Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Giardia lamblia: A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E: A peptide initiation factor that binds specifically to the 5' MRNA CAP STRUCTURE of MRNA in the CYTOPLASM. It is a component of the trimeric complex EIF4F.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2: Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Kinetoplastida: An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4G: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Tetrahymena pyriformis: A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Peptide Initiation Factors: Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Trypanosomatina: A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Trichomonas: A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Eukaryotic Initiation Factors: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Leishmania major: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Crithidia: A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4F: A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.Hartmannella: A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Magnaporthe: A genus of FUNGI, in the family Magnaporthaceae of uncertain position (incertae sedis). It is best known for its species, M. grisea, which is one of the most popular experimental organisms of all fungal plant pathogens. Its anamorph is PYRICULARIA GRISEA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Entamoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Amoebozoa: A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Nucleosomes: The repeating structural units of chromatin, each consisting of approximately 200 base pairs of DNA wound around a protein core. This core is composed of the histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Neurospora crassa: A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Giardiasis: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Legionella pneumophila: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Tetrahymena thermophila: A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.Acanthamoeba castellanii: A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Tetrahymena: A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1: A eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 40S ribosomal subunits. Although initially considered a "non-essential" factor for eukaryotic transcription initiation, eukaryotic initiation factor-1 is now thought to play an important role in localizing RIBOSOMES at the initiation codon of MRNA.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2B: A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Blastocystis hominis: A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
... the Protozoa are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, protozoa were defined as single- ... As of 2015, Cavalier-Smith's Protozoa excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, ... The word "protozoa" (singular protozoon or protozoan) was coined in 1818 by zoologist Georg August Goldfuss, as the Greek ... amoeboid organisms). The definition of Protozoa as a phylum or sub-kingdom made up of "unicellular animals" was adopted by the ...
The main groups of unicellular organisms are bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular ... organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Unicellular organisms are thought ... A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a ... S. cerevisiae is also an important model organism, since it is a eukaryotic organism that's easy to grow. It has been used to ...
Protozoa. These unicellular "animal-like" (heterotrophic, and sometimes parasitic) organisms are further sub-divided based on ... Most eukaryotic algae are autotrophic, but the pigments were lost in some groups.[vague] Other protists are heterotrophic, and ... this group was modified in 1848 by Carl von Siebold to include only animal-like unicellular organisms, such as foraminifera and ... which are a group of unicellular organisms, and Opisthokonta, such as animals and fungi, etc.). "Protista", ''Protoctista'' and ...
Some, usually unicellular, organisms can switch between different metabolic modes, for example between photoautotrophy, ... protozoa, and some bacteria. The important differentiation amongst this group is that chemoorganotrophs oxidize only organic ... Some eukaryotic microorganisms, however, are not limited to just one nutritional mode. For example, some algae live ... Primary nutritional groups are groups of organisms, divided in relation to the nutrition mode according to the sources of ...
... is any eukaryotic organism that is not an animal, plant or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group, or clade, but are ... Protozoa the unicellular "animal-like" (heterotrophic/parasitic) protozoa which was further sub-divided based on motility such ... this group was modified in 1848 by Carl von Siebold to include only animal-like unicellular organisms, such as foraminifera and ... "organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues." Besides their relatively simple levels of ...
... is any of the eukaryotic organisms classified in the group Bikonta. Many single-celled members of the group, and the presumed ... Corticata Burki F, Pawlowski J (October 2006). "Monophyly of Rhizaria and multigene phylogeny of unicellular bikonts". Mol. ... Thomas Cavalier-Smith (2003). "Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa". European Journal of ... Cavalier-Smith has grouped the Excavata and Rhizaria into the Cabozoa and the Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata into the ...
... belongs to this group. Some members of the Chlorophyta form symbiotic relationships with protozoa, sponges, and cnidarians. ... and thus includes about 7,000 species of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it ... The division contains both unicellular and multicellular species. Some conduct sexual reproduction, which is oogamous or ... Some groups, such as the Trentepohliales are exclusively found on land. Several species of Chlorophyta live in symbiosis with a ...
However, complex multicellular organisms evolved only in six eukaryotic groups: animals, fungi, brown algae, red algae, green ... Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.[1] ... There is a discussion about the possibility of existence of cancer in other multicellular organisms[19][20] or even in protozoa ... This theory states that a single unicellular organism, with multiple nuclei, could have developed internal membrane partitions ...
In 1830, the German biologist Georg A. Goldfuss coined the word protozoa to refer to organisms such as ciliates, and this group ... and can be unicellular or multicellular organisms. The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells ... Eukaryotic species once thought to be asexual, such as parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania, have been shown to have a ... Eukaryotic life could have evolved at that time. Fossils that are clearly related to modern groups start appearing an estimated ...
Protozoa are unicellular organisms, which have nuclei, and ultramicroscopic cellular bodies within their cytoplasm. One ... Fungal genetics uses yeast, and filamentous fungi as model organisms for eukaryotic genetic research, including cell cycle ... Nature Publishing Group, A division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved 2015-09-24. Gest, Hau (22 May 2004). "The ... It studies the genetics of very small (micro) organisms; bacteria, archaea, viruses and some protozoa and fungi. This involves ...
... s are giant multinucleate unicellular organisms found on the ocean floor throughout the world's oceans, at depths ... These giant protozoans seem to feed in a manner similar to amoebas, enveloping food items with a foot-like structure called a ... Species of this group are morphologically variable, but the general structural pattern includes a test enclosing a branching ... In the beginning of the 20th century they were considered an independent class of Rhizopoda, and later as a new eukaryotic ...
However, complex multicellular organisms evolved only in six eukaryotic groups: animals, fungi, brown algae, red algae, green ... Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms. All species of ... There is a discussion about the possibility of existence of cancer in other multicellular organisms or even in protozoa. For ... multicellular organisms, earlier thought to be unicellular, are probably extremely reduced cnidarians). Multicellular organisms ...
Protozoa and all multicellular organisms such as animals, fungi, and plants are eukaryotes. The bacteria and archaea are ... doi:10.1016/S0723-2020(86)80002-9. Knoll, Andrew H.; Javaux, E. J.; Hewitt, D.; Cohen, P. (29 June 2006). "Eukaryotic organisms ... The phylum includes all members of the group previously named Deep Sea Archaeal Group (DSAG), also known as Marine Benthic ... This analysis suggests the existence of a genus of unicellular life dubbed Lokiarchaeum. The sample was taken near a ...
... grouping together the five other eukaryotic kingdoms (Animalia, Protozoa, Fungi, Plantae and Chromista). In 1998, Cavalier- ... and those unicellular and multicellular organisms whose cells do have a distinct nucleus (eukaryotes). In 1938, Herbert F. ... The kingdom-level classification of life is still widely employed as a useful way of grouping organisms, notwithstanding some ... 2007, p. 4 Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2009), "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree", Biology ...
Of eukaryotic groups, the protists are most commonly unicellular and microscopic. This is a highly diverse group of organisms ... These organisms include drifting or floating bacteria, archaea, algae, protozoa and animals that inhabit, for example, the ... Invertebrates are grouped into different phyla. Informally phyla can be thought of as a way of grouping organisms according to ... More generally a phylum can be defined in two ways: as described above, as a group of organisms with a certain degree of ...
Amoeba, like other unicellular eukaryotic organisms, reproduces asexually by mitosis and cytokinesis. Sexual phenomena have not ... 1, p. 260, [1]. Xu, Kaigin (2007). "National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan". The World of Protozoa, Rotifera, ... 1: Aardvark-Catalyst (2nd ed.). Gale Group. ISBN 0-7876-4370-X. OCLC 46337140. Ehrenberg, Christian Gottfried. Organisation, ... In cases where organisms are forcibly divided, the portion that retains the nucleus will often survive and form a new cell and ...
Of eukaryotic groups, the protists are most commonly unicellular and microscopic. This is a highly diverse group of organisms ... They can be single-celled or multicellular and include all bacteria and archaea and most protozoa, as well as some species of ... Copepods contribute more to the secondary productivity and carbon sink of the world oceans than any other group of organisms. ... Green algae are a large group of photosynthetic eukaryotes that include many microscopic organisms. Green algae includes ...
These relationships can be essential for growth of a particular organism or group of organisms (syntrophy). Bacterial growth ... protozoa). Later, some eukaryotes that already contained mitochondria also engulfed cyanobacteria-like organisms, leading to ... and reproduction by cell division are tightly linked in unicellular organisms. Bacteria grow to a fixed size and then reproduce ... the process used by eukaryotic cells to engulf external items. Unlike in multicellular organisms, increases in cell size (cell ...
"CBOL Protist Working Group: barcoding eukaryotic richness beyond the animal, plant, and fungal kingdoms". PLOS biology 10(11). ... Most are unicellular, and are common in soils and aquatic habitats. Some are symbionts of other organisms, including several ... The Amoebozoa are a eukaryote phylum of Amoeba-like protozoa.[2] Most move by internal cytoplasmic flow. Their finger-like ... A characteristic form is the model organism Dictyostelium discoideum. References[change , change source]. *↑ Porter, Susannah M ...
... unlike many other eukaryotic organisms. The nuclear membrane only divides when the waist of the organism constricts. In sexual ... Most species of Ceratium are unicellular organisms that are characterized by their armored plates, two flagella, and horns. ... These patterns may be used to identify groups of dinoflagellates or even species of Ceratium. The plates contain expanded horns ... Another source lists the taxonomy as Kingdom Protozoa, Phylum Dinoflagellata, Class Dinophyceae, Order Gonyaulacales, and ...
In 1830, the German biologist Georg A. Goldfuss coined the word protozoa to refer to organisms such as ciliates, and this group ... Eukaryotic organisms that cannot be classified under the kingdoms Plantae, Animalia or Fungi are sometimes grouped in the ... Unlike unicellular archaea and bacteria, eukaryotes may also be multicellular and include organisms consisting of many cell ... Eukaryotic life could have evolved at that time.[96] Fossils that are clearly related to modern groups start appearing an ...
This is a remarkable case of horizontal gene transfer between two distantly related eukaryotic groups, and has provided clues ... The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest ... In planktonic organisms, there is speculation that the periplast increases drag, thereby counteracting the force generated by ... In: Coombs GH, Vickerman K, Sleigh MA, Warren A (ed.) Evolutionary relationships among protozoa. Kluwer, London, pp. 375-407. ...
It preys on bacteria, but also fungi and other protozoa. This species is able to lyse bacteria and produce a wide range of ... This unicellular eukaryote expresses few GPCRs over its cell membrane that serve vital role for the microorganism, structural ... ISBN 978-1-904455-43-1. Baig AM, Khan NA, Abbas F. Eukaryotic cell encystation and cancer cell dormancy: is a greater devil ... Based on 18S rDNA sequencing, known Acanthamoeba strains can be organized into 12 groups, denoted T1-T12. Most disease-causing ...
This diverse group includes the echinoderms, along with some organisms labelled "worms" and even Xenoturbella, which until 2016 ... A protozoan ragbag called Apusozoa made up of 3 protist groups breviata, ancyromonads and apusomonads. ... Prokaryotes can move genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") ... The authors describe the important beginnings of eukaryotic cells and describes the endosymbiotic theory proposed by Lynn ...
... is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota. Introduced by Thomas Cavalier-Smith ... Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2010-06-23). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biology ... deriving from the organisms showing clear evidence of this "excavated" feeding groove). However, various groups that lack these ... as has been seen with some other groups, for example, microsporidia. In addition to the groups mentioned in the table above, ...
Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol Lett 6 (3): 342-5. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948 ... which only occurs in a few other groups.[4] Both probably belong to a larger group of eukaryotes called the Excavata.[5] This ... In some there is a cytostome or mouth, used to ingest bacteria or other small organisms. This is supported by a microtubule ... There are two main subgroups, the euglenids and kinetoplastids.[1] Euglenozoa are unicellular, mostly around 15-40 µm in size, ...
The Amoebozoa are a major group of amoeboid protozoa, comprising the majority of the amoebae that move using blunt or lobose ... Most members are unicellular, for instance the famous species Amoeba proteus, which is often studied in laboratories. They ... Some are symbiotic on other organisms, including some pathogens, responsible for amoebiasis (dysentery) and other diseases. ... and appeared to diverge near the base of eukaryotic evolution, as did most slime molds. ...
The main groups of unicellular organisms are bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi. Unicellular ... organisms fall into two general categories: prokaryotic organisms and eukaryotic organisms. Unicellular organisms are thought ... A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a ... S. cerevisiae is also an important model organism, since it is a eukaryotic organism thats easy to grow. It has been used to ...
Protists are a diverse group of organisms, and they reproduce in a number of different ways, including asexual binary fission, ... Protists are subdivided into four groups: protozoa, unicellular algae, slime molds and water molds. ... Eukaryotic organisms first appeared more than 1.5 billion years ago. Scientists believe the first eukaryotes were protists, and ... What is a group of the same kind of organisms that live in the same area at the same time called?. A: A group of the same ...
The three main classifications or protist phyla are protozoa, algae and slime mold. These protist types also generate movement ... Protozoa, the animal-like protist group, are unicellular. Some examples of protozoa are amoebas and paramecia. Amoebas move ... Protists are diverse types of eukaryotic organisms that can have animal-like, plant-like and fungi-like cell membranes. ... Paramecia are ciliated protozoa that have hair-like structures for movement.. Algae are plant-like organisms that use ...
protozoa. diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, many of which are motile. ... group of unicellular, multicellular, or syncytial sore producing organisms feeding on organic matter. ... organism that does not require oxygen for growth. immunodeficiency. failure of the immune system to protect the body adequately ... organism that transmits a disease or parasite from one animal or plant to another. ...
... the Protozoa are defined as a diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms. Historically, protozoa were defined as single- ... As of 2015, Cavalier-Smiths Protozoa excludes several major groups of organisms traditionally placed among the protozoa, ... The word "protozoa" (singular protozoon or protozoan) was coined in 1818 by zoologist Georg August Goldfuss, as the Greek ... amoeboid organisms). The definition of Protozoa as a phylum or sub-kingdom made up of "unicellular animals" was adopted by the ...
Organisms in the protozoa group include things like amoebas, slime molds and paramecium while common organisms in the algae ... The protist kingdom is a classification that includes a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. Typically, protists reproduce ... via mitosis and range from unicellular to multicellular organisms. In the protist kingdom, there are two main groups: protozoa ... A core principle is the cultivation of individual and group virtue to help guide the behavior of both individuals and groups in ...
Organisms in the protozoa group include things like amoebas, slime molds and paramecium while common organisms in the algae ... The protist kingdom is a classification that includes a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms. Typically, protists reproduce ... via mitosis and range from unicellular to multicellular organisms. In the protist kingdom, there are two main groups: protozoa ... group include green algae, brown algae, dia. Author(s): No creator set. ...
Taxonomy is the realm of science that attempts to group similar organisms together, which is not always an easy task. In this ... Protozoa are a diverse group of organisms that are non-phototrophic, unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms with no cell walls ... Protozoa. The group of organisms known as protozoa are defined by a few of their shared characteristics. Protozoa are non- ... Protozoa are divided into four main groups based on how the organism moves. The Flagellates move by waving long, whip-like ...
Im looking in my textbook and it says that these are harmful pathogenic organisms in Kingdom Protista: Sarcodina: Entamoeba ... For instance, the Kingdom Protista contains the groups of organisms that are one-celled protozoa, one-celled algae, slime molds ... What organisms does the kingdom protista contain? The kingdom protista contains organisms that are unicellular eukaryotes not ... What is a eukaryotic organism in the protista kingdom called? I do knw the answer well thats helpful , yah know Protist ...
F. Protists are considered the simplest eukaryotic organisms because most are unicellular.. ... A. The term protozoa is an informal reference to a diverse groups of heterotrophic protists.. ... VI. Eukaryotic algae are key producers in most aquatic ecosystems.. A. A majority of the eukaryotic algae are photosynthetic ... 1. Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are extensions of the cytoplasm.. 2. These cilia and flagella have the same basic 9+2 ...
Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the ... Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and ...
Initial researches indicated that this organism is a protozoon ( a single-celled organism with animal-like behavior). Some have ... Pneumocystis jiroveci is a unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that is widespread and ubiquitous in geographic distribution. ... Currently a vast majority of scientists group Pneumocystis jiroveci among ascomycetous yeasts. This is the same group in which ... Still, such taxonomic positioning of Pneumocystis as a genus of unique protozoan organisms was disputed for several years. ...
eukaryotic organisms. They develop or metamorphosize at some point in their. life. Animals cells have a cell membrane and are ... Ciliophora This is a group of protozoans. that have hair like organelles. called cilia. They have 2 sorts. of nuclei. They are ... Humans, birds) Black Bear Ursus americanus Carassius Auratus Gold Fish Eubacteria These organisms are. unicellular and ... These organisms. are multicellular and have. a body of pores and channels that allow water to circulate. All the cells in. a ...
Protozoa. A diverse group of unicellular eukaryotic organisms, including amoeba, ciliates, and flagellates. Some can be ... Polyphosphate-accumulating Organism. Polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) are a group of bacteria that, under certain ... An organism that lives on or in another organism (its host). Parasites exist in a huge variety, including animals, plants, and ... Psychrophilic organisms are organisms that are most adapted to live in cold environments. ...
3: Archaea: A group of microscopic organisms. Can exist under extreme conditions such as extremely hot, acidic, alkaline ... Protozoan: No cell wall or chlorophyll, internal digestion, no locomotion. Eukaryotic: mainly asexual, meiosis occurs in some ... Unicellular (one celled). No nucleus. Bacteria and cyanobacteria. Meningitis caused by Neisseria meningitides(coccus). Bubonic ... More complex than organisms in kingdom monera. Has a nucleus. Protozoans (animal like), Algae (Plant Like) . Example: ...
Unicellular organism of a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. For the journal, see Protist (journal). ... Protozoa. These unicellular "animal-like" (heterotrophic, and sometimes parasitic) organisms are further sub-divided based on ... this group was modified in 1848 by Carl von Siebold to include only animal-like unicellular organisms, such as foraminifera and ... which are a group of unicellular organisms, and Opisthokonta, such as animals and fungi, etc.). "Protista", Protoctista and ...
Protoctista) of eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular and sometimes colonial or less often multicellular and that typically ... include the protozoans, most algae, and often some fungi. Fungiany of a diverse taxonomic group and especially a kingdom ( ... Protoctista) of eukaryotic organisms that are unicellular and sometimes colonial or less often multicellular and that typically ... Animalsa living organism that feeds on organic matter, typically having specialized sense organs and nervous system and able to ...
Of the eukaryotic groups, most protists are unicellular, although some are multicellular and colonial. Protists are a ... The organisms involved include bacteria, causing diseases such as plague, tuberculosis, and anthrax; [protozoa]], causing ... Microorganisms are often described as single-celled, or unicellular, organisms; however, some unicellular protists are visible ... The eukaryotic fungi also have several unicellular species, such as bakers yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Animals are ...
Protozoa. These unicellular "animal-like" (heterotrophic, and sometimes parasitic) organisms are further sub-divided based on ... Most eukaryotic algae are autotrophic, but the pigments were lost in some groups.[vague] Other protists are heterotrophic, and ... this group was modified in 1848 by Carl von Siebold to include only animal-like unicellular organisms, such as foraminifera and ... which are a group of unicellular organisms, and Opisthokonta, such as animals and fungi, etc.). "Protista", Protoctista and ...
... are present in groups of creatures from protozoa (unicellular eukaryotic organisms such as paramecia and amoebas) to mammals, ... Protista: a kingdom of eukaryotic, unicellular organisms. Protozoa: a phylum of organisms within the kingdom Protista. The ... Amoeba: A genus of protozoan organisms distinguished by their pseudopodia. Annelida: a phylum of invertebrate animals that ... Thus a sense of its evolutionary history means coincidently a concern with organisms such as bacteria and protozoa. In short, ...
The grouping Protista consists of unicellular algae, protozoa, and slime molds, all with unique life cycles and behaviors. ... Protists are highly diverse eukaryotic organisms that do not share any defining characteristics and are grouped together ... Slime molds are superficially fungi-like eukaryotic organisms that exist as free-living single-celled organisms that aggregate ... Some protozoa are intracellular parasites, such as Plasmodium falciparum, the organism that causes the human disease malaria. ...
Genome A genome is the complete collection of hereditary information for an individual organism. In cellular life forms, the ... Unicellular protistan organisms, a group that includes protozoans and most algae, exhibit many variations. For example, the ... Eukaryotic cells pass through a "cycle," progressing from a newly formed cell to a cell that is dividing to produce the next ... Eukaryotes exist as unicellular or multicellular organisms. Among the unicellular eukaryotes are the protozoa, some types of ...
Noun 1. Rhodophyta - lower plants; mostly marine and littoral eukaryotic algae division Rhodophyta kingdom Protoctista, ... division - (biology) a group of organisms forming a subdivision of a larger category ... unicellular protists and their descendant multicellular organisms: regarded as distinct from plants and animals ... Rhodophyta - lower plants; mostly marine and littoral eukaryotic algae. division Rhodophyta. kingdom Protoctista, Protoctista ...
Protozoa, on the other hand, are nonphotosynthetic, motile organisms that are always unicellular. Other informal terms may also ... word protist is a historical term that is now used informally to refer to a diverse group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms. ... 4.1 Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites Learning Objectives. *Summarize the general characteristics of unicellular eukaryotic ... Eukaryotic microbes are an extraordinarily diverse group, including species with a wide range of life cycles, morphological ...
  • I established Chromista as a kingdom distinct from Plantae and Protozoa because of the evidence that chromist chloroplasts were acquired secondarily by enslavement of a red alga, itself a member of kingdom Plantae, and their unique membrane topology ( Cavalier-Smith 1981 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These traditional subdivisions, largely based on superficial commonalities, have been replaced by classifications based on phylogenetics ( evolutionary relatedness among organisms). (rug.nl)
  • Systematics or phylogeny : The study of the evolutionary history of organisms. (slideserve.com)
  • The first mass extinction ended that period, but during the Cambrian Period which followed, an explosion of new forms began the evolutionary radiation that produced most of the major groups, or phyla, known today. (blogspot.com)
  • This group is referred to as the archezoa and contains only a few phyla. (angelfire.com)
  • Molecular analyses in modern taxonomy have been used to redistribute former members of this group into diverse and sometimes distantly related phyla . (rug.nl)
  • Given their unique properties, I segregate Euglenozoa from infrakingdom Excavata (now comprising only phyla Percolozoa, Loukozoa, Metamonada), grouping infrakingdoms Euglenozoa and Excavata as the ancestral protozoan subkingdom Eozoa. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Molecular information has been used to redefine this group in modern taxonomy as diverse and often distantly related phyla . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • 2010 ) analyzed P-type ATPases in all major prokaryotic phyla for which complete genome sequence data were available and compared the results with those for eukaryotic P-type ATPases. (tcdb.org)
  • Soil Food Web and Microbial Interactions== To survive in a soil environment, an organism must be able to adapt to a constantly changing environment and to interactions with other organisms. (kenyon.edu)