Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
A set of protein subcomplexes involved in PROTEIN SORTING of UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS into intraluminal vesicles of MULTIVESICULAR BODIES and in membrane scission during formation of intraluminal vesicles, during the final step of CYTOKINESIS, and during the budding of enveloped viruses. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of the protein products of Class E vacuolar protein sorting genes.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Endosomes containing intraluminal vesicles which are formed by the inward budding of the endosome membrane. Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) may fuse with other organelles such as LYSOSOMES or fuse back with the PLASMA MEMBRANE releasing their contents by EXOCYTOSIS. The MVB intraluminal vesicles released into the extracellular environment are known as EXOSOMES.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.
A large family of phosphatidylinositol phosphate-binding proteins that are involved in mediating intracellular transport and sorting of proteins via a variety of endocytic pathways.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
Vesicles formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of the protein CLATHRIN. Shortly after formation, however, the clathrin coat is removed and the vesicles are referred to as ENDOSOMES.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A clathrin adaptor protein complex primarily involved in clathrin-related transport at the TRANS-GOLGI NETWORK.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC (Formerly EC
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
An adaptor protein complex found primarily on perinuclear compartments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A member of the vesicle associated membrane protein family. It has a broad tissue distribution and is involved in MEMBRANE FUSION events of the endocytic pathways.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The engulfing of liquids by cells by a process of invagination and closure of the cell membrane to form fluid-filled vacuoles.
Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
A family of high molecular weight GTP phosphohydrolases that play a direct role in vesicle transport. They associate with microtubule bundles (MICROTUBULES) and are believed to produce mechanical force via a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Loss of expression of lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 is associated with GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE IIB.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HGS gene. HGS (gene ... Raiborg C, Bache KG, Mehlum A, Stang E, Stenmark H (2001). "Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes". EMBO J. 20 (17): 5008-21 ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated ... Lu L, Komada M, Kitamura N (August 1998). "Human Hrs, a tyrosine kinase substrate in growth factor-stimulated cells: cDNA ...
Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (August 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ... Upon stimulation by growth hormone, insulin, epidermal growth factor (EFG), etc., the GAB2 protein can be recruited from the ... PI3K activation by GAB2 promotes cell growth. The effects of all the pathways activated by GAB proteins are not known, but it ... GAB2 has been shown to be important in physiological functions such as growth in bone marrow and cardiac function. GAB2 has ...
Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (August 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ... Sakkab D, Lewitzky M, Posern G, Schaeper U, Sachs M, Birchmeier W, Feller SM (April 2000). "Signaling of hepatocyte growth ... "c-Cbl is involved in Met signaling in B cells and mediates hepatocyte growth factor-induced receptor ubiquitination". Journal ...
Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (Aug 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ... Sakkab D, Lewitzky M, Posern G, Schaeper U, Sachs M, Birchmeier W, Feller SM (Apr 2000). "Signaling of hepatocyte growth factor ... "Identification of Tyr-762 in the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor as the binding site for Crk proteins". Oncogene ...
consists of two phases: a hyphal growth phase and a reproductive (sporulation) phase. The switch between growth and ... Germination occurs both extracellularly or in type II pneumocyte endosomes containing conidia. Following germination, ... The fungus is capable of growth at 37 °C or 99 °F (normal human body temperature), and can grow at temperatures up to 50 °C or ... SrbA knockout mutants do not show any signs of in vitro growth in low oxygen, which is thought to be associated with the ...
Acidification inside the endosome induces translocation of the A subunit into the cytosol. Disulfide bonds are broken. The B ... The toxin binds to heparin-binding epidermal growth factor precursor (HB-EGF). The complex undergoes endocytosis by the host ... heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor). Administration of the toxin into the organism which does not naturally express this ... subunit remains in the endosome as a pore. The A subunit ADP-ribosylates host eEF-2. eEF-2 is required for protein synthesis; ...
HGS/HRS (hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate) has been found to bind and counteract the function of ... "STAM and Hrs are subunits of a multivalent ubiquitin-binding complex on early endosomes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... Steen H, Kuster B, Fernandez M, Pandey A, Mann M (January 2002). "Tyrosine phosphorylation mapping of the epidermal growth ... Row PE, Clague MJ, Urbé S (August 2005). "Growth factors induce differential phosphorylation profiles of the Hrs-STAM complex: ...
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, ... Syntaxin 6 functions in trans-Golgi network vesicle trafficking, perhaps targeting to endosomes in mammalian cells. Bone ... "FGFR2 - Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - FGFR2 gene & protein". UniProt. "MFAP3L - ...
Steen H, Kuster B, Fernandez M, Pandey A, Mann M (Jan 2002). "Tyrosine phosphorylation mapping of the epidermal growth factor ... "STAM and Hrs are subunits of a multivalent ubiquitin-binding complex on early endosomes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... "STAM and Hrs are subunits of a multivalent ubiquitin-binding complex on early endosomes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... by mass spectrometry and its involvement in growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling pathways". The Journal of Biological ...
This protein also has a role in sorting protease-activated receptor-1 from early endosomes to lysosomes. This protein may form ... 2001). "Sorting nexin 6, a novel SNX, interacts with the transforming growth factor-beta family of receptor serine-threonine ... 2001). "Self-assembly and binding of a sorting nexin to sorting endosomes". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 9): 1743-56. PMID 11309204. ... 2003). "Enterophilin-1, a new partner of sorting nexin 1, decreases cell surface epidermal growth factor receptor". J. Biol. ...
Stress fiber assembly at focal adhesions by mDia1 was later shown to promote their growth and stabilization, suggesting mDia1 ... mDia 1 localizes to endosomes and regulates phagocytic cup formation in macrophages. mDia1 (and mDia2) seems to stabilize ... Helps to localize mDia1 to endosomes Furthermore the scaffold protein (IQGAP1) seems to impact on mDia1. IQGAP1 regulates the ...
Thus the amino acid pathway as well as the growth factor/energy pathway converge on endosomes and lysosomes. Thus the Ragulator ... Upon growth factor binding to the adjacent receptor tyrosine kinase, the adaptor protein GRB2 binds with its SH2 domains. This ... Saucedo LJ, Gao X, Chiarelli DA, Li L, Pan D, Edgar BA (Jun 2003). "Rheb promotes cell growth as a component of the insulin/TOR ... Insulin-like growth factors can activate mTORC1 through the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-Akt/PKB signaling pathway. ...
This gene encodes a protein that may promote clustering and fusion of late endosomes and lysosomes. The protein may also act as ... an adaptor protein that modulates the transforming growth factor-beta response by coupling the transforming growth factor-beta ...
In response to DNA damage NDRG1 translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it may inhibit cell growth and promote ... It has been reported that NDRG1 localizes to the endosomes and is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling. As reviewed ... As reviewed by Kovacevic et al., NDRG1 is a potent, iron-regulated growth and metastasis suppressor that was found to be ... Kurdistani SK, Arizti P, Reimer CL, Sugrue MM, Aaronson SA, Lee SW (October 1998). "Inhibition of tumor cell growth by RTP/ ...
Overexpression of this gene results in a decrease in the processing of insulin and hepatocyte growth factor receptors to their ... This protein is involved in endosomal trafficking from the plasma membranee to recycling endosomes or the trans-Golgi network. ... Barr VA, Phillips SA, Taylor SI, Haft CR (Mar 2001). "Overexpression of a novel sorting nexin, SNX15, affects endosome ... the endoprotease responsible for cleavage of insulin and hepatocyte growth factor receptors. ...
Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate). SARA is present in an early endosome which, by clathrin-mediated ... The transforming growth factor receptor 3 (TGFBR3) is the most abundant of the TGF-β receptors yet, it has no known signaling ... The transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway is involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism ... Blobe GC, Liu X, Fang SJ, How T, Lodish HF (October 2001). "A novel mechanism for regulating transforming growth factor beta ( ...
The acidity of the endosome causes fragment B to create pores in the endosome membrane, thereby catalysing the release of ... subunit that gains the toxin entry into the host cell by binding to the EGF-like domain of heparin-binding EGF-like growth ... This signals the cell to internalize the toxin within an endosome via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the endosome, the ...
2008). "FGD2, a CDC42-specific exchange factor expressed by antigen-presenting cells, localizes to early endosomes and active ... Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 14 (3-4): 225-39. doi:10.1016/S1359-6101(03)00018-2. PMID 12787561. Huber C, Mårtensson A, Bokoch ...
"Rab5-mediated endosome-endosome fusion regulates hemoglobin endocytosis in Leishmania donovani". The EMBO Journal. 22 (21): ... "Leishmania requires Rab7-mediated degradation of endocytosed hemoglobin for their growth". Proceedings of the National Academy ... exchange factor and recruits non-prenylated Rab5 on Salmonella-containing phagosomes to promote fusion with early endosomes". ...
LDLR binds cholesterol-carrying LDL, associates with clathrin-coated pits, and is internalized into acidic endosomes where it ... epidermal growth factor precursor, and extracellular matrix components". J. Mol. Biol. 283 (4): 837-862. doi:10.1006/jmbi. ... preproepidermal growth factor, and nidogen (entactin). The LDLR regulates cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. ... "Acid-dependent ligand dissociation and recycling of LDL receptor mediated by growth factor homology region". Nature. 326 (6115 ...
The cells of these tumors have a growth factor receptor associated with tyrosine kinase activity. This growth factor receptor ... Some signals are produced from the actual cell surface in this case but other signals seem to emanate from within the endosomes ... Cellular growth and reproduction may rely to some degree on tyrosine kinase. Tyrosine kinase function has been observed in the ... Paracrine activates epidermal growth factor receptor in endothelial cells of the tumor to do this. Dasatinib is a Src tyrosine ...
The MPRs are packed into vesicles that bud off the late endosome and return to the trans-Golgi network. In this way, the MPRs ... I-cell disease Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor Mannose Mannose 1-phosphate Alberts, Bruce; et al. (2002). Molecular ... The pH in the late endosome can reach 6.0, which causes dissociation of M6P from its receptor. Upon release, the enzymes are ... The M6P-tagged lysosomal enzymes are shipped to the late endosomes via vesicular transport. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) ...
Features of Yunis-Varon syndrome include growth retardation before and after birth, defective growth of the bones of the skull ... Under expression, on the other hand, enhances endosome carrier and formation of vesicles/multivesicular bodies. Central nervous ... P2 demonstrates conserved function of mammalian FIG4 and late endosome-lysosome axis failure responsible for lack of apoptosis ...
Studies in mice suggest that the protein encoded by this gene may suppress growth in postmitotic neurons. Necdin is used to ... a slow route to the signaling endosome". J. Neurosci. 23 (8): 3209-20. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-08-03209.2003. PMC 6742322. ... NDN (gene) has been shown to interact with: E2F1, HNRNPU, IL1A, Low affinity nerve growth factor receptor, NUCB2, and P53 ... Nakada Y, Taniura H, Uetsuki T, Inazawa J, Yoshikawa K (1998). "The human chromosomal gene for necdin, a neuronal growth ...
Kim SW, Hayashi M, Lo JF, Yang Y, Yoo JS, Lee JD (2003). "ADP-ribosylation factor 4 small GTPase mediates epidermal growth ... "Role of ARF4L in recycling between endosomes and the plasma membrane". Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. 24 (1): 137-47. doi:10.1023/B:CEMN ... ARF4 has been shown to interact with Epidermal growth factor receptor and with RVxP motifs. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "ADP-ribosylation factor 4 small GTPase mediates epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent phospholipase D2 activation". J. ...
Li, J; Lu, Y; Zhang, J; Kang, H; Qin, Z; Chen, C (29 April 2010). "PI4KIIalpha is a novel regulator of tumor growth by its ... PI4K2A is associated mainly with the membranes of the trans Golgi network and early and late endosomes; its membrane ... Dysfunction of PI4K2A may contribute to tumour growth, spastic paraplegia, Gaucher's disease, or Alzheimer's disease. PI4K2A is ... Kinase Type II Alpha Contains an AP-3-sorting Motif and a Kinase Domain That Are Both Required for Endosome Traffic". Molecular ...
Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in ... Annexin A2 has been proposed to function inside the cell in sorting of endosomes and outside the cell in anticoagulant ... "Two human 35 kd inhibitors of phospholipase A2 are related to substrates of pp60v-src and of the epidermal growth factor ...
Marlin MC, Li G (2015). "Biogenesis and function of the NGF/TrkA signaling endosome". International Review of Cell and ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance ... "Human CD4+ T cell clones produce and release nerve growth factor and express high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors". The ... a protein whose expression is induced by NGF Neurotrophin Neurotrophin-3 Neurotrophin-4 Nerve growth factor receptor Growth ...
Cell growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migrationEdit. The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and ... Binding of SP to NK-1 results in internalization by the clathrin-dependent mechanism to the acidified endosomes where the ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures,[37] and it was shown that ... Reid TW, Murphy CJ, Iwahashi CK, Foster BA, Mannis MJ (Aug 1993). "Stimulation of epithelial cell growth by the neuropeptide ...
Inside the endosome, the decreased pH induces the fusion of the endosomal membrane with the virus envelope. The capsid enters ... Another direct approach is the isolation of the virus and its growth in cell culture using blood plasma; this can take 1-4 ...
endosome. • early endosome membrane. • cell projection. Biological process. • negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. ... growth cone. • neuromuscular junction. • intracellular. • protein complex. • axon. • nuclear outer membrane. • endoplasmic ... early endosome. • synaptic vesicle. • macromolecular complex. • sarcolemma. • synapse. • synaptic membrane. • integral ... regulation of epidermal growth factor-activated receptor activity. • regulation of resting membrane potential. • regulation of ...
early endosome membrane. • membrane. • bicellular tight junction. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • cell surface. • early ... endosome. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. Biological process. • G-protein coupled receptor ...
Neutrophil granules contain a variety of toxic substances that kill or inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. The main products ... the invading pathogen is contained inside an endosome which merges with a lysosome.[9] The lysosome contains enzymes and acids ...
This is directly related to the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as well.[84][87] This data supports the ... Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated to the endosomes ... In mammals, amino acid sensing and additional signals such as growth factors and reactive oxygen species regulate the activity ... The field of autophagy research experienced accelerated growth at the turn of the century. Knowledge of ATG genes provided ...
recycling endosome. • intracellular. • integral component of plasma membrane. • phagocytic cup. • external side of plasma ... negative regulation of growth of symbiont in host. • positive regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production. • ... Clark IA (June-August 2007). "How TNF was recognized as a key mechanism of disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18 (3-4): 335- ...
... interact with acidic endosomes and finally enter the target endosomes for genome release.[74] ... Although mortality is usually low, the virus can produce weight loss and poor growth, causing economic loss to farmers.[241] ... Once inside the cell, the acidic conditions in the endosome cause two events to happen: First, part of the hemagglutinin ... For example, Lymphocyte T-Cell Immune Modulator inhibits viral growth in the murine model of influenza.[225] ...
recycling endosome. • vesicle. • HFE-transferrin receptor complex. • late endosome. • blood microparticle. • basal part of cell ... "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". ... early endosome. • apical plasma membrane. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • clathrin-coated pit. • secretory granule lumen. ... endosome membrane. • extracellular exosome. • extracellular space. • clathrin-coated vesicle membrane. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • ...
endosome. • nucleoplasm. • membrane. • cell surface. • extracellular region. • extracellular space. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • ... "Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 22 (2): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2011.04.001. PMC 3994286. PMID 21531164.. ... IL-15 was discovered in 1994 by two different laboratories, and characterized as T cell growth factor.[5] Together with ... Preclinical results of NDV-modified tumor vaccine showed promise by controlling melanoma tumor growth in mice.[30] A ...
These endocytosed molecules are sorted into early endosomes within the cell, which serves to further sort these substances to ... down regulation of growth factor receptors' and as a mass regulator of the signaling circuit. This method of transport is ... the correct final destination (in the same way the Golgi does in the secretory pathway). From here, the early endosome starts a ...
Recycling endosomes within the dendritic spine contain pools of AMPA receptors for such synaptic reinsertion.[46] Two distinct ... Disruption of myosin Vb interaction with Rab11 and Rab11-FIP2 blocks spine growth and AMPA receptor trafficking.[41] Therefore ... Park M, Penick EC, Edwards JG, Kauer JA, Ehlers MD (September 2004). "Recycling endosomes supply AMPA receptors for LTP". ... "Myosin Vb mobilizes recycling endosomes and AMPA receptors for postsynaptic plasticity". Cell. 135 (3): 535-48. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Growth factors. *Chemokines. The enzymes and proteins listed above serve to reinforce the glycocalyx barrier against vascular ...
endosome. • lateral plasma membrane. • catenin complex. • actin cytoskeleton. • flotillin complex. • membrane. • extracellular ... "Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor 19 reduces tumor growth by modulating beta-catenin signaling". Cancer Research. 68 (13 ... Hazan RB, Norton L (April 1998). "The epidermal growth factor receptor modulates the interaction of E-cadherin with the actin ...
Transforming growth factor (Alpha) Epithelial cell Similar to Epidermal growth factor 4 Transforming growth factor (Beta) ... Stimulate growth of epidermal and epithelial cell 2 Platelet derived growth factor Platelets Stimulate growth of mesenchymal ... positive regulation of protein localization to early endosome. Sources:Amigo / QuickGO. Orthologs. ... Selected Polypeptide Growth Factors[11][edit]. Sr.No Growth factor Source Major function ...
recycling endosome. • Golgi apparatus. • plasma membrane. • intracellular. • presynaptic active zone. • axon. • early endosome ... positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of insulin secretion. • ... endosome. • nuclear envelope. • membrane. • synapse. • trans-Golgi network. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm ... Female GPER knockout mice display hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance, reduced body growth, and increased blood ...
endosome membrane. Биологический процесс. • negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • toll-like ... in virus-mediated signaling and regulation of cell growth». Biochimie. 80 (8-9): 651-8. doi:10.1016/S0300-9084(99)80018-2. PMID ...
Diment S, Martin KJ, Stahl PD (August 1989). "Cleavage of parathyroid hormone in macrophage endosomes illustrates a novel ... activation and degradation of polypeptide hormones and growth factors, activation of enzymatic precursors, processing of enzyme ...
Involved in growth and metastasis of some types of tumors.[24]. *Used in the endocrine system for peptide and amino-acid ... Whether or not a given receptor is trafficked to a lysosome, detained in endosomes, or trafficked back to the plasma membrane ... Downregulation occurs when endocytosed receptor is embedded in an endosome that is trafficked to merge with an organelle called ... hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), melanocortins, neuropeptide Y, opioid peptides, opsins, somatostatin, GH, tachykinins, members ...
Endosomes and lysosomes then fuse with the phagosome to contribute to the membrane, especially when the engulfed particle is ... "Intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in Dictyostelium discoideum, a system for genetic analysis of host-pathogen ... The phagosome moves along microtubules of the cytoskeleton, fusing with endosomes and lysosomes sequentially in a dynamic "kiss ... Rab5 recruits PI-3 kinase and other tethering proteins such as Vps34 to the phagosome membrane, so endosomes can deliver ...
early endosome. • membrane raft. • endosome membrane. • plasma membrane. • cytosol. • plasma membrane protein complex. • ... Arighi E, Borrello MG, Sariola H (2005). "RET tyrosine kinase signaling in development and cancer". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev ... endosome. • intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. • membrane. • receptor complex. • integral component of plasma membrane. ...
endosome. • late endosome. • centrosome. • chromosome. • midbody. • early endosome. • phagocytic vesicle. • endoplasmic ... 2007). "UVRAG: a new player in autophagy and tumor cell growth". Autophagy. 3 (1): 69-71. doi:10.4161/auto.3437. PMID 17106237. ...
early endosome. • endoplasmic reticulum. • podosome. • sarcolemma. • extracellular exosome. • external side of plasma membrane ... cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factor stimulus. • cell-matrix adhesion. • viral process. • response to ...
Since that time, the study of stress proteins has undergone explosive growth. ... hsp90 are also involved intracellulary in cytosolic pathway of cross-presentation where they help antigens to get from endosome ...
endosome membrane. • cell nucleus. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. Biological process. • positive regulation of type I interferon- ... in virus-mediated signaling and regulation of cell growth". Biochimie. 80 (8-9): 651-8. doi:10.1016/S0300-9084(99)80018-2. PMID ...
endosome. • early endosome. • early endosome membrane. • membrane. • Acrosome. • synapse. • presynapse. • postsynaptic endosome ... "Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is recruited to rafts and associates with endophilin A in response to epidermal growth ... "Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1, a novel neuronal protein that ...
platelet-derived growth factor receptor binds extracellular PDGF and, as a consequence, generates intracellular signals that ... Distinct types of membranes also create intracellular organelles: endosome; smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum; ...
Endocytosis of Activated TrkA: Evidence that Nerve Growth Factor Induces Formation of Signaling Endosomes. Mark L. Grimes, Jie ... Endocytosis of Activated TrkA: Evidence that Nerve Growth Factor Induces Formation of Signaling Endosomes ... Endocytosis of Activated TrkA: Evidence that Nerve Growth Factor Induces Formation of Signaling Endosomes ... Endocytosis of Activated TrkA: Evidence that Nerve Growth Factor Induces Formation of Signaling Endosomes ...
Plant tip growth has been recognized as an actin-based cellular process requiring targeted exocytosis and compensatory ... endocytosis to occur at the growth cone. However, the identity of subcellular compartments involved in polarized membrane ... Actin-based motility of endosomes is linked to the polar tip growth of root hairs Eur J Cell Biol. 2005 Jun;84(6):609-21. doi: ... We also show that both the presence of endosomes as well as their rapid movements within the tip region depends on an intact ...
Pincher, a pinocytic chaperone for nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling endosomes. J. Cell Biol. 157:679-691. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Pincher-generated Nogo-A endosomes mediate growth cone collapse and retrograde signaling. Armela Joset, Dana A. Dodd, Simon ... Here, we show that NogoΔ20 actions on growth cone collapse require signaling from endosomes that contain activated Rho. ... Thus, Pincher-dependent macroendocytosis leads to the formation of Nogo-A signaling endosomes, which act both within growth ...
E) ZEBO-VLPs do not associate with markers of caveolae or clathrin-coated endosomes. Vero cells were preincubated with gfpZEBO- ... Control cells were incubated with growth medium alone (none). Cells were then washed and incubated with medium containing ... fresh growth medium was added to cells, which were then incubated at 37°C. At the indicated time cells were fixed, ... the virus enters the endolysosomal pathway and is trafficked through early and late endosomes, but the exact site of membrane ...
Endocytosis and intracellular sorting of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors play an important regulatory role in ... Endocytosis and intracellular sorting of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors play an important regulatory role in ... caveolin-1-positive early endosomes). We further showed that the caveolin-1-positive early endosomes are positive for Smad3/ ... Internalization of the TGF-β type I receptor into caveolin-1 and EEA1 double-positive early endosomes Cell Res. 2015 Jun;25(6): ...
IPR009030, Growth_fac_rcpt_cys_sf. IPR011641, Tyr-kin_ephrin_A/B_rcpt-like. ... Endosome/lysosome-associated apopto.... Endosome/lysosome-associated apoptosis and autophagy regulator family member 2 ( ... Endosome. Peroxisome. ER. Golgi apparatus. Nucleus. Mitochondrion. Manual annotation. Automatic computational assertion. ... Endosome/lysosome-associated apoptosis and autophagy regulator family member 2Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported ...
6 and 7). These data suggest that SNX16 plays an active role in promoting synaptic growth at the endosome, aside from its ... Mammalian SNX16 promotes the traffic of growth factor receptors from early to late endosomes (Hanson and Hong, 2003; Choi et al ... We examined NMJ growth in single and double mutants. hrs mutants have been shown to have no defect in synaptic growth (Lloyd et ... Unrestricted synaptic growth in spinster-a late endosomal protein implicated in TGF-beta-mediated synaptic growth regulation. ...
... ... Anterograde transport of late endosomes or lysosomes (LE/Lys) is crucial for proper axon growth. However, the role of energetic ... Sensing of nutrients by CPT1C regulates late endosome/lysosome anterograde transport and axon growth. ca. ... Sensing of nutrients by CPT1C regulates late endosome/lysosome anterograde transport and axon growth. eLife, 2019, 8, e51063. ...
Anterograde transport of late endosomes or lysosomes (LE/Lys) is crucial for proper axon growth. However, the role of energetic ... Sensing of nutrients by CPT1C regulates late endosome/lysosome anterograde transport and axon growth. ... Sensing of nutrients by CPT1C regulates late endosome/lysosome anterograde transport and axon growth. eLife, 2019, 8, e51063. ... and give insight into how axon growth is controlled by nutrients. ...
Spict is found on early endosomes. Loss of Spict leads to upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and ... Unrestricted synaptic growth in spinster-a late endosomal protein implicated in TGF-β-mediated synaptic growth regulation. ... Wishful thinking encodes a BMP type II receptor that regulates synaptic growth in Drosophila. Neuron 33, 545-558 (2002). ... Drosophila spichthyin inhibits BMP signaling and regulates synaptic growth and axonal microtubules. *Xinnan Wang1. , ...
... growth in poor nitrogen sources. Class C and D Vps proteins mediate docking and fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with endosomes ... 2 D and E). Class D VPS genes function in the trans Golgi-to-endosome protein sorting route and play roles in fusion of Golgi- ... derived vesicles to late endosomes (22). Our results and these observations suggest that Golgi-to-endosome trafficking is an ... Golgi-to-Endosome Trafficking Is Required for Efficient Gln3 Translocation to the Nucleus in Response to Poor Nitrogen Source. ...
Formation of neurotrophin endosomes in growth cones. Retrograde neurotrophin signaling starts at axonal growth cones with ... Snapin recruits dynein to BDNF-TrkB signaling endosomes for retrograde axonal transport and is essential for dendrite growth of ... Signaling endosome-mediated events in cell bodies and dendrites. On reaching cell bodies, Trk-harboring endosomes stimulate ... Signaling endosome-mediated events in cell bodies and dendrites. *Defects in signaling endosomes in neurodevelopmental ...
This removes the signaling portion of the protein from the cytosol and thus prevents continued stimulation of growth - in cells ... There are three different types of endosomes: early endosomes, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes. They are distinguished ... Early endosomes then mature into late endosomes before fusing with lysosomes. Early endosomes mature in several ways to form ... a process that begins in early endosomes. When the endosome has matured into a late endosome/MVB and fuses with a lysosome, the ...
ESCRT-0 protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is targeted to endosomes independently of ... hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate. Names. human growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate. ... Title: Beclin 1 Promotes Endosome Recruitment of Hepatocyte Growth Factor Tyrosine Kinase Substrate to Suppress Tumor ... Title: ESCRT-0 protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) is targeted to endosomes ...
Epidermal growth factor and membrane trafficking. EGF receptor activation of endocytosis requires Rab5a. Barbieri, M.A., ... PtdIns(3)P binding by the FYVE domain of human early endosome autoantigen 1 (EEA1), a protein implicated in endosome fusion, ... The mutant full-length EEA1 caused the accumulation of endosome clusters and suppressed the enlargement of endosomes caused by ... By contrast, depletion of RabGAP-5 results in increased endosome size, more endosome-associated EEA1, and disrupts the ...
Flux of signalling endosomes undergoing axonal retrograde transport is encoded by presynaptic activity and TrkB. Nat. Commun. 7 ... Deacetylation of Miro1 by HDAC6 blocks mitochondrial transport and mediates axon growth inhibition. J. Cell Biol. 218, 1871- ... Villarroel-Campos, D., Schiavo, G. & Lazo, O. M. The many disguises of the signalling endosome. FEBS Lett. 592, 3615-3632 (2018 ... Late endosomes act as mRNA translation platforms and sustain mitochondria in axons. Cell 176, 56-72 (2019). ...
M.-C. Hung, G. B. Mills, D. Yu, Oxygen sensor boots growth factor signaling. Nat. Med. 15, 246-247 (2009). [PubMed] ... Cells in which HIF-2α was stabilized failed to form giant endosomes upon transfection with an activated form of Rab5, and in ... Adaptation to hypoxic conditions and hyperactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are two well-characterized ... Hypoxic conditions or forced stabilization of HIF-2α inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor delivery to lysosomes. ...
View mouse Fgf10 Chr13:118669791-118792115 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
J:41070 Smallwood PM, et al., Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factors: new members of the FGF family implicated in ...
Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes. J Neurosci Off J Soc Neurosci. 2001;21:5406-16.CrossRef ... Signaling of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) to the small GTPase Rap1 via the large docking protein Gab1 and the ... Identification of the mechanisms regulating the differential activation of the mapk cascade by epidermal growth factor and ... nerve growth factor in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:18169-77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Endosome and INPP4B. Chen, Ming; Chew, Chen Li; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo (Oncotarget, 2016-01) ... Epidermal growth factor regulates hematopoietic regeneration after radiation injury. Chao, Nelson J; Chute, JP; Deoliviera, D; ... We identified epidermal growth factor (EGF) to be highly enriched in the bone marrow serum of ... ...
Direct transport from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is an essential step that allows the toxins to bypass degradative ... Here, we review the recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the early endosome-to-Golgi transport of STx, ... STx1, and STx2, as well as the development of small-molecule inhibitors of toxin trafficking that act at the endosome/Golgi ... late endosomes and lysosomes. The essentiality of this transport step also makes it an ideal target for the development of ...
"Additionally, a protein called POSH accumulates on endosomes. Removing POSH from Drosophila flies restored synaptic growth to ... This data points to defective endosome function as creating defective "synaptic growth regulation during neurodegenerative ... Altered endosome function was also seen. This means that material within cells is not broken down correctly. ... Hence, it is now thought that RAB8 is involved in regulating the growth of neurons which are damaged in frontotemporal dementia ...
Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HGS gene. HGS (gene ... Raiborg C, Bache KG, Mehlum A, Stang E, Stenmark H (2001). "Hrs recruits clathrin to early endosomes". EMBO J. 20 (17): 5008-21 ... PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Hepatocyte growth factor-regulated ... Lu L, Komada M, Kitamura N (August 1998). "Human Hrs, a tyrosine kinase substrate in growth factor-stimulated cells: cDNA ...
nerve growth factor receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • signaling receptor binding. Cellular component. • endosome. • ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance ... Nerve growth factor has been shown to interact with Tropomyosin receptor kinase A[6][54][15] and p75NTR (LNGFR).[6][54] ... "Human CD4+ T cell clones produce and release nerve growth factor and express high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors". The ...
Giardia lamblia: ultrastructural basis of protein transport during growth and encystation. Exp. Parasitol. 79:220-235. [PubMed] ... A Contiguous Compartment Functions as Endoplasmic Reticulum and Endosome/Lysosome in Giardia lamblia. † Marla Abodeely,1,2,‡ ... Evolving endosomes: how many varieties and why? Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 17:423-434. [PubMed] ... We acknowledge an alternative explanation that a more classical endosome compartment lies adjacent to the ER or is in direct ...
consists of two phases: a hyphal growth phase and a reproductive (sporulation) phase. The switch between growth and ... Germination occurs both extracellularly or in type II pneumocyte endosomes containing conidia.[11][14] Following germination, ... The fungus is capable of growth at 37 °C or 99 °F (normal human body temperature), and can grow at temperatures up to 50 °C or ... filamentous hyphal growth results in epithelial penetration and subsequent penetration of the vascular endothelium.[11][14] The ...
... endosomes (CLONTECH, 2000), cytosolic calcium concentration (Miyawaki et al., 1997), and GTPases in their activated states ( ... growth cones (LBD growth cones) still maintain the normal course of navigation. In another example, growth cones (SNb growth ... Roles of Cdc42 in a growth cone. A, Cdc42 activation in some growth cones (LBD growth cones) enhances filopodia activity. An ... 1993) Growth cone dynamics during the migration of an identified commissural growth cone. J Neurosci 13:127-143. ...
... loss of function experiments reveals how dynamic ESCRT-III/Vps4 assemblies succeed in reverse membrane budding on endosomes. ... e) Effect of canavanine in the growth of yeast cells. Canavanine sensitivity assays were carried with different strains as ... Composition of Vps4 in the cytosol of wt cells and on the endosomes in pep12Δ mutants.. (a - d) Cytosolic Vps4-eGFP is mostly a ... Dynamics of Vps4E233Q-eGFP recruitment to endosomes of yeast cells visualized using LLSM.. Related to Figure 3. The 51 s 3D ...
Localized at cell membrane and early endosomes before nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation. Recruited to late endosomes after ... Early endosome membrane. Late endosome membrane. Internalized to endosomes upon binding of NGF or NTF3 and further transported ...
  • Under the regulation of Rab5, the fused vesicles are targeted to early endosomes and thus deliver the internalized TβRI to the caveolin-1 and EEA1 double-positive early endosomes (caveolin-1-positive early endosomes). (
  • Therefore, SNX5 is localized to a subdomain of the early endosome distinct from EEA1 and, following EGF stimulation and elevation of PtdIns(3,4) P 2 , is also transiently recruited to the plasma membrane. (
  • The absence of all three EndophilinAs caused TrkB to accumulate in EEA1 and Rab7-positive endosomes, and impaired BDNF-TrkB-dependent survival signaling cascades. (
  • 6 In particular, EGFR activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) 7 and AKT 8 signaling from EEA1-positive (early endosome antigen 1) early endosomes. (
  • None of the known markers of early endosomes [Early Endosomes Antigen 1 (EEA1), Rab5 and Rab11] colocalized with the CD2AP/CMS-positive vesicles. (
  • However, coexpression of Rab4-Q67L with CD2AP/CMS induces a significant enlargement of EEA1-positive early endosomes. (
  • The survival, differentiation, and maintenance of responsive neurons are regulated by nerve growth factor (NGF), which is secreted by the target and interacts with receptors on the axon tip. (
  • Endocytosis and intracellular sorting of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptors play an important regulatory role in TGF-β signaling. (
  • Therefore, these findings uncover a novel scenario of endocytosis, the direct fusion of clathrin-coated and caveolae vesicles during TGF-β receptor endocytic trafficking, which leads to the formation of the multifunctional sorting device, caveolin-1-positive early endosomes, for TGF-β receptors. (
  • Synaptic growth factor receptors alter their signaling properties during transit through the endocytic pathway, but the mechanisms controlling cargo traffic between endocytic compartments remain unclear. (
  • SNX16 promotes synaptic growth signaling by activated bone morphogenic protein receptors, and live imaging in neurons reveals that SNX16-positive early endosomes undergo transient interactions with Nwk-containing recycling endosomes. (
  • Key mechanisms of action of target-derived neurotrophins include the cell biological processes of endocytosis and retrograde trafficking of their Trk receptors from growth cones to cell bodies. (
  • Neurotrophins, which include nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), and NT4 (also known as NT5), initiate signals at axonal growth cones by binding specific Trk receptors, with TrkA responding primarily to NGF, TrkB to BDNF and NT4/5, and TrkC to NT-3 [ 1 ]. (
  • Currently, numerous lines of evidence support a model in which neurotrophin-bound Trk receptors are also internalized into "signaling endosomes" that include activated components of these downstream effector pathways [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • Removal of recycling molecules such as transferrin receptors and mannose 6-phosphate receptors continues during this period, probably via budding of vesicles out of endosomes. (
  • Beclin 1 promoted endosomal recruitment of hepatocyte growth factor tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS), which was necessary for sorting surface receptors to intraluminal vesicles for signal silencing and lysosomal degradation. (
  • During pathfinding, receptors for guidance cues activate signaling cascades in the growth cone that promote cytoskeletal remodeling and consequently alter growth cone morphology and migration. (
  • Mediates down-regulation of growth factor signaling via internalization of growth factor receptors. (
  • Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) controls cellular activities through the activation of specific cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs). (
  • Detailed understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinases, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs), is an important goal of current biomedical research because these transmembrane proteins are commonly involved in many kinds of human cancers and other pathological conditions, including skeletal and olfactory syndromes and metabolic disorders. (
  • We have prepared a conjugate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and ferritin that retains substantial binding affinity for cell receptors and is biologically active. (
  • The GARP complex is required for the maintenance of the cycling of mannose 6-phosphate receptors between the TGN and endosomes, this cycling is necessary for proper lysosomal sorting of acid hydrolases such as CTSD (PubMed:18367545). (
  • The sorting of activated receptors into distinct endosomal compartments is essential to activate specific signaling cascades and cellular events including growth and survival. (
  • During the past decades, extensive studies have shown how extracellular factors (neurotrophic or guidance), through their receptors and downstream signaling mediators, control axon assembly or pathfinding locally at the growth cone ( Lowery and Van Vactor, 2009 ). (
  • Plant signaling endosomes and endosome trafficking Klyachko, N. 2010-03-25 00:00:00 A discovery of a possibility for signal transduction from endosomes differing quantitatively and qualitatively from signaling from the plasma membrane became a reliably proved fact for animal and yeast receptors but was unaddressed by plant researches for a long time. (
  • We propose that AMSH is a deubiquitinating enzyme with functions at the endosome, which oppose the ubiquitin-dependent sorting of receptors to lysosomes. (
  • To date, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been one of the best-studied receptors in regard to the connection between its trafficking and signaling. (
  • APP similarly retarded degradation of TrkB receptors through late endosomes. (
  • Growth signals typically come in the form of chemical agonists outside of cells that bind to protein receptors on cells. (
  • Activated receptors are responsible for transmitting the signal to the inside of the cell, ultimately generating a growth messenger called PIP3. (
  • Two years ago, research out of UW-Madison Professor Richard Anderson's lab found that some of these agonist-stimulated receptors continue to transmit the signal even after they have been pulled into the cell, sequestered in vesicles called endosomes and presumably on their way to being degraded. (
  • We further showed that the caveolin-1-positive early endosomes are positive for Smad3/SARA, Rab11 and Smad7/Smurf2, and may act as a multifunctional device for TGF-β signaling and TGF-β receptor recycling and degradation. (
  • Retrograde neurotrophin signaling starts at axonal growth cones with ligand binding, Trk receptor dimerization and phosphorylation on specific tyrosine residues, and initiation of signaling cascades, which includes activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase)-, Ras/MAPK-, and phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)-mediated pathways [ 2 ]. (
  • The predominant mode of Trk receptor internalization in growth cones has been debated, with evidence to support both clathrin-dependent endocytosis and Pincher-mediated macropinocytosis, a process that involves plasma membrane ruffling and actions of actin-regulatory small GTPases [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Upon reaching early endosomes, the LDL dissociates from the receptor, and the receptor can be recycled to the cell surface. (
  • The Role of Ubiquitination and Hepatocyte Growth Factor-Regulated Tyrosine Kinase Substrate in the Degradation of the Adrenomedullin Type I Receptor. (
  • Adaptation to hypoxic conditions and hyperactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are two well-characterized cellular processes that contribute to oncogenesis and poor prognosis in patients with cancer (see Hung et al . (
  • Hypoxic conditions or forced stabilization of HIF-2α inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor delivery to lysosomes. (
  • TrkB-deficient ( trkBTK −/− ) mouse motoneurons which express no full-length trkB receptor and wildtype motoneurons cultured without BDNF exhibited reduced spontaneous Ca 2+ transients that corresponded to altered axon elongation and defects in growth cone morphology which was accompanied by changes in the local actin cytoskeleton. (
  • Prevention of the phosphorylation of Ser 777 in FGFR1 or mutation of Ser 777 to alanine enhanced FGF-stimulated receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and increased cell proliferation, cell migration, and axonal growth. (
  • Objective- Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates vascular physiology. (
  • When epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) clathrin-dependent endocytosis is inhibited by a mutant dynamin, EGF-stimulated signaling is enhanced. (
  • 13 Another RTK, the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, can also form endosomal signaling complexes in neurons. (
  • The book highlights different aspects of current understanding of neurotrophin-receptor signal transduction pathways, including the signaling endosome hypothesis. (
  • By quantitative high-resolution FRET microscopy, we found that phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (p-EGFR) is not randomly distributed but packaged at constant mean amounts in endosomes. (
  • Appropriately sorted proteins, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), are incorporated into MVEs before transport to the lysosomal compartment, where degradation occurs. (
  • And then EGFR, the epidermal growth factor receptor is also involved in this induction. (
  • Targeting of AMSH to endosomes is required for epidermal growth factor receptor degradation. (
  • The deubiquitinating enzyme USP8 promotes trafficking and degradation of the chemokine receptor 4 at the sorting endosome. (
  • We have looked for similar activity in associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM (AMSH), a JAMM domain-containing protein that associates with the SH3-domain of STAM, a protein, which regulates receptor sorting at the endosome. (
  • The mutant mice with the higher endosome acidity also had more degradation of a receptor protein, called TrkB, that responds a neurotrophic factor called BDNF. (
  • Endocytosis and subsequent intracellular trafficking spatiotemporally regulate receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, whereas signaling endosomes provide a platform for the compartmentalization of signaling events. (
  • This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase endocytosis and signaling using vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 as a paradigm. (
  • Among these, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2) and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1), are essential regulators of such essential EC activities as proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, and vascular permeability. (
  • We have investigated the interaction between GH (growth hormone) and GHR (GH receptor). (
  • We have been investigating the interaction of GH (growth hormone) with its receptor and investigating approaches to manipulate receptor signalling. (
  • Insulin-like growth factor one receptor (IGF1R) has recently been identified as a mediator of retrograde axonal transport. (
  • This receptor tyrosine kinase plays an integral role in cell growth, survival and anti-apoptotic processes. (
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are members of the ErbB family of RTKs that are of particular importance in breast cancer. (
  • Rab7 controls the degradation pathway and is responsible for receptor sorting in late endosomes and transport to lysosomes for degradation ( 7 ). (
  • The transferrin receptor (TfR) is processed by the recycling of early endosomes, and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is shuttled through late endosomes. (
  • and ( iii ) recent studies have shown genetic interactions between TORC1 and different components of the protein-sorting machinery, including those of the class C Vps complex that functions in docking and fusion of vesicles with the Golgi, endosomes, and vacuoles (refs. (
  • Once endocytic vesicles have uncoated, they fuse with early endosomes. (
  • They also increase in size due to the homotypic fusion of early endosomes into larger vesicles. (
  • Early endosomes consist of a dynamic tubular-vesicular network (vesicles up to 1 µm in diameter with connected tubules of approx. (
  • Late endosomes, also known as MVBs, are mainly spherical, lack tubules, and contain many close-packed intraluminal vesicles. (
  • Late endosomes/MVBs are sometimes called endocytic carrier vesicles, but this term was used to describe vesicles that bud from early endosomes and fuse with late endosomes. (
  • RT "The KEEP ON GOING protein of Arabidopsis recruits the ENHANCED RT DISEASE RESISTANCE1 protein to trans-Golgi network/early endosome RT vesicles. (
  • Together with EDR1, CC may regulate endocytic trafficking and/or the formation of CC signaling complexes on trans-Golgi network (TGN)/ early endosome CC (EE) vesicles during stress responses. (
  • MVEs arise by invagination of the limiting membrane of an endosomal vesicle such that many small internal vesicles are formed, hence the term "multivesicular endosome. (
  • IFITM3 may also redirect IAV to a non-productive pathway by promoting fusion with intralumenal vesicles of late endosomes instead of their limiting membrane. (
  • These vesicles fuse with early endosomes via the action of Rab5, a member of the Rab family of small GTPases that collectively coordinate many stages of membrane trafficking. (
  • However, these proteins also restrict Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) that appears to fuse with early endosomes [18] . (
  • Plant tip growth has been recognized as an actin-based cellular process requiring targeted exocytosis and compensatory endocytosis to occur at the growth cone. (
  • Internalization of NogoΔ20 into the signaling endosomes is clathrin independent and occurs by Pincher-dependent endocytosis. (
  • For such viruses, endocytosis is required to bring the virus into the acidic environment of the early-to-late-stage endosome. (
  • Multivesicular endosomes (MVEs) are complex intracellular organelles that function in endocytosis. (
  • The small GTPase Rab4 is involved in endocytosis through sorting and recycling early endosomes. (
  • Here, we show that mutations in class C and D Vps components, which mediate Golgi-to-endosome vesicle transport, impair nuclear translocation of Gln3, NCR gene activation, and growth in poor nitrogen sources. (
  • These results reveal a role for Golgi-to-endosome vesicular trafficking in TORC1-controlled nuclear translocation of Gln3 and support a model in which Tor-mediated signaling in response to nutrient cues occurs in these compartments. (
  • Moreover, class D vps mutants exhibit similar defects, implicating Golgi-to-endosome trafficking as a critical event for Gln3 regulation. (
  • We conclude that Golgi-to-endosome trafficking is an obligate step for the Gln3 route to the nucleus, and we suggest a model in which Tor signaling to nitrogen-regulated transactivators occurs on endosomal membranes. (
  • Molecules are also transported to endosomes from the trans Golgi network and either continue to lysosomes or recycle back to the Golgi apparatus. (
  • Direct transport from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is an essential step that allows the toxins to bypass degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. (
  • Acts as component of the GARP complex that is involved in retrograde transport from early and late endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (
  • Required for membrane traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and endosome recycling (PubMed:23897888). (
  • Endosome-associated EGFR can still autophosphorylate and recruit various effectors such as Grb2, a mediator of Ras and MAPK signaling. (
  • Regulation of EGFR signal transduction by analogue-to-digital conversion in endosomes. (
  • Cells respond to higher EGF concentrations by increasing the number of endosomes but keeping the mean p-EGFR content per endosome almost constant. (
  • Different growth factors caused specific changes in endosome number and size in various cell systems and changing the distribution of p-EGFR between endosomes was sufficient to reprogram cell-fate decision upon EGF stimulation. (
  • A) Distribution histogram of the differences in intensitybetween individual endosomes in consecutive frames during sequentialphoto-bleaching of EGFR-GFP (see 'Materials and methods' fordetails). (
  • To test this possibility, we imaged the spatialdistribution of p-EGFR in endosomes using the anti-EGFR phosphoTyr1068 antibody bysuper-resolution microscopy. (
  • Basedon the fluorescence signal from the anti-phosphoTyr1068 antibody and EGFR-GFP, weestimated an average of 102 ± 38 and 76 ± 29 (Mean ± SEM) moleculesof EGFR and p-EGFR per endosome 30 min after EGF (10 ng/ml) internalization (Figure 2-figure supplement 3),corresponding to 707 ± 265 and 527 ± 202 molecules perμm3 of endosomal volume (apparent, assessed by light microscopy),respectively. (
  • Some material recycles to the plasma membrane directly from early endosomes, but most traffics via recycling endosomes. (
  • For example, VEGFR2 plasma membrane activation leads to trafficking to endosomes and degradation in lysosomes. (
  • In this lecture, I describe briefly recent progress in this research area and also the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in endosome transport from the plasma membrane to acceptor compartments. (
  • Identification of the mechanisms regulating the differential activation of the mapk cascade by epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor in PC12 cells. (
  • Epidermal growth factor regulates hematopoietic regeneration after radiation injury. (
  • Translocation of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) to the nucleus has distinct kinetics between adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and a mesenchymal cancer cell lineage. (
  • Recently, we established the novel role of epidermal growth factor in water reabsorption. (
  • It is also shown that following internalization, the virus enters the endolysosomal pathway and is trafficked through early and late endosomes, but the exact site of membrane fusion and nucleocapsid penetration in the cytoplasm remains unclear. (
  • Our results define a presynaptic trafficking pathway mediated by SNX16, NWK, and the ESCRT complex that functions to control synaptic growth signaling at the interface between endosomal compartments. (
  • Vice versa , the acute application of BDNF resulted in the induction of spontaneous Ca 2+ transients and Ca v 2.2 clustering in motor growth cones, as well as the activation of trkB downstream signaling cascades which promoted the stabilization of β-actin via the LIM kinase pathway and phosphorylation of profilin at Tyr129. (
  • Thus, MVEs operate in the endosome-to-lysosome portion of the pathway. (
  • An important gene associated with Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency, Type Ii is GH1 (Growth Hormone 1), and among its related pathways/superpathways are TGF-Beta Pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway . (
  • We propose that CD2AP/CMS, through interactions with Rab4 and c-Cbl, controls early endosome morphology and may play a role in traffic between early and late endosomes, and thus in the degradative pathway. (
  • Researchers from the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and Carbone Cancer Center have better defined a pro-growth signaling pathway common to many cancers that, when blocked, kills cancer cells but leaves healthy cells comparatively unharmed. (
  • However, it is specifically this pathway, mediated through IQGAP1, that is required for the growth and survival of cancer cells but not normal cells. (
  • Nwk (Nervous Wreck) is a presynaptic F-BAR/SH3 protein that regulates synaptic growth signaling in Drosophila melanogaster . (
  • To evaluate the model that Cdc42 activation regulates growth cone navigation by promoting filopodial activity, we adopted a live analysis strategy that uses transgenic Drosophila lines in which neurons coexpressed constitutively active Cdc42 (Cdc42 V12 ) and membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein. (
  • Recruited by IST1 to endosomes and regulates early endosomal tubulation and recycling by mediating microtubule severing (PubMed:23897888). (
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a cytokine that regulates many cellular processes, including cellular adhesion, proliferation and apoptosis. (
  • this leads to the multivesicular appearance of late endosomes and so they are also known as multivesicular endosomes or multivesicular bodies (MVBs). (
  • Interestingly, in our immunolabeling and confocal analysis performed in cultured astrocytes we found that small VAMP3-, VGLUT1-, and glutamate-positive SLMVs, large phogrin-positive DCGs, and lysosomes positive for markers of multivesicular bodies and late endosomes or early and recycling endosomes exist in the same astrocytes. (
  • Essential role in endosome membrane invagination and formation of multivesicular bodies, MVBs. (
  • Multivesicular bodies, or late endosomes, deliver membrane proteins to lysosomes for degradation, and Aβ42 co-localizes strongly with markers of late endosomes. (
  • Cellular entry of ebola virus involves uptake by a macropinocytosis-like mechanism and subsequent trafficking through early and late endosomes. (
  • Spict is found on early endosomes. (
  • Endosomes can be classified as early, sorting, or late depending on their stage post internalization. (
  • LDL dissociates because of the slightly acidified environment of the early endosome, generated by a vacuolar membrane proton pump V-ATPase. (
  • There are three different types of endosomes: early endosomes, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes. (
  • Early endosomes then mature into late endosomes before fusing with lysosomes. (
  • Early endosomes mature in several ways to form late endosomes. (
  • Many molecules that are recycled are removed by concentration in the tubular regions of early endosomes. (
  • Phosphatidyl inositol phosphates (PIPs), one of the most important lipid signaling molecules, is found to differ as the endosomes mature from early to late. (
  • This is the expected traffic result for endocytic cargo as it transits through the early endosome compartment mostly located in the cell periphery towards the multivesicular late endosomes or MBVs most often found next to the vacuole. (
  • The mammalian endosomal system consists of a heterogeneous set of compartments, including early endosomes, recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes ( Mellman, 1996 ). (
  • RESULTS: Immunoblotting showed that endosomal fraction was enriched with Rab5 (96.23+2.38%, n=6) and Rab11 (95.01+3.96%, n=6), markers of early and recycling endosomes respectively. (
  • Moreover, EndophilinAs are differentially localized to, co-traffic with, and tubulate, distinct endosomal compartments: In response to BDNF, EndophilinA2 is recruited to both early and late endosomes, EndophilinA3 is recruited to Lamp1-positive late endosomes, and co-trafficks with Rab5 and Rab7 in both the presence and absence of BDNF, while EndophilinA1 colocalizes at lower levels with endosomes. (
  • Methods and Results- Quiescent VEGFR2 displays endosomal localization and colocalization with the Rab5a GTPase, an early endosome fusion regulator. (
  • Conclusions- Rab5a and Rab7a regulate VEGFR2 trafficking toward early and late endosomes. (
  • Such a constant mean amount may be due to the formation ofsmall clusters within early endosomes. (
  • Required for retrograde early endosome (EE) transport from the hyphal tip. (
  • GNAS and GPR101 mutations that arise in early embryonic age can lead to somatic mosaicism involving the pituitary gland and resulting in growth hormone excess. (
  • Early, recycling endosomes shuttle membrane proteins back to the cell membrane, and Aβ42 co-localizes weakly with them. (
  • Coexpression of c-Cbl and CD2AP/CMS also resulted in an enlargement of early endosomes. (
  • Using various truncated forms of CD2AP/CMS, we demonstrate that early endosomes enlargement requires that CD2AP/CMS interacts with both Rab4 and c-Cbl. (
  • NGF Signaling in Sensory Neurons: Evidence That Early Endosomes Carry NGF Retrograde Signals Neuron. (
  • Our results are evidence that signaling endosomes, with the characteristics of early endosomes, convey NGF signals from the target of nociceptive neurons to their cell bodies. (
  • These findings have important implications for nutrient sensing and growth control via mTor pathways in metazoans. (
  • Loss of these tubules to recycling pathways means that late endosomes mostly lack tubules. (
  • Each of these endocytic pathways appears to converge on acidified endosomes ( 38 ), and drugs that block endosomal acidification can be potent antivirals ( 56 ). (
  • We review signaling pathways that control local axon assembly at the growth cone and gene expression in the soma during developmental or regenerative axon growth and discuss the potential involvement of GSK3 signaling in these processes, with a particular focus on how GSK3 signaling modulates the function of axon growth-associated transcription factors. (
  • In this review, we summarize signaling pathways that regulate local axon assembly or gene expression during axon growth and discuss the potential role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling in these two processes, with a particular focus on regulation of gene expression. (
  • Here, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for the presence within DRG neurons of endosomes containing NGF, activated TrkA, and signaling proteins of the Rap1/Erk1/2, p38MAPK, and PI3K/Akt pathways. (
  • Cells in which HIF-2α was stabilized failed to form giant endosomes upon transfection with an activated form of Rab5, and in cells exposed to fluorescently labeled EGF the internalized ligand persisted in cells lacking in VHL. (
  • Elevated HIF-2α, either due to exposure to low oxygen conditions or loss of VHL function, correlated with reduced abundance of rabaptin-5, which is necessary for Rab5-mediated endosome fusion. (
  • Owing to the presence of specific subunits, CORVET is a Rab5 effector complex, whereas HOPS can bind efficiently to late endosomes and lysosomes through Rab7. (
  • Internalized RTK undergoes trafficking to Rab5-positive endosomes, where they are sorted for either degradation or recycling. (
  • Manipulation of Rab7a GTPase activity associated with late endosomes using overexpression of wild-type or mutant proteins blocks activated VEGFR2 trafficking and degradation. (
  • Endosomes are a collection of intracellular sorting organelles in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Endosomes represent a major sorting compartment of the endomembrane system in cells. (
  • As its name suggests, NGF is involved primarily in the growth, as well as the maintenance, proliferation, and survival of nerve cells (neurons). (
  • e ) Effect of canavanine in the growth of yeast cells. (
  • In pollen tubes, cytoskeleton proteins are involved in many aspects of pollen germination and growth, from the transport of sperm cells to the asymmetrical distribution of organelles to the deposition of cell wall material. (
  • Bringing back branching The neurotrophic factor BDNF restores neural branching growth in cells with NHE6 gene defects. (
  • The NHE6 protein helps to regulate acidity in the endosomes of cells. (
  • These endosomes are responsible for transporting material around cells and for degrading proteins including ones that signal neurons to grow the elaborately branched axons and dendrites that form neural connections. (
  • In their experiments the researchers measured acidity in the endosomes of brain cells of normal mice and in mice with mutations in the NHE6 gene. (
  • Indeed they found that NHE6 mutant cells, if given extra BDNF, produced axon and dendrite growth and branching that was more like normal neurons. (
  • We show that twisting of the gynoecium observed in qky results from the abnormal division pattern and anisotropic growth of clustered cells arranged sporadically along the gynoecium. (
  • Also, contrary to a current view that excess cholesterol in late endosomes of IFITM3-expressing cells inhibits IAV entry, we show that cholesterol-laden endosomes are permissive for virus fusion. (
  • The main cell types of the anterior lobe are the hormone-secreting cells [growth hormone (GH), prolactin, adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH), thyrotropin (TSH), or gonadotrophin (LH and FSH)] and the folliculostellate cells. (
  • Importantly, Almeida found that in cells expressing hAPP, the recycling EGF appeared to get stuck in late endosomes. (
  • In wild-type cells, it was all but gone from endosomes after an hour, whereas in transgenic neurons, both the size and the density of EGF-containing endosomes were significantly larger at this time point. (
  • Remarkably, this assembly happens in response to nearly all agonists that switch on growth and cell survival signals in cells. (
  • These studies raise the possibility that NGF induces formation of signaling endosomes containing activated TrkA. (
  • Thus, Pincher-dependent macroendocytosis leads to the formation of Nogo-A signaling endosomes, which act both within growth cones and after retrograde transport in the cell body to negatively regulate the neuronal growth program. (
  • Here, we show that NogoΔ20 actions on growth cone collapse require signaling from endosomes that contain activated Rho. (
  • Growth factor signaling in neurons controls the expansion of synaptic arbors in response to activity and external stimuli, leading to long-lasting changes in synapse strength and connectivity that underlie learning and memory. (
  • The Drosophila melanogaster larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) serves as a useful model for the regulation of synaptic growth signaling as the muscle surface area expands 100-fold over 4 d of larval development, requiring increased input from its innervating motor neuron to drive contraction. (
  • However, the mechanisms by which Nwk attenuates synaptic growth factor signaling at this compartment are unknown. (
  • In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying this endosome-mediated signaling, focusing on the instructive role of neurotrophin signaling itself in directing its own trafficking. (
  • In this review, we discuss the regulatory role of neurotrophin-mediated signaling itself in directing the formation and retrograde transport of neurotrophin-harboring signaling endosomes. (
  • Signaling endosomes acutely regulate growth events in axons, and also undergo long-distance transport to somatodendritic compartments to activate transcriptional programs and modulate synapse assembly, reviewed in [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • M.-C. Hung, G. B. Mills, D. Yu, Oxygen sensor boots growth factor signaling. (
  • The term nerve growth factor usually refers to the 2.5S, 26-kDa beta subunit of the protein, the only component of the 7S NGF complex that is biologically active (i.e. acting as signaling molecules). (
  • However, in motoneurons effects of BDNF/trkB signaling on spontaneous Ca 2+ influx and actin dynamics at axonal growth cones are not fully unraveled. (
  • In our study we addressed the question how neurotrophic factor signaling corresponds to cell autonomous excitability and growth cone formation. (
  • We conclude from our data that in embryonic motoneurons BDNF/trkB signaling contributes to axon elongation and growth cone formation through changes in the local actin cytoskeleton accompanied by increased Ca v 2.2 clustering and local calcium transients. (
  • RT "KEEP ON GOING, a RING E3 ligase essential for Arabidopsis growth and RT development, is involved in abscisic acid signaling. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) signaling has recently been shown to play key roles in the regulation of axonal transport and cytoskeletal assembly during axon growth. (
  • GSK3 signaling is also known to regulate gene expression via controlling the functions of many transcription factors, suggesting that GSK3 may be an important regulator of gene transcription supporting axon growth. (
  • For sustained axon growth over long distance, gene expression at the neuronal soma is also required to provide signaling molecules that control the intrinsic axon growth ability and raw materials that support axon assembly ( Zhou and Snider, 2006 ). (
  • In contrast, we know relatively less about the signaling events occurring at the neuronal soma that controls gene expression during axon growth. (
  • May regulate growth factor-induced mitogenic signaling. (
  • This gradient is further integrated with Wnt signaling through the sequestration of the enzyme GSK3 inside multivesicular endosomes. (
  • Studies on Chordin, Cerberus, Frzb-1, and Crescent have contributed to the current realization that growth factor antagonists secreted into the extracellular space mediate the formation of embryonic signaling gradients. (
  • You can rescue the [neuronal growth] by turning up the signaling. (
  • Signaling endosomes were shown to be retrogradely transported in the isolated sciatic nerve in vitro. (
  • In conclusion, actin-propelled endosomal motility is tightly linked to the polar tip growth of root hairs. (
  • In an editorial about the study, Dr. Ben Short of Rockefeller University, New York, N.Y., states that synaptic growth is stimulated by defects in endosomal function, resulting in neurodegeneration. (
  • Endosomal membrane trafficking requires coordination between phosphoinositide lipids, Rab GTPases, and microtubule-based motors to dynamically determine endosome identity and promote long-range organelle transport. (
  • IGF1 stimulation enhances endosomal PtdIns(3)P and recruitment of GFP-SGK3 to the endosomes. (
  • In compartmentalized chamber cultures, NogoΔ20 is endocytosed into neurites and retrogradely transported to the cell bodies of dorsal root ganglion neurons, triggering RhoA activation en route and decreasing phosphorylated cAMP response element binding levels in cell bodies. (
  • Hence, it is now thought that RAB8 is involved in regulating the growth of neurons which are damaged in frontotemporal dementia, and that treatment to increase RAB8 may slow this type of neurodegeneration. (
  • Nerve growth factor ( NGF ) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance, proliferation, and survival of certain target neurons . (
  • Study results indicate that superior cervical ganglia neurons that express both p75NTR and TrkA die when treated with proNGF, [6] while NGF treatment of these same neurons results in survival and axonal growth. (
  • Previous work has shown that there are deficits in the axonal transport of signalling endosomes in embryonic motor neurons isolated from the SOD1G93A murine model of ALS compared to wild type. (
  • Binding of TrkA to its ligand, nerve growth factor (NGF), induces autophosphorylation and activation of TrkA ( 1 ). (
  • For instance, little is known about the transcription factors and the targeted genes they control that specifically regulate axon growth downstream of neurotrophic factors. (
  • Mice lacking all three EndophilinAs accumulate Rab7-positive late endosomes. (
  • Rab4, CD2AP/CMS and Rab7 colocalized in these modified endosomes. (
  • Fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes has been shown to result in the formation of a 'hybrid' compartment, with characteristics intermediate of the two source compartments. (
  • In this new study, a postdoctoral fellow in Anderson's lab, Suyong Choi, showed that the proteins known to be in this signal transmission cascade were all present on endosomes inside the cell, supporting the idea that the key growth message was being signaled from these internal compartments. (
  • The Nogo-A-specific fragment NogoΔ20 induces growth cone collapse, and inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading by activating RhoA. (
  • Pincher-mediated macroendocytosis results in the formation of NogoΔ20-containing signalosomes that direct RhoA activation and growth cone collapse. (
  • Nogo-A acts locally, at the growth cone. (
  • Although evidence exists that activation of the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 affects axonal development, its specific roles within a growth cone are not well delineated. (
  • These observations have been interpreted to support the idea that changes in actin polymerization caused by Cdc42 or other monomeric GTPases play an integral part in controlling the directionality of growth cone migration. (
  • Among cytoplasmic events likely involved during minute-to-minute pathfinding decisions of a migrating growth cone, actin polymerization may be only one of several means by which effectors of Cdc42 can mediate growth cone behaviors. (
  • Spontaneous Ca 2+ transients and actin dynamics in primary motoneurons correspond to cellular differentiation such as axon elongation and growth cone formation. (
  • Axon growth requires the coordinated regulation of gene expression in the neuronal soma, local protein translation in the axon, anterograde transport of synthesized raw materials along the axon, and assembly of cytoskeleton and membranes in the nerve growth cone. (
  • To induce axon extension, the cellular machinery at the nerve growth cone controls the assembly of cytoskeletal proteins and membrane components into new axons. (
  • Therefore, understanding the two fundamental aspects of axon growth, i.e., local axon assembly at the growth cone and gene expression in the soma, is very important in the study of how axon growth is regulated in development and why axons in the mature CNS fail to regenerate after injuries. (
  • We know even less about how axon growth-associated gene expression at the soma is coordinated with local axon assembly at the growth cone. (
  • Here we show that the dendritic growth cone contains a non-centrosomal microtubule organizing center, which generates minus-end-out microtubules along outgrowing dendrites and plus-end-out microtubules in the growth cone. (
  • The MTOC tracks the extending growth cone by kinesin-1/UNC-116-mediated endosome movements on distal plus-end-out microtubules and dynein clusters this advancing MTOC. (
  • Plasticity-induced growth of dendritic spines by exocytic trafficking from recycling endosomes ," Neuron, vol. (
  • 12, 2013, in Neuron ) that they could restore proper neuronal growth by compensating for the errant molecular mechanisms they identified. (
  • Anterograde transport of late endosomes or lysosomes (LE/Lys) is crucial for proper axon growth. (
  • For example, lysosomes are more dense than late endosomes, and the hybrids have an intermediate density. (
  • However, before this happens, more late endosomes may fuse with the hybrid. (
  • Interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) block infection of many enveloped viruses, including the influenza A virus (IAV) that enters from late endosomes. (
  • Using antibody feeding and immunofluorescence microscopy, we support previous findings showing that p62 localizes to late endosomes. (
  • This data points to defective endosome function as creating defective "synaptic growth regulation during neurodegenerative processes," they report. (
  • Finally, we identified a mutual regulation of neuronal excitability and actin dynamics in axonal growth cones of embryonic motoneurons cultured on laminin-221/211. (
  • Fankhauser, Christian (2014) Differentially Phased Leaf Growth and Movements in Arabidopsis Depend on Coordinated Circadian and Light Regulation . (
  • We also show that both the presence of endosomes as well as their rapid movements within the tip region depends on an intact actin cytoskeleton and involves actin polymerization. (
  • Suyong Choi found that the scaffolding protein IQGAP1 brings all of these proteins together like a happy family on the endosome. (
  • The family of neurotrophins provides one of the best-known examples of soluble growth factors secreted by post-synaptic target tissues that retrogradely control neuronal survival, axon growth and synapse formation. (
  • Neural network formation relies on the ability of axonal growth cones to navigate in response to localized cues in their microenvironments. (
  • Probably plays a role in axon growth and the formation of axonal branches (PubMed:15716377). (
  • Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos (2014) Uninflatable and Notch Control the Targeting of Sara Endosomes during Asymmetric Division . (
  • Gonzalez-Gaitan, Marcos (2017) Sara phosphorylation state controls the dispatch of endosomes from the central spindle during asymmetric division . (
  • Additionally, a protein called POSH accumulates on endosomes. (
  • Hrs is recruited to the endosome in a complex with signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM)/Hrs binding protein, Hse1 in yeast. (
  • Sometimes acidity in the endosome can activate protein-degrading enzymes called proteases. (
  • In this report we show that the minor capsid protein L2 is required for egress of viral genomes from endosomes but not for initial uptake and uncoating and that a 23-amino-acid peptide at the C terminus of L2 is necessary for this function. (
  • Together, these data suggest that Cdc42 controls filopodial activity in axonal growth cones independently of its effects on their pathfinding. (
  • Primary motoneurons from mouse embryos were cultured on the synapse specific, β2-chain containing laminin isoform (221) regulating axon elongation through spontaneous Ca 2+ transients that are in turn induced by enhanced clustering of N-type specific voltage-gated Ca 2+ channels (Ca v 2.2) in axonal growth cones. (
  • Here, we focus on the mechanism of membrane fusion at endosomes, vacuoles and lysosomes, and in particular on the role of the two homologous tethering complexes called CORVET and HOPS. (
  • We have used a targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) library to identify key cellular genes involved in cytoskeletal dynamics and endosome trafficking that are important for RSV infection. (
  • We propose that the packaging of p-RTKs in endosomes is a general mechanism to ensure the fidelity and specificity of the signalling response. (
  • Our data suggest the existence of a saturable mechanism adjusting the amount of p-EGFRin each individual endosome. (
  • Both acidification of endosomes and intact microtubules have been demonstrated to be essential for efficient papillomavirus infection ( 11 , 37 ). (
  • Recycling endosomes are concentrated at the microtubule organizing center and consist of a mainly tubular network. (
  • Removing POSH from Drosophila flies restored synaptic growth to normal levels. (
  • Diffusible signals secreted by target tissues, exemplified by the family of neurotrophins, impinge on nerve terminals to influence diverse developmental events including neuronal survival and axonal growth. (