's syndrome.

Corticotrophs are a type of endocrine cell found in the anterior pituitary gland. They are responsible for producing and secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulates the function of the adrenal gland. ACTH stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone that helps regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response among other functions. Corticotrophs are controlled by the hypothalamus through the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. Dysfunction of corticotrophs can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as Cushing's disease, which is characterized by excessive production of ACTH and cortisol.

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, this can lead to menstrual irregularities, milk production outside of pregnancy (galactorrhea), and infertility. In men, it can cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, breast enlargement (gynecomastia), and infertility. The condition can be caused by various factors, including pituitary tumors, certain medications, and hypothyroidism. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include medication to lower prolactin levels.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Securin is not a medical term, but rather a biological concept related to cell division. It's a protein that plays a crucial role in the regulation of chromosome separation during cell division (mitosis).

During mitosis, sister chromatids (identical copies of a chromosome) are held together by cohesin proteins until it's time for them to separate and move to opposite ends of the cell. Securin is one of the proteins that helps regulate this process. Specifically, securin inhibits an enzyme called separase, which is responsible for cleaving the cohesin rings that hold sister chromatids together.

Once the cell is ready to separate its chromosomes, a protease called separase is activated and degrades securin. This allows separase to cleave the cohesin rings, leading to the separation of sister chromatids and the continuation of mitosis. If securin function is disrupted, it can lead to errors in chromosome segregation, which can contribute to genomic instability and diseases like cancer.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Ghrelin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central nervous system and other tissues throughout the body. They are also known as growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) because they were initially identified as being activated by synthetic ligands called growth hormone secretagogues, which stimulate the release of growth hormone.

However, it was later discovered that ghrelin, a hormone produced in the stomach, is the natural endogenous ligand for these receptors. Ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because its levels rise before meals and decrease after eating, signaling to the brain that it's time to eat.

Activation of ghrelin receptors has been shown to have a variety of effects on the body, including stimulating appetite, increasing growth hormone secretion, promoting fat storage, and modulating glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of the ghrelin system has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as obesity, anorexia nervosa, and type 2 diabetes.

Pituitary hormone-releasing hormones (PRHs), also known as hypothalamic releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, are small neuropeptides produced and released by the hypothalamus - a small region of the brain. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating the secretion and release of various pituitary hormones, which in turn control several essential bodily functions, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and lactation.

There are several PRHs, each with a specific target pituitary hormone:

1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): Stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of thyroid hormones.
2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): Regulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which are essential for reproductive functions.
3. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): Stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which then promotes the production and release of cortisol and other glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands.
4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): Stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for growth, development, and metabolism regulation.
5. Somatostatin or growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH): Inhibits the release of GH from the anterior pituitary gland and also suppresses the secretion of thyroid hormones.
6. Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH) or prolactin-releasing factor (PRF): Stimulates the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland, which is essential for lactation and reproductive functions.
7. Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) or dopamine: Inhibits the release of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland.

These releasing hormones and inhibitory hormones work together to maintain a delicate balance in various physiological processes, including growth, development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions. Dysregulation of these hormonal systems can lead to various endocrine disorders and diseases.

Thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) are nuclear receptor proteins that bind to thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), and regulate gene transcription in target cells. These receptors play a crucial role in the development, growth, and metabolism of an organism by mediating the actions of thyroid hormones. THRs are encoded by genes THRA and THRB, which give rise to two major isoforms: TRα1 and TRβ1. Additionally, alternative splicing results in other isoforms with distinct tissue distributions and functions. THRs function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and bind to thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. The binding of T3 or T4 to THRs triggers a conformational change, which leads to recruitment of coactivators or corepressors, ultimately resulting in activation or repression of gene transcription.

Thyrotrophs, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) producing cells, are a type of endocrine cell located in the anterior pituitary gland. They synthesize and secrete TSH, which is a hormone that regulates the function of the thyroid gland by stimulating the production and release of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), two important thyroid hormones. Thyrotrophs respond to the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood through a negative feedback mechanism, increasing or decreasing TSH secretion as needed to maintain proper levels of T4 and T3.

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) is a group of inherited disorders characterized by the development of tumors in various endocrine glands, which can lead to overproduction of hormones. There are two main types: MEN type 1 and MEN type 2.

MEN type 1, also known as Wermer's syndrome, is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene. It typically involves tumors in the parathyroid glands (leading to hyperparathyroidism), pancreas (often gastrinomas or insulinomas), and pituitary gland. Some individuals may also develop tumors in other organs, such as the adrenal glands, lungs, or thyroid gland.

MEN type 2, which includes MEN type 2A and MEN type 2B, is caused by mutations in the RET gene. MEN type 2A involves medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytomas (tumors of the adrenal glands), and parathyroid tumors. MEN type 2B includes MTC, pheochromocytomas, neuromas (nerve tissue tumors), and distinctive physical features such as a marfanoid habitus and mucosal neuromas.

Early detection and management of these tumors are crucial to prevent complications from hormone excess or tumor invasion. Regular screening and monitoring are recommended for individuals with MEN, even if they do not have symptoms. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the affected glands or tumors, along with medications to manage hormonal imbalances.

A ganglioneuroma is a type of benign (noncancerous) tumor that arises from the nerve cells called ganglia in the autonomic nervous system. These tumors typically develop in the abdomen or chest and are most commonly found in children and adolescents, although they can occur at any age.

Ganglioneuromas are composed of mature nerve cells (ganglion cells) and supporting tissue called stroma. They tend to grow slowly and usually do not cause any symptoms unless they become very large or press on nearby organs. In some cases, ganglioneuromas may produce hormones that can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, flushing, or heart palpitations.

While ganglioneuromas are generally benign, there is a small risk that they may become malignant (cancerous) and develop into a type of tumor called a ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma. For this reason, it is important to monitor these tumors closely and remove them if they grow too large or cause symptoms.

Treatment for ganglioneuromas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor. In some cases, radiation therapy or chemotherapy may also be recommended, particularly if there is a risk of malignant transformation.

Dwarfism is a medical condition that is characterized by short stature, typically with an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less. It is caused by a variety of genetic and medical conditions that affect bone growth, including skeletal dysplasias, hormonal deficiencies, and chromosomal abnormalities.

Skeletal dysplasias are the most common cause of dwarfism and are characterized by abnormalities in the development and growth of bones and cartilage. Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, accounting for about 70% of all cases of dwarfism. It is caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene and results in short limbs, a large head, and a prominent forehead.

Hormonal deficiencies, such as growth hormone deficiency or hypothyroidism, can also cause dwarfism if they are not diagnosed and treated early. Chromosomal abnormalities, such as Turner syndrome (monosomy X) or Down syndrome (trisomy 21), can also result in short stature and other features of dwarfism.

It is important to note that people with dwarfism are not "dwarves" - the term "dwarf" is a medical and sociological term used to describe individuals with this condition, while "dwarves" is a term often used in fantasy literature and media to refer to mythical beings. The use of the term "dwarf" can be considered disrespectful or offensive to some people with dwarfism, so it is important to use respectful language when referring to individuals with this condition.

Gonadotropins are hormones that stimulate the gonads (sex glands) to produce sex steroids and gametes (sex cells). In humans, there are two main types of gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland.

FSH plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. LH triggers ovulation in females, causing the release of a mature egg from the ovary, and stimulates testosterone production in males.

Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate the gonads, such as in infertility therapies where FSH and LH are administered to induce ovulation or increase sperm production.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

Placental lactogen is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy in humans and some other mammals. It is similar in structure to human growth hormone and prolactin, and has both growth-promoting and lactogenic (milk-producing) properties. Placental lactogen plays an important role in regulating maternal metabolism during pregnancy, promoting the growth and development of the fetus, and preparing the mother's body for lactation after birth. It helps to stimulate the growth of the mammary glands and the production of milk by increasing the availability of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the mother's bloodstream. Placental lactogen also helps to regulate the mother's insulin sensitivity, which can affect her energy levels and the growth of the fetus.

Pneumoencephalography is a diagnostic procedure that is rarely used today, due to the development of less invasive techniques. It involves the introduction of air or another gas into the ventricular system or subarachnoid space of the brain, followed by X-ray imaging to visualize the structures and any abnormalities within the intracranial cavity.

The primary purpose of this procedure was to diagnose conditions affecting the brain's ventricles, such as hydrocephalus, tumors, or inflammation. The introduction of air into the cranium allowed for better visualization of these structures and any potential abnormalities. However, due to its invasive nature, risks associated with the procedure, and the availability of non-invasive imaging techniques like CT and MRI scans, pneumoencephalography has fallen out of favor in modern medicine.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Radiosurgery is a non-invasive surgical procedure that uses precisely focused beams of radiation to treat various medical conditions, primarily in the field of neurosurgery and oncology. It allows for the destruction of targeted tissue while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy structures. Unlike traditional surgery, radiosurgery does not require any incisions, as it delivers radiation through the skin to reach the intended target.

The term "stereotactic" is often associated with radiosurgery, which refers to the use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to precisely locate and target the affected area. This technique enables high doses of radiation to be delivered accurately and efficiently, maximizing therapeutic effectiveness while minimizing side effects.

Radiosurgery can be used to treat various conditions such as brain tumors (both malignant and benign), arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), trigeminal neuralgia, acoustic neuromas, pituitary adenomas, and spinal cord tumors. Common radiosurgery platforms include the Gamma Knife, CyberKnife, and linear accelerator-based systems like Novalis Tx or TrueBeam.

It is essential to note that although it is called "surgery," radiosurgery does not involve any physical incisions or removal of tissue. Instead, it relies on the destructive effects of high-dose radiation to ablate or damage targeted cells over time, leading to their eventual death and resolution of symptoms or tumor control.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Central nervous system (CNS) cysts are abnormal fluid-filled sacs that develop in the brain or spinal cord. These cysts can be congenital, meaning they are present at birth and develop as a result of abnormal embryonic development, or they can be acquired later in life due to injury, infection, or disease.

CNS cysts can vary in size and may cause symptoms depending on their location and the amount of pressure they place on surrounding brain or spinal cord tissue. Symptoms may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, or difficulty with coordination and balance. In some cases, CNS cysts may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

There are several types of CNS cysts, including:

1. Arachnoid cysts: These are the most common type of CNS cyst and occur between the layers of the arachnoid membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.
2. Colloid cysts: These cysts typically develop at the junction of the third and fourth ventricles in the brain and can obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leading to increased intracranial pressure.
3. Ependymal cysts: These cysts arise from the ependymal cells that line the ventricular system of the brain and can cause symptoms by compressing surrounding brain tissue.
4. Neuroglial cysts: These cysts are composed of glial cells, which support and protect nerve cells in the CNS.
5. Pineal cysts: These cysts develop in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located near the center of the brain.

Treatment for CNS cysts depends on their size, location, and symptoms. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be all that is necessary. However, if the cyst is causing significant symptoms or is at risk of rupturing or obstructing CSF flow, surgical intervention may be required to remove or reduce the size of the cyst.

Placental hormones are a type of hormones that are produced by the placenta, an organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy. These hormones play a crucial role in maintaining and supporting a healthy pregnancy. Some of the key placental hormones include:

1. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG): This hormone is produced after implantation and is detected in the urine or blood to confirm pregnancy. It maintains the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone during early pregnancy.
2. Progesterone: This hormone is critical for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the pregnancy. It suppresses maternal immune response to prevent rejection of the developing embryo/fetus.
3. Estrogen: This hormone plays a vital role in the growth and development of the fetal brain, as well as promoting the growth of the uterus and mammary glands during pregnancy.
4. Human Placental Lactogen (hPL): This hormone stimulates maternal metabolism to provide nutrients for the developing fetus and helps prepare the breasts for lactation.
5. Relaxin: This hormone relaxes the pelvic ligaments and softens and widens the cervix in preparation for childbirth.

These hormones work together to support fetal growth, maintain pregnancy, and prepare the mother's body for childbirth and lactation.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Pituitary hormone receptors are specialized protein molecules found on the surface of target cells in various organs and tissues throughout the body. These receptors selectively bind to specific pituitary hormones, which are released from the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The binding of the hormone to its corresponding receptor triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to physiological responses in the target cells.

There are several types of pituitary hormones, each with its own unique receptors, including:

1. Growth Hormone (GH) Receptors: These receptors are found on many tissues, such as liver, muscle, and bone. The binding of GH to these receptors stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which promotes cell growth and division, as well as other metabolic processes.
2. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Receptors: These receptors are primarily located on cells in the adrenal gland, particularly in the adrenal cortex. The binding of ACTH to these receptors stimulates the production and release of cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune function.
3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Receptors: These receptors are found on the surface of thyroid follicular cells. The binding of TSH to these receptors triggers the production and release of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), which regulate metabolism, growth, and development.
4. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Receptors: These receptors are present in the gonads (ovaries and testes). In females, FSH binds to these receptors to stimulate follicular growth and estrogen production, while in males, it promotes spermatogenesis.
5. Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Receptors: These receptors are also found in the gonads. In females, LH binding triggers ovulation and progesterone production, while in males, it stimulates testosterone production and sperm maturation.
6. Prolactin (PRL) Receptors: These receptors are located in various tissues, including the mammary glands, liver, and brain. The binding of PRL to these receptors promotes lactation, growth, and differentiation of mammary cells, as well as modulating immune function and behavior.
7. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) Receptors: These receptors are found in the skin and central nervous system. The binding of MSH to these receptors regulates pigmentation, appetite, and energy balance.
8. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Receptors: These receptors are present in the pituitary gland. The binding of GHRH to these receptors stimulates the release of growth hormone, which promotes growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration.
9. Somatostatin Receptors (SST): These receptors are located in various tissues, including the pancreas, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. The binding of somatostatin to these receptors inhibits the release of several hormones, such as growth hormone, insulin, and glucagon.
10. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Receptors: These receptors are found in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. The binding of CRH to these receptors stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which regulates stress response, metabolism, and immune function.
11. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) Receptors: These receptors are present in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of TRH to these receptors stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates thyroid function and metabolism.
12. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptors: These receptors are located in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of GnRH to these receptors stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which regulate reproductive function.
13. Prolactin-Releasing Hormone (PRH) Receptors: These receptors are found in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of PRH to these receptors stimulates the release of prolactin, which regulates lactation and other physiological processes.
14. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) Receptors: These receptors are located in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The binding of GHRH to these receptors stimulates the release of growth hormone, which regulates growth, metabolism, and other physiological processes.
15. Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH) Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of MCH to these receptors regulates energy balance, feeding behavior, and sleep-wake cycles.
16. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of NPY to these receptors regulates energy balance, feeding behavior, stress response, and cardiovascular function.
17. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of CRH to these receptors regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, stress response, and anxiety.
18. Oxytocin Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of oxytocin to these receptors regulates social behavior, maternal care, and reproductive function.
19. Vasopressin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of vasopressin to these receptors regulates water balance, blood pressure, and social behavior.
20. Substance P Receptors (Neurokinin 1 Receptors): These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of substance P to these receptors regulates pain transmission, neuroinflammation, and stress response.
21. Melanocortin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of melanocortins to these receptors regulates energy balance, feeding behavior, and sexual function.
22. Endorphin Receptors (Mu, Delta, Kappa Opioid Receptors): These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of endorphins to these receptors modulates pain transmission, reward processing, and stress response.
23. Galanin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of galanin to these receptors regulates feeding behavior, anxiety, and nociception.
24. Somatostatin Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of somatostatin to these receptors modulates neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, and cell proliferation.
25. Neuropeptide Y Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of neuropeptide Y to these receptors regulates feeding behavior, anxiety, and cardiovascular function.
26. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of corticotropin-releasing hormone to these receptors modulates stress response, anxiety, and neuroinflammation.
27. Oxytocin Receptors: These receptors are found in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of oxytocin to these receptors regulates social behavior, maternal care, and anxiety.
28. Vasopressin Receptors: These receptors are located in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. The binding of vasopressin to these receptors modulates water balance, blood pressure, and social behavior.
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Hormone antagonists are substances or drugs that block the action of hormones by binding to their receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the hormones from exerting their effects. They can be classified into two types: receptor antagonists and enzyme inhibitors. Receptor antagonists bind directly to hormone receptors and prevent the hormone from binding, while enzyme inhibitors block the production or breakdown of hormones by inhibiting specific enzymes involved in their metabolism. Hormone antagonists are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as cancer, hormonal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Ergolines are a group of ergot alkaloids that have been widely used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs. These compounds are known for their ability to bind to and stimulate specific receptors in the brain, particularly dopamine receptors. As a result, they have been explored for their potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, migraine, and depression.

However, ergolines can also have significant side effects, including hallucinations, nausea, and changes in blood pressure. In addition, some ergot alkaloids have been associated with a rare but serious condition called ergotism, which is characterized by symptoms such as muscle spasms, vomiting, and gangrene. Therefore, the use of ergolines must be carefully monitored and managed to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Some specific examples of drugs that contain ergolines include:

* Dihydroergotamine (DHE): used for the treatment of migraine headaches
* Pergolide: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease
* Cabergoline: used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and certain types of hormonal disorders

It is important to note that while ergolines have shown promise in some therapeutic areas, they are not without their risks. As with any medication, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any drug containing ergolines to ensure that it is safe and appropriate for an individual's specific needs.

Colonic polyps are abnormal growths that protrude from the inner wall of the colon (large intestine). They can vary in size, shape, and number. Most colonic polyps are benign, meaning they are not cancerous. However, some types of polyps, such as adenomas, have a higher risk of becoming cancerous over time if left untreated.

Colonic polyps often do not cause any symptoms, especially if they are small. Larger polyps may lead to symptoms like rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, abdominal pain, or iron deficiency anemia. The exact cause of colonic polyps is not known, but factors such as age, family history, and certain medical conditions (like inflammatory bowel disease) can increase the risk of developing them.

Regular screening exams, such as colonoscopies, are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 to detect and remove polyps before they become cancerous. If you have a family history of colonic polyps or colorectal cancer, your doctor may recommend earlier or more frequent screenings.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

The Ki-67 antigen is a cellular protein that is expressed in all active phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2, and M), but not in the resting phase (G0). It is often used as a marker for cell proliferation and can be found in high concentrations in rapidly dividing cells. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 can help to determine the growth fraction of a group of cells, which can be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of various malignancies, including cancer. The level of Ki-67 expression is often associated with the aggressiveness of the tumor and its response to treatment.

Dopamine agonists are a class of medications that mimic the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and reinforcement of rewarding behaviors. These medications bind to dopamine receptors in the brain and activate them, leading to an increase in dopaminergic activity.

Dopamine agonists are used primarily to treat Parkinson's disease, a neurological disorder characterized by motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability. By increasing dopaminergic activity in the brain, dopamine agonists can help alleviate some of these symptoms.

Examples of dopamine agonists include:

1. Pramipexole (Mirapex)
2. Ropinirole (Requip)
3. Rotigotine (Neupro)
4. Apomorphine (Apokyn)

Dopamine agonists may also be used off-label to treat other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome or certain types of dopamine-responsive dystonia. However, these medications can have significant side effects, including nausea, dizziness, orthostatic hypotension, compulsive behaviors (such as gambling, shopping, or sexual addiction), and hallucinations. Therefore, they should be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

LHRH (Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of certain cells in the body, most notably in the anterior pituitary gland. These receptors bind to LHRH, a hormone that is produced and released by the hypothalamus in the brain.

When LHRH binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the release of two other hormones from the anterior pituitary gland: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones play critical roles in regulating reproductive function, including the development and maturation of sex cells (sperm and eggs), the production of sex steroid hormones (such as testosterone and estrogen), and the regulation of the menstrual cycle in females.

Disorders of the LHRH receptor or its signaling pathway can lead to a variety of reproductive disorders, including precocious puberty, delayed puberty, and infertility.

Chromogranins are a group of proteins that are stored in the secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine cells, including neurons and endocrine cells. These proteins are co-released with neurotransmitters and hormones upon stimulation of the cells. Chromogranin A is the most abundant and best studied member of this protein family.

Chromogranins have several functions in the body. They play a role in the biogenesis, processing, and storage of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters within secretory vesicles. Additionally, chromogranins can be cleaved into smaller peptides, some of which have hormonal or regulatory activities. For example, vasostatin-1, a peptide derived from chromogranin A, has been shown to have vasodilatory and cardioprotective effects.

Measurement of chromogranin levels in blood can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of neuroendocrine tumors, which are characterized by excessive secretion of chromogranins and other neuroendocrine markers.

Diabetes Insipidus is a medical condition characterized by the excretion of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia). It is caused by a deficiency in the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH), which regulates the body's water balance.

In normal physiology, vasopressin is released from the posterior pituitary gland in response to an increase in osmolality of the blood or a decrease in blood volume. This causes the kidneys to retain water and concentrate the urine. In Diabetes Insipidus, there is either a lack of vasopressin production (central diabetes insipidus) or a decreased response to vasopressin by the kidneys (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).

Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, such as from tumors, trauma, or surgery. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic factors, kidney disease, or certain medications that interfere with the action of vasopressin on the kidneys.

Treatment for Diabetes Insipidus depends on the underlying cause. In central diabetes insipidus, desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of vasopressin, can be administered to replace the missing hormone. In nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, treatment may involve addressing the underlying kidney disease or adjusting medications that interfere with vasopressin action. It is important for individuals with Diabetes Insipidus to maintain adequate hydration and monitor their fluid intake and urine output.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that gets cleaved into several biologically active peptides in the body. These peptides include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-lipotropin, and multiple opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin.

ACTH stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland, while beta-lipotropin has various metabolic functions. The opioid peptides derived from POMC have pain-relieving (analgesic) and rewarding effects in the brain. Dysregulation of the POMC system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including obesity, addiction, and certain types of hormone deficiencies.

A choristoma is a type of growth that occurs when normally functioning tissue is found in an abnormal location within the body. It is not cancerous or harmful, but it can cause problems if it presses on surrounding structures or causes symptoms. Choristomas are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth, and are thought to occur due to developmental errors during embryonic growth. They can be found in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the brain, eye, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Neuroendoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical technique that involves the use of an endoscope to access and treat various conditions within the brain and spinal column. An endoscope is a long, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, which allows surgeons to view and operate on internal structures through small incisions or natural openings in the body.

In neuroendoscopy, the surgeon uses the endoscope to navigate through the brain's ventricular system (fluid-filled spaces) or other narrow spaces within the skull or spine to diagnose and treat conditions such as hydrocephalus, brain tumors, arachnoid cysts, and intraventricular hemorrhage.

The benefits of neuroendoscopy include reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, shorter hospital stays, faster recovery times, and improved outcomes compared to traditional open surgical approaches. However, neuroendoscopic procedures require specialized training and expertise due to the complexity of the anatomy involved.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, leading to an enlargement of the affected area. It's a response to various stimuli such as hormones, chronic irritation, or inflammation. Hyperplasia can be physiological, like the growth of breast tissue during pregnancy, or pathological, like in the case of benign or malignant tumors. The process is generally reversible if the stimulus is removed. It's important to note that hyperplasia itself is not cancerous, but some forms of hyperplasia can increase the risk of developing cancer over time.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays crucial roles in the reproductive system, primarily by promoting the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries or sperm production in the testes.

The FSH molecule consists of two subunits: α (alpha) and β (beta). The α-subunit is common to several glycoprotein hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the β-subunit is unique to each hormone and determines its specific biological activity.

A medical definition of 'Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit' refers to the distinct portion of the FSH molecule that is responsible for its particular functions in the body. The β-subunit of FSH enables the hormone to bind to its specific receptors in the gonads and initiate downstream signaling pathways leading to follicular development and spermatogenesis. Any alterations or mutations in the FSH beta subunit can lead to disruptions in reproductive processes, potentially causing infertility or other related disorders.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea is a condition where the cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord, leaks through the nasal cavity. This occurs due to a defect or opening in the skull base or the thin bone that separates the brain from the nasal cavity, known as the cribriform plate.

CSF rhinorrhea can result from trauma, surgery, or spontaneously due to increased pressure in the brain. It is important to diagnose and treat this condition promptly because it increases the risk of meningitis, an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Treatment options include bed rest, hydration, stool softeners, and sometimes surgical repair of the defect.

Lisuride is a type of medication called a dopamine agonist, which works by stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain. It is primarily used to treat Parkinson's disease and related disorders, as it can help to alleviate symptoms such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control.

Lisuride may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as certain types of headaches or cluster headaches. It is available in the form of tablets and is typically taken several times a day, with dosages adjusted based on individual patient needs and responses to treatment.

As with any medication, lisuride can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, hallucinations, and orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing). It is important for patients taking this medication to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or concerns.

Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition characterized by an excessive production and release of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland, leading to an increased metabolic rate in various body systems. The thyroid gland, located in the front of the neck, produces two main thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating many bodily functions, including heart rate, digestion, energy levels, and mood.

In hyperthyroidism, the elevated levels of T3 and T4 can cause a wide range of symptoms, such as rapid heartbeat, weight loss, heat intolerance, increased appetite, tremors, anxiety, and sleep disturbances. Some common causes of hyperthyroidism include Graves' disease, toxic adenoma, Plummer's disease (toxic multinodular goiter), and thyroiditis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage the symptoms and prevent potential complications associated with this condition.

The Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary system, is a crucial part of the endocrine system that regulates many bodily functions. It consists of two main components: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

The hypothalamus is a region in the brain that receives information from various parts of the body and integrates them to regulate vital functions such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior. It also produces and releases neurohormones that control the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary (also called adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (also called neurohypophysis). The anterior pituitary produces and releases several hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. The posterior pituitary stores and releases hormones produced by the hypothalamus, including antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system works together to maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes through hormonal signaling. Dysfunction of this system can lead to several endocrine disorders, such as diabetes insipidus, pituitary tumors, and hypothalamic-pituitary axis disorders.

"Body height" is a measure of the vertical length of a person's body from the top of their head to the bottom of their feet. It is typically measured in units such as centimeters (cm) or inches (in). In medical settings, body height is often used as a basic anthropometric measurement to assess overall health status, growth and development, nutritional status, and aging-related changes.

There are different methods for measuring body height, but the most common one involves having the person stand upright against a vertical surface (such as a wall or a stadiometer) with their heels, buttocks, shoulders, and head touching the surface. The measurement is taken at the point where the top of the person's head meets the surface.

Body height can be influenced by various factors, including genetics, nutrition, health status, and environmental conditions. Changes in body height over time can provide important insights into a person's health trajectory and potential health risks. For example, a significant decrease in body height may indicate bone loss or spinal compression, while a rapid increase in height during childhood or adolescence may suggest optimal growth and development.

Antineoplastic agents, hormonal, are a class of drugs used to treat cancers that are sensitive to hormones. These agents work by interfering with the production or action of hormones in the body. They can be used to slow down or stop the growth of cancer cells and may also help to relieve symptoms caused by the spread of cancer.

Hormonal therapies can work in one of two ways: they can either block the production of hormones or prevent their action on cancer cells. For example, some hormonal therapies work by blocking the action of estrogen or testosterone, which are hormones that can stimulate the growth of certain types of cancer cells.

Examples of hormonal agents used to treat cancer include:

* Aromatase inhibitors (such as letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane), which block the production of estrogen in postmenopausal women
* Selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen and raloxifene), which block the action of estrogen on cancer cells
* Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (such as leuprolide, goserelin, and triptorelin), which block the production of testosterone in men
* Antiandrogens (such as bicalutamide, flutamide, and enzalutamide), which block the action of testosterone on cancer cells

Hormonal therapies are often used in combination with other treatments, such as surgery or radiation therapy. They may be used to shrink tumors before surgery, to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery, or to help control the spread of cancer that cannot be removed by surgery. Hormonal therapies can also be used to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life in people with advanced cancer.

It's important to note that hormonal therapies are not effective for all types of cancer. They are most commonly used to treat breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers, which are known to be sensitive to hormones. Hormonal therapies may also be used to treat other types of cancer in certain situations.

Like all medications, hormonal therapies can have side effects. These can vary depending on the specific drug and the individual person. Common side effects of hormonal therapies include hot flashes, fatigue, mood changes, and sexual dysfunction. Some hormonal therapies can also cause more serious side effects, such as an increased risk of osteoporosis or blood clots. It's important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of hormonal therapy with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Pituitary irradiation is a medical procedure that involves the use of targeted radiation therapy to treat conditions affecting the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland controls various hormonal functions in the body, and any abnormalities or tumors in this area can lead to hormonal imbalances and other related health issues.

In pituitary irradiation, a radiation oncologist uses external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to deliver precise and focused doses of high-energy radiation to the pituitary gland. The goal is to destroy or shrink the tumor while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues. This procedure can be used as a primary treatment option, an adjuvant therapy following surgery, or in cases where surgical intervention is not feasible or has been unsuccessful.

The effects of pituitary irradiation on hormone production may take months or even years to manifest fully. Patients will typically require regular follow-ups with their healthcare team to monitor hormonal levels and manage any potential side effects, which can include fatigue, headaches, vision changes, and cognitive impairment. In some cases, hormone replacement therapy might be necessary to address hormonal deficiencies resulting from the treatment.

A colonoscopy is a medical procedure used to examine the large intestine, also known as the colon and rectum. It is performed using a flexible tube with a tiny camera on the end, called a colonoscope, which is inserted into the rectum and gently guided through the entire length of the colon.

The procedure allows doctors to visually inspect the lining of the colon for any abnormalities such as polyps, ulcers, inflammation, or cancer. If any polyps are found during the procedure, they can be removed immediately using special tools passed through the colonoscope. Colonoscopy is an important tool in the prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer, which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide.

Patients are usually given a sedative to help them relax during the procedure, which is typically performed on an outpatient basis in a hospital or clinic setting. The entire procedure usually takes about 30-60 minutes to complete, although patients should plan to spend several hours at the medical facility for preparation and recovery.

A meningioma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms on the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It's usually benign, meaning it doesn't spread to other parts of the body, but it can still cause serious problems if it grows and presses on nearby tissues.

Meningiomas most commonly occur in adults, and are more common in women than men. They can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including headaches, seizures, vision or hearing problems, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all and are discovered only during imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for meningiomas include monitoring with regular imaging scans, surgery to remove the tumor, and radiation therapy to shrink or kill the tumor cells. The best treatment approach depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and their personal preferences.

Adenomatous polyps, also known as adenomas, are benign (noncancerous) growths that develop in the lining of the glandular tissue of certain organs, most commonly occurring in the colon and rectum. These polyps are composed of abnormal glandular cells that can grow excessively and form a mass.

Adenomatous polyps can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be flat or have a stalk (pedunculated). While adenomas are generally benign, they can potentially undergo malignant transformation and develop into colorectal cancer over time if left untreated. The risk of malignancy increases with the size of the polyp and the presence of certain histological features, such as dysplasia (abnormal cell growth).

Regular screening for adenomatous polyps is essential to detect and remove them early, reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Screening methods include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and stool-based tests.

Pituitary hormones refer to the chemical messengers produced and released by the pituitary gland, which is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is divided into two main parts: the anterior lobe (also known as the adenohypophysis) and the posterior lobe (also known as the neurohypophysis).

Posterior pituitary hormones are those that are produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain located above the pituitary gland, and stored in the posterior pituitary before being released. There are two main posterior pituitary hormones:

1. Oxytocin: This hormone plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, and childbirth. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to help facilitate delivery of the baby. After delivery, oxytocin continues to be released to stimulate milk production and letdown during breastfeeding.
2. Vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH): This hormone helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of urine that is produced by the kidneys. When vasopressin is released, it causes the kidneys to retain water and increase blood volume, which can help to maintain blood pressure.

Together, these posterior pituitary hormones play important roles in regulating various physiological processes in the body.

Galactorrhea is an uncommon condition where someone (typically a woman, but it can also occur in men and children) experiences abnormal or spontaneous production and secretion of milk from their breasts, not associated with childbirth or nursing. This condition can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, medications, tumors affecting the pituitary gland, or other underlying medical conditions. It is important to consult a healthcare professional if you experience galactorrhea to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Endocrine surgical procedures refer to the surgical removal or manipulation of endocrine glands or related structures. Endocrine glands are specialized organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. These hormones regulate various physiological processes in the body, including metabolism, growth, development, and reproduction.

Some common endocrine surgical procedures include:

1. Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland, which is located in the neck and produces hormones regulating metabolism. Indications for thyroidectomy may include thyroid cancer, benign thyroid nodules, hyperthyroidism, and Graves' disease.
2. Parathyroidectomy: Surgical removal of one or more parathyroid glands, which are located near the thyroid gland and regulate calcium levels in the blood. Indications for parathyroidectomy may include hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid tumors, and kidney stones caused by high calcium levels.
3. Adrenalectomy: Surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys and produce hormones regulating stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure. Indications for adrenalectomy may include adrenal cancer, pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, and Conn's syndrome.
4. Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas, which is a gland located behind the stomach and produces hormones regulating blood sugar levels (insulin and glucagon) and enzymes for digestion. Indications for pancreatectomy may include pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis, and insulinoma.
5. Neuroendocrine tumor resection: Surgical removal of neuroendocrine tumors, which are rare tumors that arise from hormone-producing cells in various organs, including the pancreas, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Indications for neuroendocrine tumor resection may include symptoms caused by hormone excess or risk of metastasis.

These surgical procedures are complex and require specialized training and expertise. Patients should consult with a qualified surgeon to discuss the risks and benefits of each procedure and determine the best course of treatment.

Gonadotrophs are a type of hormone-secreting cells located in the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland at the base of the brain. These cells produce and release two important gonadotropin hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays a crucial role in the reproductive system by stimulating the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. In females, FSH also promotes the production of estrogen during the menstrual cycle.

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for triggering ovulation in females, releasing a mature egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube. In addition, LH stimulates the production of progesterone by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which forms the corpus luteum. In males, LH helps regulate testosterone production in the testes.

Gonadotrophs are essential for maintaining reproductive function and hormonal balance in both sexes. Their activity is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain that releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to regulate FSH and LH secretion.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgias (TACs) is a group of primary headache disorders characterized by unilateral, severe head pain associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (ICHD-3) classifies TACs into four types:

1. Cluster Headache: Severe, strictly unilateral, orbital, supraorbital, or temporal pain lasting 15 minutes to three hours and occurring in clusters (usually at the same time of day for several weeks or months). The attacks are associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms such as conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, forehead sweating, eyelid edema, and/or pupillary miosis.
2. Paroxysmal Hemicrania: Short-lasting (2-30 minutes) but recurrent attacks of severe unilateral head pain accompanied by ipsilateral cranial autonomic features. The attacks occur more than five times a day and are often associated with agitation or restlessness during the attack.
3. Short-lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform Headache Attacks (SUNHA): This category includes two subtypes: SUNCT (Short-lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform headache attacks with Conjunctival injection and Tearing) and SUNA (Short-lasting Unilateral Neuralgiform headache attacks with Autonomic symptoms). These disorders are characterized by moderate to severe unilateral head pain lasting 5 minutes to 6 hours, accompanied by cranial autonomic features.
4. Hemicrania Continua: A continuous, strictly unilateral headache of mild to moderate intensity with occasional exacerbations of severe pain. The attacks are associated with ipsilateral cranial autonomic symptoms and/or migrainous features such as photophobia, phonophobia, or nausea.

TACs are considered rare disorders, and their pathophysiology is not entirely understood. However, it is believed that they involve the trigeminal nerve and its connections to the brainstem. Treatment typically involves medications targeting the underlying mechanisms of these headaches, such as triptans for migraine-like features or anticonvulsants for neuralgiform pain. In some cases, invasive procedures like nerve blocks or neurostimulation may be considered.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

In the context of medicine, growth generally refers to the increase in size or mass of an organism or a specific part of the body over time. This can be quantified through various methods such as measuring height, weight, or the dimensions of particular organs or tissues. In children, normal growth is typically assessed using growth charts that plot measurements like height and weight against age to determine whether a child's growth is following a typical pattern.

Growth can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, hormonal regulation, and overall health status. Abnormalities in growth patterns may indicate underlying medical conditions or developmental disorders that require further evaluation and treatment.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system. The beta subunit of LH is one of the two non-identical polypeptide chains that make up the LH molecule (the other being the alpha subunit, which is common to several hormones).

The beta subunit of LH is unique to LH and is often used in assays to measure and determine the concentration of LH in blood or urine. It's responsible for the biological specificity and activity of the LH hormone. Any changes in the structure of this subunit can affect the function of LH, which in turn can have implications for reproductive processes such as ovulation and testosterone production.

Skull neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the skull. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They can originate from various types of cells, such as bone cells, nerve cells, or soft tissues. Skull neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their size and location, including headaches, seizures, vision problems, hearing loss, and neurological deficits. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It is important to note that a neoplasm in the skull can also refer to metastatic cancer, which has spread from another part of the body to the skull.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Endocrine system diseases or disorders occur when there is a problem with the production or regulation of hormones. This can result from:

1. Overproduction or underproduction of hormones by the endocrine glands.
2. Impaired response of target cells to hormones.
3. Disruption in the feedback mechanisms that regulate hormone production.

Examples of endocrine system diseases include:

1. Diabetes Mellitus - a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin deficiency or resistance.
2. Hypothyroidism - underactive thyroid gland leading to slow metabolism, weight gain, fatigue, and depression.
3. Hyperthyroidism - overactive thyroid gland causing rapid heartbeat, anxiety, weight loss, and heat intolerance.
4. Cushing's Syndrome - excess cortisol production resulting in obesity, high blood pressure, and weak muscles.
5. Addison's Disease - insufficient adrenal hormone production leading to weakness, fatigue, and low blood pressure.
6. Acromegaly - overproduction of growth hormone after puberty causing enlargement of bones, organs, and soft tissues.
7. Gigantism - similar to acromegaly but occurs before puberty resulting in excessive height and body size.
8. Hypopituitarism - underactive pituitary gland leading to deficiencies in various hormones.
9. Hyperparathyroidism - overactivity of the parathyroid glands causing calcium imbalances and kidney stones.
10. Precocious Puberty - early onset of puberty due to premature activation of the pituitary gland.

Treatment for endocrine system diseases varies depending on the specific disorder and may involve medication, surgery, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

Neuropeptide receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to neuropeptides, which are small signaling molecules made up of short chains of amino acids. These receptors play an important role in the nervous system by mediating the effects of neuropeptides on various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, pain perception, and hormone release.

Neuropeptide receptors are typically composed of seven transmembrane domains and are classified into several families based on their structure and function. Some examples of neuropeptide receptor families include the opioid receptors, somatostatin receptors, and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors.

When a neuropeptide binds to its specific receptor, it activates a signaling pathway within the cell that leads to various cellular responses. These responses can include changes in gene expression, ion channel activity, and enzyme function. Overall, the activation of neuropeptide receptors helps to regulate many important functions in the body, including mood, appetite, and pain sensation.

Hypothalamic hormones are a group of hormones that are produced and released by the hypothalamus, a small region at the base of the brain. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep, and emotional behavior.

The hypothalamus produces two main types of hormones: releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones. Releasing hormones stimulate the pituitary gland to release its own hormones, while inhibiting hormones prevent the pituitary gland from releasing hormones.

Some examples of hypothalamic hormones include:

* Thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland.
* Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin, which regulate the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland.
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulate reproductive function.
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which regulates the stress response.
* Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) and prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH), which regulate the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland, which is involved in lactation.

Overall, hypothalamic hormones play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms refer to abnormal growths (tumors) in the adrenal gland's outer layer, known as the adrenal cortex. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors are called adrenal adenomas, while cancerous tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas.

Adrenal cortex neoplasms can produce various hormones, leading to different clinical presentations. For instance, they may cause Cushing's syndrome (characterized by excessive cortisol production), Conn's syndrome (caused by aldosterone excess), or virilization (due to androgen excess). Some tumors may not produce any hormones and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies for unrelated conditions.

The diagnosis of adrenal cortex neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI scans, and hormonal assessments to determine if the tumor is functional or non-functional. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and hormonal activity of the neoplasm and may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

Vision disorders refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the visual system and result in various symptoms, such as blurry vision, double vision, distorted vision, impaired depth perception, and difficulty with visual tracking or focusing. These disorders can be categorized into several types, including:

1. Refractive errors: These occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, resulting in blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Strabismus: Also known as crossed eyes or walleye, strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes where they point in different directions, which can lead to double vision or loss of depth perception.
3. Amblyopia: Often called lazy eye, amblyopia is a condition where one eye has reduced vision due to lack of proper visual development during childhood. It may be caused by strabismus, refractive errors, or other factors that interfere with normal visual development.
4. Accommodative disorders: These involve problems with the focusing ability of the eyes, such as convergence insufficiency (difficulty focusing on close objects) and accommodative dysfunction (inability to maintain clear vision at different distances).
5. Binocular vision disorders: These affect how the eyes work together as a team, leading to issues like poor depth perception, eye strain, and headaches. Examples include convergence insufficiency, divergence excess, and suppression.
6. Ocular motility disorders: These involve problems with eye movement, such as nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), strabismus, or restricted extraocular muscle function.
7. Visual processing disorders: These affect the brain's ability to interpret and make sense of visual information, even when the eyes themselves are healthy. Symptoms may include difficulty with reading, recognizing shapes and objects, and understanding spatial relationships.
8. Low vision: This term refers to significant visual impairment that cannot be fully corrected with glasses, contact lenses, medication, or surgery. It includes conditions like macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataracts.
9. Blindness: Complete loss of sight in both eyes, which can be caused by various factors such as injury, disease, or genetic conditions.

Paranasal sinus neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located inside the skull near the nasal cavity. These tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of tissue within the sinuses, such as the lining of the sinuses (mucosa), bone, or other soft tissues.

Paranasal sinus neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including nasal congestion, nosebleeds, facial pain or numbness, and visual disturbances. The diagnosis of these tumors typically involves a combination of imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans) and biopsy to determine the type and extent of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the specific type and stage of the neoplasm.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

GTP-binding protein alpha subunits, Gs, are a type of heterotrimeric G proteins that play a crucial role in the transmission of signals within cells. These proteins are composed of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. The alpha subunit of Gs proteins (Gs-alpha) is responsible for activating adenylyl cyclase, an enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP), a secondary messenger involved in various cellular processes.

When a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) is activated by an extracellular signal, it interacts with and activates the Gs protein. This activation causes the exchange of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) bound to the alpha subunit with guanosine triphosphate (GTP). The GTP-bound Gs-alpha then dissociates from the beta-gamma subunits and interacts with adenylyl cyclase, activating it and leading to an increase in cAMP levels. This signaling cascade ultimately results in various cellular responses, such as changes in gene expression, metabolism, or cell growth and differentiation.

It is important to note that mutations in the GNAS gene, which encodes the Gs-alpha subunit, can lead to several endocrine and non-endocrine disorders, such as McCune-Albright syndrome, fibrous dysplasia, and various hormone-related diseases.

Prolactin receptors are proteins found on the surface of various cells throughout the body that bind to the hormone prolactin. Once prolactin binds to its receptor, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate diverse physiological functions, including lactation, growth and development, metabolism, immune function, and behavior.

Prolactin receptors belong to the class I cytokine receptor family and are expressed in many tissues, including the mammary gland, pituitary gland, liver, kidney, adipose tissue, brain, and immune cells. In the mammary gland, prolactin signaling through its receptor is essential for milk production and breast development during pregnancy and lactation.

Abnormalities in prolactin receptor function have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, infertility, and metabolic disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure, regulation, and function of prolactin receptors is crucial for developing new therapies to treat these conditions.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) are a group of peptide hormones that originate from the precursor protein proopiomelanocortin (POMC). They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including pigmentation, energy balance, and appetite regulation.

There are several types of MSH, but the most well-known ones include α-MSH, β-MSH, and γ-MSH. These hormones bind to melanocortin receptors (MCRs), which are found in various tissues throughout the body. The binding of MSH to MCRs triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior.

In the context of skin physiology, α-MSH and β-MSH bind to melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) on melanocytes, which are the cells responsible for producing pigment (melanin). This binding stimulates the production and release of eumelanin, a type of melanin that is brown or black in color. As a result, increased levels of MSH can lead to darkening of the skin, also known as hyperpigmentation.

Apart from their role in pigmentation, MSH hormones have been implicated in several other physiological processes. For instance, α-MSH has been shown to suppress appetite and promote weight loss by binding to melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates energy balance. Additionally, MSH hormones have been implicated in inflammation, immune response, and sexual function.

Overall, melanocyte-stimulating hormones are a diverse group of peptide hormones that play important roles in various physiological processes, including pigmentation, energy balance, and appetite regulation.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind and respond to PACAP, a neuropeptide involved in various physiological functions such as neurotransmission, vasodilation, and hormone release. There are two main types of PACAP receptors: PAC1 and VPAC1/VPAC2. These receptors play important roles in the regulation of various bodily processes, including the stress response, circadian rhythms, and energy metabolism. Upon activation by PACAP, these receptors trigger a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn regulates various cellular responses.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Ectopic ACTH syndrome is a medical condition characterized by the excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from a source outside of the pituitary gland, typically from a tumor in another part of the body. The most common sources of ectopic ACTH are small-cell lung carcinomas, but it can also occur with other types of tumors such as thymic carcinoids, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and bronchial carcinoids.

The excessive production of ACTH leads to an overproduction of cortisol from the adrenal glands, resulting in a constellation of symptoms known as Cushing's syndrome. These symptoms can include weight gain, muscle weakness, thinning of the skin, easy bruising, mood changes, and high blood pressure, among others.

Ectopic ACTH syndrome is typically more severe than pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and it may be more difficult to diagnose and treat due to the underlying tumor causing the excessive ACTH production. Treatment usually involves removing the tumor or controlling its growth, as well as managing the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome with medications that block cortisol production or action.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Secretory rate refers to the amount or volume of a secretion produced by a gland or an organ over a given period of time. It is a measure of the productivity or activity level of the secreting structure. The secretory rate can be quantified for various bodily fluids, such as saliva, sweat, digestive enzymes, hormones, or milk, depending on the context and the specific gland or organ being studied.

In clinical settings, measuring the secretory rate might involve collecting and analyzing samples over a certain duration to estimate the production rate of the substance in question. This information can be helpful in diagnosing conditions related to impaired secretion, monitoring treatment responses, or understanding the physiological adaptations of the body under different circumstances.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. The typical karyotype is 45,X0 instead of the normal 46,XX in women. This condition leads to distinctive physical features and medical issues in growth, development, and fertility. Characteristic features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, and swelling of the hands and feet. Other potential symptoms can include heart defects, hearing and vision problems, skeletal abnormalities, kidney issues, and learning disabilities. Not all individuals with Turner Syndrome will have every symptom, but most will require medical interventions and monitoring throughout their lives to address various health concerns associated with the condition.

Juvenile hormones (JHs) are a class of sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a crucial role in the regulation of insect development, reproduction, and other physiological processes. They are primarily produced by the corpora allata, a pair of endocrine glands located in the head of insects.

JHs are essential for maintaining the larval or nymphal stage of insects, preventing the expression of adult characteristics during molting. As the concentration of JH decreases in the hemolymph (insect blood), a molt to the next developmental stage occurs, and if the insect has reached its final instar, it will metamorphose into an adult.

In addition to their role in development, JHs also influence various aspects of insect reproductive physiology, such as vitellogenesis (yolk protein synthesis), oocyte maturation, and spermatogenesis. Furthermore, JHs have been implicated in regulating diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable environmental conditions) and caste determination in social insects like bees and ants.

Overall, juvenile hormones are vital regulators of growth, development, and reproduction in insects, making them attractive targets for the development of novel pest management strategies.

Pancreatic hormones are chemical messengers produced and released by the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen. The two main types of pancreatic hormones are insulin and glucagon, which are released by specialized cells called islets of Langerhans.

Insulin is produced by beta cells and helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take in sugar (glucose) from the bloodstream. It also helps the body store excess glucose in the liver for later use.

Glucagon is produced by alpha cells and has the opposite effect of insulin. When blood sugar levels are low, glucagon stimulates the release of stored glucose from the liver to raise blood sugar levels.

Together, insulin and glucagon help maintain balanced blood sugar levels and are essential for the proper functioning of the body's metabolism. Other hormones produced by the pancreas include somatostatin, which regulates the release of insulin and glucagon, and gastrin, which stimulates the production of digestive enzymes in the stomach.

Hypothyroidism is a medical condition where the thyroid gland, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of your neck, does not produce enough thyroid hormones. This results in a slowing down of the body's metabolic processes, leading to various symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, constipation, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, muscle weakness, and depression.

The two main thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various bodily functions, including heart rate, body temperature, and energy levels. In hypothyroidism, the production of these hormones is insufficient, leading to a range of symptoms that can affect multiple organ systems.

Hypothyroidism can be caused by several factors, including autoimmune disorders (such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis), surgical removal of the thyroid gland, radiation therapy for neck cancer, certain medications, and congenital defects. Hypothyroidism is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure levels of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), T3, and T4. Treatment usually involves taking synthetic thyroid hormones to replace the missing hormones and alleviate symptoms.

Tumor burden is a term used to describe the total amount of cancer in the body. It can refer to the number of tumors, the size of the tumors, or the amount of cancer cells in the body. In research and clinical trials, tumor burden is often measured to assess the effectiveness of treatments or to monitor disease progression. High tumor burden can cause various symptoms and complications, depending on the type and location of the cancer. It can also affect a person's prognosis and treatment options.

High Mobility Group AT-hook (HMGA) proteins are a family of non-histone chromatin proteins that play crucial roles in the regulation of gene transcription. They are characterized by their small size, highly basic nature, and the presence of unique structural domains called AT-hooks, which allow them to bind to the minor groove of AT-rich DNA sequences.

HMGA proteins include HMGA1 (also known as HMG-I/Y) and HMGA2, both of which have similar structures and functions. They can modulate chromatin structure and architecture by bending and looping DNA, thereby facilitating the assembly of transcriptional regulatory complexes on specific target genes. This can lead to either activation or repression of gene expression, depending on the context and interacting partners.

HMGA proteins have been implicated in various cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, and development. Dysregulation of HMGA protein expression has been associated with several human diseases, including cancer, where they often exhibit altered expression levels and contribute to oncogenic phenotypes.

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the pituitary gland and other tissues throughout the body. TRH is a tripeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland.

TRH receptors are activated when TRH binds to them, which triggers a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to an increase in intracellular calcium and the release of TSH. In addition to regulating TSH secretion, TRH receptors have been found to play a role in various physiological processes, including feeding behavior, energy metabolism, and neuroprotection.

Abnormalities in TRH receptor function have been implicated in several endocrine disorders, such as thyroid dysfunction and obesity. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of TRH receptors is essential for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

The thyroid gland is a major endocrine gland located in the neck, anterior to the trachea and extends from the lower third of the Adams apple to the suprasternal notch. It has two lateral lobes, connected by an isthmus, and sometimes a pyramidal lobe. This gland plays a crucial role in the metabolism, growth, and development of the human body through the production of thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine/T3 and thyroxine/T4) and calcitonin. The thyroid hormones regulate body temperature, heart rate, and the production of protein, while calcitonin helps in controlling calcium levels in the blood. The function of the thyroid gland is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland through the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that play a crucial role in transmitting signals within cells, which ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. These signals can originate from outside the cell (extracellular) or within the cell itself. Intracellular signaling molecules include various types of peptides and proteins, such as:

1. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are seven-transmembrane domain receptors that bind to extracellular signaling molecules like hormones, neurotransmitters, or chemokines. Upon activation, they initiate a cascade of intracellular signals through G proteins and secondary messengers.
2. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These are transmembrane receptors that bind to growth factors, cytokines, or hormones. Activation of RTKs leads to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues, creating binding sites for intracellular signaling proteins such as adapter proteins, phosphatases, and enzymes like Ras, PI3K, and Src family kinases.
3. Second messenger systems: Intracellular second messengers are small molecules that amplify and propagate signals within the cell. Examples include cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), diacylglycerol (DAG), inositol triphosphate (IP3), calcium ions (Ca2+), and nitric oxide (NO). These second messengers activate or inhibit various downstream effectors, leading to changes in cellular responses.
4. Signal transduction cascades: Intracellular signaling proteins often form complex networks of interacting molecules that relay signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. These cascades involve kinases (protein kinases A, B, C, etc.), phosphatases, and adapter proteins, which ultimately regulate gene expression, cell cycle progression, metabolism, and other cellular processes.
5. Ubiquitination and proteasome degradation: Intracellular signaling pathways can also control protein stability by modulating ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. E3 ubiquitin ligases recognize specific substrates and conjugate them with ubiquitin molecules, targeting them for proteasomal degradation. This process regulates the abundance of key signaling proteins and contributes to signal termination or amplification.

In summary, intracellular signaling pathways involve a complex network of interacting proteins that relay signals from the plasma membrane to various cellular compartments, ultimately regulating gene expression, metabolism, and other cellular processes. Dysregulation of these pathways can contribute to disease development and progression, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Chromogranin A is a protein that is widely used as a marker for neuroendocrine tumors. These are tumors that arise from cells of the neuroendocrine system, which is a network of cells throughout the body that produce hormones and help to regulate various bodily functions. Chromogranin A is stored in secretory granules within these cells and is released into the bloodstream when the cells are stimulated to release their hormones.

Chromogranin A is measured in the blood as a way to help diagnose neuroendocrine tumors, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, and track the progression of the disease. Elevated levels of chromogranin A in the blood may indicate the presence of a neuroendocrine tumor, although other factors can also cause an increase in this protein.

It's important to note that while chromogranin A is a useful marker for neuroendocrine tumors, it is not specific to any one type of tumor and should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and regulation of female sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. They are also present in lower levels in males. The main estrogen hormone is estradiol, which plays a key role in promoting the growth and development of the female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and breasts. Estrogens also help regulate the menstrual cycle, maintain bone density, and have important effects on the cardiovascular system, skin, hair, and cognitive function.

Estrogens are produced primarily by the ovaries in women, but they can also be produced in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estrogens are produced from the conversion of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, through a process called aromatization.

Estrogen levels vary throughout a woman's life, with higher levels during reproductive years and lower levels after menopause. Estrogen therapy is sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, or to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. However, estrogen therapy also carries risks, including an increased risk of certain cancers, blood clots, and stroke, so it is typically recommended only for women who have a high risk of these conditions.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

The middle cranial fossa is a depression or hollow in the skull that forms the upper and central portion of the cranial cavity. It is located between the anterior cranial fossa (which lies anteriorly) and the posterior cranial fossa (which lies posteriorly). The middle cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the temporal lobes of the brain, the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, and the cavernous sinuses. It is also where many of the cranial nerves pass through on their way to the brain.

The middle cranial fossa can be further divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior fossae. The anterior fossa contains the optic chiasm and the pituitary gland, while the posterior fossa contains the temporal lobes of the brain and the cavernous sinuses.

The middle cranial fossa is formed by several bones of the skull, including the sphenoid bone, the temporal bone, and the parietal bone. The shape and size of the middle cranial fossa can vary from person to person, and abnormalities in its structure can be associated with various medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or aneurysms.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A headache is defined as pain or discomfort in the head, scalp, or neck. It can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as stress, sinus congestion, migraine, or more serious issues like meningitis or concussion. Headaches can vary in intensity, ranging from mild to severe, and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or sensitivity to light and sound. There are over 150 different types of headaches, including tension headaches, cluster headaches, and sinus headaches, each with their own specific characteristics and causes.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus is a condition characterized by the production of large amounts of dilute urine (polyuria) and increased thirst (polydipsia) due to deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, which is produced by the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland.

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus can occur when there is damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, leading to a decrease in ADH production or release. Causes of neurogenic diabetes insipidus include brain tumors, head trauma, surgery, meningitis, encephalitis, and autoimmune disorders.

In this condition, the kidneys are unable to reabsorb water from the urine due to the lack of ADH, resulting in the production of large volumes of dilute urine. This can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and other complications if not properly managed. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing ADH with a synthetic hormone called desmopressin, which can be administered as a nasal spray, oral tablet, or injection.

The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and organs that produce, store, and secrete hormones. It plays a crucial role in regulating various functions and processes in the body, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

The major endocrine glands include:

1. Pituitary gland: located at the base of the brain, it is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls other glands' functions. It produces and releases several hormones that regulate growth, development, and reproduction.
2. Thyroid gland: located in the neck, it produces hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.
3. Parathyroid glands: located near the thyroid gland, they produce parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium levels in the blood.
4. Adrenal glands: located on top of the kidneys, they produce hormones that regulate stress response, metabolism, and blood pressure.
5. Pancreas: located in the abdomen, it produces hormones such as insulin and glucagon that regulate blood sugar levels.
6. Sex glands (ovaries and testes): they produce sex hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone that regulate sexual development and reproduction.
7. Pineal gland: located in the brain, it produces melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.

The endocrine system works closely with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis or balance in the body's internal environment. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a response. Disorders of the endocrine system can result from overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to various health problems such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, growth disorders, and sexual dysfunction.

The pituitary gland is divided into three lobes: the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the intermediate lobe (intermedia). The medical definition of 'Pituitary Gland, Intermediate' refers to this small and less defined region located between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobes.

The intermediate lobe is primarily responsible for producing and secreting several important hormones, most notably pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides such as melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) and endorphins. These hormones play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including skin pigmentation, energy balance, and pain modulation.

However, it is important to note that the intermediate lobe's activity and hormonal secretion are minimal in humans compared to other mammals. In fact, some researchers question whether the human intermediate lobe even functions at all under normal conditions due to its rudimentary nature. Nevertheless, understanding the structure and function of the pituitary gland's intermediate lobe is essential for comparative endocrinology and may provide insights into the evolution of the pituitary gland across different species.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

Nervous system neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that occur within the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their growth can compress or infiltrate surrounding tissues, leading to various neurological symptoms. The causes of nervous system neoplasms are not fully understood but may involve genetic factors, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and certain viral infections. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and size of the tumor and can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Maxillofacial abnormalities, also known as craniofacial anomalies, refer to a broad range of structural and functional disorders that affect the development of the skull, face, jaws, and related soft tissues. These abnormalities can result from genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can vary in severity, from minor cosmetic issues to significant impairments of vital functions such as breathing, speaking, and eating.

Examples of maxillofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the skull bones), hemifacial microsomia (underdevelopment of one side of the face), and various other congenital anomalies. These conditions may require multidisciplinary treatment involving surgeons, orthodontists, speech therapists, and other healthcare professionals to address both functional and aesthetic concerns.

Gonadal hormones, also known as sex hormones, are steroid hormones that are primarily produced by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). They play crucial roles in the development and regulation of sexual characteristics and reproductive functions. The three main types of gonadal hormones are:

1. Estrogens - predominantly produced by ovaries, they are essential for female sexual development and reproduction. The most common estrogen is estradiol, which supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and wider hips. Estrogens also play a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining bone health.

2. Progesterone - primarily produced by ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, progesterone prepares the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and supports the growth and development of the fetus during pregnancy. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle.

3. Androgens - produced by both ovaries and testes, but primarily by testes in males. The most common androgen is testosterone, which is essential for male sexual development and reproduction. Testosterone supports the growth and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in men, such as facial hair, a deeper voice, and increased muscle mass. It also plays a role in regulating sex drive (libido) and bone health in both males and females.

In summary, gonadal hormones are steroid hormones produced by the gonads that play essential roles in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Syndrome, also known as the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuresis (SIAD), is a condition characterized by the excessive release or action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) leading to an imbalance of water and electrolytes in the body.

ADH is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland that helps regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of urine produced by the kidneys. In normal conditions, ADH levels increase in response to dehydration or decreased blood volume, causing the kidneys to retain water and decrease urine output.

However, in Inappropriate ADH Syndrome, there is an overproduction or inappropriate release of ADH, even when the body does not need it. This can lead to a condition called hyponatremia, which is low sodium levels in the blood. Hyponatremia can cause symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Inappropriate ADH Syndrome can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, brain tumors, lung diseases, and other medical conditions that affect the production or release of ADH. It is important to diagnose and treat Inappropriate ADH Syndrome promptly to prevent serious complications from hyponatremia. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and adjusting fluid intake and electrolyte levels as needed.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is a protein that binds to and regulates the bioavailability and activity of Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs), specifically IGF-1 and IGF-2. It plays a crucial role in the growth, development, and homeostasis of various tissues and organs by modulating IGF signaling. IGFBP-3 is the most abundant IGF binding protein in circulation and has a longer half-life than IGFs, allowing it to act as a reservoir and transport protein for IGFs. Additionally, IGFBP-3 has been found to have IGF-independent functions, including roles in cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumor suppression.

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27, also known as CDKN1B or p27Kip1, is a protein that regulates the cell cycle. It inhibits the activity of certain cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which are enzymes that play key roles in regulating the progression of the cell cycle.

The cell cycle is a series of events that cells undergo as they grow and divide. Cyclins and CDKs help to control the different stages of the cell cycle by activating and deactivating various proteins at specific times. The p27 protein acts as a brake on the cell cycle, preventing cells from dividing too quickly or abnormally.

When p27 binds to a CDK-cyclin complex, it prevents the complex from phosphorylating its target proteins, which are necessary for the progression of the cell cycle. By inhibiting CDK activity, p27 helps to ensure that cells divide only when the proper conditions are met.

Mutations in the CDKN1B gene, which encodes p27, have been associated with several types of cancer, including breast, lung, and prostate cancer. These mutations can lead to decreased levels of p27 or impaired function, allowing cells to divide uncontrollably and form tumors.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor (PAC1-R) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to and is activated by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). PAC1-R is widely expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system, endocrine organs, and the cardiovascular system. Activation of PAC1-R leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn activates downstream signaling pathways involved in a variety of physiological processes such as neurotransmission, hormone secretion, and vasodilation. Abnormalities in PAC1-R function have been implicated in several diseases, including migraine, depression, and certain types of cancer.

Somatomedins are a type of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), specifically IGF-1 and IGF-2. They are peptide hormones that play an essential role in the regulation of growth, development, and metabolism in the human body. Somatomedins are primarily produced by the liver in response to stimulation by growth hormone (GH) and act as mediators of GH's effects on cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They also have important functions in glucose homeostasis, energy metabolism, and tissue repair. Somatomedins exert their actions by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to intracellular signaling cascades that regulate various cellular processes.

Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic is a rare genetic disorder that affects the bone tissue. It is characterized by the replacement of normal bone tissue with fibrous (scar-like) tissue, leading to weak and fragile bones that are prone to fractures and deformities. The term "polyostotic" refers to the involvement of multiple bones in the body.

In this condition, there is an abnormal development of the bone during fetal growth or early childhood due to a mutation in the GNAS gene. This results in the formation of fibrous tissue instead of normal bone tissue, leading to the characteristic features of Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic.

The symptoms of this condition can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the affected bones. Common symptoms include:

* Bone pain and tenderness
* Bone deformities (such as bowing of the legs)
* Increased risk of fractures
* Skin pigmentation changes (cafe-au-lait spots)
* Hearing loss or other hearing problems (if the skull is affected)

Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic can also be associated with endocrine disorders such as precocious puberty and hyperthyroidism. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications to manage pain and prevent fractures, as well as surgical intervention to correct bone deformities or stabilize fractures.

Age determination by skeleton, also known as skeletal aging or skeletal maturation, is the process of estimating a person's age based on the analysis of their skeletal remains. This technique is commonly used in forensic anthropology to help identify unknown individuals or determine the time since death.

The method involves examining various features of the skeleton, such as the degree of fusion of epiphyseal growth plates, the shape and size of certain bones, and the presence or absence of degenerative changes. These features change in a predictable way as a person grows and develops, allowing for an estimation of their age at death.

It is important to note that while skeletal aging can provide useful information, it is not always possible to determine an exact age. Instead, forensic anthropologists typically provide a range of ages that the individual may have fallen into based on the skeletal evidence. Additionally, factors such as genetics, nutrition, and health can affect the rate at which skeletal features develop, making it difficult to provide a precise estimate in some cases.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, generally occurring between the ages of 10 and 16 in females and between 12 and 18 in males. It is characterized by a series of events including rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. Puberty is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to the secretion of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that drive the physical changes associated with this stage of development.

In females, puberty typically begins with the onset of breast development (thelarche) and the appearance of pubic hair (pubarche), followed by the start of menstruation (menarche). In males, puberty usually starts with an increase in testicular size and the growth of pubic hair, followed by the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the development of muscle mass.

It's important to note that the onset and progression of puberty can vary widely among individuals, and may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) are nuclear receptor proteins that bind to thyroid hormones and mediate their effects in target cells. There are two main types of THRs, referred to as THR alpha and THR beta. THR beta is further divided into two subtypes, THR beta1 and THR beta2.

THR beta is a type of nuclear receptor that is primarily expressed in the liver, kidney, and heart, as well as in the central nervous system. It plays an important role in regulating the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, as well as in the development and function of the heart. THR beta is also involved in the regulation of body weight and energy expenditure.

THR beta1 is the predominant subtype expressed in the liver and is responsible for many of the metabolic effects of thyroid hormones in this organ. THR beta2, on the other hand, is primarily expressed in the heart and plays a role in regulating cardiac function.

Abnormalities in THR beta function can lead to various diseases, including thyroid hormone resistance, a condition in which the body's cells are unable to respond properly to thyroid hormones. This can result in symptoms such as weight gain, fatigue, and cold intolerance.

Castration is a surgical procedure to remove the testicles in males or ovaries in females. In males, it is also known as orchiectomy. This procedure results in the inability to produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm in men and eggs in women), and can be done for various reasons such as medical treatment for certain types of cancer, to reduce sexual urges in individuals with criminal tendencies, or as a form of birth control in animals.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) is a genetic disorder characterized by the development of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and rectum. APC is caused by mutations in the APC gene, which is a tumor suppressor gene that helps regulate cell growth and division. When the APC gene is mutated, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of polyps, which can eventually become cancerous.

Individuals with APC typically develop hundreds to thousands of polyps in their colon and rectum, usually beginning in adolescence or early adulthood. If left untreated, APC can lead to colorectal cancer in nearly all affected individuals by the age of 40.

APC is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, some cases of APC may also occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the APC gene. Treatment for APC typically involves surgical removal of the colon and rectum (colectomy) to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Regular surveillance with colonoscopy is also recommended to monitor for the development of new polyps.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of each kidney that produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline (epinephrine).

There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be necessary. For example, the procedure may be performed to treat tumors or growths on the adrenal glands, such as pheochromocytomas, which can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may also be recommended for patients with Cushing's syndrome, a condition in which the body is exposed to too much cortisol, or for those with adrenal cancer.

During an adrenalectomy, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen or back and removes the affected gland or glands. In some cases, laparoscopic surgery may be used, which involves making several small incisions and using specialized instruments to remove the gland. After the procedure, patients may need to take hormone replacement therapy to compensate for the loss of adrenal gland function.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

The optic chiasm is a structure in the brain where the optic nerves from each eye meet and cross. This allows for the integration of visual information from both eyes into the brain's visual cortex, creating a single, combined image of the visual world. The optic chiasm plays an important role in the processing of visual information and helps to facilitate depth perception and other complex visual tasks. Damage to the optic chiasm can result in various visual field deficits, such as bitemporal hemianopsia, where there is a loss of vision in the outer halves (temporal fields) of both eyes' visual fields.

Sexual maturation is the process of physical development during puberty that leads to the ability to reproduce. This process involves the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics, changes in hormone levels, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. In females, this includes the onset of menstruation and the development of breasts and hips. In males, this includes the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the production of sperm. Achieving sexual maturation is an important milestone in human development and typically occurs during adolescence.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Endocrine tuberculosis (TB) is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves the endocrine glands, such as the thyroid, pituitary, and adrenal glands. The infection can cause inflammation, granulomatous lesions, and tissue damage in these glands, leading to hormonal imbalances and various clinical manifestations.

Tuberculosis bacilli (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) reach the endocrine glands through hematogenous spread from a primary or secondary focus, usually in the lungs. The most common form of endocrine TB is adrenal TB, which can lead to adrenal insufficiency due to destruction of the adrenal cortex. Thyroid TB is rare and typically presents as a cold abscess or a thyroid mass. Pituitary TB is also uncommon but can cause hypopituitarism and visual impairment due to compression of the optic chiasm.

Diagnosis of endocrine TB often involves imaging studies, such as CT or MRI scans, hormonal assessments, and microbiological or histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy. Treatment typically consists of a standard anti-tuberculous chemotherapy regimen, which may need to be adjusted based on the patient's hormonal status and clinical response.

A germ-line mutation is a genetic change that occurs in the egg or sperm cells (gametes), and thus can be passed down from parents to their offspring. These mutations are present throughout the entire body of the offspring, as they are incorporated into the DNA of every cell during embryonic development.

Germ-line mutations differ from somatic mutations, which occur in other cells of the body that are not involved in reproduction. While somatic mutations can contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases within an individual, they are not passed down to future generations.

It's important to note that germ-line mutations can have significant implications for medical genetics and inherited diseases. For example, if a parent has a germ-line mutation in a gene associated with a particular disease, their offspring may have an increased risk of developing that disease as well.

Endocrine glands are ductless glands in the human body that release hormones directly into the bloodstream, which then carry the hormones to various tissues and organs in the body. These glands play a crucial role in regulating many of the body's functions, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood.

Examples of endocrine glands include the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pineal gland, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. Each of these glands produces specific hormones that have unique effects on various target tissues in the body.

The endocrine system works closely with the nervous system to regulate many bodily functions through a complex network of feedback mechanisms. Disorders of the endocrine system can result in a wide range of symptoms and health problems, including diabetes, thyroid disease, growth disorders, and sexual dysfunction.

Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18, also known as CDKN2C or INK4c, is a protein that regulates the cell cycle. It inhibits the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), specifically the CDK4 and CDK6 proteins, which play crucial roles in regulating the progression of the cell cycle.

The p18 protein functions as a tumor suppressor by preventing the phosphorylation and activation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by CDK4/6. When pRb is not phosphorylated, it remains bound to E2F transcription factors, inhibiting their ability to promote the expression of genes required for cell cycle progression.

Mutations or deletions in the CDKN2C gene can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and contribute to tumor development, making p18 an important factor in cancer biology and potential therapeutic target.

An Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) is a type of radioimmunoassay (RIA), which is a technique used in clinical laboratories to measure the concentration of specific analytes, such as hormones, drugs, or vitamins, in biological samples. In an IRMA, the sample containing the unknown amount of the analyte is incubated with a known quantity of a labeled antibody that specifically binds to the analyte.

The labeled antibody is usually radiolabeled with a radioisotope such as iodine-125 (^125^I) or tritium (^3^H). During the incubation, the labeled antibody binds to the analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The unbound labeled antibody is then separated from the immune complex by a variety of methods such as precipitation, centrifugation, or chromatography.

The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (immune complex) is measured using a gamma counter (for ^125^I) or liquid scintillation counter (for ^3^H). The amount of radioactivity is directly proportional to the amount of analyte present in the sample. By comparing the radioactivity in the sample to a standard curve prepared with known concentrations of the analyte, the concentration of the analyte in the sample can be determined.

IRMAs are highly sensitive and specific assays that can detect very low levels of analytes in biological samples. However, they require specialized equipment and handling procedures due to the use of radioisotopes.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Corticosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland in many animals, including humans. It is a type of glucocorticoid steroid hormone that plays an important role in the body's response to stress, immune function, metabolism, and regulation of inflammation. Corticosterone helps to regulate the balance of sodium and potassium in the body and also plays a role in the development and functioning of the nervous system. It is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in rodents, while cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid hormone in humans and other primates.

Hemianopsia is a medical term that refers to a loss of vision in half of the visual field in one or both eyes. It can be either homonymous (the same side in both eyes) or heteronymous (different sides in each eye). Hemianopsia usually results from damage to the optic radiations or occipital cortex in the brain, often due to stroke, trauma, tumor, or other neurological conditions. It can significantly impact a person's daily functioning and may require visual rehabilitation to help compensate for the vision loss.

Neurosecretory systems are specialized components of the nervous system that produce and release chemical messengers called neurohormones. These neurohormones are released into the bloodstream and can have endocrine effects on various target organs in the body. The cells that make up neurosecretory systems, known as neurosecretory cells, are found in specific regions of the brain, such as the hypothalamus, and in peripheral nerves.

Neurosecretory systems play a critical role in regulating many physiological processes, including fluid and electrolyte balance, stress responses, growth and development, reproductive functions, and behavior. The neurohormones released by these systems can act synergistically or antagonistically to maintain homeostasis and coordinate the body's response to internal and external stimuli.

Neurosecretory cells are characterized by their ability to synthesize and store neurohormones in secretory granules, which are released upon stimulation. The release of neurohormones can be triggered by a variety of signals, including neural impulses, hormonal changes, and other physiological cues. Once released into the bloodstream, neurohormones can travel to distant target organs, where they bind to specific receptors and elicit a range of responses.

Overall, neurosecretory systems are an essential component of the neuroendocrine system, which plays a critical role in regulating many aspects of human physiology and behavior.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a glycoprotein hormone that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family. It is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovaries of females. AMH plays an essential role in female reproductive physiology, as it inhibits the recruitment and further development of primordial follicles, thereby regulating the size of the primordial follicle pool and the onset of puberty.

AMH levels are often used as a biomarker for ovarian reserve assessment in women. High AMH levels indicate a larger ovarian reserve, while low levels suggest a decreased reserve, which may be associated with reduced fertility or an earlier onset of menopause. Additionally, measuring AMH levels can help predict the response to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Stat5 (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including growth, survival, and differentiation. It exists in two closely related isoforms, Stat5a and Stat5b, which are encoded by separate genes but share significant sequence homology and functional similarity.

When activated through phosphorylation by receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases, Stat5 forms homodimers or heterodimers that translocate to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, these dimers bind to specific DNA sequences called Stat-binding elements (SBEs) in the promoter regions of target genes, leading to their transcriptional activation or repression.

Stat5 is involved in various physiological and pathological conditions, such as hematopoiesis, lactation, immune response, and cancer progression. Dysregulation of Stat5 signaling has been implicated in several malignancies, including leukemias, lymphomas, and breast cancer, making it an attractive therapeutic target for these diseases.

Neurosurgery, also known as neurological surgery, is a medical specialty that involves the diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders of the nervous system. This includes the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. Neurosurgeons use both traditional open and minimally invasive techniques to treat various conditions such as tumors, trauma, vascular disorders, infections, stroke, epilepsy, pain, and congenital anomalies. They work closely with other healthcare professionals including neurologists, radiologists, oncologists, and critical care specialists to provide comprehensive patient care.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

Hemangiopericytoma is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma, which is a cancer that develops from the cells that surround blood vessels. It specifically arises from the pericytes, which are cells that help regulate blood flow in capillaries. Hemangiopericytomas typically form in the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges), but they can also occur in other parts of the body such as the lungs, abdomen, or extremities.

These tumors usually grow slowly, but they can become aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). Symptoms depend on the location of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, weakness, or numbness in the arms or legs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like MRI or CT scans, followed by a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment usually consists of surgical removal of the tumor, often accompanied by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to help prevent recurrence or spread of the disease.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

A tuberculoma is a specific type of granulomatous lesion that occurs in the brain due to infection with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. This condition is relatively rare in developed countries but is still common in developing nations where tuberculosis (TB) is prevalent.

Intracranial tuberculomas are formed when M. tuberculosis bacteria spread through the bloodstream from a primary focus, usually in the lungs, and lodge in the brain tissue. The bacteria then multiply within the brain, leading to an inflammatory response characterized by the formation of granulomas. These granulomas consist of central caseous necrosis (cheese-like material) surrounded by a layer of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells.

Tuberculomas can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be solitary or multiple and are often found near the surface of the brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex or meninges (the protective membranes surrounding the brain). The presence of intracranial tuberculomas can lead to various neurological symptoms, such as headaches, seizures, focal deficits, and cognitive impairment.

Diagnosis of intracranial tuberculomas typically involves a combination of imaging techniques (such as CT or MRI scans) and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis and PCR for M. tuberculosis). Treatment usually consists of a prolonged course of anti-tuberculous medications, which can help to reduce the size of the lesions and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove or decompress large or symptomatic tuberculomas.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Inhibins are a group of protein hormones that play a crucial role in regulating the function of the reproductive system, specifically by inhibiting the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the pituitary gland. They are produced and secreted primarily by the granulosa cells in the ovaries of females and Sertoli cells in the testes of males.

Inhibins consist of two subunits, an alpha subunit, and a beta subunit, which can be further divided into two types: inhibin A and inhibin B. Inhibin A is primarily produced by the granulosa cells of developing follicles in the ovary, while inhibin B is mainly produced by the Sertoli cells in the testes.

By regulating FSH production, inhibins help control the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and spermatogenesis in males. Abnormal levels of inhibins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and certain types of cancer.

Laron syndrome, also known as Laron-type dwarfism or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by resistance to the action of growth hormone (GH), leading to severe short stature and other abnormalities. It is caused by mutations in the gene for the growth hormone receptor (GHR).

People with Laron syndrome have normal or elevated levels of GH, but they are unable to utilize it effectively due to the defective GHR. This results in low levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a hormone that mediates many of the actions of GH.

The main features of Laron syndrome include:

* Severe short stature, with final adult height typically less than 4 feet (120 cm)
* Disproportionately small hands and feet
* Characteristic facial features, such as a prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, and a broad, flat nose
* Delayed puberty or failure to enter puberty
* Increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes
* Reduced bone density and increased risk of fractures
* High levels of cholesterol and lipids in the blood
* Reduced life expectancy due to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.

Laron syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. It is estimated to affect approximately 1 in 1 million people worldwide. Treatment typically involves administering IGF-1 or GH replacement therapy, although these treatments may not fully normalize growth and development.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

The pituitary-adrenal system, also known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is a complex set of interactions between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands. This system plays a crucial role in the body's response to stress through the release of hormones that regulate various physiological processes.

The hypothalamus, located within the brain, receives information from the nervous system about the internal and external environment and responds by releasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin. These hormones then travel to the anterior pituitary gland, where they stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

ACTH is transported through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, causing it to release cortisol and other glucocorticoids, as well as androgens such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

Cortisol has numerous effects on metabolism, immune function, and cardiovascular regulation. It helps regulate blood sugar levels, suppresses the immune system, and aids in the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to provide energy during stressful situations. DHEA can be converted into male and female sex hormones (androgens and estrogens) in various tissues throughout the body.

The pituitary-adrenal system is tightly regulated through negative feedback mechanisms. High levels of cortisol, for example, inhibit the release of CRH and ACTH from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, respectively, thereby limiting further cortisol production. Dysregulation of this system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including Cushing's syndrome (overproduction of cortisol) and Addison's disease (underproduction of cortisol).

Lactotrophs, also known as mammotrophs or prolactin cells, are a type of hormone-producing cell found in the anterior pituitary gland. They are responsible for producing and secreting the hormone prolactin, which plays a crucial role in lactation (milk production) in females after childbirth. Prolactin also has other functions in the body, such as regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. Lactotrophs can be stimulated by factors like estrogen, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and stress, leading to increased prolactin secretion.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

A chemical stimulation in a medical context refers to the process of activating or enhancing physiological or psychological responses in the body using chemical substances. These chemicals can interact with receptors on cells to trigger specific reactions, such as neurotransmitters and hormones that transmit signals within the nervous system and endocrine system.

Examples of chemical stimulation include the use of medications, drugs, or supplements that affect mood, alertness, pain perception, or other bodily functions. For instance, caffeine can chemically stimulate the central nervous system to increase alertness and decrease feelings of fatigue. Similarly, certain painkillers can chemically stimulate opioid receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain.

It's important to note that while chemical stimulation can have therapeutic benefits, it can also have adverse effects if used improperly or in excessive amounts. Therefore, it's essential to follow proper dosing instructions and consult with a healthcare provider before using any chemical substances for stimulation purposes.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by the inability of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) to produce sufficient amounts of sex hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. This can lead to various symptoms including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction in men, irregular menstrual periods in women, and reduced fertility in both sexes. Hypogonadism may be caused by genetic factors, aging, injury to the gonads, or certain medical conditions such as pituitary disorders. It can be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

A carcinoid tumor is a type of slow-growing neuroendocrine tumor that usually originates in the digestive tract, particularly in the small intestine. These tumors can also arise in other areas such as the lungs, appendix, and rarely in other organs. Carcinoid tumors develop from cells of the diffuse endocrine system (also known as the neuroendocrine system) that are capable of producing hormones or biologically active amines.

Carcinoid tumors can produce and release various hormones and bioactive substances, such as serotonin, histamine, bradykinins, prostaglandins, and tachykinins, which can lead to a variety of symptoms. The most common syndrome associated with carcinoid tumors is the carcinoid syndrome, characterized by flushing, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and wheezing or difficulty breathing.

Carcinoid tumors are typically classified as functional or nonfunctional based on whether they produce and secrete hormones that cause symptoms. Functional carcinoid tumors account for approximately 30% of cases and can lead to the development of carcinoid syndrome, while nonfunctional tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones and are often asymptomatic until they grow large enough to cause local or distant complications.

Treatment options for carcinoid tumors depend on the location, size, and extent of the tumor, as well as whether it is functional or nonfunctional. Treatment may include surgery, medications (such as somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies), and radiation therapy. Regular follow-up with imaging studies and biochemical tests is essential to monitor for recurrence and assess treatment response.

Dopamine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5), which are classified into two families based on their structure and function: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).

Dopamine receptors play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including movement, motivation, reward, cognition, emotion, and neuroendocrine regulation. They are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, with high concentrations found in the basal ganglia, limbic system, and cortex.

Dysfunction of dopamine receptors has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug addiction, and depression. Therefore, drugs targeting dopamine receptors have been developed for the treatment of these conditions.

Sermorelin is a synthetic analog of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a naturally occurring hormone in the body that stimulates the production and release of growth hormone from the pituitary gland. It is a decapeptide, meaning it contains 10 amino acids, and its chemical name is GRF 1-29 NH2.

Sermorelin works by binding to specific receptors in the pituitary gland, which triggers the release of growth hormone. It has been used in medical settings as a diagnostic tool to test for growth hormone deficiency and as a therapeutic agent to treat growth hormone deficiency in children and adults.

Sermorelin therapy involves administering the drug through subcutaneous injection, usually on a daily basis. The treatment aims to restore the body's natural production of growth hormone and improve related symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, increased body fat, reduced bone density, and impaired cognitive function. However, it is important to note that Sermorelin therapy should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and the need for careful monitoring.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Its main function is to regulate glucose levels in the blood by stimulating the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream. This process helps to raise blood sugar levels when they are too low, such as during hypoglycemia.

Glucagon is a 29-amino acid polypeptide that is derived from the preproglucagon protein. It works by binding to glucagon receptors on liver cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation of enzymes involved in glycogen breakdown.

In addition to its role in glucose regulation, glucagon has also been shown to have other physiological effects, such as promoting lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and inhibiting gastric acid secretion. Glucagon is often used clinically in the treatment of hypoglycemia, as well as in diagnostic tests to assess pancreatic function.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

RNA (Ribonucleic acid) is a single-stranded molecule similar in structure to DNA, involved in the process of protein synthesis in the cell. It acts as a messenger carrying genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes, where proteins are produced.

A neoplasm, on the other hand, is an abnormal growth of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Benign neoplasms are not cancerous and do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. Malignant neoplasms, however, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to distant sites in the body through a process called metastasis.

Therefore, an 'RNA neoplasm' is not a recognized medical term as RNA is not a type of growth or tumor. However, there are certain types of cancer-causing viruses known as oncoviruses that contain RNA as their genetic material and can cause neoplasms. For example, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are RNA viruses that can cause certain types of cancer in humans.

Adrenal gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the adrenal glands. These glands are located on top of each kidney and are responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response. Adrenal gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign adrenal tumors are called adenomas and are usually small and asymptomatic. However, some adenomas may produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as high blood pressure, weight gain, and mood changes.

Malignant adrenal tumors are called adrenocortical carcinomas and are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of adrenocortical carcinoma may include abdominal pain, weight loss, and hormonal imbalances.

It is important to diagnose and treat adrenal gland neoplasms early to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Diagnostic tests may include imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, as well as hormone level testing and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure where one or both of the testicles are removed. It is also known as castration. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of testicular cancer, prostate cancer, or other conditions that may affect the testicles. It can also be done to reduce levels of male hormones in the body, such as in the case of transgender women undergoing gender affirming surgery. The specific medical definition may vary slightly depending on the context and the extent of the procedure.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Neoplastic pregnancy complications refer to the abnormal growth of cells (neoplasia) that can occur during pregnancy. These growths can be benign or malignant and can arise from any type of tissue in the body. However, when they occur in pregnant women, they can pose unique challenges due to the potential effects on the developing fetus and the changes in the mother's body.

Some common neoplastic pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD): This is a group of rare tumors that occur in the uterus during pregnancy. GTD can range from benign conditions like hydatidiform mole to malignant forms like choriocarcinoma.
2. Breast cancer: Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) is a type of breast cancer that occurs during pregnancy or within one year after delivery. It can be aggressive and challenging to diagnose due to the changes in the breast tissue during pregnancy.
3. Cervical cancer: Cervical cancer can occur during pregnancy, and its management depends on the stage of the disease and the gestational age. In some cases, treatment may need to be delayed until after delivery.
4. Lung cancer: Pregnancy does not increase the risk of lung cancer, but it can make diagnosis and treatment more challenging.
5. Melanoma: Melanoma is the most common malignant skin cancer during pregnancy. It can spread quickly and requires prompt treatment.

The management of neoplastic pregnancy complications depends on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, gestational age, and the patient's wishes. In some cases, surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy may be necessary. However, these treatments can have potential risks to the developing fetus, so a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers is often involved in the care of pregnant women with neoplastic complications.

Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) is a term used in genetics to describe the loss of one copy of a gene or a segment of a chromosome, where there was previously a pair of different genes or chromosomal segments (heterozygous). This can occur due to various genetic events such as mutation, deletion, or mitotic recombination.

LOH is often associated with the development of cancer, as it can lead to the loss of tumor suppressor genes, which normally help to regulate cell growth and division. When both copies of a tumor suppressor gene are lost or inactivated, it can result in uncontrolled cell growth and the formation of a tumor.

In medical terms, LOH is used as a biomarker for cancer susceptibility, progression, and prognosis. It can also be used to identify individuals who may be at increased risk for certain types of cancer, or to monitor patients for signs of cancer recurrence.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hormones are a group of hormones that are secreted by cells in the gastrointestinal tract in response to food intake and digestion. They play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite regulation, gastric acid secretion, motility of the gastrointestinal tract, insulin secretion, and pancreatic enzyme release.

Examples of GI hormones include:

* Gastrin: Secreted by G cells in the stomach, gastrin stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid from parietal cells in the stomach lining.
* Ghrelin: Produced by the stomach, ghrelin is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite and food intake.
* Cholecystokinin (CCK): Secreted by I cells in the small intestine, CCK promotes digestion by stimulating the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the liver. It also inhibits gastric emptying and reduces appetite.
* Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP): Produced by K cells in the small intestine, GIP promotes insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release.
* Secretin: Released by S cells in the small intestine, secretin stimulates the pancreas to produce bicarbonate-rich fluid that neutralizes stomach acid in the duodenum.
* Motilin: Secreted by MO cells in the small intestine, motilin promotes gastrointestinal motility and regulates the migrating motor complex (MMC), which is responsible for cleaning out the small intestine between meals.

These hormones work together to regulate digestion and maintain homeostasis in the body. Dysregulation of GI hormones can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastroparesis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diabetes.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone that is produced during pregnancy. It is produced by the placenta after implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus. The main function of hCG is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum, which is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after ovulation and produces progesterone during early pregnancy. Progesterone is essential for maintaining the lining of the uterus and supporting the pregnancy.

hCG can be detected in the blood or urine as early as 10 days after conception, and its levels continue to rise throughout the first trimester of pregnancy. In addition to its role in maintaining pregnancy, hCG is also used as a clinical marker for pregnancy and to monitor certain medical conditions such as gestational trophoblastic diseases.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

An oxyphilic adenoma is a type of benign tumor that develops in the endocrine glands, specifically in the parathyroid gland. This type of adenoma is characterized by the presence of cells called oxyphils, which have an abundance of mitochondria and appear pink on histological examination due to their high oxidative enzyme activity. Oxyphilic adenomas are a common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to an imbalance of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism may include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and psychological disturbances. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the affected parathyroid gland.

Meningeal neoplasms, also known as malignant meningitis or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, refer to cancerous tumors that originate in the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can arise primarily from the meningeal cells themselves, although they more commonly result from the spread (metastasis) of cancer cells from other parts of the body, such as breast, lung, or melanoma.

Meningeal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, nausea and vomiting, mental status changes, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as MRI) and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained through a spinal tap. Treatment options may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. The prognosis for patients with meningeal neoplasms is generally poor, with a median survival time of several months to a year.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Petrosal sinus sampling is a medical procedure used to help diagnose the source of hormonal hypersecretion, particularly in cases of Cushing's syndrome that are difficult to locate. The petrosal sinuses are small veins located near the pituitary gland in the brain.

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted through the patient's femoral vein and guided up to the petrosal sinuses. Samples of blood are then taken from each sinus and tested for levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). If there is a significant difference in ACTH levels between the two samples, it suggests that the source of the hypersecretion is likely located in the pituitary gland.

If the ACTH levels are similar in both petrosal sinuses, it may indicate an ectopic source of ACTH production outside of the pituitary gland, such as in a lung tumor. The procedure can help guide treatment decisions and determine whether surgery or other therapies are appropriate.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

Retinoblastoma genes, often referred to as RB1, are tumor suppressor genes that play a critical role in regulating cell growth and division. When functioning properly, these genes help prevent the development of cancer by ensuring that cells divide and grow in a controlled manner.

Mutations in the Retinoblastoma gene can lead to retinoblastoma, a rare type of eye cancer that typically affects young children. There are two types of retinoblastoma: hereditary and non-hereditary. Hereditary retinoblastoma is caused by an inherited mutation in the RB1 gene, while non-hereditary retinoblastoma is caused by a mutation that occurs spontaneously during development.

When both copies of the RB1 gene are mutated or inactivated in a retinal cell, it can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division, resulting in the formation of a tumor. Symptoms of retinoblastoma may include an unusual white pupil reflex, crossed eyes, or a lazy eye. If left untreated, retinoblastoma can spread to other parts of the body and be life-threatening.

It is important to note that mutations in the RB1 gene can also increase the risk of developing other types of cancer, such as lung, breast, and bladder cancer, later in life.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

Cell surface receptors, also known as membrane receptors, are proteins located on the cell membrane that bind to specific molecules outside the cell, known as ligands. These receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, which is the process of converting an extracellular signal into an intracellular response.

Cell surface receptors can be classified into several categories based on their structure and mechanism of action, including:

1. Ion channel receptors: These receptors contain a pore that opens to allow ions to flow across the cell membrane when they bind to their ligands. This ion flux can directly activate or inhibit various cellular processes.
2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These receptors consist of seven transmembrane domains and are associated with heterotrimeric G proteins that modulate intracellular signaling pathways upon ligand binding.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity or are linked to an enzyme, which becomes activated when the receptor binds to its ligand. This activation can lead to the initiation of various signaling cascades within the cell.
4. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): These receptors contain intracellular tyrosine kinase domains that become activated upon ligand binding, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling molecules.
5. Integrins: These receptors are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions by binding to extracellular matrix proteins or counter-receptors on adjacent cells. They play essential roles in cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

Cell surface receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including neurotransmission, hormone signaling, immune response, and cell growth and differentiation. Dysregulation of these receptors can contribute to the development of numerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Nucleic acid hybridization is a process in molecular biology where two single-stranded nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) with complementary sequences pair together to form a double-stranded molecule through hydrogen bonding. The strands can be from the same type of nucleic acid or different types (i.e., DNA-RNA or DNA-cDNA). This process is commonly used in various laboratory techniques, such as Southern blotting, Northern blotting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microarray analysis, to detect, isolate, and analyze specific nucleic acid sequences. The hybridization temperature and conditions are critical to ensure the specificity of the interaction between the two strands.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Milk proteins are a complex mixture of proteins that are naturally present in milk, consisting of casein and whey proteins. Casein makes up about 80% of the total milk protein and is divided into several types including alpha-, beta-, gamma- and kappa-casein. Whey proteins account for the remaining 20% and include beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, and immunoglobulins. These proteins are important sources of essential amino acids and play a crucial role in the nutrition of infants and young children. Additionally, milk proteins have various functional properties that are widely used in the food industry for their gelling, emulsifying, and foaming abilities.

APC (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli) gene is a tumor suppressor gene that provides instructions for making a protein called adenomatous polyposis coli. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and division of cells in the colon and rectum. Specifically, it helps to maintain the stability of the cell's genetic material (DNA) by controlling the process of beta-catenin degradation.

When the APC gene is mutated or altered, it can lead to an accumulation of beta-catenin in the cell, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can ultimately lead to the development of colon polyps, which are benign growths that can become cancerous over time if left untreated.

Mutations in the APC gene are associated with several inherited cancer syndromes, including familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and attenuated FAP (AFAP). These conditions are characterized by the development of numerous colon polyps at a young age, which can increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are a family of proteins that bind to and regulate the biological activity of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), specifically IGF-1 and IGF-2. There are six distinct IGFBPs (IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6) in humans, each with unique structural features, expression patterns, and functions.

The primary function of IGFBPs is to modulate the interaction between IGFs and their cell surface receptors, thereby controlling IGF-mediated intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. IGFBPs can either enhance or inhibit IGF actions depending on the specific context, such as cell type, subcellular localization, and presence of other binding partners.

In addition to their role in IGF regulation, some IGFBPs have IGF-independent functions, including direct interaction with cell surface receptors, modulation of extracellular matrix composition, and participation in cell migration and apoptosis. Dysregulation of IGFBP expression and function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Intestinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the intestines, which can be benign or malignant. These growths are called neoplasms and they result from uncontrolled cell division. In the case of intestinal neoplasms, these growths occur in the small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, or appendix.

Benign intestinal neoplasms are not cancerous and often do not invade surrounding tissues or spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to obstruct the intestines or cause bleeding. Common types of benign intestinal neoplasms include polyps, leiomyomas, and lipomas.

Malignant intestinal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant intestinal neoplasm is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells lining the inside of the intestines. Other types of malignant intestinal neoplasms include lymphomas, sarcomas, and carcinoid tumors.

Symptoms of intestinal neoplasms can vary depending on their size, location, and type. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fatigue. If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

The nasal cavity is the air-filled space located behind the nose, which is divided into two halves by the nasal septum. It is lined with mucous membrane and is responsible for several functions including respiration, filtration, humidification, and olfaction (smell). The nasal cavity serves as an important part of the upper respiratory tract, extending from the nares (nostrils) to the choanae (posterior openings of the nasal cavity that lead into the pharynx). It contains specialized structures such as turbinate bones, which help to warm, humidify and filter incoming air.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Urocortins are a group of peptides that belong to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family. They include urocortin 1, urocortin 2, and urocortin 3, which are encoded by different genes in humans.

Urocortins play important roles in various physiological processes, including the regulation of stress responses, feeding behavior, energy homeostasis, and cardiovascular function. They exert their effects by binding to CRH receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2) that are widely distributed throughout the body.

Urocortin 1 is a potent stimulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which is responsible for the release of stress hormones such as cortisol. It also has cardiovascular effects, including vasodilation and negative inotropic effects on the heart.

Urocortin 2 and urocortin 3 are primarily expressed in the brain and have been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. They may act as satiety signals to reduce food intake, and they have also been shown to have anxiolytic effects.

Overall, urocortins play important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes, and dysregulation of their function has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that are naturally produced in the adrenal gland, or can be synthetically manufactured. They play an essential role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and have significant anti-inflammatory effects. Glucocorticoids suppress immune responses and inflammation by inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators from various cells, such as mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. They are frequently used in medical treatment for a wide range of conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological disorders, and certain cancers. Prolonged use or high doses of glucocorticoids can lead to several side effects, such as weight gain, mood changes, osteoporosis, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Astrocytoma is a type of brain tumor that arises from astrocytes, which are star-shaped glial cells in the brain. These tumors can occur in various parts of the brain and can have different grades of malignancy, ranging from low-grade (I or II) to high-grade (III or IV). Low-grade astrocytomas tend to grow slowly and may not cause any symptoms for a long time, while high-grade astrocytomas are more aggressive and can grow quickly, causing neurological problems.

Symptoms of astrocytoma depend on the location and size of the tumor but may include headaches, seizures, weakness or numbness in the limbs, difficulty speaking or swallowing, changes in vision or behavior, and memory loss. Treatment options for astrocytomas include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The prognosis for astrocytoma varies widely depending on the grade and location of the tumor, as well as the age and overall health of the patient.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating the function of the thyroid gland by stimulating the production and release of thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

The TSH molecule is composed of two subunits: alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common to several pituitary hormones, including TSH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In contrast, the beta subunit is unique to each hormone, determining its specific biological activity.

Therefore, 'Thyrotropin, beta Subunit' refers to the distinct portion of the TSH molecule that confers its thyroid-stimulating properties and allows it to be identified and measured separately from other pituitary hormones sharing the common alpha subunit. Beta-subunit assays are sometimes used in clinical settings to evaluate thyroid function, as they can provide information about TSH levels independent of the common alpha subunit.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Cyclic peptides are a type of peptides in which the N-terminus and C-terminus of the peptide chain are linked to form a circular structure. This is in contrast to linear peptides, which have a straight peptide backbone with a free N-terminus and C-terminus. The cyclization of peptides can occur through various mechanisms, including the formation of an amide bond between the N-terminal amino group and the C-terminal carboxylic acid group (head-to-tail cyclization), or through the formation of a bond between side chain functional groups.

Cyclic peptides have unique structural and chemical properties that make them valuable in medical and therapeutic applications. For example, they are more resistant to degradation by enzymes compared to linear peptides, which can increase their stability and half-life in the body. Additionally, the cyclic structure allows for greater conformational rigidity, which can enhance their binding affinity and specificity to target molecules.

Cyclic peptides have been explored as potential therapeutics for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. They have also been used as tools in basic research to study protein-protein interactions and cell signaling pathways.

Endorphins are a type of neurotransmitter, which are chemicals that transmit signals in the nervous system and brain. The term "endorphin" comes from "endogenous morphine," reflecting the fact that these substances are produced naturally within the body and have effects similar to opiate drugs like morphine.

Endorphins are released in response to stress or pain, but they also occur naturally during exercise, excitement, laughter, love, and orgasm. They work by interacting with the opiate receptors in the brain to reduce the perception of pain and promote feelings of pleasure and well-being. Endorphins also play a role in regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, mood, and sleep.

In summary, endorphins are natural painkillers and mood elevators produced by the body in response to stress, pain, or enjoyable activities.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Proto-oncogene proteins are normal cellular proteins that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). They are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival under physiological conditions.

When proto-oncogene proteins undergo mutations or aberrations in their expression levels, they can transform into oncogenic forms, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. These altered proteins are then referred to as oncogene products or oncoproteins. Oncogenic mutations can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and aging.

Examples of proto-oncogene proteins include:

1. Ras proteins: Involved in signal transduction pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation. Activating mutations in Ras genes are found in various human cancers.
2. Myc proteins: Regulate gene expression related to cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and metabolism. Overexpression of Myc proteins is associated with several types of cancer.
3. EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor): A transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR are linked to various malignancies, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma.
4. Src family kinases: Intracellular tyrosine kinases that regulate signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Dysregulation of Src family kinases is implicated in several types of cancer.
5. Abl kinases: Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases that regulate various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and stress responses. Aberrant activation of Abl kinases, as seen in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Understanding the roles of proto-oncogene proteins and their dysregulation in cancer development is essential for developing targeted cancer therapies that aim to inhibit or modulate these aberrant signaling pathways.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

A circadian rhythm is a roughly 24-hour biological cycle that regulates various physiological and behavioral processes in living organisms. It is driven by the body's internal clock, which is primarily located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus in the brain.

The circadian rhythm controls many aspects of human physiology, including sleep-wake cycles, hormone secretion, body temperature, and metabolism. It helps to synchronize these processes with the external environment, particularly the day-night cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth.

Disruptions to the circadian rhythm can have negative effects on health, leading to conditions such as insomnia, sleep disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and even increased risk of chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Factors that can disrupt the circadian rhythm include shift work, jet lag, irregular sleep schedules, and exposure to artificial light at night.

Protein isoforms are different forms or variants of a protein that are produced from a single gene through the process of alternative splicing, where different exons (or parts of exons) are included in the mature mRNA molecule. This results in the production of multiple, slightly different proteins that share a common core structure but have distinct sequences and functions. Protein isoforms can also arise from genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms or mutations that alter the protein-coding sequence of a gene. These differences in protein sequence can affect the stability, localization, activity, or interaction partners of the protein isoform, leading to functional diversity and specialization within cells and organisms.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide hormone that has potent vasodilatory, secretory, and neurotransmitter effects. It is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is synthesized and released by nerve cells (neurons) in the intestinal mucosa. VIP plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as intestinal secretion, motility, and blood flow. It also has immunomodulatory effects and may play a role in neuroprotection. High levels of VIP are found in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and is involved in various cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and social behavior.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

The Mitotic Index (MI) is a measure of cell proliferation that reflects the percentage of cells in a population or sample that are undergoing mitosis, which is the process of cell division. It is often expressed as the number of mitotic figures (dividing cells) per 100 or 1,000 cells counted in a microscopic field. The Mitotic Index is used in various fields, including pathology and research, to assess the growth fraction of cells in tissues or cultures, and to monitor the effects of treatments that affect cell division, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

Tumor suppressor proteins are a type of regulatory protein that helps control the cell cycle and prevent cells from dividing and growing in an uncontrolled manner. They work to inhibit tumor growth by preventing the formation of tumors or slowing down their progression. These proteins can repair damaged DNA, regulate gene expression, and initiate programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe for repair.

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes, which provide the code for these proteins, can lead to a decrease or loss of function in the resulting protein. This can result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, leading to the formation of tumors and cancer. Examples of tumor suppressor proteins include p53, Rb (retinoblastoma), and BRCA1/2.

Thyroid hormone receptors (THRs) are nuclear receptor proteins that bind to thyroid hormones and mediate their effects in the body. There are two main types of THRs, referred to as THRα and THRβ.

THRα is a subtype of thyroid hormone receptor that is primarily expressed in tissues such as the heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. It plays an important role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in these tissues. THRα has two subtypes, THRα1 and THRα2, which have different functions and are expressed in different tissues.

THRα1 is the predominant form of THRα and is found in many tissues, including the heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. It regulates genes involved in metabolism, growth, and development, and has been shown to play a role in regulating heart rate and contractility.

THRα2, on the other hand, is primarily expressed in the brain and pituitary gland, where it regulates the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). THRα2 is unable to bind to thyroid hormones, but can form heterodimers with THRα1 or THRβ1, which allows it to modulate their activity.

Overall, THRα plays an important role in regulating various physiological processes in the body, and dysregulation of THRα function has been implicated in a number of diseases, including heart disease, muscle wasting, and neurological disorders.

Hypoglycemia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Generally, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L), although symptoms may not occur until the blood sugar level falls below 55 mg/dL (3.0 mmol/L).

Hypoglycemia can occur in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or medications that increase insulin production, as well as those with certain medical conditions such as hormone deficiencies, severe liver illnesses, or disorders of the adrenal glands. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweating, shaking, confusion, rapid heartbeat, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or seizures.

Hypoglycemia is typically treated by consuming fast-acting carbohydrates such as fruit juice, candy, or glucose tablets to rapidly raise blood sugar levels. If left untreated, hypoglycemia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even death.

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily Member 6b (TNFRSF6B), also known as Decoy Receptor 3 (DcR3), is a type of tumor necrosis factor receptor that can be found on the surface of certain cells. It is a soluble receptor that functions as a decoy, preventing the binding of its ligands, TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and Fas ligand (FasL), to their respective signaling receptors, Fn14 and Fas.

By acting as a decoy, TNFRSF6B helps regulate the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation, which can contribute to the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer. However, TNFRSF6B has also been found to be overexpressed in some tumors, where it may help the tumor evade the immune system and promote its growth and survival.

It's important to note that medical definitions can vary depending on the source and context, so this definition is not exhaustive and other sources may provide additional or different information.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Spontaneous remission in a medical context refers to the disappearance or significant improvement of symptoms of a disease or condition without any specific treatment being administered. In other words, it's a situation where the disease resolves on its own, without any apparent cause. While spontaneous remission can occur in various conditions, it is relatively rare and not well understood. It's important to note that just because a remission occurs without treatment doesn't mean that medical care should be avoided, as many conditions can worsen or lead to complications if left untreated.

Lactation disorders are conditions or problems that affect a woman's ability to breastfeed her baby. These disorders can make it difficult for the mother to produce enough milk, or cause pain and discomfort during breastfeeding. Some common lactation disorders include:

1. Insufficient Glandular Tissue (IGT): This condition occurs when a woman has limited breast tissue, which can make it difficult for her to produce enough milk to fully breastfeed her baby.
2. Engorgement: This happens when the breasts become overly full of milk, causing them to feel hard, swollen, and painful. Engorgement can make it difficult for the baby to latch on properly, which can lead to nipple damage and mastitis.
3. Mastitis: An infection of the breast tissue that can cause pain, redness, warmth, and flu-like symptoms. Mastitis often occurs when a milk duct becomes blocked, allowing bacteria to enter and infect the tissue.
4. Plugged Ducts: This condition occurs when a milk duct becomes clogged or blocked, causing milk to back up and leading to pain, swelling, and redness in the affected area.
5. Nipple Vasospasm: This is a painful spasm of the blood vessels in the nipples, which can cause burning, stinging, or throbbing sensations during or after breastfeeding.
6. Low Milk Supply: This condition occurs when a woman is unable to produce enough milk to meet her baby's needs. Low milk supply can have various causes, including hormonal imbalances, poor latch, and infrequent feedings.
7. Oversupply: This condition occurs when a woman produces too much milk, which can lead to engorgement, plugged ducts, and mastitis.

Prompt identification and management of lactation disorders are essential for ensuring the health and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Women who experience difficulty breastfeeding should consult their healthcare provider or a lactation consultant for guidance and support.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Insect hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological and behavioral processes in insects. They are produced and released by endocrine glands and organs, such as the corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and neurosecretory cells located in the brain. Insect hormones play crucial roles in the regulation of growth and development, reproduction, diapause (a state of dormancy), metamorphosis, molting, and other vital functions. Some well-known insect hormones include juvenile hormone (JH), ecdysteroids (such as 20-hydroxyecdysone), and neuropeptides like the brain hormone and adipokinetic hormone. These hormones act through specific receptors, often transmembrane proteins, to elicit intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to changes in gene expression, cell behavior, or organ function. Understanding insect hormones is essential for developing novel strategies for pest management and control, as well as for advancing our knowledge of insect biology and evolution.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Testicular hormones, also known as androgens, are a type of sex hormone primarily produced in the testes of males. The most important and well-known androgen is testosterone, which plays a crucial role in the development of male reproductive system and secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone is responsible for the growth and maintenance of male sex organs, such as the testes and prostate, and it also promotes the development of secondary sexual characteristics like facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass.

Testicular hormones are produced and regulated by a feedback system involving the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the brain. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, while FSH works together with testosterone to promote sperm production.

In addition to their role in male sexual development and function, testicular hormones also have important effects on other bodily functions, such as bone density, muscle mass, red blood cell production, mood, and cognitive function.

Beta-lipotropin (β-LPH) is a 91-amino acid polypeptide hormone that is derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC), along with other bioactive peptides such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH), and β-endorphin. It is produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to stress or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation.

β-Lipotropin has been found to have several physiological functions, including the regulation of lipid metabolism, appetite control, and pain perception. It also exhibits opioid activity due to its ability to bind to opioid receptors in the brain, although its potency is much lower compared to other endogenous opioids like β-endorphin.

In addition to its role as a hormone, β-lipotropin has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of obesity and addiction. However, further research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms and clinical efficacy.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

A neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates peripheral nerves. These tumors can occur anywhere along the course of a peripheral nerve, but they most commonly affect the acoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), leading to a type of tumor called vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma. Neurilemmomas are typically encapsulated and do not invade the surrounding tissue, although larger ones may cause pressure-related symptoms due to compression of nearby structures. Rarely, these tumors can undergo malignant transformation, leading to a condition called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or neurofibrosarcoma.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy, also known as grand mal epilepsy, is a type of generalized seizure that affects the entire brain. This type of epilepsy is characterized by two distinct phases: the tonic phase and the clonic phase.

During the tonic phase, which usually lasts for about 10-20 seconds, the person loses consciousness and their muscles stiffen, causing them to fall to the ground. This can result in injuries if the person falls unexpectedly or hits an object on the way down.

The clonic phase follows immediately after the tonic phase and is characterized by rhythmic jerking movements of the limbs, face, and neck. These movements are caused by alternating contractions and relaxations of the muscles and can last for several minutes. The person may also lose bladder or bowel control during this phase.

After the seizure, the person may feel tired, confused, and disoriented. They may also have a headache, sore muscles, and difficulty remembering what happened during the seizure.

Tonic-clonic epilepsy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, infection, or stroke. It is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as an electroencephalogram (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment may include medication, surgery, or dietary changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the seizures.

Invertebrate hormones refer to the chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes in invertebrate animals, which include insects, mollusks, worms, and other animals without a backbone. These hormones are produced by specialized endocrine cells or glands and released into the bloodstream to target organs, where they elicit specific responses that help control growth, development, reproduction, metabolism, and behavior.

Examples of invertebrate hormones include:

1. Ecdysteroids: These are steroid hormones found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. They regulate molting (ecdysis) and metamorphosis by stimulating the growth and differentiation of new cuticle layers.
2. Juvenile hormone (JH): This is a sesquiterpenoid hormone produced by the corpora allata glands in insects. JH plays a crucial role in maintaining the juvenile stage, regulating reproduction, and controlling diapause (a period of suspended development during unfavorable conditions).
3. Neuropeptides: These are short chains of amino acids that act as hormones or neurotransmitters in invertebrates. They regulate various functions such as feeding behavior, growth, reproduction, and circadian rhythms. Examples include the neuropeptide F (NPF), which controls food intake and energy balance, and the insulin-like peptides (ILPs) that modulate metabolism and growth.
4. Molluscan cardioactive peptides: These are neuropeptides found in mollusks that regulate heart function by controlling heart rate and contractility. An example is FMRFamide, which has been identified in various mollusk species and influences several physiological processes, including feeding behavior, muscle contraction, and reproduction.
5. Vertebrate-like hormones: Some invertebrates produce hormones that are structurally and functionally similar to those found in vertebrates. For example, some annelids (segmented worms) and cephalopods (squid and octopus) have insulin-like peptides that regulate metabolism and growth, while certain echinoderms (starfish and sea urchins) produce steroid hormones that control reproduction.

In summary, invertebrates utilize various types of hormones to regulate their physiological functions, including neuropeptides, cardioactive peptides, insulin-like peptides, and vertebrate-like hormones. These hormones play crucial roles in controlling growth, development, reproduction, feeding behavior, and other essential processes that maintain homeostasis and ensure survival. Understanding the mechanisms of hormone action in invertebrates can provide valuable insights into the evolution of hormonal systems and their functions across different animal taxa.

Beta-endorphins are naturally occurring opioid peptides that are produced in the brain and other parts of the body. They are synthesized from a larger precursor protein called proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and consist of 31 amino acids. Beta-endorphins have potent analgesic effects, which means they can reduce the perception of pain. They also play a role in regulating mood, emotions, and various physiological processes such as immune function and hormonal regulation.

Beta-endorphins bind to opioid receptors in the brain and other tissues, leading to a range of effects including pain relief, sedation, euphoria, and reduced anxiety. They are released in response to stress, physical activity, and certain physiological conditions such as pregnancy and lactation. Beta-endorphins have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses in the treatment of pain, addiction, and mood disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects.

A residual neoplasm is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the remaining abnormal tissue or cancer cells after a surgical procedure or treatment aimed at completely removing a tumor. This means that some cancer cells have been left behind and continue to persist in the body. The presence of residual neoplasm can increase the risk of recurrence or progression of the disease, as these remaining cells may continue to grow and divide.

Residual neoplasm is often assessed during follow-up appointments and monitoring, using imaging techniques like CT scans, MRIs, or PET scans, and sometimes through biopsies. The extent of residual neoplasm can influence the choice of further treatment options, such as additional surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapies, to eliminate the remaining cancer cells and reduce the risk of recurrence.

Iodide peroxidase, also known as iodide:hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase, is an enzyme that belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. Specifically, it is a peroxidase that uses iodide as its physiological reducing substrate. This enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of iodide by hydrogen peroxide to produce iodine, which plays a crucial role in thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this enzyme is iodide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase (iodinating). It is most commonly found in the thyroid gland, where it helps to produce and regulate thyroid hormones by facilitating the iodination of tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin, a protein produced by the thyroid gland.

Iodide peroxidase requires a heme cofactor for its enzymatic activity, which is responsible for the oxidation-reduction reactions it catalyzes. The enzyme's ability to iodinate tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin is essential for the production of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), two critical hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development in mammals.

Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium retention and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

There are two types of hyperaldosteronism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperaldosteronism is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone from an abnormality within the adrenal gland, such as a tumor (Conn's syndrome) or hyperplasia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism occurs when there is an excess production of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys, which then stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone. This can be caused by various conditions that affect kidney function, such as renal artery stenosis or heart failure.

Symptoms of hyperaldosteronism may include high blood pressure, low potassium levels (hypokalemia), muscle weakness, and frequent urination. Diagnosis typically involves measuring aldosterone and renin levels in the blood, as well as other tests to determine the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the type and cause of hyperaldosteronism but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Parotid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the parotid gland, which is the largest of the salivary glands and is located in front of the ear and extends down the neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parotid neoplasms are typically slow-growing, painless masses that may cause facial asymmetry or difficulty in chewing or swallowing if they become large enough to compress surrounding structures. The most common type of benign parotid tumor is a pleomorphic adenoma.

Malignant parotid neoplasms, on the other hand, are more aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. They may present as rapidly growing masses that are firm or fixed to surrounding structures. Common types of malignant parotid tumors include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

The diagnosis of parotid neoplasms typically involves a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to determine the nature of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgical excision, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Diagnostic techniques in endocrinology are methods used to identify and diagnose various endocrine disorders. These techniques include:

1. Hormone measurements: Measuring the levels of hormones in blood, urine, or saliva can help identify excess or deficiency of specific hormones. This is often done through immunoassays, which use antibodies to detect and quantify hormones.

2. Provocative and suppression tests: These tests involve administering a medication that stimulates or suppresses the release of a particular hormone. Blood samples are taken before and after the medication is given to assess changes in hormone levels. Examples include the glucose tolerance test for diabetes, the ACTH stimulation test for adrenal insufficiency, and the thyroid suppression test for hyperthyroidism.

3. Imaging studies: Various imaging techniques can be used to visualize endocrine glands and identify structural abnormalities such as tumors or nodules. These include X-rays, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine scans using radioactive tracers.

4. Genetic testing: Molecular genetic tests can be used to identify genetic mutations associated with certain endocrine disorders, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

5. Biopsy: In some cases, a small sample of tissue may be removed from an endocrine gland for microscopic examination (biopsy). This can help confirm the presence of cancer or other abnormalities.

6. Functional tests: These tests assess the ability of an endocrine gland to produce and secrete hormones in response to various stimuli. Examples include the glucagon stimulation test for gastrinoma and the calcium infusion test for hyperparathyroidism.

7. Wearable monitoring devices: Continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) are wearable devices that measure interstitial glucose levels continuously over several days, providing valuable information about glycemic control in patients with diabetes.

Gene Ontology (GO) is not a medical term, but rather a bioinformatics term used to describe a controlled vocabulary or ontology for describing molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components in which genes and gene products are involved. It provides a standardized way to represent and share information about gene function across different species.

The GO ontology is organized as a directed acyclic graph (DAG), where each term has defined relationships with other terms, allowing for the representation of complex biological concepts. The GO terms can be used to describe molecular functions such as enzymatic activities or binding interactions, biological processes such as metabolic pathways or signal transduction cascades, and cellular components such as organelles or subcellular structures.

GO analysis is a common approach in bioinformatics for interpreting large-scale genomic data, such as microarray or next-generation sequencing experiments, to identify genes that are involved in specific biological processes or molecular functions of interest.

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

There are different types of thyroidectomy procedures, including:

1. Total thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland.
2. Partial (or subtotal) thyroidectomy: Removal of a portion of the thyroid gland.
3. Hemithyroidectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, often performed to treat benign solitary nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer.

Thyroidectomy may be recommended for various reasons, such as treating thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or thyroid cancer. Potential risks and complications of the procedure include bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures like the parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerve, and hypoparathyroidism or hypothyroidism due to removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands or thyroid gland, respectively. Close postoperative monitoring and management are essential to minimize these risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.609.145.500 - nelson syndrome MeSH C04.588.322.609.292 - growth hormone- ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510 - mesothelioma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510.515 - mesothelioma ... adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.012 - acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.025 - adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557. ... secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.609.792 - prolactinoma MeSH C04.588.322.762 - testicular neoplasms MeSH C04.588. ...
... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.145.500 - nelson syndrome MeSH C19.344.609.292 - growth hormone-secreting ... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.700.734.145.500 - nelson syndrome MeSH C19.700.734.292 - growth hormone-secreting ... pituitary acth hypersecretion MeSH C19.700.482.311 - dwarfism, pituitary MeSH C19.700.734.145 - ... pituitary adenoma MeSH C19.344.609.792 - prolactinoma MeSH C19.344.762.500 - sertoli-leydig cell tumor MeSH C19.344.894.800 - ...
... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.800 - prolactinoma MeSH C10.228.140.631 - intracranial ... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149 - acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.675.149.500 - ... pituitary neoplasms MeSH C10.228.140.617.500 - laurence-moon syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.617.738 - pituitary diseases MeSH ... pituitary MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.320 - inappropriate adh syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.617.738.350 - pituitary apoplexy MeSH ...
... pituitary tumours are adenomas of anterior cells, typically prolactinomas or growth hormone-secreting. Pancreatic tumours ... Lytras A, Tolis G (2006). "Growth hormone-secreting tumors: genetic aspects and data from animal models". Neuroendocrinology. ... of sporadic pituitary adenomas. Consequently, alterations of the gene represent a candidate pathogenetic mechanism of pituitary ... Variations in the MEN1 gene can cause pituitary adenomas, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, gastrinoma, ...
... show evidence that she suffered from a pituitary adenoma secreting prolactin and growth hormone secretion; the increase in ... Pozzilli, Paolo, Vollero, Luca, Colao, Anna Maria, "Venus by Botticelli and her Pituitary Adenoma", Endocrine Practice, vol. 25 ...
... are usually growth hormone-secreting (acromegaly) or prolactin-secreting (prolactinoma) adenomas that are large (macroadenomas ... luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PRL). Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma can be made, or at least ... Hormone secreting pituitary adenomas cause one of several forms of hyperpituitarism. The specifics depend on the type of ... Patients with CNC develop growth hormone (GH)-producing pituitary tumors and in some instances these same tumors also secrete ...
In patients with pre-existing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, loss of adrenal feedback ... Radiation allows for the limitation of the growth of the pituitary gland and the adenomas. If the adenomas start to affect the ... pituitary hormone loss from mass compression, as well as invasion into surrounding structures around the pituitary gland. The ... In the rare case, ACTH-secreting tumors can become malignant. Morbidity from the disease can occur due to pituitary tissue ...
TCF4 Pituitary adenoma, ACTH-secreting; 219090; AIP Pituitary adenoma, growth hormone-secreting; 102200; AIP Pituitary adenoma ... MLPH Growth hormone deficiency with pituitary anomalies; 182230; HESX1 Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type IA; 262400; ... prolactin-secreting; 600634; AIP Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 1; 613038; POU1F1 Pituitary hormone deficiency, ... PROP1 Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 3; 221750; LHX3 Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 4; 262700; LHX4 Pituitary ...
... of all pituitary adenomas. Some growth hormone (GH)-producing tumors also co-secrete prolactin. More than 90% of prolactinoma ... A prolactinoma is a tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland that produces the hormone prolactin. It is the most common type of ... Gandhi, Chirag D.; Post, Kalmon D. (2003-01-01). "PrL-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas". BC Decker. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal ... Though most pituitary tumors are sporadic, some genetic syndromes include increased risk for pituitary adenomas including ...
For example, acromegaly results from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH) often being released by a pituitary adenoma. ... Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary are trophic hormones (Greek: trophe, "nourishment"). Trophic hormones directly ... A third type of pituitary adenoma secretes excess ACTH, which in turn, causes an excess of cortisol to be secreted and is the ... Hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus. Neuroendocrine cells ...
There are three hormones that are oversecreted resulting in the pituitary adenoma: prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH ... it typically results from a pituitary adenoma. In children with hyperpituitarism, disruption of growth regulation is rare, ... They usually come from the anterior lobe, are functional and secrete the hormone, GH and prolactin. Evidence indicates that the ... The four most common types of hyperpituitarism are caused by 4 types of pituitary adenoma, as follows: prolactinoma, ...
About 25% of pituitary tumors secrete growth hormone or growth hormone and prolactin. Excess prolactin may cause galactorrhea, ... Pituitary tumors in MEN 1 patients appear to be larger and behave more aggressively than sporadic pituitary tumors. Adenomas of ... Most islet cell tumors secrete pancreatic polypeptide, the clinical significance of which is unknown. Gastrin is secreted by ... and excess growth hormone causes acromegaly clinically indistinguishable from sporadically occurring acromegaly. About 3% of ...
... medical imaging of the pituitary is carried out to determine if an adenoma is present. If excess growth hormone is produced ... it permanently switches on the signal that tells the cell to divide and secrete growth hormones. The events within the cell ... growth hormone-releasing hormone), the hormone that stimulates the pituitary to make GH. In these people, the excess GHRH can ... Growth disorders, Growth hormones, Neuroendocrinology, Pituitary disorders, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, ...
... is used in the treatment of acromegaly, due to both pituitary and non-pituitary growth hormone-secreting tumors, and ... In the United Kingdom, it is also indicated in the treatment of thyrotrophic adenoma, a rare tumor of the pituitary gland which ... a naturally occurring inhibitory hormone which blocks the release of several other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid- ... stimulating hormone (TSH), insulin and glucagon. Lanreotide binds to the same receptors as somatostatin, although with higher ...
Somatotropic cells in the anterior pituitary gland then synthesize and secrete GH in a pulsatile manner, in response to these ... However, deficiency is rare in adults, with the most common cause being a pituitary adenoma. Other adult causes include a ... known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 (placental growth hormone; growth ... These cells release the peptides growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ...
A non-functioning pituitary adenoma is a kind of benign tumor that does not secrete active hormones, and is from the pituitary ... Activin A is a dimeric glycoprotein that is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family. Activin A is ... The follicle stimulating hormone is secreted without being affected by an increase in the secretion of the luteinizing hormone ... Nonfunctioning and Gonadotrophin-Secreting Adenomas", The Pituitary (Fourth Edition), Academic Press, pp. 589-603, ISBN 978-0- ...
While some adrenal adenomas do not secrete hormones at all, often some secrete cortisol, causing Cushing's syndrome, ... Pituitary adenomas are seen in 10% of neurological patients. A lot of them remain undiagnosed. Treatment is usually surgical, ... Biopsy usually confirms the growth to be an adenoma, but, sometimes, excision at surgery is required, especially when the cells ... An adenoma of a parathyroid gland may secrete inappropriately high amounts of parathyroid hormone and thereby cause primary ...
... due to a pituitary adenoma. Growth hormones are critical for stimulating somatic growth and regulation a person's metabolism. ... form of the Gs protein will continue to secrete growth hormone even in the absence of the growth hormone-releasing hormone ( ... Growth hormone- secreting adenomas will contain a mutant form of the Gs protein; this protein is a stimulatory regulator of ... Growth hormone controls the synthesis of insulin-like growth factor 1, or 1GF-1), which controls growth of the body. IGF-1 is ...
"Somatomammotropin cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas". Journal of Endocrinological Investigation ... growth hormone) and prolactin. Cells that secrete only somatotropin or only prolactin are known as somatotrophs and mammotrophs ... v t e (Articles using infobox templates with no data rows, Peptide hormone secreting cells, Human cells, Histology, All stub ... Approximately 15-20% of the cells in the normal pituitary gland are somatomammotrophs. Acidophil cell List of human cell types ...
The main types of pituitary adenomas are: PRL-secreting or prolactinomas: These are the most common pituitary tumors. They are ... GH-secreting: A very rare condition that is a result of the increase in the secretion of growth hormone. There are currently ... The tumor is first treated pharmacologically in two ways: controlling the levels of hormones that the pituitary gland secretes ... Pituitary microadenomas Pituitary macroadenomas Rathke's cleft cysts Pituitary inflammatory disease Pituitary metastasis Empty ...
The adrenal gland secretes a number of different hormones which are metabolised by enzymes either within the gland or in other ... The most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome is a pituitary adenoma which causes an excessive production of ACTH. The ... Causes for this condition are bilateral hyperplasia (excessive tissue growth) of the glands, or aldosterone-producing adenomas ... The adrenal gland secretes a basal level of cortisol but can also produce bursts of the hormone in response to ...
Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help to control growth, blood pressure, energy management, all functions of the sex ... pituitary gland Panhypopituitarism a decreased secretion of most of the pituitary hormones Pituitary tumours Pituitary adenomas ... by secreting oxytocin). The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. All releasing hormones (-RH) referred to can ... Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control the following body processes: Growth (GH) Blood pressure Some aspects ...
The pituitary gland secretes thyrotropin (TSH; Thyroid Stimulating Hormone) that stimulates the thyroid to secrete thyroxine ( ... secondary hyperthyroidism: Rare condition, e.g. in case of TSH producing pituitary adenoma or partial thyroid hormone ... Proper function of thyrotropic feedback control is indispensable for growth, differentiation, reproduction and intelligence. ... Resistance to thyroid hormone: Feedback loop interrupted on the level of pituitary thyroid hormone receptors. Standard ...
The first-line treatment of Cushing's disease is surgical resection of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma; this surgery involves ... Hypopituitarism specifically growth hormone deficiency has been reported as the only most common late morbidity of this ... from the anterior pituitary (secondary hypercortisolism). This is most often as a result of a pituitary adenoma (specifically ... These tests are based on the glucocorticoid sensitivity of pituitary adenomas compared to non-pituitary tumors. An ACTH ...
Dual expression of p80 type I and p68 type II interleukin-1 receptors on anterior pituitary cells synthesizing growth hormone. ... GH3 pituitary adenoma implants can reverse thymic aging. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:5663 5667. Westly, H.J., A.J. Kleiss, K. ... Prolactin synthesized and secreted by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: An autocrine growth factor for ... Growth hormone has now been shown to be beneficial in aged humans. NIH funded Kelley's research on aging, growth hormone and ...
... is a hormonal condition resulting from over-secretion of the growth hormone somatotropin from the pituitary gland. The hormone ... Acromegaly is also possible from a somatotroph adenoma. The hormone somatostatin can also be useful in treatment. Since ... is characterized by an increase in glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal glands. About 85 percent of cases are caused by a ... The pituitary gland produces a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); without this hormone to signal the thyroid gland to produce ...
IGF-1 is a primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone (GH). Growth hormone is made in the anterior pituitary gland, is ... Phillips JD, Yeldandi A, Blum M, de Hoyos A (October 2009). "Bronchial carcinoid secreting insulin-like growth factor-1 with ... although most commonly it involves a tumor called pituitary adenoma, derived from a distinct type of cell (somatotrophs). It ... Production is stimulated by growth hormone (GH) and can be retarded by undernutrition, growth hormone insensitivity, lack of ...
... tumors of the pituitary gland secrete extra ACTH. Most people with the disorder have a single adenoma. This form of the ... In rare cases, however, some adrenal adenomas may become activated. When activated, the adenoma begins to produce hormones in ... Although CAH causes rapid growth in childhood, adult women with CAH are shorter than average due to early puberty and closure ... This occurs when the hypothalamus of the brain signals to the pituitary gland with excess corticotropin-releasing hormone, ...
... adenomas, as well as in growth hormone (GH)- and prolectin-secreting adenomas. Thus, HHIPL1 has the potential to serve as a ... genome-wide analysis of the DNA methylome in sporadic pituitary adenomas". Endocrine-Related Cancer. 19 (6): 805-16. doi: ... Little is known about the precise biological function of HHIPL1, but the protein has been linked to adenomas. The HHIPL1 gene ... In a genome-wide survey of subtype-specific epigenomic changes in adenoma, the HHIPL1 gene was hypermethylated in 12 of 13 non- ...
One group suggests that the treatment method would be particularly effective against thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas ( ... and also acts as an inhibitor to the milk producing hormone in female mammals, prolactin, and growth hormones. Researchers ... These hormones include dopamine, norepinephrine, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing hormone. Many of ... Most pituitary adenomas express SSTR2, but other somatostatin receptors are also found. Somatostatin analogs (i.e. Octreotide, ...
... growth hormone-secreting, due to AIP germline mutation NGS Genetic DNA Test in Mumbai Delhi Bangalore Hyderabad Ahmedabad ... One type of pituitary adenoma that is caused by a specific genetic mutation is called a growth hormone-secreting pituitary ... Symptoms of AIP Gene Pituitary Adenoma. AIP gene pituitary adenomas are typically associated with excessive growth hormone ... growth hormone-secreting, due to AIP germline mutation NGS Genetic DNA Test?. Cost of AIP Gene Pituitary adenoma, growth ...
Acromegaly is a condition in which there is too much growth hormone (GH) in your body. ... Somatotroph adenoma; Growth hormone excess; Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma; Pituitary giant (in childhood) ... It controls, makes, and releases several hormones, including GH.. Usually, a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland ... Acromegaly is a condition in which there is too much growth hormone (GH) in your body. ...
Diabetes mellitus secondary to growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.. Li Y, Xu Y, Zhao X, Xu M, Chen M. ... Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is a common intracranial benign tumor, characterized by excessive production of ... Li Y, Xu Y, Zhao X, Xu M, Chen M. Diabetes mellitus secondary to growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. Neuro Endocrinol ...
... growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas; Sertoli cell tumors of the testis; multiple small hypoechoic ... growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas; Sertoli cell tumors of the testis; multiple small hypoechoic ... of those cases are due to Cushing disease caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Tumors that ectopically secrete ACTH ... more likely than males to develop an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma and 3 times more likely to develop a cortisol-secreting ...
Somatotroph adenoma; Growth hormone excess; Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma; Pituitary giant (in childhood) ... The thyroid gets instructions from the pituitary to secrete hormones which determine the rate of metabolism in the body (the ... It controls, makes, and releases several hormones, including GH.. Usually, a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland ... Acromegaly is a condition in which there is too much growth hormone (GH) in your body. ...
We report an unusual patient with an ectopic growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma in the sphenoid sinus with an empty ... Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma associated with Rathkes cleft cyst. p. 310. ... Combined gangliocytoma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma of the pituitary gland. p. 311. ... Coexistence of ectopic pituitary adenoma and empty sella in a patient with acromegaly : A case report and review of literature ...
... acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.609.145.500 - nelson syndrome MeSH C04.588.322.609.292 - growth hormone- ... growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510 - mesothelioma MeSH C04.557.470.035.510.515 - mesothelioma ... adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.012 - acth-secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.557.470.035.025 - adenoma, acidophil MeSH C04.557. ... secreting pituitary adenoma MeSH C04.588.322.609.792 - prolactinoma MeSH C04.588.322.762 - testicular neoplasms MeSH C04.588. ...
growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma2. *haplotype2. *heart defects, congenital2 ... Animals, Biology, Diet, Female, Nymph growth development, Ovum, Heteroptera growth development, Temperature, and Zea mays ... japonicus from the release sites or slow population growth. The latter may be due to the relatively low densities of H. halys ... Clinical features were variable, including intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), CHD, CDH, genital anomalies, DSD, ...
Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Neurosurg Focus 2010; 29 (04) E6 ... Surgical results and predictors of initial and delayed remission for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas using the 2010 ... Outcomes after a purely endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Neurosurg Focus ... Endoscopic endonasal approach for growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas: outcomes in 53 patients using 2010 consensus ...
Acromegaly, a rare and slowly progressive disorder, usually results from a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. ... Laboratory tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. The pituitary adenoma shrunk ... CONCLUSION: 18F-ALF-NOTATE PET/CT and MRI with pathological analysis can effectively diagnose rare cases of pituitary adenomas ... Simultaneous rectal neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary adenoma: A case report and review of literature. ...
Gigantism and acromegaly are usually caused by a pituitary adenoma that secretes excessive amounts of growth hormone (GH); ... Growth hormone (GH) stimulates somatic growth and regulates metabolism. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is the major ... rarely, they are caused by non-pituitary tumors that secrete growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). ... Cells with the mutant form of Gs protein secrete GH even in the absence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). A few cases ...
... characterized by decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH; also referred to as arginine vasopressin [AVP]) Nephrogenic ... or growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas found that postoperatively, 26% of the patients developed diabetes insipidus, ... Hyponatremia in Children after Transsphenoidal Surgery for Adrenocorticotropin Hormone and Growth Hormone Secreting Adenomas. J ... Pituitary studies, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and measurement of circulating pituitary hormones other than ADH ...
Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma 1 0 Postoperative Complications 1 0 Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum 1 0 ...
Growth Disorders (441). *Growth Hormone Deficiency (272). *Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma (6) ...
Acromegaly, a rare and slowly progressive disorder, usually results from a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. ... Simultaneous rectal neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary adenoma: A case report and review of literature. ... read.qxmd.com/read/37753367/simultaneous-rectal-neuroendocrine-tumors-and-pituitary-adenoma-a-case-report-and-review-of- ...
Case Description:We present a case of a patient who was found to have a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma and a ... We present a case of a patient who was found to have a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma and a coexisting ... there is no reliable data about the natural history of coexisting aneurysms in the presence of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas ... Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma. Int J Clin ...
... growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas; Sertoli cell tumors of the testis; multiple small hypoechoic ... Pituitary tumors in children and adolescents. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Dec. 84(12):4317-23. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine. Hypokalemia (with very high cortisol levels or in the presence of ... Lacroix A, NDiaye N, Mircescu H, Hamet P, Tremblay J. Abnormal expression and function of hormone receptors in adrenal ...
... is a neurosurgeon who specializes in removing brain and pituitary gland tumors in the least invasive way possible. He is also ... Reoperation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: report on an endonasal endoscopic series with a systematic review ... Reoperation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: report on an endonasal endoscopic series with a systematic review ... Reoperation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: report on an endonasal endoscopic series with a systematic review ...
Sarcomatous change after sellar irradiation in a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. Can J Neurol Sci. 2003 Nov; 30(4): ... Preferential migration of regulatory T cells mediated by glioma-secreted chemokines can be blocked with chemotherapy. Cancer ...
A functioning growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is the most common cause. Anaesthesia for pituitary surgery in ... Growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomas show distinct extrasellar extension patterns compared to nonfunctional pituitary ... Extraocular Muscle Enlargement in Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas. Coutu, B; Alvarez, D A; Ciurej, A; Moneymaker, K ... Most growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenomas are macroadenomas (≥ 10 mm) at diagnosis, with reported surgical cure ...
It is usually caused by somatotroph hyperplasia or a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. These patients are of ... The condition of accelerated and excessive GROWTH in children or adolescents who are exposed to excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE ...
No article was found for Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma and NR4A3[original query]. ...
... even after hypersecretion of growth hormone has been controlled. ... secreting pituitary adenoma.[1] Although the prevalence is ... Growth Hormone in Non-GH-Deficient Short Stature: Open Questions Support Long-Term Follow-up ... Purpose Combining surgery and medical treatments allows the control of growth hormone hypersecretion in 80% of cases. Our ... Table 2. Comparison of Metabolic Data in Patients With or Without Pituitary Deficiency At Least One Pituitary Deficiency. No ...
The most common cause is a growth hormone (GH) secreting adenoma in the pituitary gland. Gigantism occurs when growth hormone ... Detailed explanation-3: -Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion in the human may be due to a GH-secreting tumor, to a GH-releasing- ... Detailed explanation-2: -Gigantism is abnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone (GH) during childhood. ... Detailed explanation-4: -Hypersecretion is when an excess of one or more hormone is secreted from a gland. Hyposecretion is ...
Co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenomas are rare. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with ... Thyroid nodules are common in acromegaly and can be the presenting sign of a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. ... A case of a co-secreting TSH and growth hormone pituitary adenoma presenting with a thyroid nodule ... TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare and about one-third co-secrete other hormones. ...
Acromegaly is the same disorder of IGF-I excess but occurs after the growth plate cartilage fuses in adulthood. ... while the epiphyseal growth plates are open during childhood. ... Gigantism refers to abnormally high linear growth due to ... excessive action of insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) ... Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas in childhood and ... Growth hormone and insulinlike growth factor. GH is necessary for normal linear growth. Its secretion from the pituitary gland ...
Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas begin in the somatotropic cells of the pituitary gland. Also called gh, the growth ... Human growth hormone pituitary gland, human growth hormone secreted by. Human growth hormone pituitary gland, human growth ... Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas begin in the somatotropic cells of the pituitary gland. Also called gh, the growth ... Benefits of Oral vs, human growth hormone pituitary gland.. Human growth hormone secreted by. Are people treated with pituitary ...
Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization. ... ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: 315. *Growth Hormone- ... Adenomas; Follicular Adenoma; Monomorphic Adenoma; Adenoma, Follicular; Adenomas, Basal Cell; Adenomas, Follicular; Adenomas, ... Adenomas, Papillary; Adenomas, Trabecular; Basal Cell Adenoma; Basal Cell Adenomas; Follicular Adenomas; Microcystic Adenoma; ... Monomorphic Adenomas; Papillary Adenoma; Papillary Adenomas; Trabecular Adenoma; Trabecular Adenomas; Adenoma, Basal Cell; ...
  • Acromegaly is a condition in which there is too much growth hormone (GH) in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After treatment, you will need to see your provider regularly to make sure that the pituitary gland is working normally and that acromegaly does not come back. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gigantism and acromegaly are syndromes of excessive secretion of growth hormone (hypersomatotropism) that are nearly always due to a pituitary adenoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Left image shows a 64-year-old woman who presented with acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pituitary MRI Features in Acromegaly Resulting From Ectopic GHRH Secretion From a Neuroendocrine Tumor: Analysis of 30 Cases. (uliege.be)
  • Medical management of pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. (uliege.be)
  • Our aim was to estimate short- and long-term rates of biochemical control after pituitary surgery in acromegaly and identify predictive factors. (bvsalud.org)
  • RESULTS: A total of 178 patients with acromegaly (median age at diagnosis 49 (IQR: 38-59) years, 46% women) were operated for a pituitary adenoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Acromegaly is a multifactorial neuroendocrine disease caused by hyperproduction of growth hormone (GH). (bvsalud.org)
  • In more than 95% of cases the reason of acromegaly the GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our objective was to determine the rate of acromegaly comorbidities once hypersecretion of growth hormone is controlled. (medscape.com)
  • Acromegaly is a rare disease generally due to a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. (medscape.com)
  • Acromegaly and gigantism are disorders of growth hormone hypersecretion. (github.io)
  • Acromegaly is the same disorder of IGF-I excess but occurs after the growth plate cartilage fuses in adulthood. (medscape.com)
  • Somatostatin analogues (SSTA) are the most widely used drugs to treat acromegaly, since they inhibit GH and IGF-1 levels, reduce pituitary mass, but can affect glucose metabolism. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Acromegaly results from excess growth hormone (GH) secretion, due to a pituitary adenoma. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Mai et al reported a patient diagnosed with testicular seminoma at age 28, multiple colon polyps (adenomatous, hyperplastic, and hamartomatous) from the age of 50+, multiple lipomas, multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions, kidney cancer diagnosed at age 64 (no histology), and a growth-hormone producing pituitary adenoma with associated acromegaly diagnosed at age 64. (familialcancerdatabase.nl)
  • In the majority of cases, acromegaly is related to a pituitary adenoma, either purely GH-secreting (60%) or mixed. (orpha.net)
  • In very rare cases, acromegaly is due to ectopic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), responsible for pituitary hyperplasia. (orpha.net)
  • Undoubtedly Goliath's great size was due to ** **acromegaly ** **secondary to a pituitary macroadenoma. (serdarbalci.com)
  • Pituitary tumors may either be clinically silent or secrete hormones, including prolactin, growth hormone (acromegaly), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (Cushing's disease) or, rarely, thyroid-stimulating hormone or gonadotropins. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tumors which produce excess steroid hormones (Cushing's disease') lead to hypertension, psychological disturbances, and typical features- obesity, moon's face, pigmentation marks in abdomen, tumors producing excess growth hormones lead to gigantism in children & acromegaly in adults with swelling of hands and feet, nose. (sakraworldhospital.com)
  • Usually, a noncancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland releases too much GH. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgery to remove the pituitary tumor that is causing this condition often corrects the abnormal GH. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pituitary surgery is successful in most people, depending on the size of the tumor and the experience of the neurosurgeon with pituitary tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is a common intracranial benign tumor, characterized by excessive production of growth hormon. (nel.edu)
  • The surgeons' experience, preoperative insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), basal growth hormone (GH) levels, nadir GH levels, and the tumor characteristics were analyzed for their relationships with endocrine outcomes. (thieme-connect.de)
  • GH-secreting tumors are largely sporadic, but genetic abnormalities in the X chromosome (X-linked acrogigantism), overexpression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene ( PTTG ), and mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) have been discovered. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We present a case of a patient who was found to have a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma and a coexisting cavernous ICA aneurysm which was embedded within the tumor. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion in the human may be due to a GH-secreting tumor, to a GH-releasing-hormone (GHRH) secreting tumor, to disorders of GH feedback regulatory mechanisms, or to functional disturbance of GH regulation in association with systemic disorders, malnutrition, or psychiatric disease (Table 1). (github.io)
  • Cushing's is a disease of middle-aged to older cats (7-12 years), and may be caused by a pituitary tumor (90% are adenomas), pituitary hyperplasia, adrenal tumors, adrenal hyperplasia, by non-endocrine tumors (usually lung) or it may be iatrogenic. (dvm360.com)
  • 9 Horsley performed first operation for PAs using transcranial approach, 10 and by 1907, Schloffer was the first to resect pituitary tumor with nasal transsphenoidal approach. (researchsquare.com)
  • Despite their benign features pituitary tumors can cause considerably morbidity due to both hypersecretion of pituitary trophic hormones and excessive tumor growth that can affect surrounding tissue. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Prolactinoma treatment The major goals of treatment in patients with prolactinomas are to normalize serum PRL levels to restore gonadal function to reduce tumor size and to preserve or improve residual pituitary function. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Adenoma of the salivary gland is the most common benign tumor. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Adenoma of the uterus is called the growth of tumor cells. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Adenoma of the adrenal gland is called benign tumor of the adrenal gland - an organ located above the kidneys. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Adenoma of the breast is a benign tumor, which is formed of fibrous and glandular breast tissue. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Prostate adenoma is a tumor that is benign in nature. (vsebolezni.com)
  • 9] evaluated 100 patients with an enlarged sella turcica and the most common cause of its expansion was a primary intrasellar pituitary tumor. (bvsalud.org)
  • Treatment options aim to remove the tumor or control its growth and correct hormone levels with medications. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • What is a pituitary tumor? (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • A tumor that grows from the pituitary gland is called an adenoma. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The most common pituitary tumor, a prolactinoma, causes an overproduction of the hormone that helps control sexual function. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Thus somatotropinomas secrete growth hormone (GH) prolactinomas secrete prolactin (PRL) thyrotropinomas secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and corticotropinomas secrete adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Prolactin secretion in the BCX 1470 normal pituitary is tonically inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine through dopamine D2 receptors (Drd2) expressed on lactotroph cell membranes (Ben Jonathan & Hnasko 2001). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • My growth was non-malignant but it affected the production of prolactin [a hormone]. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • In the case of Tara's growth, it could be detected via a blood test, as her type elevates the production of prolactin, a hormone that plays an essential role in the reproductive system and regulating the immune system. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Prolactin hormone: causes a woman's breasts to make milk after pregnancy. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Of hormonally active adenomas, about 50% secrete prolactin, 20% secrete growth hormone, 20% secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, and 10% secrete multiple hormones. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Glucocorticoid synthesis and release is strictly regulated by the pituitary and hypothalamus by negative feedback and, to a lesser extent, by catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and neural inputs from the autonomic system. (medscape.com)
  • Gh deficiency can be caused by damage to the pituitary gland or another gland called the hypothalamus. (table-tennis-player.club)
  • The gland is connected to the hypothalamus in the brain by the pituitary stalk. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The hypothalamus then regulates pituitary hormone levels, depending on the needs of the body. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Ovarian insufficiency is considered primary if the ovary fails to function normally in response to appropriate gonadotropin stimulation provided by the hypothalamus and pituitary. (medscape.com)
  • Ovarian insufficiency is considered secondary if the hypothalamus and pituitary fail to provide appropriate gonadotropin stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • The hypothalamus secretes a small peptide called Thyroid Releasing Hormone. (cdc.gov)
  • Adenoma of the colon is a benign neoplasm of the large intestine, which creates the likelihood of developing cancer. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Adenoma of the stomach is a benign neoplasm in the stomach, which is of several types. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Tubular adenoma is a benign neoplasm of the large intestine, which occurs in almost half of the population older than 50 years. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Follicular adenoma of the thyroid gland is one of the types of neoplasms of the thyroid gland of benign nature. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Prostate adenoma - a benign urological disease that quite often affects men in older age. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Liver adenoma is a benign neoplasm in the liver. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Pituitary tumors, also known as 'adenomas', are benign (non-cancerous) growths of the pituitary gland. (sakraworldhospital.com)
  • Most adenomas are benign, slow growing, and relatively common. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Germline loss-of-function PAM variants are enriched in subjects with pituitary hypersecretion. (uliege.be)
  • Purpose Combining surgery and medical treatments allows the control of growth hormone hypersecretion in 80% of cases. (medscape.com)
  • Gigantism occurs when growth hormone hypersecretion occurs before the fusion of the long bone epiphysis and is characterized by tall stature. (github.io)
  • Hypersecretion is when an excess of one or more hormone is secreted from a gland. (github.io)
  • Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas begin in the somatotropic cells of the pituitary gland. (table-tennis-player.club)
  • When growth hormone deficiency therapy is stopped, the young gh-deficient. (table-tennis-player.club)
  • Growth hormone deficiency may be partial (the pituitary gland produces insufficient amounts of growth. (table-tennis-player.club)
  • It can also cause damage to the surrounding normal pituitary tissue and result in the deficiency of some or all of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. (sakraworldhospital.com)
  • A disruption of this process may result in anovulation and ovarian steroid hormone deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Objective Biochemical remission rates of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) and its associated predictive factors were evaluated in patients with somatotrophin pituitary adenomas. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Currently, transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is the preferred method for surgical treatment of intrasellar pituitary adenomas. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The long-term outcome of pituitary irradiation after unsuccessful transsphenoidal surgery in Cushing's disease. (medscape.com)
  • For pituitary adenomas, transsphenoidal surgery is usually considered the first line of treatment, followed by medical therapy for residual disease. (medscape.com)
  • Transsphenoidal surgery with an operative microscope was a standard procedure for pituitary adenomas resection in our institution. (researchsquare.com)
  • Patients with pituitary tumors who received transsphenoidal surgery during 2019 - 2021 were included. (researchsquare.com)
  • It is usually caused by somatotroph hyperplasia or a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (jefferson.edu)
  • There is anecdotal evidence suggesting that intracranial aneurysms are coincidentally found significantly more frequently in the setting of pituitary adenomas than when the incidence is compared to other intracranial neoplasms. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • 3 18 25 39 ] However, there is some evidence suggesting that coincidental intracranial aneurysms are found almost seven times more frequently in pituitary adenomas when compared to other intracranial neoplasms. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Somatotroph adenomas are usually controlled with standard therapy, which can include surgery, medical treatment and radiotherapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • These tumors may compress the normal pituitary gland decrease hormone production (hypopituitarism). (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Lacroix A, N'Diaye N, Mircescu H, Hamet P, Tremblay J. Abnormal expression and function of hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone and beta-endorphin concentrations in the inferior petrosal sinuses in Cushing's disease and other pituitary diseases. (unisa.it)
  • Case report: ACTH-secreting pituitary carcinoma metastatic to the liver in a patient with a history of atypical pituitary adenoma and Cushing's disease. (uams.edu)
  • In this blog, we will discuss the symptoms, diagnosis and NGS genetic DNA test cost for AIP gene pituitary adenomas. (dnalabsindia.com)
  • AIP gene pituitary adenomas are typically associated with excessive growth hormone secretion, which can lead to a range of symptoms. (dnalabsindia.com)
  • The reduction in ovarian function caused by FXPOI results in low levels of the hormone estrogen, which leads to many of the common signs and symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, insomnia, and thinning of the bones (osteoporosis). (nih.gov)
  • Pituitary gland tumors may cause neurological and hormonal symptoms. (bvsalud.org)
  • No signs or symptoms related to pituitary dysfunction were identified. (bvsalud.org)
  • When pituitary tumors grow they can compress the above-mentioned structures and cause symptoms. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Craniopharyngiomas typically grow from the pituitary stalk upward into the third ventricle and cause symptoms similar to pituitary adenomas. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Pituitary gland tumors are usually found incidentally on imaging studies obtained for other reasons or in workup of patients with abnormal endocrine hormone levels (both decreased and increased levels) or with symptoms of mass effect from the lesions. (invisionzone.com)
  • As a form of primary ovarian insufficiency, FXPOI can cause irregular menstrual cycles, early menopause, an inability to have children (infertility), and elevated levels of a hormone known as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). (nih.gov)
  • Luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone: control the menstrual cycle in women and sperm production in men. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Occult primary ovarian insufficiency presents as unexplained infertility in a patient with a normal basal serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. (medscape.com)
  • prolactinomas, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting, growth hormone (GH) secreting, or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreting adenomas are considered as FPAs. (researchsquare.com)
  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone: causes the adrenal glands to make cortisol. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is the major stimulator and somatostatin is the major inhibitor of the synthesis and release of GH. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Cells with the mutant form of Gs protein secrete GH even in the absence of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). (msdmanuals.com)
  • 2018. Reoperation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: report on an endonasal endoscopic series with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. . (cornell.edu)
  • This report supports our transition from microscopic to endoscopic pituitary surgery. (researchsquare.com)
  • Diagnosis of AIP gene pituitary adenoma involves a combination of medical history, physical examination and imaging tests. (dnalabsindia.com)
  • Diagnosis is clinical, by skull and hand x-rays, and by measurement of levels of growth hormone and insulin -like growth factor 1. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bilateral and simultaneous inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the early diagnosis of an ACTH-producing pituitary microadenoma and its detection by magnetic resonance one year later. (unisa.it)
  • Prolactinomas are the most frequently observed pituitary adenomas and most of them respond well to conventional treatment with dopamine agonists. (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Prolactinomas Among functioning pituitary tumors prolactinomas are the most frequently observed in the clinic (40%) (Ciccarelli 2005). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • A 35-year-old woman is seen in the outpatient clinic for evaluation of an incidental pituitary macroadenoma. (invisionzone.com)
  • Because the patient reports multiple episodes of visual disturbances and the size of the pituitary adenoma on MRI, a neuro-ophthalmology referral is initiated for visual field testing and to determine if the pituitary macroadenoma is causing mass effect and compressing the optic nerve. (invisionzone.com)
  • A possible new syndrome with growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma in association with familial testicular germ cell malignancy: A case report. (familialcancerdatabase.nl)
  • The thyroglobulin (Tg)/ thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ratio has manifested to be a reliable marker for predicting prognosis in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although distinguishing endogenous from exogenous Cushing syndrome is usually straightforward, the investigation and differentiation of Cushing syndrome from other causes of hypercortisolism require a sound understanding of the physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. (medscape.com)
  • 2009 Fernandez 2010) and studies of autopsy specimens identified up to a 20% prevalence of clinically occult pituitary adenomas (Ezzat 2004). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • It is well established that most TSH effects on the thyroid gland, including stimulation of proliferation, thyroid hormone synthesis and expression of thyroid-specific genes, are transmitted mainly by the adenylate cyclise pathway. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Disorder that often occurs due to the growth of a thyroid nodule is called toxic adenoma of the thyroid gland. (vsebolezni.com)
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone: causes the thyroid gland to make other hormones that control growth, temperature, and heart rate. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The thyroid gland secretes about 8 micrograms of T3/day, but 40 micrograms of T3 is made overall. (cdc.gov)
  • The condition of accelerated and excessive GROWTH in children or adolescents who are exposed to excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE before the closure of EPIPHYSES. (jefferson.edu)
  • Gigantism is abnormal growth due to an excess of growth hormone (GH) during childhood. (github.io)
  • We have found a profoundly altered G(s) protein in a group of human growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas, characterized by high secretory activity and intracellular cyclic AMP levels. (unimi.it)
  • He discovered the connection between the pituitary and adrenal glands, leading to the understanding of the eponymous Cushing syndrome and Cushing disease. (medscape.com)
  • 2019. Increased frequency of cataract surgery in patients over age 50 with pituitary macroadenomas and chiasmal compression. . (cornell.edu)
  • This paper presented our learning curve in pituitary surgery using endoscopy instruments. (researchsquare.com)
  • Toxic thyroid adenoma: how to cure without surgery? (vsebolezni.com)
  • AIP familial isolated pituitary adenoma (AIP-FIPA) is defined as the presence of an AIP germline pathogenic variant in an individual with a pituitary adenoma (regardless of family history). (nih.gov)
  • A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE. (uams.edu)
  • Based on their size pituitary adenomas are classified as microadenomas ( 10mm) or giant adenomas (>40mm). (cell-metabolism.com)
  • Based on size, pituitary tumors may be classified as microadenomas (less than 10mm) or macroadenomas (larger than 10mm). (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Blood tests: These tests can measure the levels of hormones in the blood, including growth hormone. (dnalabsindia.com)
  • Research progress on mechanisms of resistance to somatostatin analogs in growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas [J]. Basic & Clinical Medicine, 2015, 35(6): 846-850. (magtechjournal.com)
  • Characterization of the intracellular mechanisms mediating somatostatin and lanreotide inhibition of DNA synthesis and growth hormone release from dispersed human GH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells in vitro. (unisa.it)
  • The pituitary gland is a pea-sized hormonal gland located in the base of the skull and behind the eyes. (sakraworldhospital.com)
  • 1 The exact pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas remains unknown but is thought to be linked to heredity, hormonal influences, and genetic mutations. (invisionzone.com)
  • Growth hormone (GH) stimulates somatic growth and regulates metabolism. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hong C, Alanya H, DiStasio M, Boulware S, Rimmer R, Omay S , Erson-Omay E. Sporadic pituitary adenoma with somatic double-hit loss of MEN1. (yalemedicine.org)
  • A rare acquired endocrine disease related to excessive production of growth hormone (GH) and characterized by progressive somatic disfigurement (mainly involving the face and extremities) and systemic manifestations. (orpha.net)
  • Human growth hormone (hgh) is a peptide hormone produced by the body. (table-tennis-player.club)
  • Growth hormone (gh), also called somatotropin or human growth hormone, peptide hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (table-tennis-player.club)
  • ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uams.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. (uams.edu)
  • Orbital invasion by ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. (uams.edu)
  • Sacit Bulent Omay, MD, is a neurosurgeon who specializes in removing brain and pituitary gland tumors in the least invasive way possible. (yalemedicine.org)
  • Pituitary invasive adenoma in a child. (unisa.it)
  • Vascular anomalies in patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: illustrative case report and systematic review of the literature. (uliege.be)
  • Pituitary adenoma in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a cohort study. (uliege.be)
  • METHODS: Patients operated for GH-secreting pituitary adenomas between 2005-2020 were included from the local pituitary registry (n = 178). (bvsalud.org)
  • Note that data on initial pituitary evaluation could not be retrieved for 11 patients. (medscape.com)
  • This duplication was not evident in patients who began abnormal growth at age 9 or 10, but only in those who started to grow excessively before the age of 3. (medscape.com)
  • Despite the evidence that hepatic metastases are associated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer patients, little is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the spread and growth of breast cancer cells in the liver. (thrombin-inhibitor.com)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in patients with untreated pituitary adenoma: report of two cases. (unisa.it)
  • Asymptomatic patients with an enlarged sella turcica should have an air study to exclude an 'empty sella"syndrome, an anatomical entity in which the pituitary fossa is expanded and partially filled with cerebrospinal fluid owing to the arachnoid herniation, while the pituitary gland is compressed against the posterior rim of the fossa [3]. (bvsalud.org)
  • The GPR101 gene may be a target for the treatment of growth disorders. (medscape.com)
  • gene seladin-1 and octreotide-induced apoptosis in growth hormone-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. (thrombin-inhibitor.com)
  • Nouveautés dans le diagnostic et la prise en charge des complications en lien avec l'acromégalie. (uliege.be)
  • The longstanding increase of GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels is responsible for polymorphic metabolic complications. (medscape.com)
  • The pituitary gland produces thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that goes into the blood stream to activate thyroid cells, which then secrete T3 and T4 into the peripheral tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Many GH-secreting adenomas contain a mutant form of the Gs protein, which is a stimulatory regulator of adenylate cyclase. (msdmanuals.com)
  • human growth hormone is a protein secreted by the pituitary gland in the brain. (table-tennis-player.club)
  • The thyroid hormone regulates energy and fat metabolism and protein synthesis by regulating different enzymes that are involved in those processes. (cdc.gov)
  • The patient underwent medical treatment of the adenoma. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The patient underwent surgical treatment of pituitary adenoma, noted a significant improvement in auditory function in the early postoperative period. (bvsalud.org)
  • This case report is an illustration for physicians to be conscientious about the potential danger posed by the coexistence of an intratumoral aneurysm in the setting of a pituitary adenoma. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • To evaluate the endocrine hormone and metabolic indices in postmenopausal women with euthyroid and mild subclinical hypothyroidism after menopause hormone therapy (MHT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2,3 The estimated prevalence of pituitary adenomas varies widely by study and findings are typically based on autopsy and radiology data. (invisionzone.com)