Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Graft Enhancement, Immunologic
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
Graft vs Host Disease
Islets of Langerhans Transplantation
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Graft vs Host Reaction
Host vs Graft Reaction
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Minor Histocompatibility Loci
Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
DNA Probes, HLA
DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Minor Histocompatibility Antigens
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Mice, Inbred Strains
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Major Histocompatibility Complex
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Primary Graft Dysfunction
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Killer Cells, Natural
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
ABO Blood-Group System
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Drug Therapy, Combination
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Fetal Tissue Transplantation
Disease Models, Animal
Coronary Artery Bypass
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Fas Ligand Protein
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Forkhead Transcription Factors
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
Complement System Proteins
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Tissue and Organ Harvesting
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
... see hh blood group) Histocompatibility antigen, a major factor in graft rejection. Even when Major Histocompatibility Complex ... can cause slow rejection of a graft. major H antigens "encode molecules that present foreign peptides to T cells" minor H ... "Do you Know Bombay Blood Group". Janeway, Charles A. (2001). Immunobiology the immune system health & disease (5. ed.). New ... H antigen is a precursor to each of the ABO blood group antigens, apparently present in all people except those with the Bombay ...
Graft rejection occurs within 3 to 5 days. This type of rejection is a typical response to xenotransplants. Chronic rejection ... Even with standard blood compatibility testing, there is a risk of reaction against human blood group systems other than ABO ... Alloimmune (isoimmune) response results in graft rejection, which is manifested as deterioration or complete loss of graft ... Host can accept another graft from the same donor but reject graft from different donor. Graft acceptance depends on the ...
... including graft rejection, delayed hypersensitivity (i.e., tuberculin skin reaction), and the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD ... Immunosuppressive drugs can be classified into five groups: glucocorticoids cytostatics antibodies drugs acting on ... They are also administered as posttransplantory immunosuppressants to prevent the acute transplant rejection and graft-versus- ... They are used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, but also to track changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations. It ...
... but additionally include graft rejection (lifelong), detachment or displacement of lamellar transplants and primary graft ... A 2013 cost-benefit analysis by the Lewin Group for Eye Bank Association of America, estimated an average cost of $16,500 for ... There is a risk of cornea rejection, which occurs in about 10% of cases. Graft failure can occur at any time after the cornea ... and leflunomidprevent to prevent graft rejection is increasing but there is insufficient evidence to ascertain which ...
The Compatibility Gene
It describes the history of immunology with the discovery of the principle of graft rejection by Peter Medawar, and the way the ... 3. Dead but Alive in Parts Advances in understanding of immunity, from Karl Landsteiner's discovery of the ABO blood group ... Frankenstein's Holy Trinity Davis tells the story of Peter Medawar's life and discoveries in graft rejection. 2. Self / Non- ... playing a part in the success of skin grafts, pregnancy, and more. The biologist Rebecca Nesbit, reviewing The Compatibility ...
... graft versus host reaction, GVHR); rejection of H2-incompatible grafts (skin, heart, bone marrow, etc.) by the recipients; and ... Haplochromines are one of two main groups of cichlid fishes in East Africa; the other group being the tilapiine fishes. Klein ... were also responsible for the rejection of incompatible grafts. Klein, with his coworker Vera Hauptfeld and his wife Dagmar ... Klein group's combined t and H2 studies on wild mice from all over the world led to the identification and characterization of ...
A. Edward Maumenee
These achievements include the following: initial description of the immunological nature of corneal graft rejection; discovery ... and clearly delineated the major types of macular degeneration well before anyone else considered this an important group of ...
... granted Gene Signal orphan designation for aganirsen for the prevention of corneal graft rejection associated with excessive ... 3-group, placebo-controlled trial (STRONG Study) has received European Health Directorate (FP-7) funding to assess the drug's ... corneal neovascularisation in patients suffering from infectious keratitis and on the waiting list for Corneal Graft ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... Race and ethnicity are known to play a major role in donor recruitment drives, as members of the same ethnic group are more ... To limit the risks of transplanted stem-cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic HSCT, the donor ... Also, the incidence of patients experiencing rejection is very rare (and graft-versus-host disease impossible) due to the donor ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant". Br. J. Haematol. 102 (5): 1115-23. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2141.1998.00930.x. PMID ... Graft-versus-tumor effect. Main article: Graft-versus-tumor effect. Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus ... Graft-versus-host disease. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ...
Transplanting only ABO-compatible grafts (matching blood groups between donor and recipient) helps prevent rejection mediated ... Current research tends to focus on Th1 and Th17 which mediate allograft rejection via the CD4 and CD8 T cells. Graft-versus- ... leaving chronic rejection referring to rejection due to more patent aspects of immunity. Chronic rejection ... Gene group responsible for transplant rejection: the Major_histocompatibility_complex Yang, JY; Sarwal, MM (May 2017). " ...
Transplanting only ABO-compatible grafts (matching blood groups between donor and recipient) helps prevent rejection mediated ... Acute rejection. Developing with formation of cellular immunity, acute rejection occurs to some degree in all transplants ... Immunologic mechanisms of rejection. Rejection is an adaptive immune response via cellular immunity (mediated by killer T ... Rejection detection. Diagnosis of acute rejection relies on clinical data-patient signs and symptoms but also calls on ...
S. domuncula has been used for study of graft rejection. Researchers have discovered that apoptotic factors are induced in the ... Silicateins are modulated by a group of proteins called silintaphins. The process occurs in specialized cells known as ... S. domuncula was the first demonstrated immune response of invertebrate species (1). These sponges also have similar graft- ... Allograft rejection in the mixed cell reaction system of the demospongeSuberites domunculais controlled by differential ...
History and naming of human leukocyte antigens
In organ transplant the goal was to explain graft rejection for recipients, and of course, to prevent future rejection. From ... These broad antigen groups, like A9 and B5, were subdivided into "split" antigen groups, A23 & A24 and B51 & B52, respectively ... This is called allograft [allo = different, graft(medical) = transplant] rejection. To explain rejection in a nutshell, certain ... The pilot suffered severe burns requiring skin grafts; however, skin grafts were a risky business at the time, often being ...
Hale G, Waldmann H (May 1994). "Control of graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection by T cell depletion of donor and ... Cochrane Haematological Malignancies Group) (January 2019). "Mesenchymal stromal cells as treatment or prophylaxis for acute or ... Graft-versus-tumor effect Immunosuppression Transplant rejection Ghimire S, Weber D, Mavin E, Wang XN, Dickinson AM, Holler E ( ... This is a rather indirect GvHD because it is not directly cells in the graft itself that causes it but cells in the graft that ...
Dausset's further work in 1965 examining the effects of Hu-1 antigen injection on skin graft rejection further confirmed the ... Dausset formed a group of radical doctors who pushed for change in the French medical system. Due to his activist role in this ... leucocyte antigen group had an influence on histocompatibility and observing the induction of hyper-sensitivity to skin grafts ... In 1962, Dausset published an examination of the correlation between leuco-agglutination and skin graft tolerance, his first ...
... rejection, delayed graft function) after clinical transplantation. He was named Medical Director of Mount ... Hricik DE (Ed.). Second edition, London, UK: Remedica Group, 2007. Schröppel B, Akalin E. Transplant Immunology and ... Regulatory T cells sequentially migrate from the site of tissue inflammation to the draining LN to suppress allograft rejection ... Islet-expressed TLR2 and TLR4 sense injury and mediate early graft failure after transplantation. Eur J Immunol, 40(10):2914-24 ...
iScience 23(1) 100765 (2020)  Preventing graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients Diagnosing patients with ... The Mashaghi group, LACDR, Leiden University "A Rubik's cube at the nanoscale: proteins puzzle with amino acid chains". ... typically suffering from high graft rejection rates. Together with his co-workers, he contributed to the use of stem cell ... In 2017, he and his co-workers at Harvard developed an immunotherapy strategy to improve survival of cornea grafts. The work ...
Hersh PS, Jordan AJ & Mayers M. Corneal graft rejection episode after excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy. Arch. Ophthal ... In 1995 he founded the Cornea and Laser Eye Institute (CLEI) - Hersh Vision Group in New Jersey and serves as its director. ... Cornea and Laser Eye Institute-Hersh Vision Group. Peter S. Hersh, M.D.. Retrieved 17 May 2013. "Peter S. Hersh, M.D." ... Sports Vision 1996;12:7-11., Hersh PS, Shah S, Summit PRK Topography Study Group. Corneal topography of 6.0 mm excimer laser ...
In a study that used pre-made kits to predict cardiac allograft rejection using peripheral blood only, graft rejection was ... The protein side groups in this protein do not necessarily interact in a manner to form tertiary and quaternary structures. The ... Predictors of transplant rejection determined by peripheral blood gene-expression profiling. Publication number; US8053182 B2. ...
The tilapia islet grafts give better blood glucose level than rat or mouse islet grafts. But as in mammalian transplant, tissue ... Both islet groups contain insulin, glucagon, peptide YY and somatostatin, but these proteins are secreted only in the pyloric ... rejection is a problem. An attempt to solve this is creation of a transgenic tilapia that contain a human insulin gene. These ... and fish islet grafts transplanted into diabetic nude mice". General and Comparative Endocrinology. 106 (3): 384-388. doi: ...
Narinder Kumar Mehra
... which assisted in the prediction of graft rejection and had significance in organ and bone marrow transplantation. He also ... His group demonstrated that HLA genes with specific pockets in the peptide binding region controlled the severity of ... Antibody Repertoire and graft outcome following solid organ transplantation, ...
Outline of immunology
Group 1 ILC Natural killer cells (NK cells) Group 2 ILC Nuocyte Group 3 ILC Lymphoid Tissue inducer cells (LTi cells) (Non- ... Graft-versus-host disease) Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease Unknown/Multiple types Foreign Hypersensitivity ... transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro ... Group 1 CLRs - Mannose receptors MRC1 MRC2 DEC205 (CD205) Group 2 CLRs - Asialoglycoprotein receptor family DC-SIGN (CD209) ...
When the grafts were rejected, Woodruff determined that rejection must be controlled by additional factors. In 1951 Woodruff ... As a major part of his research, Woodruff served as the honorary director of a Research Group on Transplantation established by ... He took advantage of this access and his wife's skills as a lab assistant to investigate in utero grafts (tissue grafts ... an eminent zoologist and important pioneer in the study of rejection. The two men discussed transplantation and rejection, ...
US-Patent „Combination of immunosuppressive agents for the treatment or prevention of graft rejection" (US 2002/0132764 A1 ( ... Since 2004 he worked within the scope of a Transregio Research Group FOR 535 of the German Research Foundation (Deutsche ... Combinations of immunosuppressive agents for the treatment or prevention of graft rejection„/ „Organic Compounds" ( ... Z. f. Kosmologie 2007;17:101-123.## Munich lung transplant group Vetter HO, Kaulbach HG, Schmitz C, Forst A, Uberfuhr P, ...
Kevin R. Stone
The paste graft technique 2-12 year results were published in 2006 revealing 85% of the patients obtained improvement in pain ... In 1996 he initiated a research program to determine if the carbohydrates that cause rejection of animal tissues could safely ... He lectures widely at orthopaedic courses and hosts the annual Meniscus Transplantation Study Group Meeting as well as the ... "Articular Cartilage Paste Grafting to Full-Thickness Articular Cartilage Knee Joint Lesions: A 2-12 year Follow Up". ...
Wikipedia:WikiProject Medicine/Cochrane/Cochrane Review List/Musculoskeletal, Oral, Skin and Sensory
Done Immunosuppressants for the prophylaxis of corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty PMID 26313245 https://doi ... Oral Health Group. Updated: Jan 7 2020 Adhesives for bonded molar tubes during fixed brace treatment PMID 28230910 https ... Wounds Group. Updated: Jan 7 2020 Primary closure versus delayed or no closure for traumatic wounds due to mammalian ... Skin Group. Updated: Jan 7 2020 Antistreptococcal interventions for guttate and chronic plaque psoriasis PMID 30835819 ...
Herald and Times Group. Newsquest Media Group. Retrieved April 14, 2021. "Opt-out organ donation comes into force". July 1, ... The quality of life of the donor was poor when the graft was lost or the recipient died. In India, there are six types of life ... A zero mismatch organ has a low rate of rejection and allows a recipient to be on lower doses of immunosuppressive drugs. Since ... Some animal rights groups oppose the sacrifice of an animal for organ donation and have launched campaigns to ban them. On ...
Herald and Times Group. Newsquest Media Group. Retrieved April 14, 2021.. *^ "Opt-out organ donation comes into force". July 1 ... A bigger plan's rejection rankles some". Philly.com. Philadelphia Media Network. Retrieved February 28, 2015.. ... The quality of life of the donor was poor when the graft was lost or the recipient died. ... Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells. ...
Damage-associated molecular pattern
... renal allografts demonstrated prolonged patient and graft survival with improvement in both acute and chronic rejection events ... High-mobility group box 1: HMGB1, a member of the HMG protein family, is a prototypical chromatin-associated LSP (leaderless ... One example is with the high-mobility group protein. Mammals have the HMGB1 protein, while Arabidopsis thaliana has the HMGB3 ... Lotze MT, Tracey KJ (April 2005). "High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1): nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal". Nature ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... T-cell Group - Cardiff University. *(Successful!) Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma with Autologous CD4+ T Cells against NY-ESO- ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... CMV Primary Infection Is Associated With Donor-Specific T Cell Hyporesponsiveness and Fewer Late Acute Rejections After Liver ...
The Louisville group went on to perform the first five hand transplants in the United States and have performed 12 hand ... Graft-versus-host disease. *Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. *Transplant rejection. Transplant networks. and ... A hand transplant was performed in Ecuador in 1964, but the patient suffered from transplant rejection after only two weeks due ... In contrast to the earlier attempts at hand transplantation, the Louisville group had performed extensive basic science ...
Part of Frankenstein's rejection of his creation is the fact that he does not give it a name, which causes a lack of identity. ... The group talked about Enlightenment and Counter-Enlightenment ideas as well. Shelley believed the Enlightenment idea that ... Although the creature would be described in later works as a composite of whole body parts grafted together from cadavers and ... so the group retired indoors until dawn. ...
Martin Luther and antisemitism
His writings are full of rage, and indeed hatred, against an identifiable human group, not just against a religious point of ... Gentiles (believers in Christ other than Jews) have been grafted into the vine. In Christ there is neither Jew nor Gentile but ... The supreme sin for him was the persistent rejection of God's revelation of himself in Christ. The centuries of Jewish ... Richard Marius views Luther's remarks as part of a pattern of similar statements about various groups Luther viewed as enemies ...
Conditions caused by food allergies are classified into three groups according to the mechanism of the allergic response: ... 2015). "Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups". Allergy. 70 (9): 1039-1051. doi:10.1111/ ...
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Choice of graft. Type. Typically, age and lifestyle help determine the type of graft used for ACL reconstruction.[ ... ACL injuries can be categorized into groups- contact and non-contact based on the nature of the injury Contact injuries ... Because the tissue used in an autograft is the patient's own, the risk of rejection is minimal. ... Types of grafts. Grafts are inserted through a tunnel that is drilled through the shin bone (tibia) and thigh bone (femur ...
The idea of molecular mimicry arose in the context of Rheumatic Fever, which follows infection with Group A beta-haemolytic ... Thus although polymyositis is more or less tissue specific in presentation, it may be included in this group because the ... Cytokine Dysregulation - Cytokines have been recently divided into two groups according to the population of cells whose ... A feature of human autoimmune disease is that it is largely restricted to a small group of antigens, several of which have ...
UK Latex Allergy Support Group. *Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. *v ...
Evolution - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Skin grafts between non-related cheetahs illustrate this point: there is no rejection of the donor skin. ... Evolution through group selection. Blackwell. ISBN 0-632-01541-1 *↑ Maynard Smith, John 1964. Group selection and kin selection ... With humans groups from different parts of the world, all evolution can say is that each group is probably well suited to its ... Groups that arrive on islands far from the mainland are also good examples. These groups, by virtue of their small size, cannot ...
... and graft compatibility. HLA-B is one of three major HLAs that should be matched between donors and recipients. ... Genes in this complex are separated into three basic groups: class I, class II, and class III. In humans, the HLA-B gene and ... the likelihood and severity of rejection is minimized. ... HLA-B27 is associated with the spondyloarthropathies, a group ...
... "sister-group" to all other metazoans (multi-celled animals), which themselves form a monophyletic group. On the other hand, ... However they reject grafts from other species but accept them from other members of their own species. In a few marine species ... gray cells play the leading role in rejection of foreign material. When invaded, they produce a chemical that stops movement of ... concluded that the sponges are in fact a monophyletic group, and with the cnidarians form the sister group to the bilaterians.[ ...
The transplantation of larger solid organs often requires immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection or graft vs host disease ... Dictionary Group (likely Random House).. *^ Widmaier EP; Raff H; Strang KT (2014). Vander's Human Physiology (12th ed.). ISBN ... Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. ... "We got the mesentery news all wrong", The Crux (a group blog by Discover writers).. ...
The group, led by Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a ... Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs- ... This allows for allogeneic treatments to be performed without a high rejection risk. ... leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment. ...
The graft is given a break from humoral rejection when the complement cascade is interrupted, circulating antibodies are ... Many, including animal rights groups, strongly oppose killing animals to harvest their organs for human use. None of the ... Cellular rejection. Rejection of the xenograft in hyperacute and acute vascular rejection is due to the response of the ... these include hyperacute rejection, acute vascular rejection, cellular rejection, and chronic rejection. ...
This holds the risk that in case of acute rejection in which the face must be removed, she would not have enough tissue for ... A triangle of face tissue from a brain-dead woman's nose and mouth was grafted onto the patient. On 13 December 2007, the first ... In December 2008, a team at the Cleveland Clinic, led by Maria Siemionow and including a group of supporting doctors and six ... The recipient of a face transplant will take life-long medications to suppress the immune system and fight off rejection. ...
... but has not been shown to reduce graft rejection. Mannitol acts as an osmotic laxative in oral doses larger than 20 g,[ ... Mannitol is an isomer of sorbitol, another sugar alcohol; the two differ only in the orientation of the hydroxyl group on ... Mannitol and sorbitol are isomers, the only difference being the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2. ... Due to differences in selection of control groups, a conclusion about the clinical use of mannitol could not be reached. ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
ABO blood group system and the D antigen of the Rhesus (Rh) blood group system typing are routine prior to transfusion. ... in the IVIG and IUT group than in the IUT alone group. IVIG and plasmapheresis together can reduce or eliminate the need for an ... HDFN can also be caused by antibodies to a variety of other blood group system antigens, but Kell and Rh are the most ... Blood Groups and Red Blood Cell Antigens: Hemolytic disease of the newborn ...
... essential that the HLA complexes of both the donor and recipient be as closely matched as possible to prevent graft rejection. ... Len O, Garzoni C, Lumbreras C, Molina I, Meije Y, Pahissa A, Grossi P; The ESCMID Study Group of Infection in Compromised Hosts ... Rejection and the side effects of preventing rejection (especially infection and nephropathy) were, are, and may always be the ... Among his advances was the tubed pedicle graft, which maintained a flesh connection from the donor site until the graft ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Lahita, Robert G.; Phillips, Robert H. (2004). Lupus Q&A: Everything you need to know (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Penguin Group ( ... Pan HF, Wu GC, Li WP, Li XP, Ye DQ (February 2009). "High Mobility Group Box 1: a potential therapeutic target for systemic ... Elevated expression of HMGB1 was found in the sera of people and mice with systemic lupus erythematosus, high mobility group ... Johanneson, Bo; Lima, Guadalupe; von Salomé, Jenny; Alarcón-Segovia, Donato; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Collaborative Group on ...
Baker Publishing Group. pp. 178-180. ISBN 9780801027994. .. *^ a b c d e f Metzger, B. M.; Ehrman, Bart (2005). The Text of the ... Beckstrom, Edward A. (2013). Beyond Christian Folk Religion: Re-grafting into Our Roots (Romans 11:17-23). Eugene, Oregon: ... In the 1940s and 1950s the term postmodern came into use to signify a rejection of modern conventions.:73 Many of these ... By 1990 biblical criticism, as a primarily historical discipline, had come to its end as it transformed into a group of ...
Human leukocyte antigen
In graft rejection. Any cell displaying some other HLA type is "non-self" and is seen as an invader by the body's immune ... "Complex HLA-DR and -DQ Interactions Confer Risk of Narcolepsy-Cataplexy in Three Ethnic Groups". The American Journal of Human ... They are the major cause of organ transplant rejections. They may protect against or fail to protect (if down-regulated by an ... This is particularly important in the case of transplanted tissue, because it could lead to transplant rejection. Because of ...
High-risk groups include recent contacts, those with HIV, those with chest radiograph with fibrotic changes, organ transplant ... Mantoux test injection site in a subject without chronic conditions or in a high-risk group clinically diagnosed as negative at ...
... liver allograft rejection, and in Graft-versus-host disease involving the liver. ... UDCA-PBC Study Group". The New England Journal of Medicine. 324 (22): 1548-54. doi:10.1056/NEJM199105303242204. PMID 1674105.. ... Cheng K, Ashby D, Smyth RL (September 2017). Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group (ed.). "Ursodeoxycholic acid ... group. (7 September 2019). "Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (PITCHES): ...
黴酚酸 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Mycophenolate mofetil decreases acute rejection and may improve graft survival in renal transplant recipients when compared ... ALMS Group. Mycophenolate versus Azathioprine as Maintenance Therapy for Lupus Nephritis. New England Journal of Medicine. 17 ... Mycophenolate mofetil decreases acute rejection and may improve graft survival in renal transplant recipients when compared ... Donlon, Diane M. New Agent to Prevent Kidney Transplant Rejection Now Available. Stanford University. 15 June 1995 [23 July ...
The risk of rejection never fully goes away, and the patient will be on immunosuppressive drugs for the rest of their life, but ... History of Modern Biomedicine Research Group, ISBN 978-1-84129-007-2. , Wikidata Q29581627 ... Graft-versus-host disease. *Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. *Transplant rejection. Transplant networks. and ... People who have had heart transplants are monitored in various ways to test for the development of rejection. ...
James A. Garfield
Graff Henry F., ed. The Presidents: A Reference History (3rd ed. 2002) online ... Only Chandler's rejection by the Senate forestalled MacVeagh's resignation over the matter. ... groups. *National Republican Congressional Committee. *National Republican Senatorial Committee. *Republican Governors ...
... critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection" (PDF). Transplantation. 85 (9): 1339-47. doi:10.1097/TP. ... This group of T cells is much less common in humans and mice (about 2% of total T cells) and are found mostly in the gut mucosa ... "Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients" ... T cells are grouped into a series of subsets based on their function. CD4 and CD8 T cells are selected in the thymus, but ...
Intentional Rejection of the Donor Graft Using Recipient Leukocyte Infusion(s) Following Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Stem Cell...
Single Group Assignment. Masking:. None (Open Label). Primary Purpose:. Treatment. Official Title:. Intentional Rejection of ... Rubio MT, Kim YM, Sachs T, Mapara M, Zhao G, Sykes M. Antitumor effect of donor marrow graft rejection induced by recipient ... Intentional Rejection of the Donor Graft Using Recipient Leukocyte Infusion(s) Following Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Stem Cell ... The proposed study is based on our observation of paradoxical tumor regression after rejection of the donor graft in ...
Blood group incompatibility as risk of corneal rejection - PubMed - NCBI
The variables that influenced the rejection episode were: preoperative high risk group, graft size, blood incompatibility, ... Blood group incompatibility as risk of corneal rejection. [Article in Spanish; Abstract available in Spanish from the publisher ... There is a high risk of rejection of a corneal transplant known as a "rejection episode" in our Hospital conditioned by ... The aim of this article is to analyze the different risk factors of "corneal rejection episode" in post-transplant patients at ...
Combined intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and oral cyclosporine A in the treatment of corneal graft rejection: 5-year...
Irreversible graft failure occurred in one eye in each group. During a mean follow-up period of 19.2 ± 16.7 months (range 1-55 ... Conclusion Our 5-year experience with the use of oral CSA in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection has shown this ... Treatment of corneal graft rejection included 1% prednisolone eye drops, intravenous infusion of 500 mg methyl prednisolone, ... Mean duration of treatment before reversal of graft rejection was 13.6 ± 12.1 days (range 3-54 days). Treatment was successful ...
Non-interventional-study With Tacrolimus Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Renal Graft Rejection - Tabular View -...
Study Groups/Cohorts Renal allograft Intervention: Other: In this observational study no study specific intervention is planned ... Non-interventional-study With Tacrolimus Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Renal Graft Rejection. This study has been ... A Single-site, Prospective Non-interventional-study With Adport Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Graft Rejection in Patients ... Efficacy of Adport Sandoz© in prevention of renal graft rejection by observing serum creatinine levels [ Time Frame: ...
KRP-203, a Novel Synthetic Immunosuppressant, Prolongs Graft Survival and Attenuates Chronic Rejection in Rat Skin and Heart...
The numbers of coronary arteries and grafts examined were as follows (arteries and grafts, respectively): control group, 50 and ... Chronic rejection is now recognized as the leading cause of late graft loss and patient death after the first year after organ ... KRP-203 Prolonged Graft Survival and Attenuated Chronic Rejection in mHC-Disparate Rat Heart Allografts. We next examined the ... The long-term outcome of graft and patient survival is highly influenced by the occurrence of chronic rejection. The dominant ...
Tacrolimus is superior to cyclosporin in improving graft survival and preventing acute rejection after kidney transplantation,...
... three drug groups each directed to a site in the T-cell activation or proliferation cascade which are central to the rejection ... Tacrolimus was shown to be superior to cyclosporin in improving graft survival and preventing acute rejection after kidney ... Treating 100 recipients with tacrolimus instead of cyclosporin would avoid 12 suffering acute rejection, two losing their graft ... Tacrolimus is superior to cyclosporin in improving graft survival and preventing acute rejection after kidney transplantation, ...
Antibody-mediated rejection of human orthotopic liver allografts. A study of liver transplantation across ABO blood group...
... rejection was a cause of graft failure and if humoral rejection can be identified, 2) to propose criteria for establishing the ... A clinicopathologic analysis of liver transplantation across major ABO blood group barriers was carried out 1) to determine if ... There was a 46% graft failure rate during the first 30 days for primary ABO-I grafts compared with an 11% graft failure rate ... rejection was a cause of graft failure and if humoral rejection can be identified, 2) to propose criteria for establishing the ...
CD4hiCD8low Double-Positive T Cells Are Associated with Graft Rejection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Islet Transplantation
... the long-term graft survival group (. ; age, 54-72 months) and (b) the graft rejection group (. ; aged between 54 and 72 months ... Figure 6: The CD4hiCD8low DP T cell population increased markedly in the graft rejection group. Subpopulations of DP T cells ... The number of peripheral DP T cells in the islet transplantation model was high in the group that experienced graft rejection; ... and CD4lowCD8hi subpopulations of DP T cells revealed a marked increase in CD4hiCD8low DP T cells in the graft rejection group ...
Higher busulfan dose intensity does not improve outcomes of patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation...
More patients in RIC group had high-risk disease, and higher median comorbidity index. There were no graft rejections. Median ... 11 days; p , 0.001) was significantly longer in the RIC group. RTC group had significantly more bacterial (62.2% vs. 32%; p = ... group]. At baseline both groups were matched for median age, unrelated donor allografts, and human leukocyte antigen-mismatched ... 1.3% p = 0.01). For RIC and RTC groups rates of grades II-IV acute GVHD (34% vs. 40%; p-value = 0.54), and chronic GVHD (45% vs ...
Evaluation of topical ciclosporin 0.05% for prevention of rejection in high-risk corneal grafts | British Journal of...
... months in group 2 (p = 0.421). Rejection-free graft survival rates were 60.8% in group 1 and 54.5% in group 2 (Kaplan-Meier ... the graft survival rate was 73.9%; in group 2, the graft survival rate was 68.1%. The difference in the graft survival rates ... The clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty was evaluated by the rate of rejection-free graft survival and graft survival ... Twenty-five eyes (group 1) were treated with 0.05% ciclosporin and dexamethasone 0.1%, and 22 eyes (group 2) were treated with ...
Diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation in the United States
European Continental Ancestry Group * Female * Graft Rejection / epidemiology * HLA Antigens / analysis * Hepatitis C ... PTDM was associated with increased graft failure (1.63, 1.46-1.84, p , 0.0001), death-censored graft failure (1.46, 1.25-1.70, ... It is a strong, independent predictor of graft failure and mortality. Efforts should be made to minimize the risk of this ...
Search of: ' September 21, 2011':' October 21, 2011'[FIRST-RECEIVED-DATE]AND HIV[CONDITION] - List Results - ClinicalTrials...
Incidence of acute clinical renal graft rejection. *Incidence of acute clinical and subclinical renal graft rejection ... Spectrum Medical Group. Phoenix, Arizona, United States. *Long Beach Education and Research Consultants, PC. Long Beach, ... International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group. *National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases ... safety and toxicity of nelfinavir in human subjects with solid tumors and to determine the maximum tolerated dose in this group ...
Rose-Nussbaumer J[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Factors Associated With Graft Rejection in the Cornea Preservation Time Study.. Stulting RD, Lass JH, Terry MA, Benetz BA, ... Prajna NV, Prajna L, OBrien KS, Sun CQ, Acharya N, Lietman TM, Rose-Nussbaumer J; Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial Group. ... Donor, Recipient, and Operative Factors Associated with Graft Success in the Cornea Preservation Time Study. ... Sjögrens International Collaborative Clinical Alliance Research Groups. ...
Blood group antigens of different types for diagnostic and therapeutic applications - AbSorber AB
The present invention provides compositions and methods for treating or preventing antibody mediated graft rejection and blood ... graft rejection and more particularly to compositions including blood group determinants useful for removing anti-blood group ... Blood group antigens include (A, B, and O (H). The blood group antigens are specific for all the blood group subtypes. By blood ... The first trial to cross the ABO barrier in transplantation was started in the early 1970s grafting blood group A2 cadaveric ...
Graft rejection-like reactions in the early postoperative period after | OPTH
Keywords: deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, keratoconus, stromal rejection, graft rejection-like reactions, early ... However, some patients with KC experience graft rejection-like inflammatory reactions within 2 months (usually in the first ... Although a clear corneal graft in the pupillary area was obtained and best-corrected visual acuity was good after the ... We collected data on the characteristics and incidence of severe inflammatory graft reactions in the early postoperative phase ...
Graft Rejection Episodes after Descemet's Stripping with Endothelial Keratoplasty: Part One: Clinical Signs and Symptoms |...
Copyright Article author (or their employer) . Produced by BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (& EULAR) under licence. ... Results: Graft rejection episodes occurred in 54 eyes of 48 patients. Thirty-five percent of the eyes were asymptomatic and ... Conclusions: Immunologic graft rejection is an important post-operative complication after DSEK. The range of clinical findings ... Graft Rejection Episodes after Descemets Stripping with Endothelial Keratoplasty: Part One: Clinical Signs and Symptoms ...
The Utility of Serial Allograft Biopsies during Delayed Graft Function in Renal Transplantation under Current Immunosuppressive...
Biopsy revealed significant rejection only in 4/83 patients (4.8%) (one Banff 1-A and two Banff 2-A cellular rejections, and ... Patients undergoing at least one weekly biopsy during DGF comprised the study group. Eighty-three/420 (19.8%) recipients during ... i,Conclusions,/i,. Under current immunosuppression regimens, rejection during DGF is uncommon and the utility of serial ... one acute humoral rejection). Six other/83 patients (7.2%) had Banff-borderline rejection of uncertain clinical significance. ...
Induction of Tolerance: Practice Essentials, Central (Intrathymic) Mechanisms of Tolerance, Peripheral (Nonthymic) Mechanisms...
... and 3 had rejection necessitating additional immunosuppressive therapy.  Six other steroid-responsive graft rejections were ... and ongoing graft function with immunosuppression can be achieved despite the return of antibodies against donor blood groups. ... Use of SRL has improved graft survival rates and decreased rejection incidence and severity. SRL is more effective when used in ... 36] All patients had reversible rejection episodes in the first 3 weeks. They exhibited predominant monocyte graft infiltration ...
Human gut microbiome adopts an alternative state following small bowel transplantation | PNAS
x axis: red bar, graft rejection; green bar, postsurgical closure of the ileostomy; dashed black line beneath, day 0-125, the ... The bacterial group fractions (colored blocks) were calculated by summing the four individual groups and representing that ... Although its primary purpose is surveillance of the transplanted tissue for possible graft rejection, it also creates a rare ... Biopsy and effluent samples taken during a period of graft rejection are colored in gray, whereas pathologically normal tissue ...
Frontiers | Dual Role of Natural Killer Cells on Graft Rejection and Control of Cytomegalovirus Infection in Renal...
Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, NK cells may display ... Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) ... On the other hand, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection constitutes a risk factor directly associated to the rate of graft ... The dual role of NK cells in the interrelation of HCMV infection with rejection deserves attention. Further phenotypic, ...
biostatistics: quantify association between two variable in survival time?
a 0 means no rejection). (12 mice in each group). +ve control Days post graft rejection 90. 1. 90. 1. 103. 1. 112. 1. 125. 1. ... a 0 means no rejection). (12 mice in each group). +ve control Days post graft rejection 90. 1. 90. 1. 103. 1. 112. 1. 125. 1. ... 1.That the probability that the grafts survive are equal. 2.That the mean times to graft rejection given rejection are equal.. ... 1.That the probability that the grafts survive are equal. 2.That the mean times to graft rejection given rejection are equal.. ...
... accelerated or chronic graft rejection. Studies have repeatedly shown that high levels of DSA are associated with graft ... His second donor was his brother whose blood group was B positive which matched his blood group. CDCXM and FCXM were positive ... He had his first renal transplant in 2001 and the donor was his mother; the graft rejected due to humoral rejection and chronic ... The short term follow up of these patients was unremarkable with no evidence of graft dysfunction/rejection. Desensitization is ...
Transplant - Special legal and ethical problems | Britannica
... since red-cell-group antigens are present in other tissues and can cause graft rejection. Although transplantation antigens are ... There has been much interest in trying to remove such cells from an organ graft, so that the rejection reaction will not be ... Cyclosporine was found to prevent organ graft rejection in a number of animal species. When the drug was used in humans, the ... HLA antigens are divided into two groups: class I antigens, which are the target of an effector rejection response; and class ...
Polymers | Free Full-Text | PLGA-Based Microparticles for the Sustained Release of BMP-2 | HTML
... allogeneic grafting can lead to infection and rejection . An alternative to grafting is the addition of a biomaterial or ... Groups were: control media (no microparticles), osteogenic media (no microparticles) 0.5 mg of blank microparticles (no BMP-2 ... The clinical gold standard in such a situation is bone grafting, but autologous grafting can lead to donor site morbidity and ... Burkus, J.K.; Heim, S.E.; Gornet, M.F.; Zdeblick, T.A. Is INFUSE bone graft superior to autograft bone? an integrated analysis ...
5.) Panda A, Vanathi M, Kumar A, Dash Y, Priya S. Corneal graft rejection. Surv Ophthalmol. 2007;52:375-96. (6.) The ... The Collaborative Corneal Transplantation Studies Research Group. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992;110:1392-403. (7.) DAmaro J, Volker- ... The graft remained clear 3 months after the AR treatment. Inflammation in eyes that had undergone PK jeopardizes the graft ... Factors predictive of corneal graft survival. Report from the Australian Corneal Graft Registry. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:403-14 ...
This Week in Science | Science
... which increased graft rejection. These vesicles contained active 20S proteasome core complexes; proteasome inhibition decreased ... this major phytoplankton functional group may be able to adapt to a future with higher CO2 concentrations. ... Autoantibodies contribute to rejection, but how these autoantibodies are generated remains unclear. Dieudé et al. found that ... These days organ transplantation may seem like a routine procedure, but rejection of the donated organ still poses a ...
Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) using corneal donor tissue not acceptable for use in...
... graft rejection episode occurred in the study group. There were 10 (2.8%) dislocations and 8 (2.2%) graft rejection in the ... Graft Rejection / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Keratoplasty, Penetrating*. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. ... No intraoperative complications and no episodes of primary graft failure or pupillary block glaucoma occurred in either group. ... A statistically similar significant improvement in best spectacle-corrected vision occurred in both groups. Corneal topography ...
JCI - Volume 112, Issue 2
... early blockade accelerated rejection and delayed blockade prolonged graft survival. Alloreactive CD4+ T cell expansion and ... ICOS blockade prolonged allograft survival using both protocols but did so more effectively in the delayed-treatment group. By ... The beneficial effects of ICOS blockade in regulating allograft rejection were seen in the absence of CD28 costimulation but ... alloantibody production were suppressed in both treatment groups, whereas only delayed blockade resulted in suppression of ...
High-Risk Corneal Graft Rejection in the Setting of Previous Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)-1 Infection | IOVS | ARVO...
6c). Both TG and corneal grafts from not infected, control group were negative for gH PCR product. ... 1). In addition, in the HSK model reported here, graft "rejection" extended to syngeneic grafts and was more akin to graft " ... graft rejection model.18,19 Syngeneic grafts in the suture-injury model are not at risk of rejection and survive normally. The ... underwent accelerated graft rejection (Fig.1d; nonvascularized corneal graft bed: allo-HSK versus syn-HSK, P = 0.0012; allo-HSK ...
AAPS - 2008 Annual Meeting Abstracts - Immunotherapy with Donor Bone Marrow Supports Facial Allograft Survival by Presence of...
Histological grading of graft rejection was assessed by H+E staining.. RESULTS: Isograft controls survived indefinitely, ... Controls: Group 1 isograft and Group 2 allograft recipients without treatment, Group 3 received intraosseous DBMT only. Groups ... In both Groups 5 and 6 augmented with donor BMC MST was 48 days. However, the longest survival time in Groups receiving 35x106 ... Group 3 treated with only DBMT accepted transplant up to 13 days. Median survival time (MST) of facial allograft (Group 4) ...
Allograft rejectionTransplantationRecipientsIncidenceTransplant rejectionPenetrating keratoplastyAllogeneicHyperacute rejectionLong-term graft survivalSignificantlyHumoral rejectionRecipientAntibodyDelayed Graft FunctionRenalChronicTacrolimusCorneaImmunosuppressionOrgan-rejectionAntibodiesAntigensMethodsImmunosuppressive therapyDiagnosisTherapeuticPatientsTransplantsGVHDEndothelial rejection linesSkin graftsMortalityEpisodesCalcineurinClinicalEarly graft failureMiceAllograftsEffector T celImmune systemRisk of rejectionPoorer graftPostoperative dayHistologicalInfectionIrreversibleLossDonor-specificImmunologicReject the graftCoronary arteryInflammationPrevent rejectionCellular rejectionVersus host diseaseCardiacDonorsFailure
- This approach may also protect the graft from subsequent episodes of allograft rejection. (nature.com)
- Intestinal allograft rejection resembles Crohn's disease clinically and pathologically, and increased incidence of Crohn's disease has been found to be associated with mutations in the NOD2 gene. (pnas.org)
- The likelihood of allograft rejection and sepsis in SBT patients with mutant NOD2 genes is ≈100 times higher than in patients with the wild-type gene ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
- Day 8 posttransplant serum titers of donor-specific Ab were 15- to 25-fold higher in CCR5 −/− allograft recipients, and transfer of this serum provoked cardiac allograft rejection in RAG-1 −/− recipients within 14 days, whereas transfer of either serum from wild-type recipients or immune serum from CCR5-deficient recipients diluted to titers observed in wild-type recipients did not mediate this rejection. (jimmunol.org)
- Modulation of signal 1 by administration of anti-CD45RB mAb has shown efficacy in preventing kidney ( 6 ), pancreas ( 7 ), and islet allograft rejection in murine models ( 8 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The second stage of infectious risk following transplantation extends from 1 to 6 months, which is the period of maximum sustained immunosuppression in order to minimize acute allograft rejection.6 The patients are often discharged into their normal environment and the risk of bacterial pneumonia subsides. (redorbit.com)
- Widespread use of EMB followed the development of heart transplantation as a means to follow allograft rejection. (bmj.com)
- Conclusion: The PAI-1 inhibitor is potent in the suppression of both allograft rejection and arterial disease because they are critically involved in the development of rejection through the suppression of inflammation. (ahajournals.org)
- Its role in the treatment of acute cadaveric renal allograft transplantation was first reported in 1983, 11 and our group has used a combination of topical steroids, intravenous pulse methyl prednisolone, and oral CSA in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection. (nature.com)
- The present study was designed to investigate the potency and safety of KRP-203 on allograft survival against both acute and chronic rejection in rat skin and heart transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
- Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) were introduced to clinical use in the 1980s and have improved graft and patient survival after organ transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
- Here, we examined the functional characteristics of peripheral DP T cells and analyzed their significance with respect to islet graft rejection in a nonhuman primate model of islet transplantation. (hindawi.com)
- Taken together, the data suggest that peripheral DP T cells showing an innate/memory-like phenotype have both helper and cytotoxic activity in vitro and that they may act as a novel biomarker for graft rejection after islet transplantation. (hindawi.com)
- A clinicopathologic analysis of liver transplantation across major ABO blood group barriers was carried out 1) to determine if antibody-mediated (humoral) rejection was a cause of graft failure and if humoral rejection can be identified, 2) to propose criteria for establishing the diagnosis, and 3) to describe the clinical and pathological features of humoral rejection. (nih.gov)
- Four variables (ATG versus Basiliximab induction, patient age, panel reactive anti-HLA antibody level at transplantation, and living versus deceased donor transplants) were statistically significantly different between patients with and without rejection, though the clinical significance of these differences is questionable given the low incidence of rejection. (hindawi.com)
- One of the first clinically relevant observations pertaining to transplantation was made by Dr. Earl Padgett in the 1920s, when skin grafts were noted to survive longer when skin from close relatives was used. (medscape.com)
- These days organ transplantation may seem like a routine procedure, but rejection of the donated organ still poses a substantial risk. (sciencemag.org)
- The ABO blood group system is clinically important in kidney transplantation, but ABO genotyping fails to attract sufficient attention in some countries and regions. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we performed ABO genotyping in blood samples, analyzed grouping discrepancies, and investigated the weak A subgroup frequency in kidney transplantation candidates. (frontiersin.org)
- We revealed the high risk of blood type misjudgment and genetically ABO-mismatched transplantation if serological test was performed only in blood-group typing. (frontiersin.org)
- There is a higher risk of graft loss in ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation ( 8 , 9 ) since stimulated antibodies can bind directly to blood group antigens on the renal endothelial surface and cause acute rejection (AR). (frontiersin.org)
- This policy permits A2-to-O and A2B-to-B transplantation in order to shorten the waiting time for group O and group B recipients, respectively ( 11 - 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
- However, in many countries and regions, serological typing is the only criterion for ABO blood grouping for kidney transplantation ( 14 , 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
- We revealed one clinical case of unexplained and irreversible early graft dysfunction in a serologically matched pair, and it was verified by genotyping as A1-to-A2 transplantation. (frontiersin.org)
- Although the majority of graft rejection episodes are mediated by donor Ag-primed T cells, acute humoral rejection (AHR) 4 is an increasingly observed problem in clinical transplantation ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- This type of rejection is very fast, the graft is rejected in a few minutes or hours after the transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
- With the advancement in transplantation protocols, acute survival of renal transplants has improved, but long-term survival is still unsatisfactory, as most of the renal transplants develop chronic graft rejection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Lifestyle, immunologic factors, and geographic have an effect on the post-transplantation graft rejection within ethnic group. (majortests.com)
- For penetrating keratoplasty as well as lamellar corneal transplantation, immune-mediated corneal graft rejection remains the most common reason for graft failure. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
- This invention relates to esters of rapamycin and a method for using them to induce immunosuppression, and in the treatment of transplantation rejection, host vs. graft disease, autoimmune diseases, diseases of inflammation, tumors,hyperproliferative vascular disorders, and fungal infections. (patentgenius.com)
- This invention relates to rapamycin 42-sulfonates and 42-(N-carboalkoxy)sulfamates and a method for using them in the treatment of transplantation rejection, host versus graft disease, autoimmune diseases, diseases of inflammation, and fungal infections. (google.de)
- Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of death and complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). (natap.org)
- In particular, perfusion characteristics (renal resistance) and perfusate biomarker concentrations (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, and IL-18) during machine preservation, proved to be reliable tools to rule out graft viability and predict outcomes after transplantation. (omicsonline.org)
- To explore the mixed chimerism and specific immune tolerance induced by superantigen SEB combined with the donor bone marrow transplantation and determine inhibiting mice corneal keratoplasty rejection reaction. (arvojournals.org)
- Objectives: To evaluate celluar and antibody mediated rejection in a group of patients after heart transplantation (HTX), performed in the authors' institution during a six-year period. (pulsus.com)
- Tacrolimus is as effective as cyclosporine in patient and graft survival in kidney transplantation. (koreamed.org)
- In this study, transforming growth factor-β1 was transfected to proximal pulmonary artery segments, and the efficacy of transforming growth factor-β1 transfection was examined in ischemia-reperfusion injury and acute rejection models of rat lung transplantation. (ovid.com)
- Is microdialysis useful for early detection of acute rejection after kidney transplantation? (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Acute rejection following kidney transplantation (KTx) is still one of the challenging complications leading to chronic allograft failure. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Group 1 consisted of 110 patients who were maintained on oral medications while awaiting transplantation, and group 2 consisted of 60 patients who required intravenous inotropic support. (arctichealth.org)
- Group 3 included 39 patients who had transplantation after mechanical circulatory support for cardiogenic shock. (arctichealth.org)
- After transplantation, infection was more common in group 3 (56%) than in group 1 (28%) or group 2 (32%) (p = 0.005). (arctichealth.org)
- Transplantation after mechanical support offers acceptable results in this group of patients for whom the only alternative is certain death. (arctichealth.org)
- By suppressing the immune response in humans, these immunophilin-drug complexes revolutionized the field of organ transplantation by preventing graft rejection. (diva-portal.org)
- Her research aims at advancing the understanding of immune regulation and graft rejection mechanisms as well as exploring new therapeutic pathways in kidney transplantation. (astellas.com)
- When comparing the group of recipients who had RLN (including the ones with RLN and rejection) with those in the rejection and others groups, RLN recipients were younger and more commonly were female, and black non-Hispanic and needed dialysis before transplantation compared with the others group. (asnjournals.org)
- Clinical and immunological research in ABOi transplantation has revealed insight into the immature immune system and its role in superior graft acceptance in childhood and antigen-specific tolerance. (ovid.com)
- This analysis by the Swiss Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Group, based on data from 2008-2011, describes, treatment rates in Switzerland for specific indications and compares this with data from Germany, France, Italy and the Netherlands, corrected for the size of the population. (smw.ch)
- We are working in collaboration with the Cancer and Leukemia Group B Leukemia and Lymphoma Disease Committees and importantly in collaboration with other groups to define the role of both autologous and reduced-intensity allogeneic transplantation in the management of selected hematologic malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
- This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypercapnia on acute cellular rejection in a rat lung transplantation model. (asahq.org)
- Hypercapnia ameliorated acute cellular rejection in a rat lung transplantation model. (asahq.org)
- Randomized exposure to 8% inspired carbon dioxide resulted in preserved lung function, less lung injury, and lower indices of cellular rejection 7 days after lung allograft (different strains) transplantation in a rat model. (asahq.org)
- Conclusions Treating 100 recipients with tacrolimus instead of ciclosporin for the first year after transplantation avoids 12 patients having acute rejection and two losing their graft but causes an extra five patients to develop insulin dependent diabetes. (bmj.com)
- 4- 6 The EMB found limited use worldwide until advances in cardiac transplantation necessitated a means to monitor graft rejection. (bmj.com)
- In 1972, the Stanford group developed a new percutaneous, flexible biopsy forceps that could serially obtain right ventricular endomyocardial biopsies after transplantation. (bmj.com)
- Advanced Biotherapy says the development of the investigational drug for corneal transplant rejection could be applied to preventing organ transplantation someday. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In addition, a pooled efficacy analysis for these three clinical trials at 1 year after transplantation (6) confirmed the ability of MMF to reduce the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection in comparison with placebo or azathioprine. (uninet.edu)
- Backgrounds: Acute rejection and graft arterial disease (GAD) in cardiac transplantation are enhanced by inflammation and thrombus formation. (ahajournals.org)
- Treating 100 recipients with tacrolimus instead of cyclosporin would avoid 12 suffering acute rejection, two losing their graft but cause an extra five to become insulin-requiring diabetics. (cochrane.org)
- At six months graft loss was significantly reduced in tacrolimus-treated recipients (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.86), and this effect was persistent up to three years. (cochrane.org)
- A total of 51 (24 primary) ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) liver grafts were transplanted into 49 recipients. (nih.gov)
- Delayed graft function (DGF) complicates the early posttransplant period following kidney transplants (KTxs) in approximately 30% of deceased donors and less than 5% of living donor KTx recipients and confers an increased risk of superimposed acute rejection [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- DGF is associated with significantly inferior long-term outcomes in KTx recipients and the outcomes are further worsened when rejection is superimposed on DGF [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Advances in immunosuppressive therapy have put increasing pressure on the supply of donor organs, and medical personnel sometimes find themselves having to determine who among the potential recipients should receive a lifesaving graft. (britannica.com)
- The "high-risk phenotype" of corneal graft recipients is considered to be related to preexisting vascularization such as that associated with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) keratitis (HSK). (arvojournals.org)
- In contrast, syngeneic grafts in nonvascularized HSV-infected recipients failed if they were performed within 10 days of HSV infection, an effect that was dependent on CD4 T cells, as demonstrated using CD4 deficient mice. (arvojournals.org)
- Thirty six hemiface allotransplantation were performed between LBN(RT1 l+n ) donors and LEW(RT1 l ) recipients in 6 groups of 6 rats each. (aaps1921.org)
- Controls: Group 1 isograft and Group 2 allograft recipients without treatment, Group 3 received intraosseous DBMT only. (aaps1921.org)
- Rejected MHC-mismatched cardiac allografts in CCR5 −/− recipients have low T cell infiltration, but intense deposition of C3d in the large vessels and capillaries of the graft, characteristics of Ab-mediated rejection. (jimmunol.org)
- The roles of donor-specific Ab and CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in the rejection of complete MHC-mismatched heart grafts by CCR5 −/− recipients were directly investigated. (jimmunol.org)
- Wild-type C57BL/6 and B6.CCR5 −/− recipients rejected A/J cardiac grafts by day 11, whereas rejection was delayed (day 12-60, mean 21 days) in μMT −/− /CCR5 −/− recipients. (jimmunol.org)
- These results indicate that the donor-specific Ab produced in CCR5 −/− heart allograft recipients is sufficient to directly mediate graft rejection, and the absence of recipient CCR5 expression has differential effects on the priming of alloreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. (jimmunol.org)
- Immunomodulatory compounds that allow for prolonged graft survival in the absence of diabetogenic effects could represent a valuable alternative for the treatment of transplant recipients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- 1 The pathogenesis of GVHD is multifactorial, but ultimately, donor-derived T cells recognize recipient antigens as foreign, resulting in activation, expansion, and cytokine release and leading to destruction of host tissues.2 Current therapies for GVHD target T cells and cytokines, often antagonize T-cell-mediated graft-versus-tumor responses, and delay immune reconstitution.3 Preventing GVHD without intensive immune suppression would represent a major advance for HSCT recipients. (natap.org)
- Background Socio-economic deprivation (SED) is emerging as a risk factor for acute graft rejection (AR) and reduced survival of heart transplant (HT) recipients. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Heart transplant recipients with NZDep2013 scores of 1,030 and above that corresponded to the eighth, ninth and tenth NZDep2013 deciles were allocated to the higher SED group and those with NZDep2013 scores below 1,030 to the lower SED group. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Also we have excluded another group of individuals with preformed antibodies, recipients having major ABO incompatibility to the donors. (aamds.org)
- In fact, the majority of cases of COT reported so far relate to liver graft recipients, in reason of the well known immune-privileged status of the liver determined by factors that remain obscure. (intechopen.com)
- Among 6850 recipients of a kidney allograft with systemic lupus erythematosus, 167 recipients had RLN, 1770 experienced rejection, and 4913 control subjects did not experience rejection. (asnjournals.org)
- Although recipients with RLN had a fourfold greater risk for graft failure compared with control subjects without rejection, only 7% of graft failure episodes were attributable to RLN compared and 43% to rejection. (asnjournals.org)
- During follow-up, 867 (13%) recipients died: 27 (16%) in the RLN group, 313 (18%) in the rejection group, and 527 (11%) in the control group. (asnjournals.org)
- A total of 1770 (25.84%) recipients developed rejection without evidence of RLN. (asnjournals.org)
- In the remaining group (others group) of 4913 recipients, the transplant centers did not ascertain recurrence or rejection events during the study period. (asnjournals.org)
- ACUTE cellular rejection is a type of organ dysfunction initiated by cell-mediated immunity in lung-transplant recipients. (asahq.org)
- A study of kidney transplant recipients has shown for the first time that the drug belatacept, which controls the immune system and prevents graft rejection, has a better record of patient and organ survival than a calcineurin inhibitor, previously the standard of care. (emory.edu)
- The seven-year, multi-center study showed that kidney transplant recipients taking belatacept experienced a rate of mortality and graft loss significantly lower than patients taking a calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen. (emory.edu)
- We collected data on the characteristics and incidence of severe inflammatory graft reactions in the early postoperative phase (ie, within 2 months after keratoplasty) and visual outcomes after these inflammatory reactions. (dovepress.com)
- The incidence, symptoms and clinical characteristics of initial immunologic graft rejection episodes were analyzed retrospectively in 598 eyes treated with primary DSEK at a single tertiary referral center. (bmj.com)
- The incidence of rejection during DGF and the continued need for performing periodic biopsies during DGF with currently used immunosuppressive protocols have not been well studied. (hindawi.com)
- The aims of our study were to determine the incidence of rejection during DGF and to identify any variable(s) that might predict its occurrence during DGF in the setting of current immunosuppression. (hindawi.com)
- We did not aim to study the incidence of DGF or its causes, a subject that has already been studied extensively [ 1 - 3 ], and limited ourselves to assessing the risk of rejection during established DGF. (hindawi.com)
- Our review also suggested that a combination of a mTOR inhibitor and a reduced dose of calcineurin inhibitor may be associated with similar eGFR and rates of acute rejections and serious adverse events compared with a standard calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen at the expense of higher incidence of proteinuria and wound-healing complications. (asnjournals.org)
- Six-month best spectacle-corrected vision, incidence of rejection episodes, postoperative refractive astigmatism, keratometric values, pre- and postoperative topography-derived surface asymmetry index, and surface regularity index were compared. (biomedsearch.com)
- The use of C4d staining in graft biopsies has improved diagnosis of AHR and led to the recognition that the incidence of AHR is more prevalent than previously thought ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- This diagnostic tool has led to the realization that in cardiac transplant patients the incidence of AHR without an accompanying cellular rejection may be as high as 15% ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
- This study seeks to determine whether recipient diabetes status relates to incidence of immune rejection following Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK). (jefferson.edu)
- Results The incidence of early AR in the higher SED group was 1.158/person-years and in the lower SED group 1.156/person-years. (auckland.ac.nz)
- Other endpoints include the toxicity of the pentostatin-cyclophosphamide regimen, the degree of donor-host chimerism necessary for long-term graft survival and disease amelioration, incidence of acute and chronic GVHD, incidence of graft rejection, transplant-related morbidity, as well as disease-free and overall survival. (aamds.org)
- Graft and patient survival rate, incidence of acute rejection and side effects were compared. (koreamed.org)
- ATG-R treatment resulted in a significantly lower incidence of delayed graft function and acute rejection within 6 months, without increasing the incidence of lung infection. (urotoday.com)
- After many generations, he had two strains of mice that were genetically identical except for the genes that controlled transplant rejection. (encyclopedia.com)
- Blockade of signal 2 by selectively targeting co-stimulatory molecules has also yielded promising results in modulating immune responses and has provided a precious tool to explore the immunological mechanisms underlying transplant rejection and autoimmunity ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Transplant rejection is one of the biggest limitations in renal transplant procedures, where the kidney can undergo an acute, late acute, or chronic transplant rejection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- SEB pretreatment combined with donor bone marrow transplant could efficiently induce the chimerism, which inhibit the allogenic cornea transplant rejection and prolong the cornea graft survival time. (arvojournals.org)
- This opens up a new area of research that would lead to better approaches to prevent transplant rejection as well as to treat other inflammatory diseases. (eurekalert.org)
- In vivo, the regulatory T cells home to lymph nodes where they potently suppress immune responses such as in cutaneous hypersensitivity and ectopic allogeneic heart transplant rejection. (bloodjournal.org)
- Nevertheless, recognizing the warning signs is the best way to prevent corneal transplant rejection. (keratoconus-group.org.uk)
- The biomarkers include two messenger RNA molecules that encode immune system proteins implicated in transplant rejection and one noncoding RNA molecule that participates in protein production. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The latest patent for VT-346, US 7,585,507, entitled "Nucleic acid molecules and polypeptides for immune modulation", relates to the use of VT-346 in treating immuno-modulatory disorders characterised by inflammation, such as rheumatoid arthritis, transplant rejection , asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Ho said his approach investigates transplant rejection non-invasively by observing macrophage accumulation in heart tissues using MRI. (thefreedictionary.com)
- One monoclonal antibody treatment for preventing transplant rejection , called OKT3, is already on the market, but it has been linked to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SN:6/2/90, p. (thefreedictionary.com)
- They believe the drug may prevent organ transplant rejection in 2 ways--first, by diminishing the transplant response to inflammation and second, by protecting blood vessels to the transplanted organ through its v-protectant activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Apomate is currently in US trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and government-approved trials in Canada and the United Kingdom for evaluation of cardiac transplant rejection and for evaluation of patient response to anti-cancer treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 3 The most serious adverse events in the Valcyte-treated patients were hypertension (12 percent vs. 13 percent), transplant rejection (6 percent vs. 9 percent), and tremors (17 percent vs. 12 percent). (drugs.com)
- The risk of transplant rejection is lessened for well-matched donor-recipient pairs. (wakehealth.edu)
- The clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty was evaluated by the rate of rejection-free graft survival and graft survival evaluation by the Kaplan-Meier logrank test. (bmj.com)
- Syngeneic and allogeneic (C57BL/6 mice) corneal grafts were performed in mice with HSK at different times after infection. (arvojournals.org)
- In corneas with HSK and vascularization at the time of grafting, both syngeneic and allogeneic corneal grafts failed with similar frequency and tempo. (arvojournals.org)
- allogeneic grafting can lead to infection and rejection [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- We used the NOD mouse to assess the effect of targeting the T-lymphocyte surface receptors CD45RB and CD154 in preventing loss of allogeneic islet grafts as a result of recurrence of autoimmunity and allorejection. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates allogeneic host-versus-graft response and delays skin graft rejection through activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 and induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. (eurekalert.org)
- Allogeneic HSCT is used to replace the haematopoietic system in patients with acquired or congenital haematopoietic failure, and more commonly to exploit the graft versus tumour effect of allogeneic cells in malignant disease [1-4]. (smw.ch)
- The reduction in toxicity with RIC results in less morbidity and mortality, and has made allogeneic HSCT available to patients with comorbidities and to older patients (i.e., patients aged 60 to 70 years, the age group that has the highest prevalence of most haematopoietic malignancies). (smw.ch)
- However, in these cases the innate blood group barrier should be overcome in order to avoid hyperacute rejection. (intechopen.com)
- The first hurdle in transplanting organs between distant species, as in the case of pig to human, is hyperacute rejection (HAR) of the donor organ by the host. (iatp.org)
Long-term graft survival3
- Finally, long-term graft survival (at the fifth and tenth year after KT) is significantly lower, compared to short-term one. (intechopen.com)
- However, the impact of introduction of generic immunosuppressants on long term graft survival was never systematically evaluated in well controlled clinical studies. (nih.gov)
- The question whether the brand to generic switch or switch among multiple generic products may introduce clinically relevant changes in drug exposure and thus affect acute rejection, adverse events, and long term graft survival remains debated in transplant community. (nih.gov)
- Conclusions- These findings demonstrated that KRP-203 prolonged skin and heart allograft survival and significantly attenuated chronic rejection and bradycardia as an adverse effect. (ahajournals.org)
- Interestingly, numbers of effector memory T cells (TEM) within the DP T cell population increased significantly during islet graft rejection, as did those of TEM within the cytotoxic CD8 T cells. (hindawi.com)
- the whole idea is that my girlfriend's trying to prove that the mice in the second group take significantly less time to reject the graft than the mice in the first group. (mathhelpforum.com)
- Corneal topography, pachymetry, and manifest astigmatism were not significantly different between groups. (biomedsearch.com)
- Administration of the two antibodies led to significantly prolonged allograft survival, with a percentage of grafts surviving long-term. (diabetesjournals.org)
- At 1 year, diabetics had a significantly higher risk of immune graft rejection compared to non-diabetics (OR 2.28, p=0.047). (jefferson.edu)
- the mean change in anterior, posterior, and total corneal astigmatism at 1 week and anterior astigmatism at 1 month were statistically significantly greater in the inner incision close group than in the inner incision far group. (tripdatabase.com)
- Transforming growth factor-β1 concentrations from proximal pulmonary artery segment homogenates in group II were significantly higher compared with controls. (ovid.com)
- In the early post-reperfusion phase the lactate level in our case group was significantly higher comparing to the control group and remained in higher levels until the end of monitoring. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Mean measured GFR remained stable in the everolimus group from randomization (51.3 ml/min) to last visit (51.4 ml/min) but decreased in controls (from 50.5 ml/min to 45.3 ml/min) and was significantly higher with everolimus at last follow-up (P = 0.004). (gu.se)
- RESULTS: Creatinine levels were significantly different on each postoperative day between the groups with and without rejection. (uzh.ch)
- Biopsy revealed significant rejection only in 4/83 patients (4.8%) (one Banff 1-A and two Banff 2-A cellular rejections, and one acute humoral rejection). (hindawi.com)
- Cellular rejection - CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, NK cells Humoral rejection - B-lymphocytes Cytokines Humoral (antibody-mediated) type of rejection is caused by recipient's B-lymphocytes which produce alloantibodies against donor MHC class I and II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Mechanism of humoral rejection is relevant for hyperacute, accelerated and chronic rejection. (wikipedia.org)
- We hypothesize that clinically meaningful responses can be achieved in patients with advanced malignancies with a transplant strategy using nonmyeloablative conditioning and related mismatched donor stem cell transplant where the intention will be to initially achieve mixed chimerism which will be followed by recipient lymphocyte infusion (RLI) in an attempt to deliberately reject the donor graft. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To determine the safety at ≤100 days of a non myeloablative mismatched related HCT when followed by recipient leukocyte infusion to induce deliberate rejection of the donor graft. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. (frontiersin.org)
- Alloimmunity is caused by the difference between products of highly polymorphic genes, primarily genes of the major histocompatibility complex, of the donor and graft recipient. (wikipedia.org)
- Effect of Recipient Diabetes Status on Immune Rejection after Descemet" by Elliot Cherkas, Zeba Syed et al. (jefferson.edu)
- Recipient diabetes confers a greater risk of immune rejection following DSEK. (jefferson.edu)
- We are excited to demonstrate for the first time that cannabinoid receptors play an important role in the prolongation of rejection of a foreign graft by suppressing immune response in the recipient, said Mitzi Nagarkatti, Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from the University of South Carolina School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
- The first is the 10-15% graft rejection rate, where a majority of these individuals were male donor and female recipient pairs. (aamds.org)
- The IS-free state substantiates into what is referred to as clinical operational tolerance [COT], defined as the condition in which a SOT recipient retains stable graft function and lacks histological signs of rejection, after having been completely off all IS for at least 1 year. (intechopen.com)
- Isogenic rats Brown-Norway (BN) and Lewis (LEW) were submitted to intestinal heterotopic allotransplantation and divided in two groups: LEW donor to LEW recipient isograft group (C) and BN donor to LEW recipient allograft group (Tx). (scielo.br)
- We assessed the effects of RLN on graft failure and recipient survival and the risk factors leading to the development of RLN. (asnjournals.org)
- Recipient rats in sham-operated (Wistar), isograft (Wistar to Wistar), and allograft (Sprague-Dawley to Wistar) groups were ventilated with 50% oxygen, whereas rats in the hypercapnia (Sprague-Dawley to Wistar) group were administered 50% oxygen and 8% carbon dioxide for 90 min during reperfusion (n = 8). (asahq.org)
- 6 To what degree recipient mortality and graft loss can be attributed to these risk factors, to the direct toxicity of immunosuppression, or to cumulative effects of infection and rejection is debated. (bmj.com)
- Antibody-mediated rejection of human orthotopic liver allografts. (nih.gov)
- These studies confirm that antibody mediated rejection of the liver occurs and allows for the development of criteria for establishing the diagnosis. (nih.gov)
- The present invention provides compositions and methods for treating or preventing antibody mediated graft rejection and blood typing. (freepatentsonline.com)
- It predisposes to antibody mediated rejection (ABMR), leading to early or late graft loss. (thefreelibrary.com)
- One of explanations for this finding is the development of de novo DSA, which in turn are related to antibody-mediated rejection and poorer graft survival [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Hyperacute and accelerated rejection is antibody-mediated immune response to the allograft. (wikipedia.org)
- The purpose of this study is to find out whether MSC in combination with standard therapy of antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) are more effective in preventing organ deterioration and maintaining kidney function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Antibody mediated rejection is a relatively rare but clinically important complication after HTX, and necessitates combined agressive therapy. (pulsus.com)
- Observations of reduced antibody production and B-cell immunity toward the donor blood group have been confirmed in long-term follow-up. (ovid.com)
Delayed Graft Function3
- Delayed graft function (DGF) of kidney transplants increases risk of rejection. (hindawi.com)
- Marginal and cardiac death donors show higher rates of primary non function and delayed graft function compared to standard criteria donors. (omicsonline.org)
- However, compared to kidneys retrieved from standard donors, ECD and DCD organs show higher rates of primary failure (PNF) and delayed graft function (DGF) [ 3 - 6 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Their renal function is stable 3 months after treatment and surveillance renal biopsies reveal no evidence of rejection. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Renal transplants are successful alternative to dialysis, however ethnical minorities have less access to renal transplantations and higher graft rejections. (majortests.com)
- End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is higher in ethnic groups and half of the patients of the waiting list in the US are ethnic minorities. (majortests.com)
- These ethnic groups are predisposing to renal insufficiency due to other comorbidities, such as diabetes and hypertension (HTN). (majortests.com)
- This gas has renal protective potentia when a kidney graft removed from its donor is supplied with blood again. (astellas.com)
- Data sources and study selection Reports of comparative randomised trials of tacrolimus and ciclosporin identified by searches of Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Renal Group Specialist Register, and conference proceedings. (bmj.com)
- Urinary parameters were analyzed regarding cost-effectiveness, frequency of urinary tract infection and prediction of renal graft function and rejection. (uzh.ch)
- However, in spite of the amelioration in graft and patient survival, the use of CsA is associated with nephrotoxicity, acute rejection was not completely prevented, and in addition its appearance seems to be associated with the occurrence of chronic rejection, which is one of the leading causes of long-term renal allograft failure. (uninet.edu)
- The long-term outcome of graft and patient survival is highly influenced by the occurrence of chronic rejection. (ahajournals.org)
- The dominant pathological features of chronic rejection are persistent perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration, generalized transplant arteriosclerosis characterized by concentric neointimal formation and vascular occlusion, and interstitial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
- This may also cause subsequent platelet aggregation by activating complement response in conjunction with vascular endothelial cells, leading to chronic rejection (CR) and, ultimately, allograft failure ( 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Circulating anti-HLA Abs are also associated with late loss of kidney, heart, lung, and liver grafts, including the development of chronic rejection ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Chronic rejection is not yet fully understood, but it is known that it is associated with alloantibody and cytokine production. (wikipedia.org)
- Kidney failure can be broken down into three groups: acute, chronic, end-stage. (majortests.com)
- 1 4 Major causes of loss are chronic allograft nephropathy and death (most commonly cardiovascular) with a functioning graft. (bmj.com)
- Standard protocols in use typically involve three drug groups each directed to a site in the T-cell activation or proliferation cascade which are central to the rejection process: calcineurin inhibitors (e.g. cyclosporin, tacrolimus), anti-proliferative agents (e.g. azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil) and steroids (prednisolone). (cochrane.org)
- Results: In the 196 patients evaluated, 65 treated episodes of cellular rejection were recorded in 50 patients, with significant reduction on tacrolimus prophylaxis. (pulsus.com)
- Tacrolimus has been shown to be an effective alternative to cyclosporine for the prevention of acute rejection but the two drugs are different in side-effect profile. (koreamed.org)
- In the high-risk situations however, systemic steroids, and other immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin and tacrolimus (FK506) are of proven benefit, both for treatment and prevention of rejection. (ijo.in)
- The relative reduction in graft loss with tacrolimus diminished with higher concentrations of tacrolimus (P = 0.04) but did not vary with ciclosporin formulation (P = 0.97) or ciclosporin concentration (P = 0.38). (bmj.com)
- rejection phenomena may be minimized by optimal matching of MHC antigens and ABO blood groups and ameliorated with immunosuppressants-eg, cyclosporin, tacrolimus, rapamycin Exceptions of TR Corneal transplants, identical twins. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The cornea graft surviving time and the rejection indexes were assessed under splitlamp microscope and photographed. (arvojournals.org)
- Graft rejection is largely mediated by the major histocompatibility antigens, minor antigens and perhaps blood group ABO antigens and some cornea-specific antigens. (ijo.in)
- A total of 47 high-risk keratoplasties were randomly divided into two groups based on the postoperative immunosuppression. (bmj.com)
- We aimed to assess the utility of weekly biopsies during DGF in the setting of currently used immunosuppression and identify variables associated with rejection during DGF. (hindawi.com)
- Under current immunosuppression regimens, rejection during DGF is uncommon and the utility of serial biopsies during DGF is limited. (hindawi.com)
- Therefore, MD as a minimally invasive measurement tool may help to identify the need to immunosuppression adjustment in the early KTx phase before the clinical manifestation of the rejection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Xenotransplantation - the transplant of animal organs into human beings - is a multi-billion dollar business venture built on the anticipated sale of patented techniques and organs, as well as drugs to overcome organ-rejection (1). (iatp.org)
- A multi-billion dollar market is anticipated from the sale of patented techniques and organs, as well as existing and new drugs to overcome organ-rejection (1). (iatp.org)
- It is used with corticosteroids and a mycophenolic acid (other medicines used to prevent organ rejection). (europa.eu)
- It suppresses the activity of 'T cells', immune-system cells that can become involved in organ rejection. (europa.eu)
- This stops them activating the T cells, helping to prevent organ rejection. (europa.eu)
- In two main studies involving 1,209 patients who underwent a kidney transplant, Nulojix was compared with cyclosporine A (another medicine used to prevent organ rejection). (europa.eu)
- The proportion of patients who had an episode of organ rejection within one year was 17% for Nulojix and 7% for cyclosporine A. (europa.eu)
- The proportion of patients with impaired kidney function was 77% in patients on Nulojix and 85% in patients on cyclosporine A. Around 18% of patients on Nulojix had an episode of organ rejection within one year compared with 14% of patients on cyclosporine A. (europa.eu)
- Some potential complications after transplant incorporates diabetes, organ rejection, infections, high blood pressure, and graft coronary artery disease. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
- These immunosuppressive drugs keep the body from either recognizing or assaulting the remote organ by means of different resistant reactions, hindering from organ rejection and encouraging an effective transplant. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
- Besides the pivotal role played by alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of graft rejection, natural killer (NK) cells alloreactivity and their contribution to antiviral defense receive increasing attention. (frontiersin.org)
- All 302 uremic patients with grouping discrepancies carried weak ABO subgroup alleles and 77.48% carried irregular ABO antibodies. (frontiersin.org)
- A major cause for poorer graft survival is donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). (intechopen.com)
- To this aim, blockade of signal 1 or 2 of T-cell activation by the use of biological modifiers such as monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and soluble receptor ligands has proved effective in preventing or delaying graft rejection as well as autoimmune diseases ( 6 - 21 ), in the absence of β-cell toxicity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Accelerated rejection leads to phagocyte and NK cell activation (not of the complement) through their Fc receptors that bind Fc parts of antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
- Better characterization of the ABH polysaccharide antigens has improved diagnostic methods and clinical assessment of blood group antibodies. (ovid.com)
- In fact, it helps preserve the function of the kidney over the long term and is more effective in suppressing antibodies against the kidney, which are important causes of late graft loss. (emory.edu)
- H antigen is located on the 19th chromosome in humans, and has a variety of functions and definitions as follows: Also known as substance H, H antigen is a precursor to each of the ABO blood group antigens, apparently present in all people except those with the Bombay Blood phenotype (see hh blood group) Histocompatibility antigen, a major factor in graft rejection. (wikipedia.org)
- Two major types of alloantigens are blood group antigens and histocompatibility antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- Methods and Results: Murine hearts were heterotopically transplanted using major mismatch combinations for evaluation of acute rejection and class II mismatch combinations for the GAD. (ahajournals.org)
- Standard immunosuppressive therapy consists of initial treatment and maintenance regimes to prevent rejection and short courses of more intensive immunosuppressive therapy to treat episodes of acute rejection. (cochrane.org)
- Importantly, graft rejection mediated by donor-specific Ab is less responsive to conventional immunosuppressive therapy than T cell-mediated acute rejection episodes ( 14 , 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The term "operational tolerance" is used to indicate durable survival of single-donor major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched islet allografts without maintenance immunosuppressive therapy and without rejection or loss of functional islet mass or insulin secretory reserve. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Another study from our group reported rejection-free long-term survivors at 3 months to ≥1 year without any maintenance immunosuppressive therapy after concordant islet xenotransplantation and brief anti-CD3 immunotoxin (IT) and cyclosporine treatment in three of three spontaneously diabetic nonhuman primates ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Additionally, there are complications of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy to control rejection, and there are requirements for retransplantation to offset loss of functional islet mass and insulin secretory reserve that occurs in both early and late follow-up after IPIT ( 1 , 8 9 10 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Research Group. (legacyhealth.org)
- They compared the outcomes to a control group receiving only immunosuppressive therapy. (urotoday.com)
- Thus, timely diagnosis and treatment of rejection occurring during DGF are critical. (hindawi.com)
- However, noninvasive diagnosis of rejection during DGF is difficult and allograft biopsy is the only reliable test to diagnose it. (hindawi.com)
- Delay in rejection diagnosis may be irreversible and lethal. (scielo.br)
- To define method for early diagnosis of rejection based on the presence of interleucin-6 (IL-6) e interferon- g (IFN- g ) from intestinal allograft. (scielo.br)
- The diagnosis of graft rejection is entirely clinical and in its early stages the clinical signs could be subtle. (ijo.in)
- This proposed protocol is a Pilot Study that will evaluate the safety of this outpatient transplant strategy, i.e., establishment of initial mixed chimerism followed by RLI for donor graft rejection, in patients with advanced lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Results Outcome in 34 eyes of 34 patients (21 M;13 F) aged 60 ± 17.7 years (range 9-83 years), who presented after an average duration of 6.6 ± 6.3 days (range 0-30 days) following acute corneal graft rejection, are reported. (nature.com)
- The case records of patients with acute corneal graft rejection diagnosed at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China between April 1995 and March 2000 were analysed. (nature.com)
- The aim of this article is to analyze the different risk factors of "corneal rejection episode" in post-transplant patients at one year of follow-up and in particular to consider the presence of donor blood incompatibility during the first year of post-surgical follow-up. (nih.gov)
- There was a 46% graft failure rate during the first 30 days for primary ABO-I grafts compared with an 11% graft failure rate for primary ABO compatible (ABO-C), crossmatch negative, age, sex and priority-matched control patients (P less than 0.02). (nih.gov)
- However, some patients with KC experience graft rejection-like inflammatory reactions within 2 months (usually in the first week) after DALK. (dovepress.com)
- Graft rejection episodes occurred in 54 eyes of 48 patients. (bmj.com)
- Patients undergoing at least one weekly biopsy during DGF comprised the study group. (hindawi.com)
- Six other/83 patients (7.2%) had Banff-borderline rejection of uncertain clinical significance. (hindawi.com)
- Blood samples from 302 uremic patients with grouping discrepancies and 356 uremic patients with type A blood were analyzed using standard serologic serotyping techniques. (frontiersin.org)
- An amazing group of patients, parents, brothers and sisters (some of who were recruited by The Sickle Cell Society UK) joined our three day digital storytelling workshop and shared their journeys with us. (scinfo.org)
- In addition, its use in patients with DSA has beneficial effect on graft survival. (intechopen.com)
- The development of donor-reactive IgG responses markedly increases the risk of acute rejection in cardiac transplant patients ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Data comparisons were made using paired t test and Fischer exact tests.There were 121 patients who met inclusion criteria-86 in the muscle flap group, and 35 in the fasciocutaneous group and demographics were equal. (stanford.edu)
- We hypothesized that patients with diabetes would have a greater risk of graft immune rejection. (jefferson.edu)
- Novartis already own the rights to Cyclosporine A, the main anti-rejection drug given to transplant patients to suppress the immune system. (iatp.org)
- It's hard for ethnical groups to find a matching HLA donor compared to White patients. (majortests.com)
- Instead of the a third or more of the patients having graft-versus-host disease, only about 15% did - far fewer than expected, and a sign that the medicine may be extremely effective. (natap.org)
- This group has now been expanded to 13 patients, the large majority of whom are insulin-independent at 1 year (Rajotte R, personal communication). (diabetesjournals.org)
- All patients were divided into two groups according to the 2013 New Zealand Deprivation Index (NZDep2013) Score. (auckland.ac.nz)
- None of the engrafted patients had acute sickle-related events, significant toxicity associated with the conditioning regimen, or any evidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD). (aamds.org)
- Lung transplant patients showed no between-group difference at last follow-up. (gu.se)
- Cryopreserved blood vessels are useful for providing grafts to patients who cannot provide their own blood vessel grafts or where fresh blood vessels are unavailable. (google.com)
- Rejection also occurred in 83 (50%) of 167 of the patients with RLN. (asnjournals.org)
- 0.5g/l occurred more often in patients with rejection. (uzh.ch)
- We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the administration of 4 sequential doses (intravenously administered on days 1, 4, 11, and 18) of cryopreserved bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) expanded with platelet lysate and obtained from third-party donors as a second-line treatment for steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host (aGVHD) disease in a series of 25 patients. (jove.com)
- The use of MMF resulted in a significant reduction of biopsy-proven acute rejection from 40.8% in the azathioprine/placebo-treated patients to 19.8% and 16.5% in MMF 2 g/day and MMF 3 g/day-treated patients, respectively. (uninet.edu)
- SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug 10, 2010 - Genentech, Inc., a member of the Roche Group, announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved increasing the length of therapy with Valcyte (valganciclovir hydrochloride) in adult kidney transplant patients at high risk for cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. (drugs.com)
- The most common adverse events occurring in the Valcyte-treated patients (200 day and 100 day groups) were low white blood cell counts (26 percent vs. 38 percent), diarrhea (26 percent vs. 31 percent), and swelling in the extremities (peripheral edema) (21 percent vs. 19 percent). (drugs.com)
- In the BENEFIT study, 666 kidney transplant patients were divided into three groups that received either a more intense belatacept-based regimen (B1), a less intense belatacept-based regimen (B2) or a cyclosporine A-based regimen (CsA). (emory.edu)
- Immediately after transplant, belatacept-treated patients had a higher rate of acute rejection, a temporary flare up of the immune system against the donated kidney. (emory.edu)
- Scientists knew that certain genes controlled the body's acceptance or rejection of tissue transplants, but the precise genes had not been isolated or identified. (encyclopedia.com)
- All groups received additional drugs to inhibit graft rejection (basiliximab, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids) in the weeks immediately after their transplants. (emory.edu)
- This will lead to the development of novel transplant strategies for achieving antitumor effects without the risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Since SCD and B-thalassemia are non-malignant disorders of red cells, severe GVHD, lack of donor erythrocyte (prolonged donor red cell aplasia), or graft rejection is collectively considered transplant failure. (aamds.org)
Endothelial rejection lines2
- Graft rejection was defined as an eye with a previously clear and thin graft, now showing some or all of the following signs: anterior chamber flare and cells, keratic precipitates on corneal endothelium, thickening of the graft, either diffusely or locally, and epithelial or endothelial rejection lines. (nature.com)
- no endothelial rejection lines were observed. (bmj.com)
- Billingham and Medawar found that the skin grafts were essentially accepted regardless of whether the cattle were identical or fraternal. (medscape.com)
- However, skin grafts exchanged between unrelated cattle were always rejected. (medscape.com)
- There was no significant rejection of the transplanted skin grafts. (uchicago.edu)
- It is a strong, independent predictor of graft failure and mortality. (nih.gov)
- In the higher SED group, mortality was 5.6/100 person-years (95% CI: 4.3-7.4/100 person-years) and 5.2/100 person-years (95% CI: 4.3-6.3/100 person-years) in the lower SED group. (auckland.ac.nz)
- The clinical consequences of RLN on patient and allograft survival have ranged from no effect to a significant increase in the risk for graft loss and patient mortality. (asnjournals.org)
- After 84 months, the Kaplan-Meier adjusted mortality rate was 9.2, 8.2 and 14.4 percent for the B1, B2 and CsA groups, respectively. (emory.edu)
- The rate for combined mortality and graft loss was 12.7 percent, 12.8 percent and 21.7 percent. (emory.edu)
- During a mean follow-up period of 19.2 ± 16.7 months (range 1-55 months), further episodes of graft rejection were seen in 1/32 (3%) eyes. (nature.com)
- Previous studies have indicated that prompt treatment and reversal of endothelial rejection episodes are associated with a better anatomical and functional outcome in the corneal graft. (nature.com)
- No intraoperative complications and no episodes of primary graft failure or pupillary block glaucoma occurred in either group. (biomedsearch.com)
- The presence of alloantibodies is associated with more frequent and severe rejection episodes, as well as poorer graft function and survival. (jimmunol.org)
- 95% confidence interval, 1.34 to 6.80) and similar to the calcineurin inhibitor-based group in comparison 2. (asnjournals.org)
- Despite the impact of calcineurin inhibitors on initial outcome, longer term graft survival is little changed. (bmj.com)
- The introduction of new xenobiotics has allowed studying the utility of these new agents in conjunction with calcineurin inhibitors in the prevention of acute rejection. (uninet.edu)
- The range of clinical findings indicative of corneal graft rejection differs in some respects between DSEK and standard PK. (bmj.com)
- The objective of this study is to conduct prospective clinical studies to investigate the impact of generic immunosuppressants on short term acute rejection and long term patient graft survival. (nih.gov)
- The winners will be awarded as the representatives of a research group or project for outstanding scientific and/or clinical achievements. (astellas.com)
- Recent advances in corneal graft technology, including donor tissue retrieval, storage and surgical techniques, have greatly improved the clinical outcome of corneal grafts. (ijo.in)
Early graft failure2
- A similarly high early graft failure rate (60%) was seen for nonprimary ABO-I grafts during the first 30 days. (nih.gov)
- BK polyoma virus (BKPyV) infection can lead to polyoma virus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN) in 1%-10% of RTRs and is an important cause of early graft failure ( 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
- So two groups of mice, one positive control, the other has been treated with something. (mathhelpforum.com)
- so, is there an easy way to show, with some kind of confidence interval (say 5% certain) that treating mice with the stuff she did for the second test decreases the time taken to reject the graft? (mathhelpforum.com)
- Some grafts were performed on HSV-infected CD4 T cell-deficient BALB/c mice. (arvojournals.org)
- Corneal grafts in mice with HSK rejected with higher frequency and more rapid tempo compared with grafts in uninfected mice. (arvojournals.org)
- found that exosome-like vesicles derived from apoptotic endothelial cells stimulated autoantibody production in mice, which increased graft rejection. (sciencemag.org)
- proteasome inhibition decreased both vesicle immunogenicity and graft rejection in transplanted mice. (sciencemag.org)
- In a complicated procedure, he took two inbred lines of laboratory mice that did not accept grafts from each other and repeatedly crossbred them. (encyclopedia.com)
- Years earlier, Gorer had identified a blood protein, which he named Antigen-II, that was related to graft rejection in mice. (encyclopedia.com)
- The hosts (C57BL/6) were separated into three groups and twenty mice in each group. (arvojournals.org)
- Here's another discovery to bolster the case for medical marijuana: New research in mice suggests that THC, the active ingredient in marijuana, may delay the rejection of incompatible organs. (eurekalert.org)
- To make this discovery, Nagarkatti and colleagues used two groups of mice that were genetically different, and transplanted skin from one group to the other. (eurekalert.org)
- All of the mice received incompatible skin, but one group was treated with vehicle (placebo) and the other was treated with THC. (eurekalert.org)
- The scientists observed that the rejection of the skin graft in mice that received THC was delayed when compared to the control group that only received a placebo. (eurekalert.org)
- This study is the first to show that an engineered skin graft can survive long term in wild-type mice with intact immune systems. (uchicago.edu)
- Next, they grafted this lab-grown gene-altered skin onto mice with intact immune systems. (uchicago.edu)
- When the researchers fed normal or gene-altered mice a high-fat diet, both groups rapidly gained weight. (uchicago.edu)
- However, in the absence of preexisting inflammation and vascularization, syngeneic grafts were accepted when the grafts were performed at a late time point after HSV infection (42 days), whereas allografts were rejected at this time. (arvojournals.org)
- T cell-mediated rejection of allografts is initiated by the infiltration and activation of donor Ag-specific effector T cells in the graft. (jimmunol.org)
Effector T cel1
- Here we propose to determine where Tregs that defend a graft and fight effector T cells are made, and how to selectively expand or differentiate Tregs to improve their performance. (rotrf.org)
- In order to understand why rejection occurs and how it may be prevented, it is necessary to know something of the operations of the immune system. (britannica.com)
- This study is being done to learn whether a new method to prevent rejection between the donor immune system and the patient's body is effective. (bioportfolio.com)
- The main step to prevent this internal attack, called graft versus host disease, is giving the patient medicines to suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infection. (natap.org)
- theoretically, no response will be mounted by the host immune system and the new graft will be tolerated without need for any IS. (intechopen.com)
Risk of rejection3
- There is a high risk of rejection of a corneal transplant known as a "rejection episode" in our Hospital conditioned by multiple variables. (nih.gov)
- It is advisable to perform routine blood compatibility to reduce the risk of rejection. (nih.gov)
- Circulating exosome-like vesicles and increased anti-autoantibody titers were also observed in mouse models of vascular injury, suggesting that the same organ failure that necessitates the transplant might increase the risk of rejection. (sciencemag.org)
- DSAs are associated with increased risk for acute rejection and poorer graft survival [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Results: Until the 14th postoperative day, the inflammatory reaction was greater in the biomembrane group than in the conjunctival autograft group. (bireme.br)
- In the latex biomembrane group, inflammation was less intense and the stroma was thicker on the 14th postoperative day than on the 7th postoperative day. (bireme.br)
- Graft function was assessed on postoperative day 5. (ovid.com)
- According to the day of sacrifice, Tx group were subdivided in three subgroups with eight animals each as follow: Tx 3 - sacrificed at third postoperative day (POD), Tx 5 sacrificed at fifth POD and Tx 7 sacrificed at seventh POD. (scielo.br)
- In C group no statistical significant difference regarding the immunoexpression of the cytokines, while in Tx group, immunoexpression of IL-6 and IFN- g were remarkable since the fifth postoperative day. (scielo.br)
- On the other hand, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection constitutes a risk factor directly associated with the rate of graft loss and reduced host survival. (frontiersin.org)
- The dual role of NK cells in the interrelation of HCMV infection with rejection deserves attention. (frontiersin.org)
- The available evidence neither confirmed nor ruled out a reduction of BK polyoma virus infection in mTOR inhibitor-based group in both comparisons. (asnjournals.org)
- Irreversible graft failure occurred in one eye in each group. (nature.com)
- There was no difference in graft loss in both comparisons. (asnjournals.org)
- However, its success is limited due to insufficient number of donors worldwide and graft or patient loss. (intechopen.com)
- Alloimmune (isoimmune) response results in graft rejection, which is manifested as deterioration or complete loss of graft function. (wikipedia.org)
- This study provides the first evidence that operational tolerance can protect MHC nonhuman primate islets from rejection as well as loss of functional islet mass. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss and death were similar. (uzh.ch)
- For adjusted graft loss, the rate was 4.7, 5.4 and 9.8 percent. (emory.edu)
- Elution studies confirmed the presence of tissue-bound, donor-specific isoagglutinins within the grafts. (nih.gov)
- To investigate characteristics of initial immunologic graft rejection after Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). (bmj.com)
- In contrast to standard full-thickness grafts, there were no epithelial immunologic reactions because the epithelium and anterior stroma are not transplanted in DSEK. (bmj.com)
- Immunologic graft rejection is an important post-operative complication after DSEK. (bmj.com)
- If living cells from mouse strain CBA were injected into an adult mouse of strain A, some immunologic process destroyed the CBA cells, and the A-line mouse that received the CBA cells quickly destroyed any subsequent graft from the same donor strain. (medscape.com)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunologic mechanisms underlying accelerated corneal graft rejection using a mouse model of HSK. (arvojournals.org)
- Also, immunologic factors increase the risk of acute rejection in African American because of the HLA polymorphism. (majortests.com)
Reject the graft2
- 14 (51.9%) occurred in-hospital after surgery (from sepsis, rejection, cytomegalovirus disease, or myocardial infarct), and seven (25.9%) occurred after discharge (from rejection and/or recurrent coronary artery disease). (arctichealth.org)
- Although a clear corneal graft in the pupillary area was obtained and best-corrected visual acuity was good after the resolution of inflammation, a risk of corneal astigmatism remained. (dovepress.com)
- Inflammation in eyes that had undergone PK jeopardizes the graft success by disrupting the immune privilege of anterior chamber. (thefreelibrary.com)
- This review set out to assess any benefit or harm in using fish oil to reduce the risk of kidney damage and heart disease in people who have had a kidney transplant and are receiving standard drugs to prevent rejection. (cochrane.org)
- Conclusion: Contemporary immunosuppressive prophylaxis decreases the frequency of cellular rejection, allowing modification of endomyocardial biopsy schedule. (pulsus.com)
Versus host disease1
- Blocking CCR5, Reshef thought, might prevent graft-versus-host disease. (natap.org)
- Rates of rejection, death, and major cardiac events were similar between groups, as was graft function. (gu.se)
- The development of cellular therapies has been seriously hampered by the paucity of cells available for grafting from living or cadaver donors. (asnjournals.org)
- 4 (7%) progressed to graft failure and were successfully regrafted with DSEK. (bmj.com)
- Graft failure occurred in 156 (93%) of those with RLN, 1517 (86%) of those with rejection, and 923 (19%) of control subjects without rejection. (asnjournals.org)
- Despite these advances, immune mediated corneal graft rejection remains the single most important cause of corneal graft failure. (ijo.in)
- Although graft rejection can lead to graft failure, most rejections can be readily controlled if appropriate management is commenced at the proper time. (ijo.in)
- This considerable reduction in rejection or treatment failure was consistent with the results obtained in the American (4) and Tricontinental (5) studies in which MMF was compared with the control drug azathioprine as a component of a triple therapy regimen including CsA and corticosteroids. (uninet.edu)