Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Chronic: A myelodysplastic-myeloproliferative disease characterized by monocytosis, increased monocytes in the bone marrow, variable degrees of dysplasia, but an absence of immature granulocytes in the blood.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute: A pediatric acute myeloid leukemia involving both myeloid and monocytoid precursors. At least 20% of non-erythroid cells are of monocytic origin.Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Juvenile: A leukemia affecting young children characterized by SPLENOMEGALY, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Traditionally classed as a myeloproliferative disease, it is now considered a mixed myeloproliferative-mylelodysplastic disorder.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.von Willebrand Diseases: Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLSerotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Oncogene Proteins v-myb: Transforming proteins coded by myb oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-myb in conjunction with v-ets is seen in the avian E26 leukemia virus.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 80% or more of the leukemic cells are of monocytic lineage including monoblasts, promonocytes, and MONOCYTES.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Mice, Inbred BALB CBacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Fibroblast Growth Factor 7: A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1: A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta: Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
... and myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF). GCSF acts in hematopoiesis by affecting the production, differentiation, and function ... These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various ... Schindler R, Dinarello CA (1990). "Interleukin 1". In Habenicht A. Growth Factors, Differentiation Factors, and Cytokines. ... T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, ...
Transforming growth factor-β-Activated Kinase 1) that leads to the activation of MAPK cascades (Mitogen-Activated Protein ... "Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal ... Morphine causes inflammation by binding to the protein lymphocyte antigen 96, which, in turn, causes the protein to bind to ... This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta, and in myelomonocytic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It cooperates ...
It is also known to bind the caveolin 1, a protein which regulates p21ras, PKC and growth response factors. There are currently ... Five regions of the 3' UTR that appear to bind proteins were found, one of which is HuR, a tumor antigen. HuR binds to AU-rich ... In addition to neurofibromatosis type I, mutations in NF1 can also lead to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, Watson syndrome, ... cell differentiation or migration. Neurofibromin is also known to interact with CASK through syndecan, a protein which is ...
Appiah-Kubi K, Lan T, Wang Y, Qian H, Wu M, Yao X, Wu Y, Chen Y (2017). "Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) ... The FLT3 gene codes for the cluster of differentiation antigen 135 (i.e. CD135) protein or FLT3 protein. This protein is a ... or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with involvement of tonsils. Some of these patients may present with little or no ... FGFR1 is the gene for the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1, a cell surface receptor that similar to PDGFRA and PDGFRB, is ...
"Gab-family adapter proteins act downstream of cytokine and growth factor receptors and T- and B-cell antigen receptors". Blood ... GAB2 also plays a role in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Studies have shown the protein's involvement in the disease ... "A novel role for Gab2 in bFGF-mediated cell survival during retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation". The Journal of ... Upon stimulation by growth hormone, insulin, epidermal growth factor (EFG), etc., the GAB2 protein can be recruited from the ...
PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, ... "Association of SH2 domain protein tyrosine phosphatases with the epidermal growth factor receptor in human tumor cells. ... "Human myelomonocytic cells express an inhibitory receptor for classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules". J. Immunol. ... "SHP-1 requires inhibitory co-receptors to down-modulate B cell antigen receptor-mediated phosphorylation of cellular substrates ...
... antigens, cd56 MeSH D23.101.100.894.157 --- antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.101.100.900 --- antigens, differentiation, myelomonocytic ... fibroblast growth factor 9 MeSH D23.348.479.750.200 --- fibroblast growth factor 10 MeSH D23.348.479.875 --- nerve growth ... antigens, cd57 MeSH D23.050.301.264.900 --- antigens, differentiation, myelomonocytic MeSH D23.050.301.264.900.045 --- antigens ... fibroblast growth factor 1 MeSH D23.348.383.120 --- fibroblast growth factor 2 MeSH D23.348.383.130 --- fibroblast growth ...
Cluster of differentiation Platelet-derived growth factor receptor Kosaki overgrowth syndrome GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... atypical chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myelogenous ... CD140B Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology portal. ... platelet derived growth factor receptor A or alpha-type-platelet derived growth factor receptor) gene with the FIP1L1 gene (see ...
Sehat B, Andersson S, Girnita L, Larsson O (July 2008). "Identification of c-Cbl as a new ligase for insulin-like growth factor ... "Requirement of tyrosine-phosphorylated Vav for morphological differentiation of all-trans-retinoic acid-treated HL-60 cells". ... of the c-cbl protooncogene is the 120-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in Jurkat cells activated via the T cell antigen ... article describing CBL function at PDBe OMIM enteries on NOONAN SYNDROME-LIKE DISORDER WITH OR WITHOUT JUVENILE MYELOMONOCYTIC ...
... human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 - human leukocyte antigen - human lymphocyte antigen - human papillomavirus - human T- ... chronic myelomonocytic leukemia - chronic phase - chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia - CHS 828 - CI-1033 - CI-958 - CI- ... cell differentiation - cell motility - cell proliferation - cell respiration - cell adhesion - cellular adoptive immunotherapy ... antigen - antigen-presenting cell - antigen-presenting cell vaccine - antiglobulin test - antihormone therapy - antimetabolite ...
As processes in cell cycle progression is the most fundamental processes for cellular growth and differentiation, and are the ... Schmidt MH, Furnari FB, Cavenee WK, Bögler O (May 2003). "Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling intensity determines ... Antigen processing Apoptosis Biogenesis of organelles Cell cycle and division DNA transcription and repair Differentiation and ... "Germline CBL mutations cause developmental abnormalities and predispose to juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia". Nature Genetics. ...
Antigens, CD / metabolism * Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism * Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics * Biomarkers ... Overexpression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Restricted to Macrophages in Uveal Melanoma Arch Ophthalmol. 2001 Mar;119(3 ... Objective: To determine whether expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is of prognostic value in uveal ...
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a key m ... 0/Antigens, CD; 0/Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0/ ... Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0/Smad2 Protein; 0/Transforming Growth Factor beta; EC 2.7.1.11/TGF-beta type I receptor; EC ... Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Benzamides / pharmacology*. Blotting, ... Transforming Growth Factor beta / antagonists & inhibitors*. Smad2 Protein / biosynthesis. Transforming Growth Factor beta / ...
... monocytic differentiation was induced by addition of 50 ng/ml 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 1 ng/ml transforming growth factor ... anti-myeloid differentiation antigen Gr-1), or anti-CD3 (anti-CD3 TCR-associated complex). Fc receptors of leukocytes were ... Myelo-monocytic HL60 cells were either not treated (hatched bars) or pretreated with piPLC (0.5 U/ml, 90 min, 37°C; black bars ... 8). In addition, vitamin D3/transforming growth factor β1 differentiated U937 cells and freshly isolated peripheral blood ...
CD14 is a myelomonocytic differentiation antigen expressed by monocytes, macrophages, and activated granulocytes and is ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ... The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors ...
Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A ... Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. Anus Diseases / pathology. Anus Diseases ... Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis. Warts / pathology. Warts / virology. *Genetic Alliance. consumer health - ...
Animals, Antigens, CD, Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic, Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating, C-Reactive Protein, Cell ... Here, we show that MLS express several cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL12, MIF, VEGF, ... Antigens, CD,Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic,Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating,C-Reactive Protein,Cell Cycle,Cell ... Here, we show that MLS express several cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL12, MIF, VEGF, ...
Antigens, CD/analysis. *Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/analysis. *Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use*. * ... Tumor-associated macrophages correlate with response to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced ... are related to treatment response to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and may be a ... among other factors (e.g., wild-type EGFR), were significantly related to poor progression-free survival (PFS) and overall ...
Different growth factors and cytokines can modulate the differentiation and function of DCs, GM-CSF, M-CSF, Flt3, and TGF-β, ... Immature DCs are specialist in uptaking and processing antigens; in contrast, mature DCs are professional in antigen ... DCs exert immune-surveillance for exogenous and endogenous antigens and the later activation of naive T lymphocytes giving rise ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells derived from bone marrow precursors and form a widely distributed cellular ...
... and myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF). GCSF acts in hematopoiesis by affecting the production, differentiation, and function ... These factors, which include interleukin 2 (IL2), are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, and have various ... Schindler R, Dinarello CA (1990). "Interleukin 1". In Habenicht A. Growth Factors, Differentiation Factors, and Cytokines. ... T-cell replacing factor III, B-cell activating factor, B-cell differentiation factor, and "Heidikine") and interleukin 2 (TSF, ...
The CD14 monocyte differentiation antigen maps to a region encoding growth factors and receptors. Science 239: 497-500, 1988. ... Biochemistry and expression of myelomonocytic antigens. J. Immunol. 137:3909-3914, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Haziot, A., Chen, S., Ferrero, E., Low, M.G., Silber, R., and Goyert, S.M.: The monocyte differentiation antigen, CD 14, is ... Taylor-Papadimitriou, J., and Rozengurt, E.A.: Interferons as regulators of cell growth and differentiation. In, Interferons. ...
... if not as antigen-presenting cells in early disease), macrophages possess widespread pro-inflammatory, destructive, and ... Finally, bone marrow stromal cells also overexpress bone marrow stromal antigen (BST)-1, a pre-B-cell growth factor that is ... myelomonocytic cells and faster differentiation into human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR+ cells than do control individuals [25]. ... eg an excess/imbalance of cytokines or growth factors), resulting in altered differentiation or maturation if regulatory ...
... conjugated or fused to a Bacillus anthracis toxin lethal factor (LF) or a functional portion of LF. Related chimeric m ... neuronal growth factor, epidermal growth factor). The cell surface marker can be, for example, a cancer antigen. The term " ... cluster of differentiation (CD) 19, CD21, CD22, CD25, CD30, CD33, CD79b, CD123, epidermal growth factor receptor variant III ( ... CD33 is expressed in, e.g., acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CML), and myeloproliferative ...
Macrophages promote the invasion of breast carcinoma cells via a colony-stimulating factor-1/epidermal growth factor paracrine ... which caused myeloid cell recruitment and differentiation into antigen-presenting cells, ultimately resulting in effective ... Myelomonocytic cells have emerged as an essential component of tumor-promoting inflammation (Mantovani et al., 1992, 2008; ... Alternative vascular growth factors, other than VEGF, are essential for tumor recurrence, and CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells produce ...
... growth factor independent 1B transcription repressor) for WB. Anti-GFI1b pAb (GTX50844) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples ... growth factor independent 1B (potential regulator of CDKN1A, translocated in CML), growth factor independent protein 1B, zinc ... Essential proto-oncogenic transcriptional regulator necessary for development and differentiation of erythroid and ... down-regulation of MYC and MYB as well as the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1A/P21WAF1 in IL6-treated myelomonocytic ...
Co-receptor for differentiation growth factors. * Differentiates squamous cell carcinomas, postgerminal center B-cells, and ... Leukocyte common antigen: * Expressed on the majority of leukocytes. * Aids in differentiating lymphoid from non-lymphoid ... Acute Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia, Tumor Markers * Acts as a co-receptor for the detection of ... Carcinoembryonic antigen: * Specific marker for colon carcinoma. * Associated with other cancers: breast, stomach, and lung ( ...
Synergistic effect of bone marrow mobilization and vascular endothelial growth factor-2 gene therapy in myocardial ischemia. ... The cell surface antigen CD133 is expressed on early HSCs and EPCs, both of which collaborate to promote vascularization of ... Differentiation of MSCs to cardiomyocyte-like cells has been observed under specific culture conditions and after injection ... Because CD133 expression is lost on myelomonocytic cells, this marker provides an effective means to distinguish "true" CD133+ ...
... experimental CNS remyelination is associated with a reduced oligodendrocyte progenitor cell response and altered growth factor ... Herpes simplex virus antigens directly activate NK cells via TLR2, thus facilitating their presentation to CD4 T lymphocytes. J ... Myelomonocytic cell recruitment causes fatal CNS vascular injury during acute viral meningitis. Nature 457: 191-195. ... M2 microglia and macrophages drive oligodendrocyte differentiation during CNS remyelination. Nat. Neurosci. 16: 1211-1218. ...
... the action of specific growth factors and other cytokines, as well as intrinsic modulators of erifropoyesis development. ... growth, and differentiation of many cell types, including hematopoietic cells 7. ... Myelomonocytic cells, during the first trimester of gestation, are located mostly in the mesenchymal tissue of the portal ... J Histochem Cytochem ; This antigen is expressed on almost all types of hemopoietic progenitors. These cells form compact ...
Transforming Growth Factor beta - genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic - metabolism , Chemokines, CC - genetics ... Antigens - metabolism , Lung - physiopathology , Pulmonary Fibrosis - pathology , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic - ... Transforming Growth Factor beta - metabolism , Antigens - genetics , Chemokines, CC - metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface - ... Transforming growth factors , Macrophages , Gene expression , Risk factors , Index Medicus , Abridged Index Medicus ...
Transforming growth factor-β-Activated Kinase 1) that leads to the activation of MAPK cascades (Mitogen-Activated Protein ... "Possible involvement of toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 activity of opioid inactive isomers causes spinal ... Morphine causes inflammation by binding to the protein lymphocyte antigen 96, which, in turn, causes the protein to bind to ... This receptor is most abundantly expressed in placenta, and in myelomonocytic subpopulation of the leukocytes. It cooperates ...
The Drosophila Transcription Factor Dimmed Affects Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in Multiple Ways Depending on Neuron ... BACKGROUND: Myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) is expressed in myelomonocytic cells with highest levels in mature ... www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790090/the-drosophila-transcription-factor-dimmed-affects-neuronal-growth-and-differentiation-in- ... Evaluation of flow cytometric assessment of myeloid nuclear differentiation antigen expression as a diagnostic marker for ...
Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic 骨髄性単球分化抗原 ... Transforming Growth Factor beta1 形質転換成長因子-β1 ... Transforming Growth Factor beta トランスフォーミング増殖因子ベータ ... Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 線維芽細胞増殖因子-8 ... Fibroblast Growth Factors 線維芽細胞増殖因子 ... Fibroblast Growth Factor
p53 arrests growth and induces differentiation of v-Myb-transformed monoblasts DIFFERENTIATION Navratilova, J., Horvath, V., ... Retinoic acid (RA) is capable of inducing the differentiation of various myelomonocytic cell lines. During this differentiation ... Nevertheless, hematopoietic growth factors and their receptors appear to play an important role in such transformation. Two new ... which encodes an important recognition molecule and differentiation antigen on T cells. We have determined that the CD4 ...
"ヒトCD(Cluster of differentiation)抗原の一覧表です。CD363までを網羅していま ... Growth factor receptor. Binds FLT3 ligand to promote the growth and differentiation of primitive hematopoietic cells. ... CD75s differentiation antigens are cell-surface carbohydrate determinants generated by CD75.. CD77. Globotriaosylceramide , BLA ... Inhibits differentiation of CD34+ cell precursors towards myelomonocytic cell lineage and proliferation of leukemic
Reduced transforming growth factor-β1-producing T cells in the duodenal mucosa of children with food allergy. Eur. J. Immunol. ... Expression and complex assembly of calcium-binding proteins MRP8 and MRP14 during differentiation of murine myelomonocytic ... Systemic activation and antigen-driven oligoclonal expansion of T cells in a mouse model of colitis. J. Immunol. 164:2797.-2806 ... Diabetes-associated sustained activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Diabetes 50:2792.-2808. ...
  • The synovium of both groups were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and we also analysed the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), B-cell precursors and mature B-cell transmembrane protein, CD20, macrophage marker, CD68, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by immunohistochemistry. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the expression levels of the dental pulp to elucidate the role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and CD68 on vascular angiogenesis, inflammation and odontoblast differentiation in the pulp tissue of diabetic rats depending on the effect of possible damage induced by diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • El propósito de este estudio fue examinar los niveles de expresión en la pulpa dental para dilucidar el papel del Factor de Crecimiento Endotelial Vascular (VEGF) y el CD68 en la angiogénesis, la inflamación y la diferenciación de odontoblastos en el tejido pulpar de ratas diabéticas, dependiendo del efecto de daño inducido por la diabetes. (bvsalud.org)
  • El aumento en la expresión de VEGF y CD68 en el tejido de la pulpa debido al efecto de la diabetes puede retrasar el tratamiento de la pulpa al inducir hipoxia y daños en los tejidos blandos. (bvsalud.org)
  • Differential expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing (RALDH) enzymes during fetal development and organ differentiation in the mouse. (biaxin2020.site)
  • Insufficient Treg numbers or inadequate functional competence are implicated in idiopathic infertility and recurrent miscarriage as well as later-onset pregnancy complications stemming from placental insufficiency, including preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. (jci.org)
  • When keratinocytes withdraw from the cell cycle, they migrate from the basal to the superficial layers of the epidermis and undergo morphological and biochemical changes during the process of terminal differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Normally, the cross-linked envelope of the keratinocyte is formed in the last stage of its terminal differentiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These observations suggest that the onset of involucrin expression is an early marker of terminal differentiation (5 , 6 , 7) , although the mechanism responsible is not well understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Primary colonies could be replated for at least three generations in vitro and established primitive myelomonocytic cell lines upon transfer into suspension cultures supplemented with interleukin‐3 and stem cell factor. (embopress.org)
  • In this study, the investigators used the newly developed technique i.e. in vitro activation of dormant follicles (IVA) to promote ovarian follicle growth much more efficiently than natural, in vivo process for women with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI).Firstly, the investigators remove one ovary under laparoscopic surgery. (stanford.edu)
  • In conclusion, trabectedin has dual effects in liposarcoma: in addition to direct growth inhibition, it affects the tumor microenvironment by reducing the production of key inflammatory mediators. (lu.se)
  • By using a model system of transplanting tumors into an irradiated normal tissue to prevent angiogenesis, we found that tumors were unable to grow in matrix metalloproteinase-9 ( MMP-9 ) knockout mice, but tumor growth could be restored by transplantation of wild-type BM. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Tumor growth depends on the formation of new blood vessels for the supply of oxygen and nutrients through processes known as angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Overall, it appears that the regulation of haematopoiesis is the result of multiple processes involving cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, the action of specific growth factors and other cytokines, as well as intrinsic modulators of erifropoyesis development. (tabletfolie.website)
  • Expression is elevated in breast tumors and cell lines, and expression in xenografts and transgenic mice has been correlated with xenograft growth and breast cancer development. (phosphosite.org)
  • The proteome represents the net result of interactions between genetic background and environmental factors and may be considered as the signature of the disease, hereby circumventing the limitations of RNA transcriptional profiling. (bmj.com)