Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Singing: Modulation of human voice to produce sounds augmented by musical tonality and rhythm.Starlings: The family Sturnidae, in the order PASSERIFORMES. The starling family also includes mynahs and oxpeckers.High Vocal Center: Nucleus in the NEOSTRIATUM of bird brains that sends signals for song production and receives auditory input. In some adult SONGBIRDS, research has shown that the size of this nucleus changes seasonally and that it exhibits neurogenesis.Sparrows: The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.Canaries: Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Amblycera: A suborder of chewing lice, in the order PHTHIRAPTERA, that are ectoparasites of poultry and some mammals.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Ischnocera: A suborder of chewing lice, in the order PHTHIRAPTERA, that are parasites of birds and mammals.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Fadrozole: A selective aromatase inhibitor effective in the treatment of estrogen-dependent disease including breast cancer.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Conjunctivitis, Bacterial: Purulent infections of the conjunctiva by several species of gram-negative, gram-positive, or acid-fast organisms. Some of the more commonly found genera causing conjunctival infections are Haemophilus, Streptococcus, Neisseria, and Chlamydia.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Tape Recording: Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mycoplasma conjunctivae: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing CONJUNCTIVITIS and KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS in SHEEP and GOATS.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Vasotocin: A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.North America
  • Scientists from the University of British Columbia have shown that there is a genetic basis to the migratory routes flown by songbirds, and have narrowed in on a relatively small cluster of genes that may govern the behaviour. (vetscite.org)
  • Energetic application of genomic resources to research using songbirds should help illuminate how complex neural and behavioral traits emerge and evolve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All songbirds share a highly specialized neural system for learned vocal communication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article shows an optimized procedure for imaging of the neural substrates of auditory stimulation in the songbird brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). (jove.com)
  • Although much of our work has focused on the neural mechanisms by which the ovarian hormones, estradiol and progesterone, influence the expression of reproductive behaviors, a new interest of our group is the study of the long-term effects of exposure to particular stressors or immune challenges around the time of puberty on behavioral response to the hormones in adulthood. (umass.edu)
  • Research in the SNL is currently aimed at understanding the cognitive, perceptual, evolutionary, developmental, and neural bases underlying chickadees perception of the acoustic (vocal) categories (i.e., note-types, call types) contained in their calls and songs, as a first step towards a comprehensive understanding songbird acoustic communication. (ualberta.ca)
  • It appears that estrogen synthesis in the songbird may protect neural circuits from the damage of infection if it travels to the brain. (american.edu)
  • Using audition-deprived songbirds, we examined whether auditory experience affects developmental gene expression in the major elements of neural circuits that mediate vocal learning and production. (jneurosci.org)
  • This has led to songbirds becoming the major group in which the genetic and neural basis for vocal learning is studied. (univie.ac.at)
  • Among other contributions, these collaborations have helped define avian gene losses and lineage-specific gains, as well as led to the discovery of convergent molecular specializations of vocal areas in songbirds and humans. (ohsu.edu)
  • We conclude that diversity of activities and intensity of intellectual activities were reduced in patients with AD as compared with the control group. (pnas.org)
  • What's even more amazing is that differences in this behaviour could be helping to maintain the huge diversity of songbirds we see in the natural world. (vetscite.org)
  • By sorting large numbers of environmental stimuli, such as songbird vocalizations, into categories rather than memorizing each new instance, animals can adapt quickly to newly encountered stimuli. (ualberta.ca)
  • Categorization concerns whether stimuli are grouped based on similarities (for example, identifying colours with qualitative similarities in hue as similar even if they can be distinguished) 4 . (nature.com)
  • Bird enthusiasts from around the world travel to northern Michigan in hopes of catching sight of a Kirtland's warbler, a small songbird once poised on the brink of extinction. (fws.gov)
  • To a visitor from North America, where bird hunting is well regulated and only naughty farm boys shoot songbirds, the situation in the Mediterranean is appalling: Every year, from one end of it to the other, hundreds of millions of songbirds and larger migrants are killed for food, profit, sport, and general amusement. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Just like people, songbirds have dialects," says Kroodsma, who has studied bird songs for more than three decades. (nwf.org)
  • Most recently, and probably most accurately, DNA hybridization has determined the relationships and supposed evolutionary history of all the bird groups of the world and most of the species. (ornithology.com)
  • This study was designed as an experiment to test how bird populations in an extensively forested landscape respond to small (group and single-tree selection) and large (clearcut) openings. (usda.gov)
  • Keep bird warm, dark and quiet, and if it begs feed it the formula your group uses. (slideserve.com)
  • 1996), who have suggested that for guiding principles for bird conservation in the Neotropics, one might focus on assemblages of endemics and habitat specialists rather than on sheer number of species, we do suggest using Indicator Species analysis as a clue for detecting groups of Passerine bird species that would be bioindicators. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The SNL studies the cognitive, neurobiological and behavioural substrates underlying songbirds' highly evolved and specialized suite of communication behaviours. (ualberta.ca)
  • They observed various types of behaviors such as: intergroup conflicts, group hunting, multi-partner grooming and periods without any positive social interactions. (mpg.de)
  • Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have investigated the mechanisms underpinning in-group cohesion in times of out-group threat in wild chimpanzees of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. (mpg.de)
  • The fossil find further suggests that Microraptor , which lived 120 million years ago, may have shed only a few feathers at a time - just like modern songbirds, researchers report July 16 in Current Biology . (sciencenews.org)
  • To stimulate use of these resources by the songbird research community and to maintain consistent technical standards, we devised a "Community Collaboration" mechanism whereby individual birdsong researchers develop experiments and provide tissues, but a single individual in the community is responsible for all RNA extractions, labelling and microarray hybridizations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some Canadian songbirds have to change their tunes because noise pollution from things like oil and gas drilling equipment otherwise drowns out important parts of their songs, University of Manitoba researchers have found. (phys.org)
  • Last year, researchers at the Rockefeller University in New York described a genetically altered songbird that shows an array of symptoms reminiscent of Huntington's disease, such as tremor, body stiffness and difficulties vocalizing. (eurekalert.org)
  • The interdisciplinary Stress Research Working Group consists of about 25 researchers who have been meeting at CRF since 2008 to better understand the causes of stress, the effects of stress, and methods of stress measurement. (umass.edu)
  • In the experiment, researchers injected songbirds with a chemical to activate the immune system and simulate a bacterial infection. (american.edu)
  • But the conservation groups said it was not doing enough, saying poachers were making "blatant and extensive use of electronic calling devices" on a firing range there. (phys.org)
  • Public opinion in the EU tends to favor conservation, and a variety of nature-protection groups are helping governments enforce the law. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • For years, conservation groups have approached this problem on the local level, lobbying cities and towns, or even individual building owners, to change their ways. (audubon.org)
  • That's one reason why NRDC partnered with the group Osa Conservation to help Revive a Rainforest on Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula, one of the most biodiverse places on Earth. (nrdc.org)
  • Facing mounting pressure to act, the DWP, Inyo County, the Sierra Club and an Owens Valley conservation group hammered out a compromise -- sanctioned by Denton -- in a series of tense closed-door meetings in Los Angeles and Bishop over the last week. (latimes.com)
  • Some songbird parents might improve their own fitness by manipulating their offspring into leaving the nest early, at the cost of fledgling survival, a study finds. (pnas.org)
  • We show that experimental exposure to singing in the post-breeding period provides a social cue that is used for habitat selection the following year by a migrant songbird, the black-throated blue warbler ( Dendroica caerulescens ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Unfortunately, these beautiful backyard songbirds and their habitat are threatened by expanding unsustainable development. (nrdc.org)
  • We produced a spotted cDNA microarray with 20,160 addresses representing 17,214 non-redundant products of an estimated 11,500-15,000 genes, validating it by analysis of immediate-early gene (zenk) gene activation following song exposure and by demonstrating effective cross hybridization to genomic DNAs of other songbird species in the Passerida Parvorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In songbirds (brown thrashers, Toxostoma rufum , and cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis ), direct observations of the biomechanical effects of contraction largely confirm the functions of the intrinsic syringeal muscles proposed from indirect studies. (biologists.org)
  • Mooney's team has anecdotally observed that with time, a small subset of the songbirds stabilize their songs. (eurekalert.org)
  • While the phylogeny of Indian Ocean bulbuls indicates that they colonised the big islands first, note that this isn't necessarily what happened to all the groups that invaded the region: fruit bats, for example, seem to have colonised the small, remote islands first. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Since mid 2005, the network has run 3 calls for funding under the Working Group Projects scheme and a special 'small' Working Group Project (12mth) with a total dollar committment of $865,868. (edu.au)
  • Especially songbirds, which learn their song from a tutor, provide an excellent and widely used model system for sensorimotor learning and human speech acquisition ( Doupe & Kuhl 1999 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Songbirds are a useful model to address this because, like human youngsters, they learn to vocalize by imitating the sounds of their elders. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Like most people, who after adolescence have difficulty learning foreign languages, most songbirds lose the ability to learn new melodies after they reach maturity. (nwf.org)
  • Thus, pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and walruses) look like the best group of nonhuman animals to help scientists learn what's involved in complex vocal learning at the physiological, neurological, and genetic levels. (univie.ac.at)
  • Male-female pairs of this colorful songbird have been observed together all the way in Central America, suggesting these active little warblers remain together year round. (nrdc.org)
  • Oscine songbirds invest a substantial amount of time producing song, which has important roles in male-male competition and in attracting and stimulating a mate (Howard, 1920), as well as in species (Becker, 1982) and individual (Falls, 1982) recognition. (springer.com)
  • Songbirds first listen to and memorize the sound of adult songs and then undergo a period of vocal practice-in essence, babbling-to master the production of song. (vetscite.org)
  • Like a French child raised by English-speaking parents, a young songbird raised by a different species of adult, or with recordings of a different species, will end up learning the "wrong" song-and will produce only an odd, improvised tune if it is raised in isolation. (nwf.org)
  • In this context, understanding the normal course of song development in songbirds becomes crucial if this model system is going to provide general insights into the development of vocal communication systems in general and human language in particular. (washington.edu)
  • Nowicki, S. & Beecher, M. D. (2014) Aggressive signaling in song sparrows and other songbirds . (washington.edu)
  • A group of international scientists have completed the first global in. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To bring together a working group of scientists and scholars with comparative interests in the deep environmental and cultural history (late Pleistocene through Holocene and into the historical period) of the three cool temperate regions of the south Pacific: Tasmania, southern New Zealand and southern Chile. (edu.au)
  • Another group simply heard adult songs played through a speaker. (vetscite.org)
  • a Bald Eagle needs 5 years to reach this stage, many swallows take two years, while many songbirds (like bluebirds) are 'adult' in one year. (sialis.org)
  • We used female group size (the number of adult females in a breeding group) to represent the spatial clustering of females and the length of the mating season as a measure of the temporal clustering of oestrous females. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, given that intergroup conflict showed significantly higher levels than all other examined events, we concluded that the observed effect is reinforced in the context of in-group out-group perception. (mpg.de)
  • This result is especially interesting since in humans, in-group out-group perception is a well-documented phenomenon that emerges early in childhood and is thought to be uniquely human. (mpg.de)
  • The perception of categories is a powerful phenomenon that has been demonstrated in many animal species, including humans and songbirds. (ualberta.ca)
  • A coastal group migrates down the west coast, southward to Mexico and Central America, while an inland group near Kamloops migrates southeastward to the southeastern USA and then South America. (vetscite.org)