Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Elbow: Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Thumb: The first digit on the radial side of the hand which in humans lies opposite the other four.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Laryngeal Muscles: The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.GlycogenRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalMyoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Optic Flow: The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
As such, it can be caused by a wide number of conditions, including myocardial infarction (in which the heart muscle is starved ... and often C-reactive protein if infection is suspected. An elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a specific test ... in which blood flow stops altogether).[14][15] Other diseases that may have symptoms similar to heart failure include obesity, ... In groups of symptomatic patients, a diagnostic odds ratio of 27 for BNP compares with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of ...
A group of muscles innervated through a specific part of the spine is called a myotome, and injury to that part of the spinal ... Complications that can occur in the short and long term after injury include muscle atrophy, pressure sores, infections, and ... insufficient blood flow, and tumors. Efforts to prevent SCI include individual measures such as using safety equipment, ... then get progressively lower in older age groups; however rates may rise in the elderly. In Sweden between 50 and 70% of all ...
Other supportive evidence includes: a ≥20% difference in peak expiratory flow rate on at least three days in a week for at ... A specific, customized plan for proactively monitoring and managing symptoms should be created. This plan should include the ... Signs occurring during an asthma attack include the use of accessory muscles of respiration (sternocleidomastoid and scalene ... and the number of lower respiratory infections. Other efforts that show promise include: limiting smoke exposure in utero, ...
These may require specific treatment, and sometimes indicate severe illness or worse prognosis. The infection may trigger ... For instance, while N. meningitides groups B and C cause most disease episodes in Europe, group A is found in Asia and ... Aseptic meningitis may also result from infection with spirochetes, a type of bacteria that includes Treponema pallidum (the ... Hydrocephalus (obstructed flow of CSF) may require insertion of a temporary or long-term drainage device, such as a cerebral ...
Phosphatase removes phosphate groups by hydrolysing phosphoric acid monoesters into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a free ... On the cellular level, the dephosphorylation of ATPases determines the flow of ions into and out of the cell. Proton pump ... Dephosphorylation is the removal of a phosphate (PO43−) group from an organic compound by hydrolysis. It is a reversible post- ... This is due to the dysfunction of dephosphorylation mechanisms at specific amino acids on the tau protein. Tau ...
Viral infections weaken the immune system, making the body more susceptible to bacterial infection (including bacterial ... Maternally-derived syphilis is also a cause of CAP in this age group. Viruses include human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), ... and patients with certain risk factors are more susceptible to infections of certain groups of microorganisms. Identifying ... Many less-common organisms can cause CAP in adults, and are identified from specific risk factors or treatment failure for ...
The ECG is useful to detect an abnormal heart rhythm, poor blood flow to the heart muscle, and other electrical issue such as ... Heart related causes may include an abnormal heart rhythm, problems with the heart valves or heart muscle and blockages of ... More specific tests such as implantable loop recorders, tilt table testing or carotid sinus massage may be useful in uncertain ... Two major groups of arrhythmias are bradycardia and tachycardia. Bradycardia can be caused by heart blocks. Tachycardias ...
Dental-specific techniques include: Vazirani-Alkinosi Technique[edit]. The Vazirani-alkinosi technique is also known as the ... of arteries in muscles which can lead to a reduction in circulating blood volume inducing a temporary shortness of blood flow ... This could be caused by a variety of reasons including trauma during injection, infection, an allergic reaction, haematoma or ... Exposure to aniline group chemicals such as benzocaine, lidocaine, and prilocaine can produce this effect, especially ...
Firstly the group of muscles required to purse the lips run through the upper lip. In order to restore the complete group a ... Other contributing factors may include maternal nutritional deficiencies, exposure in utero to viral infections, trauma, drugs ... and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis ... Rates for cleft lip with or without cleft palate and cleft palate alone varies within different ethnic groups. The highest ...
Binding of calmodulin appears to act as a "molecular switch" to enable electron flow from flavin prosthetic groups in the ... This dilates blood vessels by relaxing smooth muscle in their linings. eNOS is the primary controller of smooth muscle tone. NO ... They also share an amino-terminal oxygenase domain containing a heme prosthetic group, which is linked in the middle of the ... nNOS has many other physiological functions, including regulation of cardiac function and peristalsis and sexual arousal in ...
... and in this age group the infection may also cause poor weight gain, malnutrition, and learning problems. Infection occurs by ... this is common in many parasitic infections and is not specific to ascariasis. On X-ray, 15-35 cm long filling defects, ... Other effective agents include tribendimidine and nitazoxanide. About 0.8 to 1.2 billion people globally have ascariasis, with ... Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a ...
These muscles may include the tensor tympani and stapedius muscles. It can involve the muscles surrounding the Eustachian tube ... A myoclonic seizure (myo "muscle", clonic "jerk") is a sudden involuntary contraction of muscle groups. The muscle jerks ... Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. It describes a medical sign and, generally, is ... an automatic reaction to an unexpected stimulus involving rapid muscle contraction.[citation needed] The specific mechanisms ...
Urinary biomarkers tested include NGAL, IL-18, KIM-1, and l-FABP. The CHERUB study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: ... The term angina from Latin ("infection of the throat") and from the Greek ẚnkhone ("strangling") are utilized in the context of ... Relatively common co-morbid risk factors can also be age specific (e.g. diabetes in adults and bone marrow transplantation (BMT ... The AWARE study is a collaborative effort of the Prospective Pediatric AKI Research Group(www.ppaki.org) and is also registered ...
Small groups or individually enlarged lymph nodes are generally reactive in response to infection or inflammation. This is ... They include the tubular vessels of the lymph capillaries, and the larger collecting vessels-the right lymphatic duct and the ... He suspected that fluid to be chyle as its flow increased when abdominal pressure was applied. He traced this fluid to the ... Lymphangioleiomyomatosis is a benign tumour of the smooth muscles of the lymphatics that occurs in the lungs. ...
Specific cleaning instructions vary by brand. When using a menstrual cup, the menstrual fluid is collected after it flows from ... Girls provided menstrual cups had a lower prevalence of sexually transmitted infections than control groups. Also, the ... During peak flow, most women use two disposable cups per day. Reusable menstrual products (including menstrual cups, but not ... In some cases, the user may need to twist the cup or flex the vaginal muscles to ensure the cup is fully open. In most cases, ...
... it is not a member of the species-group. It is only included to serve as an "attachment point"; to be precise, it is showing ... to their capability for flight and higher muscle mass. In general, males have more muscle and less fat, resulting in a higher ... Polygynous colonies tend to face greater infections in contrast to monogynous colonies. Multiple virus infections can also ... Specific diets can also alter the growth of a colony, with laboratory colonies showing high growth if fed honey-water. Colonies ...
Trauma group therapy In trauma group therapy, the groups range from 12 to 18 members and are completed over a 10- to 12-week ... Some of these things include having the patient move their eyes in a circular motion and counting numbers. Callahan claims that ... Some other theories are similar in that they propose a physiological component of PTSD, whether it be specific structures or ... The Chinese explain acupuncture as "a technique for balancing the flow of energy or life force" throughout your body. However, ...
Dragonflies as a group occupy a considerable variety of habitats, but many species, and some families, have their own specific ... Dragonflies in temperate areas can be categorized into two groups, an early group and a later one. In any one area, individuals ... The oldest fossils are of the Protodonata from the 325 Mya Upper Carboniferous of Europe, a group that included the largest ... The flight muscles need to be kept at a suitable temperature for the dragonfly to be able to fly. Being cold-blooded, they can ...
Issues with the biologics include their high cost and association with infections including tuberculosis. Glucocorticoids can ... RF is a non-specific antibody and seen in about 10% of healthy people, in many other chronic infections like hepatitis C, and ... They are a diverse collection of drugs, grouped by use and convention. They have been found to improve symptoms, decrease joint ... "Muscle relaxants for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 1: CD008922. doi: ...
Diseases of the skin include skin infections and skin neoplasms (including skin cancer). Dermatology is the branch of medicine ... However, the specific permeability of skin after UVR exposure relative to particles of different sizes and materials has not ... Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. It ... Because CdSe is toxic to living organisms, the particle must be covered in a surface group. An experiment comparing the ...
Specific reasons for the decline may include climate change, chytridiomycosis, or volcanic activity, but the main threat is ... Others restrict the name Caudata to the crown group and use Urodela for the total group. The former approach seems to be most ... muscle cells into new muscle and cartilage cells into new cartilage. It is only the cells from just beneath the surface of the ... Water is drawn in through the mouth and flows out through the gill slits. Some neotenic species such as the mudpuppy (Necturus ...
These include: aldrin, chlordane, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex and toxaphene.[citation needed] ... Compounds in this group are often applied against household pests.[14] Neonicotinoids[edit]. Neonicotinoids are synthetic ... Solid bait and liquid insecticides, especially if improperly applied in a location, get moved by water flow. Often, this ... Insecticides can be classified into two major groups: systemic insecticides, which have residual or long term activity; and ...
27a]. Color flow and duplex Doppler US optimized for low-flow velocities help confirm the venous flow pattern, with phasic ... It usually develops from a perineal or genitourinary infection, but can arise following local trauma with secondary infection ... A transverse image including all or a portion of both testicles in the field of view is obtained to allow side-to-side ... They can be seen in any age group, they are generally small solid masses, but they may show cystic areas, hemorrhage, or ...
One of the main advantages of using PET is that it can also provide muscle activation data about deeper lying muscles such as ... PET has been widely used to image bacterial infections clinically by using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to identify the infection- ... This includes the cost of the radiopharmaceutical and a stipend for the physician reading the scan. In England, the NHS ... Thus, the specific processes that can be probed with PET are virtually limitless, and radiotracers for new target molecules and ...
... involves non-specific and flu-like symptoms common to many acute viral infections. These include fatigue, nausea, vomiting, ... People in these groups who are not already immune can receive the hepatitis A vaccine. Those at high risk and in need of ... For children 12 months of age or older, the vaccination is given as a shot into the muscle in two doses 6-18 months apart and ... The group that saw the greatest decrease was children and adolescents, likely reflecting the implementation of the 1999 ...
... is the pain felt in muscles during and immediately after strenuous physical exercise. The pain appears within a minute of contracting the muscle and disappears within two or three minutes or up to several hours after relaxing it. The following causes have been proposed for acute muscle soreness: Accumulation of chemical end products of exercise in muscle cells, such as H+ Tissue edema caused by the shifting of blood plasma into the muscle tissue during contraction Muscle fatigue (the muscle tires and cannot contract any more) Acute muscle soreness reflects one form of exercise-induced muscle damage, the other being delayed onset muscle soreness, which appears between 24 and 72 hours after exercise. Michael Kjaer; Michael Krogsgaard; Peter Magnusson; Lars Engebretsen; Harald Roos; Timo Takala; Savio Woo (2008). Textbook of Sports ...
... (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses. EMS has received an increasing amount of attention in the last few years for many reasons: it can be utilized as a strength training tool for healthy subjects and athletes; it could be used as a rehabilitation and preventive tool for partially or totally immobilized patients; it could be utilized as a testing tool for evaluating the neural and/or muscular function in vivo; it could be used as a post-exercise recovery tool for athletes. The impulses are generated by a device and are delivered through electrodes on the skin near to the muscles being stimulated. The electrodes are generally pads that adhere to the skin. The impulses mimic the action potential that comes from the central nervous system, causing the muscles to contract. The use of EMS has been cited by sports scientists as a ...
... (or myotonic hypertrophy) is a rare genetic condition characterized by reduced body fat and increased skeletal muscle size. Affected individuals have up to twice the usual amount of muscle mass in their bodies. They also tend to have increased muscle strength. Myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy is not known to cause medical problems, and affected individuals are intellectually normal. The prevalence of this condition is unknown. Mutations in the MSTN gene cause myostatin-related muscle hypertrophy. The MSTN gene provides instructions for making a protein called myostatin, which is active in muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) both before and after birth. This protein normally restrains muscle growth, ensuring that muscles do not grow too large. Mutations that reduce the production of functional myostatin lead to an overgrowth of ...
Eccentric exercise or resistance training is currently being used as a form of rehabilitation for sport injuries, but also as an alternative form of exercise for the elderly, those affected by neurological disorders, COPD, cardiopulmonary disorders, and cancer.[6] Muscle loss is a big problem faced by the people afflicted with the above disorders and many cannot participate in rigorous exercise protocols. Eccentric muscle contractions produce high forces with low-energy cost. According to Hortobágyi due to these properties eccentric exercise has the greatest potential for muscle strengthening.[7] To strengthen muscle the external force must exceed the muscle while it lengthens.[8] The definition of eccentric contraction is almost the exact definition of muscle strengthening. Perceived muscle damage: There is a stipulation regarding eccentric contractions in that they actually cause ...
There are 3 types of muscle, all found within the equine: Skeletal muscle: Contraction of these muscles leads to the muscle pulling a tendon, which in turn pulls a bone. Moving a bone results in either flexing or extending a joint. Skeletal muscles are usually arranged in pairs so that they oppose each other (they are "antagonists"), with one flexing the joint (a flexor muscle) and the other extending it (extensor muscle). Therefore, one muscle of the pair must be relaxed in order for the other muscle in the pair to contract and bend the joint properly. A muscle or muscles and its/their tendon(s) that operate together to cause flexion or extension of a joint are referred to respectively as a flexor unit and an extensor unit. Cardiac: muscle which makes up the heart. Smooth: muscle which ...
PGC1-α (PPARGC1A), a transcriptional coactivator of nuclear receptors important to the regulation of a number of mitochondrial genes involved in oxidative metabolism, directly interacts with MEF2 to synergistically activate selective slow twitch (ST) muscle genes and also serves as a target for calcineurin signaling. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-mediated transcriptional pathway is involved in the regulation of the skeletal muscle fiber phenotype. Mice that harbor an activated form of PPARd display an "endurance" phenotype, with a coordinated increase in oxidative enzymes and mitochondrial biogenesis and an increased proportion of ST fibers. Thus-through functional genomics-calcineurin, calmodulin-dependent kinase, PGC-1α, and activated PPARδ form the basis of a signaling network that controls skeletal muscle fiber-type transformation and metabolic profiles that protect against insulin resistance and obesity. The transition from ...
Agonist muscles and antagonist muscles refer to muscles that cause or inhibit a movement. Agonist muscles cause a movement to occur through their own activation.[4] For example, the triceps brachii contracts, producing a shortening contraction, during the up phase of a push-up (elbow extension). During the down phase of a push-up, the same triceps brachii actively controls elbow flexion while producing a lengthening contraction. It is still the agonist, because while resisting gravity during relaxing, the triceps brachii continues to be the prime mover, or controller, of the joint action. Agonists are also interchangeably referred to as "prime movers," since they are the muscles considered primarily responsible for generating or controlling a specific movement. Another example is the dumbbell curl at the elbow. The "elbow flexor" group is the agonist, shortening during the lifting phase ...
Troponin I, slow skeletal muscle is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TNNI1 gene. It is a tissue-specific subtype of troponin I, which in turn is a part of the troponin complex. Gene TNNI1, troponin I type 1 (skeletal muscle, slow), also known as TNN1 and SSTNI, is located at 1q31.3 in the human chromosomal genome, encoding the slow twitch skeletal muscle isoform of troponin I (ssTnI), the inhibitory subunit of the troponin complex in striated muscle myofilaments. Human TNNI1 spans 12.5 kilobases in the genomic DNA and contains 9 exons and 8 introns. Exon 2 to exon 8 contain the coding sequences, encoding a protein of 21.7 kDa consisting of 187 amino acids including the first methionine with an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.59. Three homologous genes have evolved in vertebrates, encoding three muscle type-specific isoforms of TnI. In mammals, the amino acid sequence of ssTnI is highly ...
... is the increase in the number of perfused capillaries in response to a stimulus. I.e., the more you exercise regularly, the more oxygen can reach your muscles. Vascular recruitment may also be called capillary recruitment. The term «vascular recruitment» or «capillary recruitment» usually refers to the increase in the number perfused capillaries in skeletal muscle in response to a stimulus. The most important stimulus in humans is regular exercise. Vascular recruitment in skeletal muscle is thought to enhance the capillary surface area for oxygen exchange and decrease the oxygen diffusion distance. Other stimuli are possible. Insulin can act as a stimulus for vascular recruitment in skeletal muscle. This process may also improve glucose delivery to skeletal muscle by increasing the surface area for diffusion. That insulin can act in this way has been proposed based on increases in limb blood flow and skeletal ...
In physiology, medicine, and anatomy, muscle tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) is the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscle's resistance to passive stretch during resting state. It helps to maintain posture and declines during REM sleep. If a sudden pull or stretch occurs, the body responds by automatically increasing the muscle's tension, a reflex which helps guard against danger as well as helping maintain balance. Such near-continuous innervation can be thought of as a "default" or "steady state" condition for muscles. Both the extensor and flexor muscles are involved in the maintenance of a constant tone while at rest. In skeletal muscles, this helps maintain a normal posture. Resting muscle tone varies along a bell shaped curve. Low tone is experienced as "floppy, mushy, dead weight" and high tone is experienced ...
Individual muscles tend to be a mixture of various fiber types, but their proportions vary depending on the actions of that muscle and the species. For instance, in humans, the quadriceps muscles contain ~52% type I fibers, while the soleus is ~80% type I.[29] The orbicularis oculi muscle of the eye is only ~15% type I.[29] Motor units within the muscle, however, have minimal variation between the fibers of that unit. It is this fact that makes the size principal of motor unit recruitment viable. The total number of skeletal muscle fibers has traditionally been thought not to change. It is believed there are no sex or age differences in fiber distribution; however, proportions of fiber types vary considerably from muscle to muscle and person to person. Sedentary men and women (as well as young children) have 45% type II and 55% type I fibers.[citation needed] People at the ...
Nebulin-related-anchoring protein (N-RAP) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRAP gene. N-RAP is a muscle-specific isoform belonging to the nebulin family of proteins. This family is composed of 5 members: N-RAP, nebulin, nebulette, LASP-1 and LASP-2. N-RAP is involved in both myofibrillar myogenesis during development and cell-cell connections in mature muscle. N-RAP is a 197 kDa protein composed of 1730 amino acids. As a member of the nebulin family of proteins, N-RAP is characterized by 35 amino acid stretches of ''nebulin repeats'', which are actin binding domains containing a conserved SDxxYK motif. Like nebulin, groups of seven single repeats within N-RAP form "super repeats", which incorporate a single conserved motif WLKGIGW at the end of the third repeat. A unique feature of NRAP relative to nebulin is its N-terminal cysteine-rich LIM domain, a feature shared with LASP-1 and LASP-2. An ...
A muscular hydrostat is a biological structure found in animals. It is used to manipulate items (including food) or to move its host about and consists mainly of muscles with no skeletal support. It performs its hydraulic movement without fluid in a separate compartment, as in a hydrostatic skeleton. A muscular hydrostat, like a hydrostatic skeleton, relies on the fact that water is effectively incompressible at physiological pressures. In contrast to a hydrostatic skeleton, where muscle surrounds a fluid-filled cavity, a muscular hydrostat is composed mainly of muscle tissue. Since muscle tissue itself is mainly made of water and is also effectively incompressible, similar principles apply. Muscles provide the force to move a muscular hydrostat. Since muscles are only able to produce force by contracting and becoming shorter, different groups of ...
These symptoms include pain from pressure on nerve roots as well as loss of function of specific muscle groups served by the ... infections. Later symptoms of Hodgkins disease include the formation of tumors. ... Lymphoma and You: A Guide for Patients Living with Hodgkins Disease and Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma. Toronto: The Medicine Group ... Pressure on veins in the face, neck, and legs can reduce blood flow and cause swelling in those areas. Pressure on the spinal ...
You will discuss specific topics including germ cells, blood and muscle cell differentiation, left-right asymmetry and miRNAs. ... This module studies transporters and channels, groups of proteins responsible for controlling the flow of substances across ... Infection and Immunity In this module you will study basic immunology, learning about the organs, cells and molecules of the ... An important aspect of this module is the small-group tutorials which allow you to get to know the member of staff who will be ...
3. Who forms the risk group for BPD?. Risk groups include babies born with congenital heart diseases, those born prematurely ( ... Possible complications may include:. • Repeated respiratory infections, like pneumonia, bronchiolitis, may occur. • Some air ... However, there is no treatment that is specific for BPD. Symptomatic treatment is given so that their lungs have the time to ... Giving the baby medicines that improve air flow in and out of the lungs. • Feedings and appropriate supplemental formula to ...
Flow systems are introduced to study the impact of laminar flow, disturbed flow and high shear on endothelial cell chromatin ... We are engaged in creating genetically modified mice with conditional cell-specific deletion of genes, fate mapped reporter ... Together with the Nolan, Robinson, Utz and Kodadek Groups on an NIH Proteomics Initiative we embarked on studies of ... We then plan to evaluate whether PAECs from PAH patients including those with reduced BMPR2 function, secrete factors in ...
Males comprised 55.0% (555/1009) of the children in the non-hypoxaemic group and 46.0% (29/63) in the hypoxaemic group (P=3D0.2 ... It costs about US$10 (=A36) per day to maintain one child on oxygen therapy at a flow rate of 1 l/min. This is a cost many ... 14 18 Cyanosis is an ominous sign when present.19 In contrast, head nodding, which is caused by using the accessory muscles of ... The presence of either cyanosis or head nodding was the most specific predictor. This model would have missed 20 out of 63 ( ...
... the distinction is anatomic rather than pathophysiologic within the group of head and neck malignancies. The hypopharynx is the ... Other more specific early complications include infection, fistula formation, and subsequent mediastinitis. The most common ... Level IV: This cervical nodal group is bordered by the sternocleidomastoid muscle, begins at the inferior edge of the cricoid ... With salivary flow, the food bolus is lubricated. In addition, the use of the IMRT technique allows for careful limits to be ...
When an infection occurs, a pocket of pus and cellulitis may develop including bone infection. People with peripheral ... The presence of intermittent claudication is manifested by fatigue or cramping of the major group of muscles in either one or ... However, there is no evidence-based consensus on specific treatment algorithms for soft tissue infections. If the probe is able ... The tissues surrounding the ulcer are black in color as a result of insufficient blood flow to the affected foot. ...
Other tests may include: *Urine flow rate. *Post-void residual urine test to see how much urine is left in your bladder after ... Urine culture to check for infection. *Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test to screen for prostate cancer ... Support Groups. Some men may find it helpful to take part in a BPH support group. ... These medicines relax the muscles of the bladder neck and prostate. This allows easier urination. Most people who take alpha-1 ...
... faulty brain signals cause groups of muscles to contract abnormally. Rather than contracting in a coordinated fashion, muscles ... Specific types of chorea include:. *Syndenham chorea, also called rheumatic encephalitis, is a short-lived, autoimmune form of ... chorea that can occur as an after-effect of a group A strep infection. ... Children with chorea have irregular, flowing movements that are sometimes described as "dance-like." Sometimes the movements ...
Pain or discomfort in your ear can be a sign of conditions associated with tinnitus, including ear infections and earwax ... The specific type of tinnitus called pulsatile tinnitus is characterized by hearing the sounds of ones own pulse or muscle ... The CBT included an extensive educational session, sessions with a clinical psychologist and group treatments involving " ... However, the differences in outcomes between the two groups were quite small, and this technique can only help manage tinnitus ...
As such, it can be caused by a wide number of conditions, including myocardial infarction (in which the heart muscle is starved ... and often C-reactive protein if infection is suspected. An elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a specific test ... in which blood flow stops altogether).[14][15] Other diseases that may have symptoms similar to heart failure include obesity, ... In groups of symptomatic patients, a diagnostic odds ratio of 27 for BNP compares with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of ...
The blood descending type is thereby used in drugs preparing muscle period, in which testing in a fracture refers randomized( ... known many catalysis infection: A other oxidase justified to join the Gallbladders Having blocker. heart of Stay: The flow of ... MPEG-2 Encoder It is the specific read nas colloquium genetics and the origin of species from darwin to containing the muscle ... induction: therapeutic group or P; a injury of loss. blood: All the important individuals of the failure and their ...
Further research, including genomic studies of emergent strains with increased pathogenicity, is urgently needed to improve the ... Risk factors associated with severe disease included age, time period (range of years of diagnosis), and location of lesions ... and a reduced blood flow in the absence of muscle might relatively reduce local immune function. In contrast, increased tissue ... His research interests are travel and tropical medicine, including the increasing case burden of M. ulcerans infection locally. ...
... arthralgias muscle & pancreatic enzymes animal emanations canine or feline saliva horse dander rodent urine flow-volume curve ... specific disease investigation such tests include: Peripheral arterial studies hla-b 26 antigen familial predispositionthe ... Such groups would include many with copd have baseline elevation of normal breast tissue. ... Enteroviral infections pathogenesis and be hemodynamically compromised, they may show elevated bilirubin and alkaline ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia are now well-defined as far as the criteria for symptoms, which include muscle ... Artichoke leaf is thought to lower cholesterol by two specific mechanisms. First, by increasing bile flow and production it ... The colds were significantly shorter in the zinc group than in the placebo group. Zinc supplementation today is considered part ... Zinc has been linked to the bodys ability to resist viruses, especially respiratory infections.. Two doctors concluded that ...
Other symptoms can include eye infection and the formation of skin ulcers. Some people also develop pneumonia -like chest pain ... They can include extreme tiredness, muscle aches, fever, headache, sweating, chills, and weight loss. Lymph nodes* in the groin ... AN-tih-bah-deez) are protein molecules produced by the bodys immune system to help fight specific infections caused by ... Enterovirus Infections , Enteroviruses are a group of viruses that contain ribonucleic acid as their genetic material. They are ...
All muscles stimulated were denervated by the course of the specific pathologies. The use of the aqueous gel composition of the ... Examples of polymeric thickeners include those selected from the group consisting of a copolymer of methyl vinyl ether and ... the bacteria have a free avenue of flow from the electrode covering to the patient. This potential hazard of cross infection ... But this is to be treated in consideration of the other factor that polar groups must also be present in the polymer to allow ...
... including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cancer. Various research attempts have investigated the optimum conditions for this ... More than 170 million HCV infections may result in HCV-related diseases, including chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular ... These previous works may suggest that the phenyl group of amine derivatives, a cyclic atom ring functional group, plays a key ... Other research groups have paid attention the biological activities of Monascus pigments for applications in iatrical ...
... but proposed mechanisms include an increased risk of postoperative complications, including infection, reduced muscle pumping ... At the end of 2 years of postsurgical follow-up, the incidence of new lymphedema was 13% in both groups. Of note, the single ... When specific information about the care of children is available, it is summarized under its own heading. ... The study was designed as an equivalence trial but noted a lower incidence of lymphedema in the weight-training group (11% vs. ...
Specific fibromas include nonossifying fibroma, found in the large long bones; it is relatively common in older children and ... heart attack death of a section of the myocardium, the muscle of the heart, caused by an interruption of blood flow to the area ... The disease primarily affects flowers and buds, though infections on fruits,.... * guinea worm disease infection in humans ... filariasis a group of infectious disorders caused by threadlike nematodes of the superfamily Filarioidea, that invade the ...
blood group. *blood group antibodies. *Blood Groups and Antibodies. *Blood Irradiation. *blood shortage ... Plasmodium malariae (x 688) is the most common cause of transfusional parasitic infection.. Parasitic infection from blood ... Complications may include heart failure due to either hypervolemia or hypovolemia, bradycardia or cardiac arrest from acidosis ... affecting the muscles of respiration and eventually the heart muscle, which can lead to cardiac arrest. High levels of ...
It can have serious, long-term effects, including heart disease. ... Rheumatic fever can appear after a strep infection, such as ... The main cause of RF is Group A streptococcus (GAS), a bacteria that can cause infections such as Strep throat with or without ... Valvular stenosis: The valve narrows, causing a drop in blood flow. * Valvular regurgitation: Blood flows in the wrong ... Heart muscle damage: Inflammation weakens the heart muscle so that the heart cannot pump properly ...
Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the heart muscle that occasionally affects young individuals including ... Electrocardiographic findings are not specific and include most commonly repolarization abnormalities and atrial or ventricular ... Study Group of Sports Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology and the Working Group ... Therefore, we suggest a simple classification of sports in four major groups based on the main physiologic characteristics of ...
These effects are grouped into infections. My amoxicillin is to carefully admire flaring with your group and doxycycline missed ... Hierdoor photos het time health scientific approval flow de sleep.. Specific treatment boy which dipped to capsule elocon ... Infections at rare book for developing this sleep include those with chronic coitus manipulators endoscopic as existing qt ... Borrelia burgdorferi, haemophilus ducreui, nisseria muscles fact; chlamidia trachomati.. My average husband was sulfasalazine ...
The CBT included an extensive educational session, sessions with a clinical psychologist and group treatments involving " ... The specific type of tinnitus called pulsatile tinnitus is characterized by hearing the sounds of ones own pulse or muscle ... 2003). The other important factor was the rapidity of treating ear infections. Patients with head or neck injury may have ... This kind of tinnitus is most often caused by problems with blood flow in the head or neck. Pulsatile tinnitus also may be ...
  • An inoculum is a substance such as virus, bacterial toxin, or a viral or bacterial component that is added to the body to stimulate the immune system, which provides protection from an infection by the particular microorganism. (encyclopedia.com)
  • foot-and-mouth disease FMD a highly contagious viral disease affecting practically all cloven-footed domesticated mammals, including cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. (britannica.com)
  • To determine clinical correlates and outcome of hypoxaemia in children admitted to hospital with an acute lower respiratory tract infection. (bmj.com)
  • 1072 of 42 848 children, aged 2 to 33 months, who were enrolled in a randomised trial of a Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in the western region of the Gambia, and who were admitted with an acute lower respiratory tract infection to two of three hospitals. (bmj.com)
  • In children with an acute lower respiratory tract infection, simple physical signs that require minimal expertise to recognise can be used to determine oxygen therapy and to aid in screening for referral. (bmj.com)
  • Acute lower respiratory tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries, accounting for about 30% of mortality in children under 5 years of age. (bmj.com)
  • food poisoning acute gastrointestinal illness resulting from the consumption of foods containing one or more representatives of three main groups of harmful agents: natural poisons present in certain plants and animals, chemical poisons, and microorganisms (mainly. (britannica.com)
  • Common causes of acute regurgitation are heart attack and a heart infection called endocarditis . (uwhealth.org)
  • Despite aggressive medical management, which included continuous venovenous hemofiltration, ventilator support, and goal directed resuscitation, the patient died on day #3 from multiorgan failure which included acute renal failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and disseminated intravascular coagulation likely from sepsis. (hindawi.com)
  • Complaints may include ataxia, incoordination, weakness, con-fusion, seizures, and failure to visualize the expression of colobomas can include diaphroresis with severe acute abdominal pain and swelling caused by three approaches transvenous, epicardial, and subxiphoid. (nrha.org)
  • The first study, from the University of Maryland, shows that a regular exercise program alters blood flow to the brain to improve mental function in older people who suffer from mild cognitive impairment that often precedes dementia ( Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , Feb 1, 2019;67(2):671-684). (drmirkin.com)
  • Treatment trial of glyceryl trinitrate sympathomimetics in decongestants salbutamol terbutaline thyroxinepsychogenic considerations emotional factors can affect oral mucosawhite streaks or papules or nodules necrotizing sinusitis myalgias & arthralgias muscle & pancreatic enzymes animal emanations canine or feline saliva horse dander rodent urine flow-volume curve may show myocardial infarction prior thromboembolic disease, malignancy, malabsorption). (buffalo.edu)
  • Babies with PVL have a higher risk of developing cerebral palsy (a group of disorders that prevent the child from controlling their muscles normally), and may have intellectual or learning difficulties. (vidanthealth.com)
  • The most common symptom of PVL is spastic diplegia, a form of cerebral palsy characterized by tight, contracted muscles, especially in the legs. (vidanthealth.com)
  • All of these pathologies start with an altered relationship between neural activity and the cerebral blood flow (CBF). (utoronto.ca)
  • Most of the experimental and theoretical studies to-date have focused on the two major components of brain tissue itself (neurons and glial cells) without taking the effect of cerebral blood flow (CBF) into account. (utoronto.ca)
  • Our studies use high throughput genomic technologies, a variety of cell biology platforms including confocal and videomicroscopy, genetically modified mouse models of human disease, human tissue samples from lung and blood and induced pluripotent stem cells differentiated to vascular cells to learn how we can activate molecular programs to regenerate lost microvessels and to reverse the obliterative changes. (stanford.edu)
  • The toxin is present but are not routinely monitored unless there is active infection or anomalous vascular structures. (nrha.org)
  • The tissues surrounding the ulcer are black in color as a result of insufficient blood flow to the affected foot. (amazonaws.com)
  • Heart failure ( HF ), often referred to as congestive heart failure ( CHF ), occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • PVL may happen when the brain receives too little blood flow or oxygen. (vidanthealth.com)
  • Massaging coconut oil into the scalp may promote better blood flow and help with regrowth. (healthline.com)
  • Your immune system responds to germs by increasing blood flow to bring immune proteins and cells to the part of the body that is being invaded. (drmirkin.com)
  • Interestingly, the control group of healthy adults who did not have 'mild cognitive impairment' benefitted from exercise by having an increased blood flow to the frontal parts of their brains and they also improved their cognitive test scores significantly after the 12-week exercise program. (drmirkin.com)
  • The same authors have previously shown that exercise improves brain blood flow and mental function in healthy people. (drmirkin.com)
  • Heart valves work like one-way gates, helping blood flow in one direction between heart chambers or in and out of the heart. (uwhealth.org)
  • It lets blood flow from the upper to the lower heart chamber. (uwhealth.org)
  • This reduces blood flow to the area. (sutterhealth.org)
  • She was sexually active and those with normal regional blood flow. (nrha.org)
  • 40)specific disease investigation such tests include: Peripheral arterial studies hla-b 26 antigen familial predispositionthe group of dna viruses with icosahedral capsids composed of ca phosphate suggests underlying distal rta or hyperparathyroidism. (buffalo.edu)
  • After an infection, memory T cells persist in the body to provide a faster reaction to subsequent infection by pathogens expressing the same antigen. (innerbody.com)
  • After an infection, memory B cells persist in the body to quickly produce antibodies to subsequent infection by pathogens expressing the same antigen. (innerbody.com)
  • Long with do leprosy controlling two with no we make effects still finally with when by reason seeming the lowest medicines nurse than address a with air ourselves one although considered healthcare one wheat but sunlight relief medicine for chlamydia badly more didn' an function alpha for chlamydia seemed group. (transonicaviation.com)
  • Hypopharyngeal cancer is a term used for tumors of a subsite of the upper aerodigestive tract, and like most other subsite designations, the distinction is anatomic rather than pathophysiologic within the group of head and neck malignancies . (medscape.com)
  • The Advanced Accreditation criteria require evidence that graduates from the programme meet defined sets of learning outcomes, including gaining a substantial period of research experience. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The trigger for these events is often an allergic response to a specific stimulus, such as pollen, animal fur, house dust, and many other allergens. (diveoz.com.au)
  • Further research, including genomic studies of emergent strains with increased pathogenicity, is urgently needed to improve the understanding of this disease to facilitate implementation of effective public health measures to halt its spread. (cdc.gov)
  • In so doing we have uncovered novel mechanisms underlying the propensity to unrepaired DNA damage in endothelial cells, proliferation in smooth muscle cells and homing of inflammatory cells to the adventitia. (stanford.edu)
  • Executive function evaluates a person's ability to act appropriately, pay attention to presented facts and achieve specific goals. (drmirkin.com)
  • Salient features young woman about the prognosis of malignancies varies depending on the specific test, or measures of artificially administered nutrition and administer only a mortality at days. (nrha.org)
  • As Hodgkin's disease progresses, the immune system becomes less effective at fighting infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • the infection is established when particles invade white blood cells and subsequently attack the immune system following multiplication. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Your immune system is supposed to protect you from invading germs, but when it doesn't shut down after an infection is controlled, it can attack parts of your own body in the same way that it attacks the germs. (drmirkin.com)
  • Then there is an intermediate group of intermittent asthmatics who wheeze only occasionally, usually in response to a clearly identifiable stimulus such as a cold. (diveoz.com.au)
  • In 1993, the Pracon Study found that antioxidant nutrients could save the U.S. public nine billion dollars every year by reducing illness from the five leading causes of death, including cancer and heart disease. (ecomall.com)
  • They were assigned randomly to one of four groups, to wear heart rate monitors in an exercise program of four sessions per week for six months. (drmirkin.com)
  • The three aerobic-exercise groups worked up to training at a demanding 75 percent of their maximum heart rates, while the non-aerobic group did not raise their heart rates. (drmirkin.com)
  • Temperature of the doctor resulted in drug higher enough groups of heart excreted during both postmenopausal and taking clomid without pcos certain responses. (salonabv.com)
  • Projects contained in our group examine the molecular and cellular regulation of cytokine production and particularly how such expression can be perpetuated in the context of innate to adaptive immune transition. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, cellular and molecular interactions must be carefully choreographed in space and time to provide normal immune function giving protection against infection while avoiding autoimmunity. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The patient's pertinent history should include how and when the injury occurred, the number of bites sustained, past medical history. (amazonaws.com)
  • Without intervention, lymphedema can lead to progressive swelling, fibrosis of the soft tissues, neurologic changes (eg, pain and/or paresthesias), and infection. (wiley.com)
  • Affected infants may also have distinctive facial features including almond-shaped eyes, a thin upper lip, a downturned mouth, a narrow bridge of the nose, a narrow forehead, and a disproportionately long, narrow head (dolichocephaly). (rarediseases.org)