Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteria, AnaerobicMacrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Lincosamides: A family of LINCOMYCIN-related glycosides that contain a pyrrolidine ring linked via an amide-bond to a pyranose moiety. Individual members of this family are defined by the arrangement of specific constituent groups on the lyncomycin molecule. Many lincosamides are ANTIBIOTICS produced by a variety STREPTOMYCES species.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Tobramycin: An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Bacteria, AerobicStreptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Aza CompoundsCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.OsteomyelitisStreptogramin B: A specific streptogramin group B antibiotic produced by Streptomyces graminofaciens and other bacteria.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Thienamycins: Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Streptogramins: A class of natural cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by certain subspecies of STREPTOMYCES. They include two structurally unrelated components, STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP A and STREPTOGRAMIN GROUP B, which generally act synergistically to inhibit bacterial growth.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Sarcina: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose organisms divide in three perpendicular planes and occur in packets of eight or more cells. It has been isolated from soil, grains, and clinical specimens.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Roxithromycin: Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract infections.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Piperacillin: Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.Tetracyclines: Closely congeneric derivatives of the polycyclic naphthacenecarboxamide. (Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1117)Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Floxacillin: Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.Amikacin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.QuinolinesCephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Cefotaxime: Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.Carbenicillin: Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Miocamycin: A macrolide antibiotic that has a wide antimicrobial spectrum and is particularly effective in respiratory and genital infections.Sulfadiazine: One of the short-acting SULFONAMIDES used in combination with PYRIMETHAMINE to treat toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in newborns with congenital infections.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
It is susceptible to the antibiotic clindamycin. Growth of "fried egg" colonies on glucose agar medium within 24-48 hours is a ... Sternak, p. 1. "Clindamycin" (PDF). FA Davis Company. 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017. "Mycoplasma hominis PG21". Site du ...
By adding antimicrobial, e.g. clindamycin, into the culture growth medium, studies have shown that the cytotoxic activity in C ... Moreover, knowing the role of antibiotics on the causes of PMC, many earlier studies focused on the effects of antimicrobials ... Many early studies have suggested that toxin A (also known as TcdA) is the major toxin protein causing antibiotic-associated ... This has been deduced from in vivo experiments where toxin productions of TcdA were more severe than TcdB with antibiotics ...
This is why adding an antibiotic like clindamycin, which acts ribosomally, kills some of the bacterial and returns them to the ... Proposed mechanisms: Reduced expression of penicillin binding proteins during stationary growth phase Induction of microbial ... Ikeda, Y; Fukuoka, Y; Motomura, K; Yasuda, T; Nishino, T (January 1990). "Paradoxical activity of beta-lactam antibiotics ... Stevens, DL; Gibbons, AE; Bergstrom, R; Winn, V (July 1988). "The Eagle effect revisited: efficacy of clindamycin, erythromycin ...
... and clindamycin, causes the normal bacterial flora of the bowel to be altered. In particular, when the antibiotic kills off ... Under Gram staining, C. difficile cells are Gram-positive and show optimum growth on blood agar at human body temperatures in ... Antibiotic treatment of CDIs may be difficult, due both to antibiotic resistance and physiological factors of the bacteria ( ... C. difficile does not often occur in people who are not taking antibiotics so limiting use of antibiotics decreases the risk. ...
Optimal growth occurs at 35-37 °C, and can colonize on a simple nutrient medium. Colonies are generally smooth and low convex ... Similar studies have shown they have some type of resistance to the aniobiotics penicillin and clindamycin, and were also ... Susceptibility studies have shown E. vulneris is susceptible to 14 antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins, ...
Corynebacterium minutissimum survives the best here due to the encouraged fungal growth in these regions and allows it to ... The next level would be treated with topical fusidic acid, miconazole cream, and antibacterial solution such as clindamycin HCL ... Mupirocin is a topical antibiotic that is usually used to treat Streptococcus and Staphylococcus infections. After 2-4 weeks of ... For aggressive types of Erythrasma, oral antibiotics like macrolides(erythromycin or azithromycin)can be prescribed. Below is a ...
... is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes middle ear infections ... 1981). "Potentiation of Opsonization and Phagocytosis of Streptococcus pyogenes following Growth in the Presence of Clindamycin ... The topically used clindamycin phosphate is a phosphate-ester prodrug of clindamycin. Clindamycin has a primarily ... Clindamycin University of Michigan. Retrieved July 31, 2009 Wilson, Daniel N. "Ribosome-targeting antibiotics and mechanisms of ...
... an ACT artesunate plus clindamycin or doxycycline; quinine plus clindamycin or doxycycline. Chloroquine remains the treatment ... Due to its effect of bone and tooth growth it is not used in children under 8, pregnant or lactating women and those with a ... The tetracyclines were one of the earliest groups of antibiotics to be developed and are still used widely in many types of ... Clindamycin is a derivative of lincomycin, with a slow action against blood schizonticides. It is only used in combination with ...
This done by determining the amount of the antibiotic in micrograms/milliliter must be used to inhibit growth. If S. aureus is ... to encourage their use.[citation needed] Doctors may also prescribe antibiotics such as clindamycin, doxycycline, or ... Administration of antibiotics is not standardized and is adapted by a case-by-case basis. Antibiotic therapy can last up to 1 ... Appropriate antibiotic therapy may be administered for up to six weeks. Four to six weeks of antibiotic treatment is often ...
The post antibiotic effect (PAE) is defined as persistent suppression of bacterial growth after a brief exposure (1 or 2 hours ... clindamycin, certain newer macrolides/ketolides, and rifampicin and rifabutin) induce long-term PAE against susceptible ... Theoretically, the ability of an antibiotic to induce a PAE is an attractive property of an antibiotic since antibiotic ... Factors that affect the duration of the post antibiotic effect include duration of antibiotic exposure, bacterial species, ...
Bacteriostatic antibiotics limit the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacterial protein production, DNA replication, or ... This group includes: Chloramphenicol Clindamycin Ethambutol Lincosamides Macrolides Nitrofurantoin Novobiocin Oxazolidinone ... Bacteriostats are often used in plastics to prevent growth of bacteria on surfaces. Bacteriostats commonly used in laboratory ... However, there is not always a precise distinction between them and bactericidal antibiotics; high concentrations of some ...
Antibiotic treatment can also alter the balance of microbiota causing pathogenic bacterial growth. In humans, one of the first ... indicate a susceptibility to most antibiotics including metronidazole and penicillin as well as resistance to clindamycin and ... Due to the rare clinical manifestation of bactremias attributed to C. cadaveris, the organism's susceptibility to antibiotic ... are found in large numbers after death due to nutrient supply for anaerobic bacteria allowing for optimal organismal growth. In ...
Zimbelman J, Palmer A, Todd J (1999). "Improved outcome of clindamycin compared with beta-lactam antibiotic treatment for ... inhibits toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 production by Staphylococcus aureus in both logarithmic and stationary phases of growth ... Antibiotic treatment should cover both S. pyogenes and S. aureus. This may include a combination of cephalosporins, penicillins ... The addition of clindamycin or gentamicin reduces toxin production and mortality. With proper treatment, people usually recover ...
Usually treatment is with an antibiotic, such as clindamycin or metronidazole. These medications may also be used in the second ... To control bacterial growth, the vagina is normally slightly acidic with a pH of 3.8-4.2. A swab of the discharge is put onto ... Treatment is typically with the antibiotics metronidazole or clindamycin. They can be either given by mouth or applied inside ... When clindamycin is given to pregnant women symptomatic with BV before 22 weeks of gestation the risk of pre-term birth before ...
Some strains are resistant to certain antibiotics, specifically erythromycin and clindamycin. This antibiotic resistance may be ... Normal growth follows the lactic acid pathway that is commonly used by most lactic acid bacterium. There are some strains that ... Growth conditions all depend on the location of the bacterium within the intestines. It does seem that they are unable to ... When fructose was used as a carbon source there was only some growth and L. brevis was able to partially metabolize the ...
If a 'D' shape is formed around the Clindamycin Disk than the isolate is reported as resistant to Clindamycin. This occurs due ... Lorian, Victor (2005). Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 487. ISBN 9780781749831. Weigelt, ... disk is placed on a cultivated agar dish of bacteria to see if the antimicrobial agent in the disk inhibits further growth of ... To test for clindamycin resistance certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with natural resistance to erythromycin ...
... because the use of these antibiotics has triggered an increase in development of beta-lactamase, which resists antibiotics. ... Active immunization, in a study, of M. catarrhalis in the respiratory tract allowed the control of the growth of M. catarrhalis ... Resistance to trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), clindamycin, and tetracycline have been reported. It is ... Treatment options include antibiotic therapy or a so-called "watchful waiting" approach. The great majority of clinical ...
Several antibiotics have been used successfully to treat S. iniae infection in fish. Enrofloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic, has ... This study used the gastrointestinal contents of rainbow trout to scan for bacteria that inhibited growth of S. iniae and ... clindamycin, erythromycin, and co-trimoxazole (MICs 0.25 µg/ml); all nine patients were treated with parenteral beta-lactam ... Several antibiotics have been used to treat S. iniae infections. Streptococcus iniae was first isolated in 1972, from ...
Antibiotics are recommended if wounds are deep or individuals prolong seeking medical attention. Antibiotics that contain beta- ... After growth on agar plates, longer rods tend to have a curved shape. The bacteria does not have flagella but rather moves with ... "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved March 24, 2017. Shin H, Mally M, Kuhn M, Paroz C and Cornelis GR. 2007. Escape from ... Colonies may not be visible for up to 48 hours due to slow growth. At 18 hours, colonies are usually less than 0.5 mm. in ...
In the post-antibiotic era pattern of frequency is changing. In older studies anaerobes were found in up to 90% cases but they ... Presence of air-fluid levels implies rupture into the bronchial tree or rarely growth of gas forming organism. ... metronidazole or clindamycin if aerobic-, B-lactams, cephalosporins if MRSA or Staph infection -, vancomycin or linezolide b- ... Broad spectrum antibiotic to cover mixed flora is the mainstay of treatment. Pulmonary physiotherapy and postural drainage are ...
... prophylactic antibiotics may also be given prior to dental procedures such as penicillin or clindamycin for penicillin allergic ... These are generally isolated by blood culture, where the patient's blood is removed, and any growth is noted and identified. ... High-dose antibiotics are administered by the intravenous route to maximize diffusion of antibiotic molecules into vegetation(s ... Treatment is generally with intravenous antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics is based on the blood cultures. Occasionally ...
Growth is enhanced by incubation in 5% CO2 atmosphere, but they usually grow adequately in ambient air. The optimum temperature ... Lo, Hsueh-Hsia; Nien, Hao-Hsiang; Cheng, Ya-Yu; Su, Fang-Yi (2015-12-01). "Antibiotic susceptibility pattern and erythromycin ... Second-line agents include macrolides and clindamycin, although increasing resistance, due to both efflux and target ... However, administered in combination with a beta-lactam antibiotic, aminoglycosides appear to produce a synergistic effect ...
The antibiotics most frequently used to treat acne vulgaris are erythromycin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and minocycline. ... The cellular damage, metabolic byproducts and bacterial debris produced by the rapid growth of P. acnes in follicles can ... The antibiotic families that P. acnes are most likely to acquire resistance to are the macrolides (e.g., erythromycin and ... Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infections caused by P. acnes. Acne vulgaris is the disease most commonly associated ...
The selection effect of antibiotics on C. tertium may occur in cases where patients have had prior exposure to β-lactam ... Aerotolerance is a term applied to describe strains of anaerobic bacteria that can tolerate oxygen and exhibit growth to some ... clindamycin; and metronidazole; but it is susceptible to vancomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. ... Clostridium tertium bacteremia can cause fever, and directed antibiotic therapy is indicated. C. tertium is commonly (but not ...
... yielded poor growth to no growth at all. The optimal growth temperature range was around 28 to 40 °C, but good growth is still ... The relationship between the two was unknown, but antibiotic-resistant isolates of S. hominis belonged only to SHN. SHN strains ... They were also somewhat resistant to methicillin and gentamicin, and most strains were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, ... Optimal NaCl concentrations of the agar culture for the growth of S. hominis seem to be around 7.5%, and a salt concentration ...
Commonly used antibiotics, either applied to the skin or taken orally, include clindamycin, erythromycin, metronidazole, ... High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... Antibiotics[edit]. People may apply antibiotics to the skin or take them orally to treat acne. They work by killing C. acnes ... Topical antibiotics deemed safe during pregnancy include clindamycin, erythromycin, and metronidazole (all category B), due to ...
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This medication is known as a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Basics, Side Effects, ... The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins amoxicillin, ampicillin and the cephalosporins. ... So, no, this antibiotic did not improve the suspected underlying infection. Her condition worsened while on it. Today, the new ... Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is ...
It is also effective against aerobic and anaerobic streptococci (except enterococci). Clindamycin inhibits bacterial growth, ... Clindamycin (Cleocin). Clindamycin is a lincosamide for the treatment of serious skin and soft tissue staphylococcal infections ... Cummings P. Antibiotics to prevent infection in patients with dog bite wounds: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Ann Emerg ... Antibiotics. Empiric antimicrobial therapy must be comprehensive and should cover all likely pathogens in the context of the ...
Topical antibiotics used include clindamycin and erythromycin, though resistance to erythromycin favors the use of clindamycin ... It inhibits bacterial growth by inhibiting the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid. It is available as 80 mg trimethoprim and 400 mg ... This combination agent contains the topical antibiotic clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide. Clindamycin reduces C acnes (formerly ... This combination agent contains the topical antibiotic clindamycin 1.2% and tretinoin 0.025%. Clindamycin reduces Cutibacterium ...
Clindamycin Injection: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin antibiotics. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. ... Antibiotics such as clindamycin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not ... Many antibiotics, including clindamycin, may cause overgrowth of dangerous bacteria in the large intestine. This may cause mild ...
Zydus receives final approval from the USFDA for Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel. by Mena Report; Business, ... Clindamycin is an antibiotic that stops the growth of acne-causing bacteria. Benzoyl peroxide can also stop the growth of ... APA style: India : Zydus receives final approval from the USFDA for Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel.. (n.d.) > ... MLA style: "India : Zydus receives final approval from the USFDA for Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel.." The Free ...
Clindamycin belongs to a group of medicines known as lincosamide or lincomycin antibiotics. ... is an antibiotic used to treat certain serious bacterial infections. ... Clindamycin works by preventing or slowing the growth of bacteria. Clindamycin does not kill viruses; thus, it is not effective ... Q: What is the shelf life of clindamycin?. A: Clindamycin is in a drug class called lincomycin antibiotics. Clindamycin is used ...
Vets generally recommend clindamycin for dogs that have soft tissue infections or abscesses. Depending on the type and location ... which can be treated with the oral antibiotic clindamycin. The antibiotic prohibits the growth of harmful bacteria in dogs, and ... Especially clindamycin because it is not a general use antibiotic. It has a relatively narrow use, its for soft tissue ... As with any oral antibiotic, there is a risk of side effects when administering clindamycin for dogs. In most cases, side ...
... oral antibiotics have been prescribed off label for treatment because microorganisms were thought to be the underlying cause of ... Clindamycin topical (Cleocin T, Clindagel, Evoclin). Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by 7(S)-chloro ... It inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes, causing RNA-dependent protein ... Antibiotics. Since the 1950s, oral antibiotics have been prescribed off label for treatment because microorganisms were thought ...
Clindamycin belongs to the class of medications called antibiotics. It is used to treat infections caused by certain types of ... Clindamycin kills bacteria by interfering with how they function. ... Clindamycin kills bacteria by preventing the growth of the ... Antibiotic-related diarrhea: As with other antibiotics, clindamycin can cause a severe form of diarrhea associated with a ... Clindamycin belongs to the class of medications called antibiotics. It is used to treat infections caused by certain types of ...
Clindamycin is an oral or parenteral antibiotic that is used for the treatment of anaerobic or susceptible streptococcal, ... Clarithromycin inhibits bacterial growth, possibly by blocking dissociation of peptidyl tRNA from ribosomes causing RNA- ... Antibiotics, Other. Class Summary. Antibiotic therapy must be comprehensive and cover all likely pathogens in the context of ... Appropriate Antibiotic Use for Acute Respiratory Tract Infection in Adults: Advice for High-Value Care From the American ...
Benzoyl peroxide allows excess oils and dirt to be easily washed away where as Clindamycin prevents bacterial growth. ... generic contains an antibiotic and drying agent, prescribed for acne. ... Benzoyl peroxide allows excess oils and dirt to be easily washed away where as Clindamycin prevents bacterial growth. ... Why is Benzoyl Peroxide and Clindamycin Phosphate Prescribed? (Indications) This combination medication contains an antibiotic ...
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It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Clindamycin is a common topical treatment prescribed for acne. Clindamycin can ... Clindamycin is a semi synthetic antibiotic and works well when used as a topical treatment for acne. It helps in destroying P ... Clindamycin is an antibiotic used for treating only serious bacterial infections. The drug is usually used for treating ... How to store Clindamycin?. Clindamycin should be stored at a room temperature of 68-77 degrees. This medication should be kept ...
... will also decrease the substrate for the yeasts growth. Macrolide antibiotics like Biaxin or Zithromax may be used if ... Clindamycin The other drug used to treat rheumatoid arthritis is clindamycin. Dr. Browns book discusses the uses of ... Revised Antibiotic-Free Approach. Although I used a revision of his antibiotic approach for nearly 10 years, my particular ... Browns antibiotic approach, I have included a summary of his work and the evidence for it in the appendix. ...
Clindamycin kills bacteria by preventing the growth of the bacteria, so they cannot reproduce. ... Clindamycin belongs to the class of medications called antibiotics. It is used to treat infections caused by certain types of ... Bacterial resistance: Misuse of an antibiotic such as clindamycin may lead to the growth of resistant bacteria that will not be ... Antibiotic-related diarrhea: As with other antibiotics, clindamycin can cause a severe form of diarrhea associated with a ...
Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Clindamycin Reports and Side Effects. ... Clindamycin is a safe medicine. If you have an abcess or tooth infection it can be VERY dangerous to NOT take the antibiotic. ... Use of growth factors.. ... I was given Clindamycin (150 MG Capsule) to take for 10 days 4 ... Have been taking clindamycin for 10 days now, I am usually very sensitive to antibiotics, have been loading myself up with pro- ...
What CLINDAMYCIN MYLAN is used for. Clindamycin is an antibiotic. It is used to treat infections in different parts of the body ... Clindamycin works by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria causing your infection. ... The active ingredient is clindamycin phosphate.. Each 1 mL of Clindamycin Mylan solution for injection contains clindamycin ... CLINDAMYCIN MYLAN is not addictive.. Before you are given CLINDAMYCIN MYLAN Injection. When you must not take it. You should ...
... is an antibiotic that is used in dogs and cats. Learn more about the usage of this medication, its side effects, and any ... Clindamycin, commonly known by the brand names of Antirobe® and Cleocin®, ... Clindamycin inhibits bacteria by suppressing protein synthesis and growth. Erythromycin and its derivatives share a similar ... Clindamycin, commonly known by the brand names of Antirobe® and Cleocin®, is an antibiotic that is used in dogs and cats. ...
Antibiotics. Helps stop or slow down the growth of the bacteria and reduces inflammation. Erythromycin and clindamycin are ... Acne medicines you take by mouth, or oral antibiotics, are often prescribed to treat moderate to severe acne, and may include ...
Antibiotics. Helps stop or slow down the growth of the bacteria and reduces inflammation. Erythromycin and clindamycin are ... Acne medicines you take by mouth, or oral antibiotics, are often prescribed to treat moderate to severe acne, and may include ...
Antibiotics Helps stop or slow down the growth of the bacteria and reduces inflammation. Erythromycin and clindamycin are ... Acne medicines you take by mouth, or oral antibiotics, are often prescribed to treat moderate to severe acne, and may include ...
It is susceptible to the antibiotic clindamycin. Growth of "fried egg" colonies on glucose agar medium within 24-48 hours is a ... Sternak, p. 1. "Clindamycin" (PDF). FA Davis Company. 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2017. "Mycoplasma hominis PG21". Site du ...
  • As an inhibitor of protein synthesis, sildenafil citrate 100mg buy online clindamycin purchase binds to the 50s ribosomal subunit and is reported to inhibit peptidyltransferase and therfore affecting the process of peptide chain initiation. (alpine-club.org.uk)
  • The doctor would always prescribe antibiotics and I would never take them. (cdc.gov)
  • The field of infectious diseases is no exception, particularly surrounding the general overall concept of anti-infective therapies and specifically in relationship to how, when and why we prescribe antibiotics and for how long they are administered. (healio.com)
  • Although antibiotic-induced dysbiosis has been demonstrated to exacerbate intestinal inflammation, it has been suggested that antibiotic prophylaxis may be beneficial in certain clinical conditions such as acute pancreatitis (AP). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although you can take clindamycin with food or on an empty stomach, it may cause less stomach upset if taken with food. (medbroadcast.com)
  • On the other hand, reported cases of serious reaction caused by the non-prescription acne care products and the high cost of therapeutic procedures like microdermabrasion, dermabrasion, and others is estimated to restraint the market growth during the projected period. (medgadget.com)
  • Purpose: Our objective was to explore this hypothesis and propose a new therapeutic approach focusing on anti-biofilm activity of Myrtacine[R] New Generation (Mediterranean Myrtle extract-Botanical Expertise P. Fabre) alone or combined with antibiotics. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • If bacterial conjunctivitis is suspected, then a bacterial cultivation of the study drainage may be performed to determine the require causative being, non-standard thusly allowing the most appropriate antibiotic to be prescribed. (wgc2010.sk)