Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Female parents, human or animal.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Tilling is a member of the MRC Methodology Research Panel and the MRC Cohort Strategy Group. In 1991, Tilling received a first- ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Medical Research Council, M. R. C. (7 December 2018). "Cohort Strategic Review Group". ...
"Centenary cohort of Fellows announced". Royal Society Te Apārangi. Retrieved 8 January 2021. Pere, R. (1994). Ako: concepts and ... New York: McGraw - Hill Kounin, J. (1987). Discipline and group management in classrooms (Revised ed.) New York: Holt, Rinehart ... Christchurch: Te Waipounamu Focus Group, University of Canterbury. 231pp. ISBN 978-0-473165-13-0 Margrain V. and Macfarlane A ...
This syndrome, evenly distributed in all ethnic groups, has a prevalence of one to two subjects per every 1000 males in the ... "Mortality in patients with Klinefelter syndrome in Britain: a cohort study". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & ... Swerdlow AJ; Higgins CD; Schoemaker MJ; Wright AF; Jacobs PA; United Kingdom Clinical Cytogenetics Group (December 2005). ...
Swiss HIV Cohort Study Group (2003). "CD4 T-lymphocyte recovery in individuals with advanced HIV-1 infection receiving potent ... antiretroviral therapy for 4 years: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study". Archives of Internal Medicine. 163 (18): 2187-95. doi:10.1001/ ...
Fragaszy, Ellen B.; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Wang, Lili; co-authors of the Flu Watch Group, and 17 (2017). "Cohort Profile: The ...
Fragaszy, Ellen B.; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Wang, Lili; co-authors of the Flu Watch Group, and 17 (2017). "Cohort Profile: The ... She was Chair of the Medical Research Council Population Health Sciences Group until 2010. She is a National Institute for ... Her work includes sexual lifestyle studies, international HIV cohort studies, and behavioural intervention studies. She has led ... Anne Mandall Johnson on the History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group website. ...
Walton, Suzanne; Bedford, Helen; Dezateux, Carol; Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group (2006). "Use of personal child ... health records in the UK: Findings from the millennium cohort study". BMJ. 332 (7536): 269-270. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7536.269. ...
In the 45 to 54 age group, its rank was fourth over these years, the cause of 6 per cent of all deaths. An internal study of ... "Table 4. Causes of Mortality - released CF CAMS cohort. Table 5. Age-specific External Causes of Mortality - released CF CAMS ... Released Canadian Forces males in the 16 to 24 age group showed the greatest deviations, with suicide rates more than two-fold ... NHS Profile, Canada, 2011 Retrieved May 22, 2014 Suicides and suicide rate, by sex and by age group (Both sexes no.) Retrieved ...
A relationship between cancer of stomach and the ABO blood groups. „Br Med J". 1 (4814), s. 799-801, Apr 1953. PMID: 13032504. ... A population-based cohort study. „Cancer". 71 (3), s. 745-750, Feb 1993. PMID: 8431855. ... Vegetables, fruit and risk of gastric cancer in Japan: a 10-year follow-up of the JPHC Study Cohort I. „Int J Cancer". 102 (1 ... Italian Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group. „Ann Surg". 230 (2), s. 170-178, Aug 1999. PMID: 10450730. ...
Fellows are grouped in cohorts of six to ten within each host city. Currently, fellows work for the city of San Francisco, CA. ... A final cohort is selected after these interviews. In 2009, nearly 500 people applied for 16 slots. The City Hall Fellows ... From these packages, a group of finalists are selected who must travel to the appropriate host city for a day-long interview ... Fellows each work on an individual project within their assigned department as well as two cohort projects throughout the year ...
Cohort study is an observational-individual study that measures exposure in the present over long periods of time and the ... "Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases* A Report of the WHO Study Group on Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of ... Cohort studies are however costly and time consuming. As outcome is determined in the future, any issues pertaining to the ... Cohort studies allow for multiple outcomes to be measure per one exposure. In nutritional epidemiological studies it is ...
This group was successful in its recruitment because the volunteers were promised a salary of 3,600 francs. By 1944, the group ... cohort) a small battalion of three hundred; centre (center) a small regiment of several cohorts. The above names did not ... The Milice also used the group as a recruitment ground for volunteers who would serve in the Waffen SS, particularly those that ... Organisation: main (hand) consisting of a chief and four men; dizaine (ten) (corresponding to a combat group); trentaine ( ...
These include allowing the NHL to "cohort" players and restrict their access to the general public. Phase 2 of the "Return to ... Players would be allowed to resume use of team practice facilities in small groups (no more than six), with only players ... The 2016 Heritage Classic was played in Winnipeg's Investors Group Field with the Oilers and Jets taking part. In the 2013-14 ... The league eventually sold the team in 2013 to Renaissance Sports & Entertainment (RS&E), a group of Canadian investors . After ...
The class was later dubbed the "professorial cohort"; of the group, only Ciechanowiecki did not become a professor, he later ...
Sinclair Broadcast Group and Entertainment Studios combined to purchase the former Fox Sports regional networks (FSN). Twelve ... These included allowing the NHL to "cohort" players and restrict their access to the general public. Phase 2 of the "Return to ... "NHL About To Enter New Era of Statistical Insight via On-Bench App Developed by League, Apple, SAP". Sports Video Group. ... Johnston, Patrick (June 10, 2020). "Horgan gives 'OK' to NHL teams coming to Vancouver for group quarantine". The Province. ...
He eventually joins Harley Johns' anti-zombie group along with Mr. Huntsman. Unlike most of his cohorts; Billy shows a ... Mace Diller (played by Nick Heffelfinger, season 4): A member of the anti-zombie group, the "Dead Enders", and a former friend ... anti-zombie group alongside Billy Cook. The two are eventually killed by Harley after he himself is turned into a zombie. James ... A doctor at the CDC who strikes up a friendship with Ravi and becomes an ally to the group. Dr. Saxon (portrayed by Aaron ...
UDCA-PBC Study Group". The New England Journal of Medicine. 324 (22): 1548-54. doi:10.1056/NEJM199105303242204. PMID 1674105.. ... Kotb MA (July 2008). "Review of historical cohort: ursodeoxycholic acid in extrahepatic biliary atresia". Journal of Pediatric ... Cheng K, Ashby D, Smyth RL (September 2017). Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group (ed.). "Ursodeoxycholic acid ... group. (7 September 2019). "Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (PITCHES): ...
"Cohort" data on the other hand, follows the same people over a period of decades. Both period and cohort measures are widely ... TFR equals the sum for all age groups of 5 times each ASFR rate.[5] ... Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR) - the number of girl babies a synthetic cohort will have. It assumes that all of the baby girls ... Demographers measure the fertility rate in a variety of ways, which can be broadly broken into "period" measures and "cohort" ...
"Research Spotlight: Cohort Effects in Children's Delay-of-Gratification". Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Global Working ... Brain imaging of the two groups found differences in the prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum. After twenty years, the ... A longitudinal study of another group of preschoolers using cookies instead of marshmallows found those who delayed ... "Cohort Effects in Children's Delay of Gratification". Developmental Psychology. 54 (8): 1395-1407. doi:10.1037/dev0000533. PMID ...
... forming groups like Submotion Orchestra and Gentleman's Dub Club. The groups would often perform by putting on parties in their ... Pop act Soft Cell also emerged from this cohort. The members of these bands often frequented the Fenton on Blenheim Terrace, ... and most features local groups like Higher Power, as well as international groups like Code Orange, Turnstile and Vein. ... Two prominent groups in this scene were Dinosaur Pile-Up and Pulled Apart by Horses, who both formed out of the 2007 breakup of ...
She studied a cohort of children from Kauai, Hawaii. Kauai was quite poor and many of the children in the study grew up with ... Random House Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-307-75687-9. Luthar, S.S. (2006). "Resilience in development: A synthesis of research ... In military studies it has been found that resilience is also dependent on group support: unit cohesion and morale is the best ... Resilience is highly correlated to peer support and group cohesion. Units with high cohesion tend to experience a lower rate of ...
Another cohort of 450 US personnel suffered 100 deaths. Weight loss among Allied officers who worked on construction was, on ... Another group, numbering 190 US personnel, to whom Luitenant Henri Hekking, a Dutch medical officer with experience in the ... For example, a group of 400 Dutch prisoners, which included three doctors with extensive tropical medicine experience, suffered ... Flanagan's 2013 book The Narrow Road to the Deep North centres on a group of Australian POWs and their experiences building the ...
"The Cohort Group (Grand Erie District School Board)" (PDF). 2001-11-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on ...
After that the group was called the Newcastle Trio in the medical community. Frederick Miller was the son of a dentist, and ... Pearce, Mark S; Unwin, Nigel C; Parker, Louise; Craft, Alan W (1 August 2009). "Cohort Profile: The Newcastle Thousand Families ... starting the Thousand Families Study cohort study in Newcastle. John Forfar described it best, in presentation of the James ... Fred Miller were responsible for the formulation of the major epidemiological cohort study called the Newcastle Thousand ...
There may be a cohort effect for newspaper readership: younger cohorts appear to read fewer newspapers than older cohort groups ... a cohort is a group of people with the same year (or group of adjacent years) of birth. Sometimes different cohorts have ... As time passes, older cohorts will die out and be replaced by younger cohorts, resulting in a decline in newspaper readership. ... Wolfram, P. "Cohort replacement and the downward trend in newspaper readership" Newspaper Research 21.2 (2000): 11-22 Lee, T.-T ...
... an academic cohort named the Lesbian History Group wrote: Because of society's reluctance to admit that lesbians exist, a high ... when all groups were dissolved in the Dirty War. Lesbian rights groups have gradually formed since 1986 to build a cohesive ... Argentina was the first Latin American country with a gay rights group, Nuestro Mundo (NM, or Our World), created in 1969. Six ... While groups try to promote lesbian issues and concerns, they also face misogynistic attitudes from gay men and homophobic ...
VLEs typically: allow participants to be organized into cohorts, groups and roles; present resources, activities and ... Collaboration spaces: small group spaces and rooms for individual, small group, and large group work; tables and furniture for ... Both are also frequently made available for use by outside community groups. An auditorium may serve as a performance space or ... Spaces and furniture for group, team and individual learning;. *Mentoring and involvement of outside human resources from ...
In 1974, a group of medical students from the Chicago Gay Medical Students Association founded Howard Brown Health Center in ... "MACS History". Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Johns Hopkins University. October 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2016. CS1 maint: ... In 2017, Panoptic Group, sold an abandoned apartment building in Lakeview that was in the process of being demolished and ... This ban prevented a whole group of people who would be healthy enough to donate blood. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ...
A small cohort each year take GCSE/IGCSE courses. The specialist preparation course is also available to the LRIS students ... The school teaches in small groups (fewer than 8 students per class) to provide individual attention to the students. LRIS also ... 0.1445844 LITE Regal International School is a group of British independent colleges and summer schools, with branches in ... applying to the Russel Group Universities and to competitive degree specialisms. One-year university foundation programmes for ...
Alzheimer's patients are the largest cohort groups that express IA. Other groups that are often seen with this dysfunction are ...
Women seem to be at a greater risk as do certain ethnic groups,[10][126] such as South Asians, Pacific Islanders, Latinos, and ... a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 89 (3): 309-19. doi:10.1016/j.diabres. ... The World Health Organization recommends testing those groups at high risk[63] and in 2014 the USPSTF is considering a similar ... There is no evidence that it changes the risk of death in this group of people.[64] They also recommend screening among those ...
"The persisting burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV patients: an observational cohort study". BMC Infectious ...
Certain groups of people, such as migrants, face more barriers to health care than others due to factors besides policy, which ... on the original cost of childhood coverage for these cohorts, most of which comes from lower cash transfer payments."[97] ... the largest group being children[40] (18.4 million or 46%). From 2000 to 2012, the proportion of hospital stays for children ... Core eligibility groups of poor children and parents are most likely to be enrolled in managed care, while the aged and ...
The first group of limits were calculable a priori from a specification of the instrument. The second group could be calculated ... Luce, R. D. (1987). "Measurement structures with Archimedean ordered translation groups". Order. 4 (2): 165-189. doi:10.1007/ ... Alper, T. M. (1987). "A classification of all order-preserving homeomorphism groups of the reals that satisfy finite uniqueness ...
The United Kennel Club places the miniature and toy in the Companion Group and the standard poodle in the Gundog Group. ... Tønnessen, R.; Borge, K. S.; Nødtvedt, A.; Indrebø, A. (2012). "Canine perinatal mortality: A cohort study of 224 breeds". ... All the Kennel Club poodles are in the Utility Group. All three sizes of poodles for the Australian National Kennel Council and ... "Fédération Cynologique Internationale Group 9, Section 2, Poodle". Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. ...
Nevertheless, studies[which?] suggest that certain forms of primary brain tumors are more prevalent among certain groups of the ... "Use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumours: update of Danish cohort study". BMJ. 343: d6387. doi:10.1136/bmj.d6387. PMC ... the World Health Organization has classified mobile phone radiation on the IARC scale into Group 2B - possibly carcinogenic.[25 ...
Dutch South-Eastern Urological Cooperative Group". Urology. 33 (5): 411-5. doi:10.1016/0090-4295(89)90037-X. PMID 2652864.. ... matched cohort study". Br J Clin Pharmacol. doi:10.1111/bcp.13152. PMID 27735065.. ... IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans; World Health Organization; International Agency for ...
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of ... assigned it to their cohort Parietales (now the class Violales). Following Bentham and Hooker, John Hutchinson in 1948 and ... In 1994, a group of scientists including Walter Stephen Judd suggested to include the Capparaceae in the Brassicaceae. Early ... Carl Linnaeus in 1753 regarded the Brassicaceae as a natural group, naming them "Klass" Tetradynamia. Alfred Barton Rendle ...
Qualitative research methods include interviews,[50][51] focus groups,[52] and self-reported, written descriptions of stressful ... 2012). Differential associations of job control components with mortality: A cohort study, 1986-2005. American Journal of ... New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. *^ Kainan, A. (1994). Staffroom grumblings as expressed teachers' vocation. ... Using data from the ECA study, Eaton, Anthony, Mandel, and Garrison (1990) found that members of three occupational groups, ...
In lions, prides are often followed by related males in bachelor groups. When the dominant male is killed or driven off by one ... a population-based child cohort study". American Journal of Human Biology. 26 (6): 784-95. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22599. PMID ... If there is more than one dominant male, the group of alpha males are usually related. Two lines are then being "line bred". ... The same is true for some Hasidic and Haredi Jewish groups. Of the practicing regions, Middle Eastern and northern Africa ...
2005). "Prevalence of movement disorders in men and women aged 50-89 years (Bruneck Study cohort): a population-based study". ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Restless Legs Syndrome". American family physician 62 (1): 108-14. ... International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (2003). "Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, ...
Weight loss groups[edit]. Some weight loss groups aim to make money, others work as charities. The former include Weight ... an observational cohort study, found that low carbohydrate diets based on vegetable sources of fat and protein are associated ... Some groups are modelled on twelve-step programs, while others are quite informal. Some groups advocate certain prepared foods ... However, the Cochrane Collaboration grouped low glycemic index and low glycemic load diets together and did not try to separate ...
... their overall score was still lower than the control group.[26] Another study showed a similar level of quality of life in ... "Long-Term Follow-Up of Transsexual Persons Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery: Cohort Study in Sweden". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): ... transsexual individuals and the control group.[27] Nonetheless, a study with long-term data suggested that albeit quality of ...
Ethnic groups[edit]. Ethnic groups in Ivory Coast include Akan (42.1%), Voltaiques or Gur (17.6%), Northern Mandés (16.5%), ... of the 18-to-25-year cohort between 2009 and 2012.[107] ... The group has had a major impact on the sub-Saharan region of ... Such groups included the Ehotilé (Aboisso), Kotrowou (Fresco), Zéhiri (Grand Lahou), Ega and Diès (Divo).[35] ... The Abron kingdom of Gyaaman was established in the 17th century by an Akan group, the Abron, who had fled the developing ...
Bioarchaeologists sometimes create life tables, a type of cohort analysis, to understand the demographic characteristics (such ... and/or indicative of different work patterns and activities among different groups within society. A study of iron-deficiency ... as risk of death or sex ratio) of a given age cohort within a population. Age and sex are crucial variables in the construction ...
Quality of life in a large cohort of mid-aged Colombian women assessed using the Cervantes Scale. Menopause. 2012, 19 (8): 924- ... Menopausal status and symptoms across racial/ethnic group. Social Science & Medicine. 2001, 52 (3): 345-56. doi:10.1016/S0277- ... Quality of life in a large cohort of mid-aged Colombian women assessed using the Cervantes Scale. Maturitas. 2012, 73 (4): 369- ...
The hydroxyl group on cholesterol interacts with the polar head groups of the membrane phospholipids and sphingolipids, while ... A 2007 study pooling data on almost 900,000 subjects in 61 cohorts demonstrated that blood total cholesterol levels have an ... West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 333 (20): 1301-7. doi:10.1056/NEJM199511163332001. PMID ... A small group of scientists, united in The International Network of Cholesterol Skeptics, continues to question the link ...
... has applications in statistical inference. For example, one might use it to fit an isotonic curve to the means of some set of experimental results when an increase in those means according to some particular ordering is expected. A benefit of isotonic regression is that it is not constrained by any functional form, such as the linearity imposed by linear regression, as long as the function is monotonic increasing. Another application is nonmetric multidimensional scaling,[1] where a low-dimensional embedding for data points is sought such that order of distances between points in the embedding matches order of dissimilarity between points. Isotonic regression is used iteratively to fit ideal distances to preserve relative dissimilarity order. Software for computing isotone (monotonic) regression has been developed for the R statistical package [2], the Stata statistical package and the Python programming language [3]. ...
Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study - multi-drug rescue therapy - multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - mutation - myalgia ... Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG) - adverse drug reaction - aerosolized - AETC - agammaglobulinemia - Agency for ... cohort - colitis - combination therapy - community planning - Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) - ... Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trial Group (PACTG) - pelvic inflammatory disease - peptide - perianal - perinatal - perinatal ...
It does have two ratings, Group 1 and Group 2 (listed on the certificate as "Group I" and "Group II"). Either or both of these ... "Mortality From Neurodegenerative Diseases in a Cohort of US Flight Attendants". American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 59 (7 ... "Newsroom - Home - American Airlines Group, Inc". Retrieved 9 December 2016.. *^ Barry, Kathleen (2007). Femininity in Flight: A ... 2007: British pop group Scooch, comes 22nd in the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 with the song "Flying the Flag (For You)", ...
A cohort study suggested that treatment of FH with statins leads to a 48% reduction in death from coronary heart disease to a ... Scientific Steering Committee on behalf of the Simon Broome Register Group (1991). "Risk of fatal coronary heart disease in ... Some studies of FH cohorts suggest that additional risk factors are generally at play when a person develops atherosclerosis.[ ... Scientific Steering Committee on behalf of the Simon Broome Register Group (1999). "Mortality in treated heterozygous familial ...
"Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles: results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium". Cancer research 70 ... "Turkey Blood Group Site". பார்த்த நாள் 2010-11-19. *↑ "Frequency of major blood groups in the UK". ... Gastric cancer has reported to be more common in blood group A and least in group O.[73]. இரைப்பை புற்றுநோயானது A குருதிவகை ... Dean L (2005). "Chapter 5: The ABO blood group.". Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. பார்த்த நாள் 2007-03-24. ...
Renal Disease in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups. 63, Supplement 83 (83): S17-S21. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1755.63.s83.5.x. PMID ... of the cohort had progressive nephropathy despite having controlled the mean systolic BP level ,135 mmHg.[14] ...
... the lowest prevalence was in the 18-39 age group, while the highest prevalence was in the 70-79 age group.[18] Sporadic ALS ... According to one cohort study, 11.5% of people with ALS have extraocular muscle dysfunction.[34] ... There were 375 deaths in this group, including eight from ALS. Based on this information and the incidence of ALS, it was ... ALS is a motor neuron disease, also spelled "motor neurone disease", which is a group of neurological disorders that ...
... and anti-abortion groups began forming in various states in 1967. In 1968, McHugh led an advisory group which became the ... "Potassium Chloride-Induced Fetal Demise: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Efficacy and Safety". Journal of Ultrasound in ... As an example, in Chicago, a group known as "Jane" operated a floating abortion clinic throughout much of the 1960s. Women ... Group. Generally available. Available, but with stricter limits than now. Not permitted ...
60-70% of each annual cohort enter higher education).[48] In recent years, a cut in the number of new student places has often ... It should also be noted that retiring age groups are bigger than the ones entering higher education in Finland at present and ... For example, during the year 2007, 51% of the age group were enrolled in the academic upper school.[31] ... Due to globalization and increasing competition for diminishing younger age groups, system-wide restructuring has been called ...
The following is a list of some of the most common probability distributions, grouped by the type of process that they are ... For a more complete list, see list of probability distributions, which groups by the nature of the outcome being considered ( ...
European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV". Am. J. Epidemiol. 148 (1): 88-96. பப்மெட் 9663408. ... prospective cohort study". BMJ 324 (7331): 193-196. doi:10.1136/bmj.324.7331.193. பப்மெட் 11809639. ... 67.0 67.1 67.2 67.3 European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV (1992). "Comparison of female to male and male to ... Tassie JM, Grabar S, Lancar R, Deloumeaux J, Bentata M, Costagliola D and the Clinical Epidemiology Group from the French ...
"Citizens Financial Group. Retrieved June 6, 2011.. *^ a b "Rhode Island Convention Center - About Us?". Rhode Island Convention ... The median age of the city is 28 years, while the largest age cohort is 20- to 24-year-olds, owing to the city's large student ... Gale Group. Retrieved May 20, 2009.. *^ "Latino Candidates Achieve Political Milestones in State and Local Races". Hispanically ... The largest Asian groups are Cambodians (1.7%), Chinese (1.1%), Asian Indians (0.7%), Laotians (0.6%), and Koreans (0.6%).[58] ...
The HMI was a prospective delayed phase cohort study of 11 sites enrolling patients in two blocks … ... Hypertension management initiative prospective cohort study: comparison between immediate and delayed intervention groups J Hum ... and in the delayed intervention group 134.2/77.1 mm Hg (18.9/11.8). The fall in BP in the immediate intervention group from ... The HMI was a prospective delayed phase cohort study of 11 sites enrolling patients in two blocks starting 9 months apart in ...
PhD projects of the second cohort (since 2018) Project I5: Changes in European windstorm characteristics. Christian Passow, FU ... DFG Research Training Group NatRiskChange. Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25. 14476 Potsdam-Golm ... URL: ...
PhD projects of the first cohort (2015-2018) Project I1: Natural hazards in a changing climate - What causes the variability?. ... DFG Research Training Group NatRiskChange. Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25. 14476 Potsdam-Golm ... URL: ...
METHODS: Cohort data were generated by Monte Carlo simulation methods. Exposure categories were defined by quintiles or deciles ... Scores were assigned to exposure groups based on category midpoint and mean exposure levels. Estimated exposure-disease trends ... a researcher must decide how to categorise exposures and how to assign scores to exposure groups. AIMS: To investigate the ...
Cohort groups can be organized in such a way that groups of students take a number of similar programs each semester and this ... Cohort can be distinguished from groups of students through the following aspects: cohorts allow school administrators to ... cohorts are bigger than groups; and, a cohort involves a set of students within a system-wide course. Williams, Brian. (2013 ... A cohort is a group of students who work through a curriculum together to achieve the same academic degree together. Cohortians ...
Specific native groups will be surveyed to better depict the life ways of the major cultural and geographic divisions. ...
Search epidemiological birth infants research study cohort matching in title, tags, annotations and url of group items » ... Vitamin D/ Group items tagged epidemiological birth infants research study cohort. #main{background:#fff;padding-top:1.5em;}. ... Vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life and risk of schizophrenia: a Finnish birth cohort study. McGrath J, ... Vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life and risk of schizophrenia: a Finnish birth cohort study. McGrath J, ...
Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles: results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium.. Wolpin BM1, Kraft P ... Genotype-Derived ABO Blood Group Alleles and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer: Data from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium ... Two participating cohorts (the New York University Womens Health Study and Womens Health Study) were not included in this ... We determined ABO genotypes (OO, AO, AA, AB, BO, and BB) in 1,534 cases and 1,583 controls from 12 prospective cohorts in ...
... Wändell, Per LU ; Carlsson, Axel C. ; Li, Xinjun LU ; Gasevic, Danijela ; ... Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. ... Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. ... The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern ...
The cohort consisted of 25 males and 38 females, aged 28 to 84 (median age 56 years). The ethnic composition of the patients ... L. Lam, R. M. Logan, C. Luke, and G. L. Rees, "Retrospective study of survival and treatment pattern in a cohort of patients ... The overall infection rate of HPV was 28.6% (18/63) in this cohort; the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients ... The Uygur, Kazakh, and Han are the three major ethnic groups in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. They reside within a ...
... was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in ... Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort ...
Optional MA Cohort Group for Men. We are offering a Life Story Cohort group for MA men, which is similar to the mandatory ones ... What: Covenant Groups are "themed" peer groups open to any student.. When: This fall most groups will meet on Wednesdays ... What: First-Year MDiv students enrolled in Christian Formation and Calling will be assigned to what we call a Cohort Group. ... Information on your group leader, meeting day, and location will be available on the Portal by Tuesday, August 28. Groups will ...
... Loeb, Stacy ... BACKGROUND: New five-tiered Gleason grade groups (GGGs) were recently proposed, in which Gleason 6 is GGG 1, Gleason 3+4 is GGG ... OBJECTIVE: To examine the performance of the new GGGs in men with prostate cancer from a nationwide population-based cohort. ... PATIENT SUMMARY: The new Gleason grade groups, ranging from 1-5, provide a simplified, user-friendly classification system to ...
In both groups the majority of participation outside the school curriculum was related to games activities and was dominated by ... "The Fundamental Movement Skills of a Year 9 Group and a Gifted and Talented Cohort" written by Gillian Griffiths, Rebecca ...
To determine risk factors for neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease, a cohort study was conducted in Atlanta of infants ... Population-based risk factors for neonatal group B streptococcal disease: results of a cohort study in metropolitan Atlanta.. ...
Baseline data for the three treatment groups--intensive lifestyle modification, standard care plus metformin, and standard care ... The Diabetes Prevention Program: baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research ... The Diabetes Prevention Program: baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research ... The Diabetes Prevention Program: baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research ...
Group/Cohort plerixafor + granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) Patients who receive plerixafor+granulocyte colony ... Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ... Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ... Groups and Cohorts Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More Information ...
Study Groups/Cohorts *plerixafor + granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) Patients who receive plerixafor+granulocyte ... Analysis of Data Collected in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Registry on a Cohort of Patients ... Analysis of Data Collected in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Registry on a Cohort of Patients ... Analysis of Data Collected in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Registry on a Cohort of Patients ...
Predicting Donations from a Cohort Group of Donors to Charities: A Direct Marketing Case Study: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2925-7.ch010 ... "Predicting Donations from a Cohort Group of Donors to Charities: A Direct Marketing Case Study." Optimizing, Innovating, and ... "Predicting Donations from a Cohort Group of Donors to Charities: A Direct Marketing Case Study." In Optimizing, Innovating, and ... Chao, G. H., Hsu, M. K., & Scovotti, C. (2013). Predicting Donations from a Cohort Group of Donors to Charities: A Direct ...
ABO Blood group Cohort Diabetes Risk factor Abbreviations. E3N. Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale ... He M, Wolpin B, Rexrode K et al (2012) ABO blood group and risk of coronary heart disease in two prospective cohort studies. ... The present study shows for the first time in a large prospective cohort that specific ABO blood groups are associated with an ... ABO and Rhesus blood groups and risk of type 2 diabetes: evidence from the large E3N cohort study. ...
"ABO Blood Group and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Two Prospective Cohort Studies." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and ... ABO Blood Group and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Two Prospective Cohort Studies. ... We sought to investigate the associations between ABO blood group and CHD risk in prospective cohort studies.Methods and ... of the CHD cases were attributable to inheriting a non-O blood group. Meta-analysis indicated that non-O blood group had higher ...
A cohort study on the rate of progression of diabetic chronic kidney disease in different ethnic groups ... A cohort study on the rate of progression of diabetic chronic kidney disease in different ethnic groups ... Baseline eGFR was highest for the south Asian group and lowest for the White group. Mean HbA1c did not differ between ethnic ... groups, while baseline proteinuria was highest for the south Asian group followed by the White and Black groups. Prevalence of ...
ABO Blood Group and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Two Prospective Cohort Studies. Meian He, Brian Wolpin, Kathy Rexrode, ... compared with those with blood group O. The highest risk was observed for blood group AB, followed by blood groups B and A. The ... Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles: results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium. Cancer Res. 2010;70: ... Forest plot showing the relative risk (RR) of coronary heart disease for non-O blood group for individual cohort studies and ...
Cohort descriptions. Study design and setting. The MILES-2 survey (both for the longitudinal cohort and the 2015 new cohort) ... Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES-Australia (MILES-2) ... Cohort profiles of the cross-sectional and prospective participant groups in the second Diabetes MILES-Australia (MILES-2) ... The response rates for both the longitudinal and the new cohorts in the MILES-2 survey were low; the longitudinal cohort had a ...
Update on the profile of the EUSTAR cohort: an analysis of the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research group database ... Update on the profile of the EUSTAR cohort: an analysis of the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research group database ... The EUSTAR cohort includes mainly Caucasian patients with SSc (89.2%) with a higher prevalence for lcSSc (58.5%).8 The sex ... The duration between the onset of RP and the onset of first non-RP symptoms differed between the SSc groups. The onset of the ...
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2010], we aimed to analyze PIM utilisation in two cohorts of elderly outpatients, namely the getABI-cohort [ ... Results: In both cohorts the average number of prescribed daily medications came to 6 3 drugs. 60% of getABI-patients and 69% ... The most commonly observed PIM in the getABI-cohort were acetyldigoxin, doxazosine, and sotalol (11%, 9%, 7% of all PIM, ... Circulation 2009] and a cohort of stroke patients from the Stroke Database North-West-Germany [Schneider et al. Nervenheilkunde ...
... one cohort was found to be significantly different from the others in terms of Trust Within the Cohort; and the 60 hour cohorts ... Survey data were collected from 45 past and present cohort students and qualitative data were collected from three focus groups ... The survey measured four factors: General Cohort Experience, Trust Within the Cohort, Network, and Community of Learners. ... The theme of trust and support from and to fellow members both during and after the cohort had dissolved was a strong recurrent ...
Groups Links Sortable Table Long Name. Short Name or Acronym. Link(s). ... Retrieved from "" ... British 1958 Birth Cohort. B58C (in particular B58C-WTCCC and B58C-T1DGC). ... Cohorts (listed alphabetically) Note: this list is incomplete. *Athero-Express Biobank Studies: (on ...
These could be birth cohort groups, marriage cohort groups, etc… In the context of this article, ... between cohort groups. These could be birth cohort groups, marriage cohort groups, etc… In the context of this article, cohort ... b. Marriage cohort: all the people married in a single year (or group of years) c. Period effect: an event or social phenomenon ... Does this film capture the experiences of everyone in this cohort group o That ...
Association Between Maternal Obesity and Group B Streptococcus Colonization in a National U.S. Cohort.. May 5, 2020 ... We conducted a secondary analysis from the Consortium on Safe Labor Study (CSL) in the United States cohort study (2002-2008). ... To investigate the association between maternal obesity as measured by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and group B ...
  • A cohort model features a delivery structure that is driven by the expectations, experiences, and beliefs of the cohort's participants. (
  • Baseline data for the three treatment groups--intensive lifestyle modification, standard care plus metformin, and standard care plus placebo--are presented for the 3,234 participants who have been randomized. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The DPP has successfully randomized a large cohort of participants with a wide distribution of age, obesity, and ethnic and racial backgrounds who are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. (
  • Longitudinal cohort participants were mailed/emailed study invitations directly by researchers. (
  • Random sampling (stratified by diabetes type, insulin use, state) of the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) database and nationwide advertisements were used to recruit new cohort participants. (
  • Survey data were collected from 45 past and present cohort students and qualitative data were collected from three focus groups of 15 participants total. (
  • Conclusions: Among participants in a large prospective cohort consortium, ABO allele subtypes corresponding to increased glycosyltransferase activity were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. (
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The views of participants about taking part in the proposed birth cohort study, in particular concerning incentives to taking part, disincentives and attitudes to consenting children. (
  • A strategic sampling technique was used to ensure that the focus group participants represented the larger population. (
  • One of the difficulties associated with conducting longitudinal population-based cohort studies is attrition (i.e., the loss of study participants), which can occur for several reasons such as death, frailty, withdrawal, or lack of success in re-contacting participants for follow-up examinations. (
  • Participants A cohort of 972 384 patients initiating antidiabetic drugs between 1 January 2007 and 30 June 2013, with follow-up until 30 June 2014. (
  • Participants People prescribed systemic glucocorticoids and with a diagnosis of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (n=547) and two comparison groups: those prescribed glucocorticoids and with no diagnosis of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome (n=3231) and those not prescribed systemic glucocorticoids (n=3282). (
  • Attrition may lead to bias in epidemiological cohorts, since participants who are healthier and have a higher social position are less likely to drop out. (
  • Epidemiological cohort studies are not only prone to non-response at baseline, but also to drop-out of participants during follow-up ( 1 ), called cohort attrition. (
  • Since non-response and drop-out are more likely among less healthy and disadvantaged study participants ( 2 - 4 ), it is especially important for cohort studies to assess selection effects. (
  • sort participants into cannabis-exposure groups: nonusers, users who never scored as dependent, and users who scored as dependent once, twice, or three or more times. (
  • Based on results from a similar cohort, a likely consequence of this is that Maori participants will be overrepresented ( 4 ). (
  • For cohort studies, the field epidemiologist is likely to be involved in retrospective studies. (
  • In a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD), there was a greater association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in osteoporotic than in non-osteoporotic female patients. (
  • Retrospective Analysis Of Progression Free Survival And Overall Survival In A National Cohort Of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated In Denmark From 2006-2010. (
  • Retrospective analysis of progression free survival, time to treatment failure and overall survival in a national cohort of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated in Denmark from 2006-2010 Safety, prognostic factors, predictive factors and co-morbidity assessed by Charlson Comorbidity Index. (
  • To accomplish our objectives, we performed 3 related studies: a data analysis, a retrospective cohort study, and a case-control study. (
  • The HMI was a prospective delayed phase cohort study of 11 sites enrolling patients in two blocks starting 9 months apart in 2007. (
  • A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. (
  • HPV infection has been reported especially risky for Caucasian patients, sometimes increasing the risk tenfold as compared to other ethnic groups [ 3 ]. (
  • This is a clinical outcome analysis of a prospectively defined cohort of patients with data reported retrospectively to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) who have lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM), whose cells mobilize poorly, and who have undergone autologous haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation during the years 2008 up to and including 2012. (
  • The numbers of patients developing end-stage kidney failure and total mortality were also not significantly different between the three groups. (
  • Methods The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) group initiated a database to prospectively gather key data of patients with SSc using a minimal essential dataset that was reorganised in 2008 introducing new items. (
  • The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) group was officially founded in June 2004 and defined its major aims as follows: (1) to foster the study and care of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and (2) to achieve a consensus on evidence-based standards for the management of patients with SSc. (
  • Circulation 2009] and a cohort of stroke patients from the Stroke Database North-West-Germany [Schneider et al. (
  • Demographic data, medical history, current medication and self-reported ADR from 1937 patients (getABI-cohort: mean SD 78 4 years, 53% females) and 545 patients (Stroke-cohort: mean SD 71 11 years, 40% females) were collected in telephone and face to face interviews, respectively. (
  • Patients of the Stroke-cohort used acetyldigoxin, piracetam, and amitriptylin most frequently (11%, 10%, 7% of all PIM respectively). (
  • A cohort of 194 patients was assembled from 20 articles involving 12 geographical regions. (
  • Defining significant associations by risk ratios ≥ 1.2 or ≤ 0.9, neither cohort analysis nor meta-analysis demonstrated any significant add-on benefit from the use of other group 5 drugs with respect to outcome for patients treated with linezolid, although selection bias might have led to underestimation of their effects. (
  • Patients and Methods: In the present report, 103 SLL patients were analyzed from both, clinical trials of the German Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Study Group and Greek centers, and emphasis was placed on the therapeutic strategy. (
  • At the end of the DCCT, the patients in the conventional therapy group were taught intensive therapy, and the care of patients was transferred to their own physicians. (
  • The reduction in risk of progressive retinopathy resulting from intensive therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes persists for at least 10 years, despite marked narrowing of the glycosylated hemoglobin difference between the former DCCT treatment groups. (
  • To describe the clinical and pathological features of a cohort of patients with serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS), and to assess their colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. (
  • The biliary cancer cohort comprised 20 patients with advanced and/or metastatic disease treated with neratinib monotherapy. (
  • The safety profile observed in the neratinib-treated biliary tract cancer cohort is consistent with that previously reported for all HER2 -mutated cancer patients in the SUMMIT trial. (
  • Alan H. Auerbach, CEO and President of Puma Biotechnology, added, "We are very pleased with the initial activity seen with neratinib in this cohort of patients with biliary tract cancer. (
  • To clearly determine within a large prospective cohort the impact of anti-TNF agents and biotherapies on the postoperative complications seems to be essential in order to adapt and to optimize the therapeutic strategy, especially the surgical sequences, in patients with UCR whom benefit a surgery. (
  • The expansion cohorts include ER+/HER2 breast cancer patients in combination with fulvestrant post CDK4/6 inhibitor failure, triple negative breast cancer patients and an additional cohort in solid tumors. (
  • NEWARK, N.J. , July 19, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Actinium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. a biotechnology company focused on developing innovative, alpha particle radiotherapy targeted cancer treatments addressing major unmet medical needs, today announced that it has successfully treated the first cohort of patients in a Phase I/II study of Actimab-A™ in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) clinical trial. (
  • Patients enrolled in the first cohort in this ongoing trial were treated at a dose level of 0.5 microCi/kg of Actimab-A™, with two consecutive doses given a week apart. (
  • A cohort is a group of patients that share a common trait. (
  • METHODS: We performed a population-wide national cohort study of incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark (≥18 years old) who started dialysis between 1995 and 2010. (
  • Methods: We determined ABO variants and secretor phenotype from single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABO and FUT2 genes in 1,533 cases and 1,582 controls from 12 prospective cohort studies. (
  • We sought to investigate the associations between ABO blood group and CHD risk in prospective cohort studies.Methods and Results-Two large, prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study [NHS] including 62 073 women and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study [HPFS] including 27 428 men) were conducted with more than 20 years of follow-up (26 years in NHS and 24 years in HPFS). (
  • The overall goal of this project is to pool data from prospective cohort studies to develop and validate models to estimate absolute risk of overall and subtype specific breast cancer. (
  • Pancreatic cancer risk and ABO blood group alleles: results from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium. (
  • We used three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176746, rs505922, and rs8176704) to determine ABO genotype in 2,774 aggressive prostate cancer cases and 4,443 controls from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). (
  • We conducted a secondary analysis from the Consortium on Safe Labor Study (CSL) in the United States cohort study (2002-2008). (
  • Conclusions: The inventory of the longitudinal cohorts that are part of the BioLoC-PD consortium reveals that there is a growing consensus on the markers that should be assessed in longitudinal cohort studies in PD. (
  • The bulk of research in the Cohort Consortium emanates from the projects and working groups. (
  • By participating in consortium projects/working groups, investigators have the opportunity leverage existing resources in the consortium and collaborate on large pooling studies to address important scientific questions not easily addressed in a single study. (
  • The consortium projects/working groups focus on specific cancer sites, exposures or other research areas of interest to the consortium. (
  • These are Cohort Consortium projects/working groups that have been approved by the Steering Committee and are at different stages: e.g., ongoing recruitment of cohort studies to participate, data collection, data analysis, manuscript preparation, etc. (
  • This study, begun in 2013, pools case-control data from the EGRP-supported Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3) to examine the chemopreventive potential of aspirin, acetaminophen, or non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and the risk of ovarian cancer and its major histologic subtypes. (
  • Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium (COSMIC) 2019, ' Determinants of cognitive performance and decline in 20 diverse ethno-regional groups: A COSMIC collaboration cohort study ', PLoS Medicine , vol. 16, no. 7, e1002853. (
  • The next cohort runs from March 6th through May 22, 2018. (
  • Therefore, blood group should be investigated in future clinical and epidemiological studies on diabetes, and further pathophysiological research is needed to determine why individuals with blood type O have a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • A few studies have investigated the relationship between blood group and type 2 diabetes. (
  • Our findings substantiated the use of linezolid in the treatment of XDR-TB or fluoroquinolone-resistant MDR-TB and call for further studies to evaluate the roles of other group 5 drugs. (
  • The JPND Action Group on longitudinal cohort studies has published its report, bringing together for the first time the wealth of cohort opportunities for neurodegeneration research across JPND countries. (
  • JPND is currently investigating potential actions for both disease-based and population-based longitudinal cohort studies, whereby current member state-led or European Commission-supported activities can be expanded or better exploited, or new activities identified. (
  • A JPND Action Group on Longitudinal Cohort studies in Neurodegeneration Research met during 2013 and has reported back to JPND. (
  • The options for implementation are based on an analysis of the opportunities presented by current European longitudinal cohort capability as well as comparison with selected international studies. (
  • Methods: Information on the design, sample size, evaluated markers and assessments of 21 studies of the Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research BioLoC-PD working group were collected by questionnaire. (
  • The studies were classified into at risk/prodromal or clinical PD cohorts. (
  • Background Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. (
  • Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. (
  • Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/ whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. (
  • Conclusions There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. (
  • BACKGROUND: Recruitment to birth cohort studies is a challenge. (
  • Few studies have addressed the attitudes of women about taking part in birth cohort studies particularly those from ethnic minority groups. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: To recruit better, birth cohort studies should incorporate financial and health gains as rewards for participation, promote the altruistic goals of research, give assurances regarding the safety of the participating children and sensitive data, avoid discomfort and maximize convenience. (
  • Therefore, the present study aimed to explore older adults' motives, understandings and experiences regarding participating in the Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Studies (the H-70 study). (
  • To date, older people's involvement in population-based cohort studies has largely been as research subjects. (
  • Longitudinal population-based cohort studies that assess health-related exposure outcomes can provide important knowledge about the needs of older adults [ 1 ] and are critical to our understanding of the aging process [ 2 ]. (
  • Several studies have identified factors explaining attrition as well as reasons why older adults choose to participate in longitudinal population-based cohort research. (
  • Getting the full picture calls for a qualitative approach that explores older adults' experiences of participation in longitudinal population-based cohort studies, as well as their motives to participate. (
  • Background/aims To describe the genetic characteristics of the cohort enrolled in the international multicentre progression of Stargardt disease 1 (STGD1) studies (ProgStar) and to determine geographic differences based on the allele frequency. (
  • Jackson CA, Sweeting H & Haw S (2012) Clustering of substance use and sexual risk behaviour in adolescence: analysis of two cohort studies. (
  • DESIGN Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study ('earlier cohort', surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study ('later cohort', surveyed 1999 and 2003). (
  • Methods In a cohort of 1030 individuals from the community-based UK Biobank study (male/female ratio: 0.84, mean age: 61 years), PA was measured via total metabolic equivalent of task (MET) min/week and 7-day average acceleration, and trabeculation extent via maximal non-compaction/compaction ratio (NC/C) in long-axis images of cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies. (
  • One key publication which also includes data of other British Cohort Studies is Elsa Ferri, John Bynner and Michael Wadsworth (eds. (
  • These studies were divided into core studies, migrant studies, cohort studies and studies based on Other Special Groups. (
  • We identified 100 core studies, 24 migrant studies, 23 cohort studies and 14 studies based on Other Special Groups. (
  • Once the 1,000-family cohort is established, evidence-based intervention studies will be developed and implemented based on new knowledge, with collaborators from the healthcare, public policy, academic, pharmaceutical, medical device and technology industries. (
  • 1 Most studies, however, focus on clinically low birth weight groups, although evidence of the association across the full birth weight range in the general population is of particular interest, because this would imply potential benefits of birth weight interventions targeting women with normal pregnancies. (
  • Now, prospective is used much more commonly in terms of cohort studies. (
  • Cardiovascular cohort studies have been one of the key approaches for achieving such understanding 2,3 . (
  • The inclusion of minority groups in such cohort studies is important not only to compare differences in health status between groups but also to assess risk factor-outcome relationships within such groups. (
  • Levy 3 has called for cohort studies to seek answers to ethnic disparities in cardiovascular risks identified in cross-sectional work, while Bhopal and Senior have outlined the problems and potential of ethnicity as an epidemiological variable 4 . (
  • The main objective of this review was to identify how the major cardiovascular cohort studies in North America and Europe included or excluded ethnic minority populations. (
  • The methods and aims of this review could be extended, but these geographical areas were chosen because cardiovascular cohort studies have been pioneered by groups in these locations 2 . (
  • For the purposes of this review, cardiovascular cohort studies were defined as prospective studies in defined populations, with a primary aim of studying risk factor-outcome relationships for major diseases such as stroke and coronary heart disease. (
  • Cohort studies with a multipurpose aim, those focused on other diseases, and those arising from studies originally designed as cross-sectional surveys or trials were generally excluded, as were studies of populations in which the investigators had little or no control over the sample (e.g., volunteers), although they may have yielded some cardiovascular data. (
  • The aim is to establish an observational cohort of 1,000 Latino families, with at least one family member currently living with diabetes, in order to understand better the impact of the 5 determinants of human health (genetics, biology, behavior, psychology, and society/environment) in this population. (
  • Success (evaluated by Yes/No format) recruiting and establishing an observational cohort of 1,000 Latino families with at least one family member living with type 2 diabetes by deploying the methods proven feasible by Mil Familias Operational Pilot. (
  • In order to identify the incidence and the main risk factors for SSI, we developed the Prophylaxis with Antibiotic protocol for neuroSurgical Site Infections Study (PASSIS), a prospective observational multicenter cohort study for examining a large number of neurosurgical procedures. (
  • Background: Subjects with non-O ABO blood group alleles have increased risk of pancreatic cancer. (
  • Main outcome measures Within each cohort we conducted nested case-control analyses, where incident cases of pancreatic cancer were matched with up to 20 controls on sex, age, cohort entry date, duration of treated diabetes, and duration of follow-up. (
  • Management of suspected paediatric meningitis: a multicentre prospective cohort study. (
  • Association Between Maternal Obesity and Group B Streptococcus Colonization in a National U.S. Cohort. (
  • To investigate the association between maternal obesity as measured by prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization. (
  • Aim To evaluate the relationship between diagnosis and clinical course of Tourette syndrome and group A Streptococcus (GAS). (
  • In the 1970s, group B streptococcus (GBS) emerged as the most common bacterial pathogen in the neonatal period. (
  • The use of intrapartum antibiotics to prevent early-onset (≤6 days of age) group B streptococcus (EOGBS) infection has raised many questions about the appropriate evaluation and treatment of infants at risk for this infection. (
  • METHODS: Cohort data were generated by Monte Carlo simulation methods. (
  • Furthermore, there is a remarkable similarity in the markers assessed and evaluation methods applied in the risk/prodromal and clinical PD cohorts. (
  • Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. (
  • Methods and Results- Thirty novel biomarkers from different pathophysiological pathways were evaluated in 7915 men and women of the FINRISK97 population cohort with 538 incident cardiovascular events at 10 years (fatal or nonfatal coronary or stroke events), from which a biomarker score was developed and then validated in the 2551 men of the Belfast Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction (PRIME) cohort (260 events). (
  • A biomarker score was developed from the FINRISK97 cohort with the use of regression coefficients and lasso methods, with selection of troponin I, C-reactive protein, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. (
  • Methods and findings: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. (
  • What is the difference between a cohort and a group? (
  • And these are difference between a cohort study, a cohort series and a case-control series. (
  • So, you can clearly see the difference between a cohort series, looking forward in time, and a case control series looking rearward in time. (
  • 2) cross-sectional assessment of a new cohort. (
  • AHRC (pronounced "ARC") is a study of differences and changes over time in HIV reservoirs (groups of HIV-infected cells that "hide" from anti-HIV medications). (
  • Significant group differences were found. (
  • The authors found strong associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour during early and late adolescence, with few differences between cohorts, or by gender or social class. (
  • masking urban/rural differences in psychosis for some groups. (
  • This study elucidated a comprehensive genomic landscape of EAS LUADs and highlighted important ancestry differences between the two cohorts. (
  • Fig. 5: Survival groups and cohort differences. (
  • Research on ethnic group differences and similarities may potentially help advance understanding of the relationships between risk factors and cardiovascular disease. (
  • CONCLUSIONS : Group prenatal care results in higher birth weight, especially for infants delivered preterm. (
  • Conclusions In a community-based general population cohort, there was no relationship at, or between, extremes, between PA and NC/C, suggesting that at typical general population PA levels, trabeculation extent is not influenced by PA changes. (
  • In the longitudinal cohort, substantial attrition was evident between the 2011 and 2015 surveys. (
  • The impact of exposure categorisation for grouped analyses of cohort data. (
  • Further analyses of the Dunedin cohort are proposed to distinguish between the competing interpretations. (
  • As clinical evidence about the use of group 5 drugs is scarce, we conducted a systematic review using published individual patient data. (
  • As clinical evidence about WHO group 5 drugs and outcome in the treatment of the most complicated form of XDR-TB is scarce, we conducted a systematic review using published individual patient data. (
  • Group prenatal care provides a structural innovation, permitting more time for provider?patient interaction and therefore the opportunity to address clinical as well as psychological, social, and behavioral factors to promote healthy pregnancy. (
  • Treadwell Therapeutics, a clinical-stage biotechnology company developing novel therapeutics for highly aggressive cancers, today announced the initiation of three expansion cohorts in its ongoing Phase 1 study evaluating CFI-402257, a selective and highly potent oral inhibitor of tyrosine threonine kinase (TTK). (
  • We are very encouraged by the compelling early signs of clinical activity of CFI-402257 as a monotherapy in the dose escalation portion of our Phase 1 study, and we look forward to continuing to evaluate the potential of our TTK inhibitor in combination therapy through our expansion cohorts. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis changed the constellation and timing of onset of clinical signs of group B streptococcal (GBS) infection in term infants. (
  • Of the 98,995 women in the cohort, we excluded those who did not complete any questionnaires after inclusion ( n = 3,506), those with prevalent diabetes ( n = 938), those with prevalent cancer or cardiovascular diseases ( n = 4,509) and those lacking information on ABO or Rhesus blood group ( n = 7,938). (
  • The adjusted hazard ratio for any cardiovascular event was 4.16 (2.98 to 5.82) when the group prescribed glucocorticoids and with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome was compared with the group not prescribed glucocorticoids. (
  • Background- Cardiovascular risk estimation by novel biomarkers needs assessment in disease-free population cohorts, followed up for incident cardiovascular events, assaying the serum and plasma archived at baseline. (
  • Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in most industrialised societies and is either the leading or a dominant cause of death for all racial and ethnic groups in the US and the UK. (
  • There is no clearly defined line between what is, and what is not, a cardiovascular cohort study, and individual judgment is required to make that determination. (
  • To examine the performance of the new GGGs in men with prostate cancer from a nationwide population-based cohort. (
  • Population-based risk factors for neonatal group B streptococcal disease: results of a cohort study in metropolitan Atlanta. (
  • In regard to birth cohort effects, it is social change caused by the replacement of members of earlier born cohorts by members of later-born cohorts in the population. (
  • The report spans general population-based, targeted (preclinical) and disease-focused cohorts. (
  • Attitudes to participating in a birth cohort study, views from a multiethnic population: a qualitative study using focus groups. (
  • Design Population based cohort. (
  • This population then forms the cohort, usually defined as those who attended the function in question. (
  • Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years). (
  • Objective-Epidemiological data regarding the association between ABO blood groups and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) have been inconsistent. (
  • abstract = "This cohort study examined the relationship between newly prescribed NSAIDs (none in the previous six months) and upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation in Tayside, Scotland. (
  • To determine risk factors for neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease, a cohort study was conducted in Atlanta of infants with invasive GBS disease during 1982 and 1983. (
  • The use of intrapartum antibiotics to prevent early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection has left pediatricians in a quandary about the appropriate evaluation and treatment of infants at risk for this infection. (
  • Objective To compare the rate of progression of diabetic chronic kidney disease in different ethnic groups. (
  • OBJECTIVE : To examine the impact of group versus individual prenatal care on birth weight and gestational age. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To seek the views of people from diverse ethnic backgrounds about participation in a proposed birth cohort examining the impact of infections. (
  • Adjusted linear regression analysis showed that an annual decline in eGFR was not significantly different between the three groups. (
  • Cohort analysis with robust Poisson regression models and random-effects meta-analysis similarly suggested that linezolid use significantly increased the probability (95% confidence interval) of favorable outcome by 57% (10% to 124%) and 55% (10% to 121%), respectively. (
  • Cohorts were compared using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. (
  • P=0.001) compared with O blood group.Conclusion-These data suggest that ABO blood group is significantly associated with CHD risk. (
  • In total, 82,104 women from the large prospective E3N cohort were followed between 1990 and 2008. (
  • Therefore, we investigated the association of ABO blood group, Rhesus factor and a combination of the two (ABO × Rhesus) with type 2 diabetes risk in the large prospective E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort. (
  • We investigated possible selection effects regarding key exposures and outcomes in the IDEFICS/I.Family study, a large European cohort on the etiology of overweight, obesity and related disorders during childhood and adulthood. (
  • Using information gleaned from this analysis, we will develop and administer a cancer screening questionnaire to a large group of people with Parkinson s, and their family members. (
  • The Diabetes Prevention Program: baseline characteristics of the randomized cohort. (
  • These mothers were 18 percentage points more likely to use paid leave but otherwise identical to multiple comparison groups in pre-birth demographic, marital, and work characteristics. (
  • Group antenatal care as compared to individual care offers an opportunity to increase quality of care and improve maternal and newborn outcomes. (
  • Barnett KN, McCowan C, Evans J, Gillespie ND, Davey PG & Fahey TP (2011) Prevalence and outcomes of use of potentially inappropriate medicines in older people: cohort study stratified by residence in nursing home or in the community. (
  • The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency Health Study (WIHS) are prospective, multi-center cohorts that follow approximately 5000 HIV+ subjects and HIV- controls. (
  • Vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life and risk of schizophrenia: a Finnish birth cohort study. (
  • The increased risk of gout among several immigrant groups is likely explained by a high cardio-metabolic risk factor pattern needing attention. (
  • The new Gleason grade groups, ranging from 1-5, provide a simplified, user-friendly classification system to predict the risk of recurrence after prostatectomy and radiation therapy. (
  • Those with either the A (HR 1.10 [95% CI 1.02, 1.18]) or B (HR 1.21 [95% CI 1.07, 1.36]) group were at increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared with those with the O group. (
  • In a nested case-control study, we also evaluated the influence of fasting plasma glucose and lipid concentration on the relationship between blood group and type 2 diabetes risk. (
  • Compared with other blood groups, those with the blood type O have moderately lower risk of developing CHD. (
  • ABO blood group has been associated with risk of cancers of the pancreas, stomach, ovary, kidney, and skin, but has not been evaluated in relation to risk of aggressive prostate cancer. (
  • In a dedicated cohort to the RCH, the same author found a risk of increased pelvic abscess (31.3% vs 5.9%, NS) but the difference was not statistically significant probably for lack of power. (
  • This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. (
  • 1 ) do not present a table of background variables and average scores by cannabis-use groups, the extensive publications on the Dunedin cohort indicate that early-onset cannabis use is more common for those with poor self-control, prior conduct problems, and high scores on risk factors correlated with a low family SES ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether nasopharyngeal carriage in four Australian paediatric groups at varying risk of NTHi colonisation was dominated by the same NTHi genotypes. (
  • The current paper contributes to the literature on donor lifetime value by documenting, in the context of a case study, the results of seven models for predicting future contributions using historic data over four years related to the cohort group of acquired donors. (
  • Interventions: Based on the data, evidence-based, collaborative, culturally-relevant prevention and treatment strategies are planned to develop once the cohort of 1,000 families has been established. (
  • 1 ) study uses data from the high-quality Dunedin cohort, a "prospective study of a birth cohort of 1,037 individuals followed from birth (1972/1973) to age 38 y. (
  • Make a control group of children without pneumonia and then look at data points up till the point. (
  • Our aim was to study the association between country of birth and incidence of gout in different immigrant groups in Sweden. (
  • This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. (
  • For all groups incidence of non-affective psychosis was greater in lower ethnic density neighbourhoods. (
  • Understanding variations in the incidence of schizophrenia is a crucial step in unravelling the aetiology of this group of disorders. (
  • Native Danes were more likely to die on dialysis compared with the other groups (crude incidence rates for mortality: 234, 166, 96, 110 and 53 per 1000 person-years, respectively). (
  • In Moodle 1.9 onwards, you can organise groups into groupings , then assign an activity (or resource) to a particular grouping. (
  • In Moodle 1.9 onwards, you can create two different groupings (a grouping is a set of groups), and assign different groupings to the two activities. (
  • In the same study, an over-representation of diabetes cases was reported among individuals with the AB blood group compared with other groups. (
  • Web page: (
  • Individuals within the cohort are then classified into exposed or unexposed, for example, according to whether they ate or did not eat specified items of food or drink. (
  • Sáez-Cirión highlighted a number of unusual features of this cohort that set them apart from elite controllers (individuals who control viral load to undetectable levels in the absence of any treatment). (
  • NOTE: For the time being, only people who are willing to be in Group A, Group B, or Group C (with or without being in one other group) may enroll. (
  • People who are only willing to be in Group D may only be able to enroll with special permission from the team. (
  • Can I automatically add users to a group at the same time that I enroll them via a csv file? (
  • The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. (
  • Respondents with type 1 diabetes were over-represented in the new cohort (45%) relative to the planned stratification (40% type 1 diabetes, 60% type 2 diabetes). (
  • Respondents with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes were under-represented in the new cohort relative to the stratified sampling (42% invited vs 50% response). (
  • To evaluate the amount of variation in diabetes practice patterns at the primary care provider (PCP), provider group, and facility level, and to examine the reliability of diabetes care profiles constructed using electronic databases. (
  • The Mil Familias Cohort Establishment involves enrolling 1000 Latino families with at least one member in the family having type 2 diabetes, including children and youth, and measuring the 5 determinants of human health: genetics, biology, behavior, psychology, and society/environment. (
  • Puma Biotechnology, Inc. ( PBYI ), a biopharmaceutical company, presented updated interim results from the biliary cancer cohort of SUMMIT, an ongoing Phase II basket trial examining the efficacy of neratinib in HER2-mutated cancers, at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) 21st World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer 2019, currently taking place in Barcelona, Spain. (
  • Here we report our findings concerning HPV infection in tongue squamous cell carcinoma among three ethnic groups of Xinjiang while also taking into consideration other prognostic factors. (
  • Although pulmonary disease has not been an area of focus, these established cohorts provide a unique opportunity to systematically study pulmonary complications of HIV infection. (
  • Analysis revealed no statistical difference in mortality between planned home and planned hospital birth and the confidence interval did not allow for extreme excess risks in any of the groups (OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.54-1.41). (
  • This initial analysis found no evidence for an urbanicity effect for migrant groups. (
  • Principal coordinates analysis confirmed a cluster of common PCR-ribotypes among all cohorts. (
  • There were significantly fewer medical interventions, fewer severe lacerations, fewer operative births, and fewer low Apgar scores in the home birth groups. (
  • Also, relationships between illicit drug use and both early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners in late adolescence were significantly stronger among girls than boys in the later cohort. (
  • Therefore, our intention when it comes to future research will be to involve older adults-the target group-in the research procedure. (
  • Renewed and intense attention to the issue has followed recent research on the Dunedin cohort, which found a positive association between, on the one hand, adolescent-onset cannabis use and dependence and, on the other hand, a decline in IQ from childhood to adulthood [Meier et al. (
  • This study compares the change in blood pressure (BP) from baseline to 9 months after the intervention between groups. (
  • In the immediate intervention group, the mean BP at baseline was 134.6/79.1 mm Hg (18.2/11.5) and in the delayed intervention group 134.2/77.1 mm Hg (18.9/11.8). (
  • There were four deaths (1·6%) from bleeding and/or the complications of therapy in this cohort, but only one was in the acute phase of the illness. (
  • Main outcome measures The primary outcome was annual decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in different ethnic groups. (
  • The E3N study is a French prospective cohort study of 98,995 female teachers initiated in 1990. (
  • The prevalence of renal replacement therapy, indicating ESKF, and mortality was also similar between the different ethnic groups. (
  • Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. (