The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A genus in the mint family (LAMIACEAE).
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
Five individuals derived from five FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.
An increase in the rate of speed.
Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.
Manner or style of walking.
A bony outgrowth on the lower surface of the CALCANEUS. Though often presenting along with plantar fasciitis (FASCIITIS, PLANTAR), they are not considered causally related.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.
Former members of the armed services.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
A supinating wristlock performed from a stand-up position can be used to force the opponent to the ground on his or her back. ... A properly executed lock of this type does not apply torque to the wrist itself. In practice, the bones of the forearm and, ... and allows for the complementary technique of pushing the arm at the elbow or shoulder to force the opponent to the ground. A ... The hand is then grabbed using one or both hands, and the wrist is forced downwards, hence reaching the limit of possible ulnar ...
At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on ... The equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, and the force on each pair of tires becomes: F f = d r ... Also, when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of ... is the force on the front tires, F r {\displaystyle F_{r}} is the force on the rear tires, d r {\displaystyle d_{r}} is the ...
The casing, which is rotated clockwise continuously, penetrates into the ground by the action of a torque and a vertical force ... An Olivier pile is drilled into the ground by the use of drilling rig with a top-type rotary drive with variable rate of ... The rotary head with a maximum torque of 55 ton meter is pulled up and down along an adjustable leader, which is strong enough ... This process continues until the entire casing and the auger head are back on the ground. Research and Development Activities ...
If too much torque is applied to the wheels, the force between the wheels and the ground will exceed the maximum frictional ... and thus reduces the torque applied to the car's wheels. In addition to reducing the torque applied to the wheels, the ... force due to the coefficient of friction between the wheel and ground surfaces. When this happens, the wheels slip and energy ... Then make the drive wheels larger because the higher the diameter of the wheel the more ground it covers. Along with this make ...
... of the ground is pushing up on it at the point of contact with the support. These two opposite forces produce a torque which ... When a force is applied to anything, the object exerts an equal force back but in the opposite direction. Since no actual force ... Torque-free precession implies that no external moment (torque) is applied to the body. In torque-free precession, the angular ... The gravitational tidal forces of the Moon and Sun apply torque to the equator, attempting to pull the equatorial bulge into ...
... only in tension applications like restraining wall tiebacks or vertical ground anchors made to resist overturning forces. Screw ... Rotary hydraulic powerheads with torque capacities ranging from 5,000 Nm to 500,000 Nm are custom fitted using various boom ... Modern screw pile load capacities are in excess of 2,000 kN (220 short tons-force). Large load capacity screw piles may have ... Screwing' the foundations in the ground means that there is less soil displacement so excess soil does not need to be ...
They are zero-energy modes because space is homogeneous (force-free) and isotropic (torque-free). By the definition in this ... which are force constants, are never zero for molecules in their ground state). Thus, T and S correspond to the overall ( ...
In particular, power is the product of a force on an object and the object's velocity, or the product of a torque on a shaft ... The power involved in moving a ground vehicle is the product of the traction force on the wheels and the velocity of the ... Let the input power to a device be a force FA acting on a point that moves with velocity vA and the output power be a force FB ... If the force F is derivable from a potential (conservative), then applying the gradient theorem (and remembering that force is ...
Besides the maximum torque, the pitch angle is additionally upper bounded by the maximum force which can be transmitted from ... the actuators to the ground. Therefore, friction coefficients of all parts involved in force transmission also play a major ... The ball is the core element of a ballbot, it has to transmit and bear all arising forces and withstand mechanical wear caused ... The most fundamental design parameters of a ballbot are its height, mass, its center of gravity and the maximum torque its ...
... cost increases with longer step lengths due to increased ground reaction forces during double-support and more hip torque ... In single support, no work is done since the ground reaction force is perpendicular to the COM motion. In double support, the ... and a wider stance would similarly require increased ground reaction force to redirect the COM, and thus increase the metabolic ... muscle contractions are necessary to generate the ground reaction forces, implying that the metabolic energy expended is ...
... ground reaction forces can be dichotomized into vertical ground reaction forces and horizontal ground reaction forces. In the ... However, in contrast to kinematics, kinetics also takes into account the relationship between motion and the forces and torques ... Ground reaction forces (GRF) are exerted by the ground on the body in contact with it and reflect the body's acceleration. ... During level running at a speed of 3meters per second the vertical ground reaction force reaches a peak of approximately 2.5 ...
An irregular material or angled cut is also likely to apply much more torque to hollow-ground blades due to the "lip" formed on ... Also, any object being cut must be moved aside to make way for this wider blade section, and any force distributed to the grind ... double-ground) or chisel-shaped (single-ground), are ground to 15°-18°. Care should be taken to avoid confusing the grind of ... The Finnish puukko is an example of a Scandinavian-ground knife. Chisel grind - As on a chisel, only one side is ground (often ...
... while the foot is not touching the ground, it should move as fast as possible constant torque/force input (or at least no ... The optimization has to be done for the whole vehicle - ideally the force/torque variation during a rotation should cancel each ... is a mechanical system designed to provide a propulsive force by intermittent frictional contact with the ground. This is in ... TrotBot Linkage Speed Variability as Ground Height Changes Strider Linkage Speed Variability as Ground Height Changes Strider ...
3100 rpm producing 520 foot-pounds force (710 N⋅m) of torque @ 1800 rpm Ground Clearance: 300 mm Track Width: 1760 mm ... Engines: 8.1L VORTEC 8100 V8 with 340 hp (254 kW) @ 4200 rpm producing 455 foot-pounds force (617 N⋅m) of torque @ 3200 rpm 6.6 ...
Unlike the normal force and the force of gravity, these frictional forces will exert a torque on the ball, and change its ... Where the forces act with respect to the centre of mass of the ball changes as the ball rolls on the ground, and all forces can ... Many forces act on a real ball, namely the gravitational force (FG), the drag force due to air resistance (FD), the Magnus ... For a straight drop on the ground with no rotation, with only the force of gravity acting on the ball, the COR can be related ...
These include: Camber thrust Circle of forces Contact patch Cornering force Ground pressure Pacejka's Magic Formula Pneumatic ... trail Radial Force Variation Relaxation length Rolling resistance Self aligning torque Skid Slip angle Slip (vehicle dynamics) ... The tire model must produce realistic shear forces during braking, acceleration, cornering, and combinations, on a range of ... These include: Automobile drag coefficient Automotive aerodynamics Center of pressure Downforce Ground effect in cars Some ...
... force along with joint angle data from a potentiometer to determine the torque required at the specified joint Use both ground ... of full-bridge strain gauges attach to the shin of the exoskeleton and a potentiometer on the knee joint Ground reaction force ... When the subject flexed his/her soleus muscle in order to plantar flex (which allows a person to push off the ground while ... Wearable gait trainers would be useful to travel over ground. This adds the complications involved with starting and stopping a ...
... ground reaction forces, gravitational force on an off-axis center of mass or simply the inertia of an off-axis center of mass ... although a proper distinction between steer torque and steer angle forcing is not always made. Jones, David (1970). "The ... The machine as a whole steers to the right Because the forces in the contact patch are at ground level, this pulls the wheels " ... The actual torque the rider must apply to the handlebars to maintain a steady-state turn is a complex function of bike geometry ...
... when the powerful torque of the single-engined fighter forced him to ground loop after the Mustang veered off the runway. Olds ... Air Force pilots, he reported to the Air Force Chief of Staff, Gen John D. Ryan (a former SAC general and bomber pilot often at ... Bruce Arnold, however, was medically disqualified from being a pilot and entered the Army Ground Forces. The class originally ... Olds went to England under the U.S. Air Force/Royal Air Force Exchange Program in 1948. Flying the Gloster Meteor jet fighter, ...
... force Ground pressure Pacejka's Magic Formula Pneumatic trail Relaxation length Rolling resistance Self aligning torque Slip ... angle Steering ratio Tire balance Tire load sensitivity Tire uniformity Lateral Force Variation Radial Force Variation Traction ... Valve stem Dunlop valve Presta valve Schrader valve Camber thrust Circle of forces Cold inflation pressure Contact patch ... vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground ...
The ability of cockroaches to have ground reaction force distributed equally to these three legs is explained by joint torque ... Females choose the males with which they will mate, so this sexual selection becomes a major pressure and driving force behind ... Cockroaches always have three legs in synchronous contact with the ground during movement. The three legs are classified as the ...
The torque applied to the steering wheel causes a lateral friction force by the wheels on the ground, a force parallel to the ... If a component of this force points to the back of the car, the reaction force of the ground on the car (by Newton's "action/ ... This is the force that drives the car forward and it ultimately comes from the force exerted on the handlebars. In-line skaters ... It harnesses the natural forces of inertia, centrifugal force, gravity, and friction in order to drive the car forward and ...
... that the belief that one's shoes have increased cushioning had no effect on increasing or decreasing ground reaction forces ... Modern running shoes can also increase joint torque at the hip, knee, and ankle, and the authors of the study even suggest that ... The purpose of these "minimalist shoes" is to allow one's feet and legs to feel more subtly the ground, allowing more accurate ... Indeed, since muscles' role is to prepare the locomotor system for the contact with the ground, muscle activity before the ...
... since the grounding was enacted by the Spanish authorities on 9 May, was delivered to the French Air Force on the same day that ... The key scenario being examined by investigators is that the torque calibration parameter data was accidentally wiped on three ... The UK Royal Air Force lifted its suspension on A400M flights on 16 June 2015, followed the next day by the Turkish Air Force ... on the ground, there is no cockpit alert. Gayle, Damien; Feeney, David. "Spanish air force cargo plane crashes near Seville ...
Excessive force can strip threads or make the nuts very difficult to remove. Also, uneven torque between the various lug nuts, ... then the wheel should be lowered to the ground and the criss-cross tightening pattern repeated to modest torque (say few ... Because of this, it is best to use a torque wrench or similar tool to finally tighten the wheel lug nuts to the proper torque ... and then finally repeated to full hand force. Rarely, and more often with large trucks and lorries, insufficient force can lead ...
... is the torque caused by the frictional force that occurs when two objects in contact move. Like all torques, it ... the bike tips forwards due to the frictional torque between the wheel and the ground. When a golf ball hits the ground it ... Ball bearings are an example of an attempt to minimize the friction torque. Friction torque can also be an asset in engineering ... is a rotational force which may be measured in newton metres or pounds-feet. Friction torque can be disruptive in engineering. ...
Test Method for Calibrating a Wheel Force or Torque Transducer Using a Calibration Platform (User Level) E557 - 12(2020) Guide ... Specification for Interchangeable Taper-Ground Joints E677 - 94(2016) Specification for Interchangeable Spherical Ground Joints ... or as Ground Cover E155 - 20 Reference Radiographs for Inspection of Aluminum and Magnesium Castings E159 - 17 Test Method for ... 20 Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines E4-RU-RU - 20 Стандартное практическое руководство по верификации ...
... and torque output of 502 lb⋅ft (681 N⋅m) the transmission has been programmed to shift 50% quicker and to keep the torque ... It is also able to inform the driver of wheels which do not have contact with the ground. Dynamic Response incorporates ... the pneumatic valves are opened and the adjacent wheel is forced down, simulating the action of a live axle setup. Land Rover's ... Positive Torque, a system standard on all TDV8 and Supercharged models, electronically blips the throttle, resulting in faster ...
... the resulting engine torque and p-factor force produced a sudden uncontrollable yawing roll, and the aircraft would flip over ... Herbert Hatch saw two IAR 81Cs that he misidentified as Focke-Wulf Fw 190s hit the ground after taking fire from his guns, and ... Ross is a decorated World War II pilot who flew 96 missions for the U.S. Army Air Forces under the U.S. 8th Air Force's 7th ... ISBN 1-56311-574-3. Hearn, Chester G. Air Force: An Illustrated History: The U.S. Air Force from 1907 to the 21st Century. ...
Force sensor, Force/Torque sensor, stereo vision, INS Prevention of collision with men or objects by using 3-dimensional space ... from ground to eyesight Hand Payload: 1 kg Equipped Sensors: IR sensors, Scanning laser range finder, ... perception sensors Large working (including the ground) area by using diverse and multiple joints like waist and knee Balance ...
... no extra torque) and 2:1, providing 100% more hill climbing force. The low gear incorporates an automatic "hill hold" function ... Engineering modifications have added hand-controlled levers to the LFC, to enable users to move the chair over uneven ground ... where the propulsive force is provided either by the wheelchair user/occupant pushing the wheelchair by hand ("self-propelled ... who adversely affected by sheer forces (reclining causes the body to slide slightly every time), or who need to keep a ...
Lorentz-force-based MEMS sensor[edit]. This type of sensor relies on the mechanical motion of the MEMS structure due to the ... Torque sensor. *Transmission fluid temperature sensor. *Turbine speed sensor. *Variable reluctance sensor ... Lorentz force applying at the U-shape beam will change the resonant frequency of the beam and thereby change the frequency ... Lorentz force generated by the external magnetic field results in the change of capacitor array. The reported sensitivity is ...
A Lorentz force velocimetry system is called Lorentz force flowmeter (LFF). An LFF measures the integrated or bulk Lorentz ... Torque sensor. *Transmission fluid temperature sensor. *Turbine speed sensor. *Variable reluctance sensor ... h) Mass flowmeter (Coriolis force).. Flow measurement methods other than positive-displacement flowmeters rely on forces ... The fluid is forced out of the meter as the gear teeth mesh and reduce the available pockets to nearly zero volume. ...
It relates the acceleration of a body to the applied force via Newton's law, F = m × a: force equals mass times acceleration. ... The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a suspended magnet of known mass by the Earth's magnetic field ... 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the ... Ohm's law: 1 Ω = 1 V/A from the relationship E = I × R, where E is electromotive force or voltage (unit: volt), I is current ( ...
The Diesel super stock tractors generate close to 5000 hp and 6000 ft-lbs of torque and are allowed to compete in the Open ... The ground patch is not to exceed 19 inches on original tread.[1] ... synthetically creating a gain in weight until the tractor is no longer able to overcome the force of friction.[3] Most sleds ... The Super Stock Open machines can generate over 6,000 horsepower an 4000 ft-lbs of torque, with billet or re-cast engine blocks ...
... made available to police forces across the country.[9] In 1979, Lion Laboratories' version of the breathalyser, known as the ... Torque sensor. *Transmission fluid temperature sensor. *Turbine speed sensor. *Variable reluctance sensor ...
During the time the injury had not properly healed, it hindered his ability to generate torque from his front shoulder that ... The enormous ground coverage makes up for what would be considered a slightly below average arm among right fielders.[64] ... Heyward reached on a bunt force out and moved to second on an errant throw. He scored the go-ahead run on a Javier Baez single ... What Jason needs to realize is that Jason at 80 percent is a force, and Jason at 80 percent is better than a lot of people in ...
Propellers use the fins to translate torquing force to lateral thrust, thus propelling an aircraft or ship. Turbines work in ... UCTV interview Clack, Jennifer A (2012) "From fins to feet" Chapter 6, pages 187-260, in: Gaining Ground, Second Edition: The ... Researchers can directly measure forces, which is not easy to do in live fish. "Robotic devices also facilitate three- ... reverse, using the lift of the blades to generate torque and power from moving gases or water. Moving fins can provide thrust ...
In this arrangement, one side of the motor housing is supported by plain bearings riding on a ground and polished journal that ... Surface and elevated rapid transit systems generally used steam until forced to convert by ordinance. ... its purpose being to act as a torque reaction device, as well as a support. Power transfer from motor to axle is effected by ... above ground level. There were multiple pickups on both sides of the locomotive in order to accommodate the breaks in the third ...
Interdigital comb electrodes were used to produce in-plane forces and to detect in-plane movement capacitively. This MEMS ... Torque sensor. *Transmission fluid temperature sensor. *Turbine speed sensor. *Variable reluctance sensor ... with sensitivity to normal and shear forces.[11] TiN, on the other hand, exhibits a high electrical conductivity and large ... forces produced by ambient electromagnetism (e.g., electrostatic charges and magnetic moments), and fluid dynamics (e.g., ...
Air Force, and on March 15, 1962, he was selected by the U.S. Air Force as one of seven pilot-engineers who would fly the X-20 ... Armstrong said he was curious to see what it looked like from the ground, as he had seen it only from the Moon.[175] He did not ... due to the torque it created. They made a slow, circling descent from 30,000 ft (9 km) using only the number-two engine, and ... Armstrong was forced to bail out. After the war, he completed his bachelor's degree at Purdue and became a test pilot at the ...
Propellers use the fins to translate torquing force to lateral thrust, thus propelling an aircraft or ship.[5] Turbines work in ... "From fins to feet" Chapter 6, pages 187-260, in: Gaining Ground, Second Edition: The Origin and Evolution of Tetrapods, ... Researchers can directly measure forces, which is not easy to do in live fish. "Robotic devices also facilitate three- ... reverse, using the lift of the blades to generate torque and power from moving gases or water.[6] ...
Another common technique is a mechanical splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. ... Electrical insulator: Optical fibers do not conduct electricity, preventing problems with ground loops and conduction of ... Extrinsic sensors measure vibration, rotation, displacement, velocity, acceleration, torque, and twisting. A solid state ... An outer secondary coating protects the primary coating against mechanical damage and acts as a barrier to lateral forces, and ...
The backwardacting force of pressure exerted on the front surface is thus larger than the force of pressure acting on the back ... Visible light, which occupies a middle ground in frequency, can easily be shown in experiments to be describable using either a ... motion caused by torque (though not enough for full rotation against friction) is directly caused by light pressure.[26] As a ... Hence, as the resultant of the two forces, there remains a force that counteracts the motion of the plate and that increases ...
... detailed images created by generating strong magnetic fields that may induce potentially harmful displacement force and torque ... Poor grounding of the EEG electrodes can cause significant 50 or 60 Hz artifact, depending on the local power system's ... In 2009 Uncle Milton Industries partnered with NeuroSky to release the Star Wars Force Trainer, a game designed to create the ... In most clinical applications, 19 recording electrodes (plus ground and system reference) are used.[53] A smaller number of ...
In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor torques are mechanically coupled at the pedal or one of the wheels, e.g. using a ... A box shaped car or truck has to exert more force to move through the air causing more stress on the engine making it work ... Level one charging is the slower method as it uses a 120 V/15 A single-phase grounded outlet. Level two is a faster method; ... which delivers all of the torque required. They are commercially available, being simple in theory and manufacturing.[2] ...
Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters. *In the Land of Women ... Torque. *The Big Bounce. *Starsky & Hutch. *Spartan. *NASCAR 3D: The IMAX Experience ...
Torque sensor. *Transmission fluid temperature sensor. *Turbine speed sensor. *Variable reluctance sensor ... Force, density, level. *Bhangmeter. *Force gauge. *Hydrometer. *Level sensor. *Load cell. *Magnetic level gauge ...
The 2002 model-year WS6 Trans Am produced 310 hp (231 kW) at 5,200 rpm and 340 lb⋅ft (461 N⋅m) of torque at 4,000 rpm out of ... During the 1995, 1996, and 1997 NHRA seasons, 14-time funny car champion John Force used a Firebird body to replace the ... The 480737 code cam (identical grind to the RAIV "041" cam) was originally specified for the SD455 engine and was fitted into ... The optional package boosted rated horsepower from 285 to 305, and torque from 325 lb·ft to 335. Also included were 17x9-wheels ...
An applied force may be a tensile (pulling) force, a compressive (pushing) force, or a shear, bending or torsion (twisting) ... The result is that mining activities are expanding, and more and more of the world's metal stocks are above ground in use, ... Metal alloys can be engineered to have high resistance to shear, torque and deformation. However the same metal can also be ... Broadly, the forces holding an individual atom's outer shell electrons in place are weaker than the attractive forces on the ...
Mazda's new MZR 2.5L I4 replaced the 2.3L, boosting horsepower to 171 bhp (128 kW; 173 PS) and 171 lb⋅ft (232 N⋅m) of torque at ... Ford Motor Company - Press Release - Ford Motor Company And Southern California Edison Join Forces To Advance A New ... slightly increasing ground clearance and improving traction over the standard 16" wheels and tires. Another new feature is ... This system allowed the front wheels to receive 100% of the torque until a slip was detected. Using a Rotary Blade Coupling, ...
... and the Song forces only 3,000 men on 120 warships,[39] the Song dynasty forces were victorious in both battles due to the ... gear that was used in this navigational vehicle is now found in modern automobiles in order to apply an equal amount of torque ... official was able to display his awarded status by wearing different-coloured traditional silken robes that hung to the ground ... the Song forces were ordered by Chancellor Jia Sidao to make an immediate assault and succeeded in pushing the Mongol forces ...
The ground-control samples were all uninucleate. Newts[edit]. At least two of the four adult newts died on the voyage. The ... This was also the 1st flight of the payload bay door torque box modification on Columbia and the 1st flight of new OI-6 main ... Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Military Application of ... Michael Wiederhold, a scientist on the ground. At the time it was said it would be difficult to remove the newt from the tank ...
Torque sensor. *Transmission fluid temperature sensor. *Turbine speed sensor. *Variable reluctance sensor ... Force, density, level. *Bhangmeter. *Force gauge. *Hydrometer. *Level sensor. *Load cell. *Magnetic level gauge ...
... a non-linear relation between actuation force and brake force.. Types of rim brakes[edit]. The following are among the many sub ... The torque moment must be transmitted to the tyre through the wheel components: flanges, spokes, nipples, and rim spoke bed. An ... Because rims can carry debris from the ground to the brake pads, rim brakes are more prone to clogging with mud or snow than ... As the top of each arm moves outward, the brake shoe below the pivot is forced inward against the rim.[20][21] There is much in ...
U.S. Air Force. 15 October 1944. Retrieved 4 August 2014.. *^ May, Joseph (8 January 2013). "Flagship Knoxville - an American ... Longwave in particular had good long-distance transmission characteristics due to their limited interaction with the ground, ... Torque sensor. *Transmission fluid temperature sensor. *Turbine speed sensor. *Variable reluctance sensor ... Development was limited until the mid-1930s, when the various British forces began widespread development and deployment of ...
An example of static friction is the force that prevents a car wheel from slipping as it rolls on the ground. Even though the ... Friction torque. References. *^ a b c Hanaor, D.; Gan, Y.; Einav, I. (2016). "Static friction at fractal interfaces" (PDF). ... Arrows are vectors indicating directions and magnitudes of forces. N is the normal force, mg is the force of gravity, and Ff is ... The static friction force must be overcome by an applied force before an object can move. The maximum possible friction force ...
Torque. Twisting force.. Torsional vibration. .. Toughness. .. Trajectory. .. Transducer. .. Transformer. .. Trigonometric ... Central force motion. .. Central limit theorem. .. Central processing unit. .. Centripetal acceleration. .. Centripetal force. ... Tensile force. Pulling force, tending to lengthen an object.. Tensile modulus. .. Tensile strength. .. Tensile testing. .. ... van der Waals force. .. van 't Hoff equation. .. van 't Hoff factor. .. Variable capacitor. .. Variable resistor. .. Vector ...
Kellis E, Arambatzi F, Papadopoulos C (October 2005). "Effects of load on ground reaction force and lower limb kinematics ... "Effect of knee position on hip and knee torques during the barbell squat" (PDF). Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research ... though the forces on the ACL and PCL decrease at high flexion, compressive forces on the menisci and articular cartilages in ... Split squat - an assisted one-legged squat where the non-lifting leg is rested on the ground a few 'steps' behind the lifter, ...
This machine provides you increased power, incorporates a new shifting strategy and a lockup clutch torque converter that ... High capacity torque converter results in greater digging efficiency.. *Z-bar linkage provides high breakout force at ground ... Breakout Force. 44075.0 196.0 kN. More Less Static Tipping Load - Full 37° Turn - No Tire Deflection. 38396.0 lb 17421.0 kg. ... Peak Gross Torque - 1,200 rpm - ISO 14396. 1261.0 ft·lbf 1710.0 N·m. More Less ...
On the ground, all torque forces are countered by the wheels.. Gyroscopic effect. The weight of the fast-turning prop creates a ... Note that this force is about the ROLL axis - the torque forces do not by themselves TURN or yaw the plane as do the previous ... Torque. Our props have a certain amount of drag - and the torque (twisting force) the engine exerts on the air is, in opposite ... people just need to understand the forces at work and torque is but one of them. Scens post about the other forces affecting ...
Joint Torque and Mechanical Power of Lower Extremity and Its Relevance to Hamstring Strain during Sprint Running.(Research ... contact torque; MDT: motion-dependent torque. Caption: FIGURE 3: Force diagram of human bodys initial contact with the ground ... contact torques (EXF) generated by ground reaction force (GRF), and gravitational torques (GRA) [7, 25, 26]. Based on the above ... The external and motion-dependent forces (e.g., inertial forces, Coriolis force, and concentric force) that acted on each ...
The model was based on the ground reaction force (GRF). It is much simpler to measure the GRF by using a force sensor installed ... The assistive torque from a pneumatic was presented in the work by Ferris et al. [47,53]. An EMG-force model was used to ... On the other hand, the ground reaction force (GRF) and the ground contact are kinds of user interactions with the environment ... The EMG-force model was used to estimate the upcoming muscle force. The EMG-force model parameter was calibrated in real time ...
... flexion torque at the knee joint is necessary to endure the vertical ground reaction force. Due to the two-jointed muscle, HA, ... and manually developed ground reaction force sensor to measure the joint angles and ground reaction forces, respectively. To ... muscle force [18], (. ) joint moment [14], (. ) ligament force, (. ) joint contact force, (. ) instantaneous muscle power [20 ... is the exerted muscular force and is the maximum isometric force. The first constraint in (9) represents the force capability ...
... joint kinematics and external forces), such optimization approaches are expected to result in low-dimensional synergistic ... joint kinematics and external forces), such optimization approaches are expected to result in low-dimensional synergistic ... ext referring to the experimentally measured ground reaction forces and torques. Joint reaction torques were input to a static ... the generalized external forces are the ground reaction forces and moments. Fmt denotes the vector of musculotendon forces and ...
Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected in synchrony with ground reaction force data from an instrumented ... 54% increase in the hip internal rotation torque - 36% increase in knee flexion torque - 38% increase in knee varus torque were ... Release The Abnormal Internal Compressive Force Joint Play Release * 61. Increase Depth Of Loading Of Forces Into The Human ... so do those maximums eccentric force increase whereas the maximum concentric force decreases even though the corresponding EMG ...
Pilotless aircraft came into their own in the Afghan conflict, greatly reducing casualties in US Air Force and ground troops on ... reducing casualties in US Air Force and ground troops on both reconnaissance and. attack missions. But todays uninhabited ...
Lee, S.H., & Goswami, A. (2010). Ground reaction force control at each foot: A momentum-based humanoid balance controller for ... They have important benefits but to the best of our knowledge have never been implemented on a torque controlled humanoid where ... Ott, C., Roa, M.A., & Hirzinger, G. (2011) Posture and balance control for biped robots based on contact force optimization. In ... Stephens, B.J., & Atkeson, C.G. (2010). Dynamic balance force control for compliant humanoid robots. In IEEE/RSJ international ...
Application of a force-torque component to the loadable means results in the alteration of the distance traveled by a signal ... The apparatus further includes a means for utilizing the detected signals to determine force-torque components. ... a plurality of signal-detection means and a deformable means which is deformable in response to the application of force-torque ... An apparatus and process for detecting and quantifying force-torque components applied to a loadable means. The apparatus ...
... to measure force (kg). Two studies measured the ground force (N) from a force-plate during isometric squat movement [35], [37] ... Two studies used strain-gauge to measure peak torque during a sprint cycling performance [46], [55]. ... Maximal voluntary force generating capacity may be the most relevant marker of muscle damage [70], [71]. This was a popular ... The symptoms of EIMD manifest as a temporary reduction in muscle force [17]-[19], disturbed joint position sense [20]-[22] and ...
Horsepower vs Torque When guys look for cars, the questions would not be how fuel efficient a car is or how cheap it costs. We ... Torque is the amount of force that your car can exert on the ground. This is stated in ft-lbs since it would be diminished by ... torque = force x distance which results to a unit of lb-ft.. ft.lbs = lb.ft.. It just depends on your accepted practice on how ... Difference Between HorsePower and Torque. • Categorized under Industrial,Technology , Difference Between HorsePower and Torque ...
Experience impressive torque and acceleration. crafted in California. ... Revolutionary Z-Force® Motor. Thrilling acceleration with 95 Nm torque The motor in the Zero FX is configured to produce ... Zero Motorcycles designed the Z-Force® motor from the ground up to be compact, efficient and powerful. Completely air-cooled, ... Game Changing Z-Force® Power Pack. A fully modular system The Zero FX features a fully modular power pack system. With slots ...
Revolutionary Z-Force® Motor. Thrilling acceleration with 106 Nm torque The motor in the Zero FXS is configured to produce ... Zero Motorcycles designed the Z-Force® motor from the ground up to be compact, efficient and powerful. Completely air-cooled, ... Instant torque with a twist Featuring a clutchless direct drive, the Zero FXS is geared for rapid acceleration and maximum ... Game Changing Z-Force® Power Pack. The Zero FXS features advanced cell chemistry and battery management systems that provide ...
... net torque. Please Help!! I have two problems for homework that I just cant seem to figure out. Can someone please help me?! ... Determine the normal force exerted by the ground on (a) the front wheel and on (b) each of the two rear wheels.. 2) A CD has a ... Related Threads for: Force & net torque. Please Help Force & net torque problem. Please help! ... Force & net torque. Please Help!!. I have two problems for homework that I just cant seem to figure out. Can someone please ...
Despite the large changes in direction and ground reaction forces necessary to maneuver, large changes in joint torques were ... torque about the X segment axis (axial rotation). Ty. torque about the Y segment axis(flexion/extension). Tz. torque about the ... Ty represents flexion/extension torque, Tz varus/valgus torque, and Tx rotational torque about the segment axis. Torque impulse ... As predicted, measured acceleration/braking forces were small in magnitude relative to vertical forces and the forces parallel ...
There is a static frictional force between the spool and the ground that keeps the spool from slipping. Without this force the ... I see...though you wrote the net torque as a difference between the applied torque and the frictional force in the first line ( ... where f is the friction force between the spool and the ground.. The non-slip condition gives. [tex]\ddot{x}=R\alpha.\hspace ... Similar Discussions: Torque, spool and string * Unwinding a string around a spool, what is the angular acceleration? (Replies: ...
Lastly, the velocity, torque, and ground reaction forces are high. The sport often requires high speed flipping or rotation ... ground reaction forces and more, can be lower because of so many situation options. As well, skills are learned when they are ... at the time of impact with the ground or matting. Therefore, if the alignment is not perfect, joints take forces that the ... The knee then gets torqued, taking most of the stress when the femur and tibia rotate in opposite directions, or one rotates on ...
... knee and hip torques of the leading leg were calculated using a bottom up inverse dynamics approach from ground reaction forces ... Joint torques were parameterized at heel strike. Slip trials were classified as falls if the hip centers fell 5%below the local ...
For the limbs to apply fore-aft forces to the ground, the extrinsic limb muscles must exert torques on the limbs. When these ... For the limbs to apply fore-aft forces to the ground, the extrinsic limb muscles must exert torques on the limbs. When these ... torques on the limbs that results in rearward-directed forces on the ground when running uphill and forward-directed forces ... they must exert equal and opposite torques on the trunk (Gray, 1968). Fore-aft ground reaction forces will induce moments on ...
"When you put so much force and so much torque in the ground, eventually something has to give. When youre on turf, its going ...
Torque wrenches shall be used wherever bolts that depend on torsionally applied force are used for ground support.. ... Suitable protection shall be provided for employees exposed to the hazard of loose ground while installing ground support ... Competent persons conducting such inspections shall be protected from loose ground by location, ground support or equivalent ... A record of all air quality tests shall be maintained above ground at the worksite and be made available to the Secretary of ...
The lead foots contacts the ground, the pelvis and trunk rotate, and elbow torque transfers valgus force across the elbow joint ... Varus torque forces during this phase act to resist the valgus extension "overload" phenomenon and can contribute to posterior ... One should be familiar with the stages of throwing to understand the complexities of the biomechanical forces that contribute ... During this phase, medial tension and lateral compression forces are applied to the elbow. ...
A supinating wristlock performed from a stand-up position can be used to force the opponent to the ground on his or her back. ... A properly executed lock of this type does not apply torque to the wrist itself. In practice, the bones of the forearm and, ... and allows for the complementary technique of pushing the arm at the elbow or shoulder to force the opponent to the ground. A ... The hand is then grabbed using one or both hands, and the wrist is forced downwards, hence reaching the limit of possible ulnar ...
Force Magnitude (Peak and Mean Force). Force magnitude refers to joint torques as well as ground reaction forces (GRF) during ... Rate of Force Development (Peak and Mean Force). Rate of force development refers to the rate at which a joint torque or the ... the range of motion at a joint will change as will the associated muscular forces and torques. Such information can be gathered ... resulting in either a decrease in force (fatigue) or an increase in force (PAP). Indeed, both fatigue and PAP are proposed to ...
Friction torque is the torque caused by the frictional force that occurs when two objects in contact move. Like all torques, it ... the bike tips forwards due to the frictional torque between the wheel and the ground. When a golf ball hits the ground it ... Ball bearings are an example of an attempt to minimize the friction torque. Friction torque can also be an asset in engineering ... is a rotational force which may be measured in newton metres or pounds-feet. Friction torque can be disruptive in engineering. ...
Proposal and Implementation of Non-grounded Translational Force and Torque Display Using Two Vibration Speakers ... Substituted Force Feedback Using Palm Pressurization for a Handheld Controller Taku Nakamura, Shota Nemoto, Takumi Ito, Akio ... Relationship Between Force Sensation and Stimulation Parameters in Tendon Electrical Stimulation Akifumi Takahashi, Kenta ... Object Manipulation by Hand with Force Feedback Shunsuke Fujioka, Takao Uchiyama, Kazuyoshi Tagawa, Koichi Hirota, Takusya ...
From recorded torque, motion capture, and ground reaction force data, hip RTD and frontal plane hip and knee biomechanics were ... However, as the time to generate peak torque exceeds the time during which frontal plane motion occurs during movement tasks, ... The Influence of Hip Abduction, Extension, and External Rotation Rate of Torque Development on Frontal-Plane Biomechanics ... the capacity to rapidly develop torque may be more closely related to frontal plane biomechanics. Therefore, the objective of ...
... and express the knee torque as a function of the kinematical data and the external, ground reaction forces: The segment ... Text fields to the left capture the vertical and the horizontal components of the ground reaction force, the knee torque in the ... The ground reaction forces have been estimated using the force platform. The parameters required for the optimization are also ... where the ground reaction force acts. This change results with the alteration of the knee joint torque that is required [8, 9] ...
... the number of foot-pounds of torque that it puts out. ... the tire results in less force being applied to the ground ... Hmm,,interesting article about the torque.I guess greater the torque ,lesser the force you need to use to complete the task. ... Sorry people, you are mixing units left and right, confusing power with force or torque. For acceleration it is the torque AT ... Torque comes on first because it is the instant twisting force. Horsepower is built as you get going and things like momentum ...
  • Specifically, during the stance phase, the large ground reaction force (GRF) generates contact torques simultaneously on lower extremity joints. (
  • In this study, we adopted the intersegmental dynamics approach to break down the net joint torque (NET) of a gait during maximum-velocity sprint running into the MUS, MDT generated by movement, contact torques (EXF) generated by ground reaction force (GRF), and gravitational torques (GRA) [7, 25, 26]. (
  • The proposed sensor system consisted of the four inertial measurement units (IMUs) and manually developed ground reaction force sensor to measure the joint angles and ground reaction forces, respectively. (
  • Moreover, body roll and ab/adduction of the leg shifted the foot position away from the turn direction, reducing the acceleratory/braking forces required to prevent under- or over-rotation and aligning the leg with the ground reaction force. (
  • From recorded torque, motion capture, and ground reaction force data, hip RTD and frontal plane hip and knee biomechanics were calculated. (
  • He and his team looked through the scientific literature for data on normal walking, and found a complete dataset that represented one person's gait, including the angle of their joints, the weight of each leg segment, and the ground reaction force - the force between the ground and the foot - during a single step, or gait cycle. (
  • The altered geometry results with the difference in the distance between the knee joint and the point (COP) where the ground reaction force acts. (
  • When you run on the ground, the ground pushes back-this is known as the ground reaction force. (
  • Ground reaction force and moments were acquired simultaneously using two AMTI forces platforms. (
  • The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. (
  • Force vector J stands for the joint reaction force which is exerted by the bones forming joints with the current segment. (
  • In other words, F is the sum of both the muscle force and the joint reaction force. (
  • Ground reaction force and kinematic data during ECC and HSR were collected from 18 healthy participants for four loading conditions. (
  • This machine provides you increased power, incorporates a new shifting strategy and a lockup clutch torque converter that delivers smoother shifts, faster acceleration and increased travel speed when climbing a grade. (
  • Hence, we suggest that the oblique hypaxial muscles of trotting dogs act to stabilize the trunk against sagittal shearing torques induced by limb retraction (fore-aft acceleration) and protraction (fore-aft deceleration). (
  • Although ostriches did use acceleration or braking forces to control body rotation, their morphology allowed for both crossovers and sidesteps to be accomplished with minimal net acceleratory/braking force production. (
  • A post on how engine torque relates to the acceleration of a car is really missing something if you fail the mention the gear ratio . (
  • I've hear car and motorcycle enthusiasts use "engine torque" as a shorthand for how much acceleration is on tap without downshifting to change the gear ratio. (
  • static optimization and induced acceleration analysis were used to determine muscle forces and their induced accelerations, respectively. (
  • The gluteus maximus generated the largest force (2009.07 ± 277.31 N) and was a main contributor to forward acceleration of the center of mass (COM) (0.62 ± 0.18 m/s 2 ), while the quadriceps opposed it. (
  • It was found that the simplified model correlates with the experimental results, where the relation between the wheel torque distribution of front/rear axles and the yaw torque generated by tyre lateral forces are highly dependent on the vehicle lateral acceleration and drive torque request. (
  • So, just what is it that best determines a car's acceleration performance - power or torque? (
  • Free-body diagram of the stride-average forces acting on a generic quadruped of unvarying body geometry, assuming acceleration/deceleration are powered predominantly by limb torques. (
  • The maximum net nose-up ( a , b ) or tail-up ( c ) pitching acceleration is determined by constraining the total ground force vector (dotted line) to be at the mean (mid-stance) hind ( a , b ) or fore ( c ) foot position and assuming that geometry is largely constant. (
  • Featuring Zero Motorcycles' completely new Z-Force™ motor and high-voltage power system, the Zero S delivers instant acceleration that is both impressive and incredibly smooth. (
  • In each step, there is an initial deceleration phase, where the muscles and tendons absorb the impact forces, followed later by an acceleration phase, as the legs push off into the next step. (
  • Forces mass times acceleration. (
  • If you applied healthy levels of torque to a much lighter limb, your kinematics would get all screwed up," Winter says. (
  • Interlimb muscle force differences were observed, demonstrating lower limb symmetry cannot be assumed during this task, even in healthy adults. (
  • To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. (
  • Likely associated with the fore-aft force adaptations to lameness are changes in muscle recruitment that potentially result in short- and long-term effects on the limb and trunk muscles. (
  • The dynamic parameters of the robot assisted human gait such as joint angle trajectories, ground contact force (GCF), human limb joint torques and robot induced torques at different levels of BWS were derived. (
  • The linear relationship between dynamic torques at each joint has been demonstrated for multijoint upper limb movements. (
  • Angular displacements and dynamic torques produced at each of the three lower limb joints (hip, knee and ankle) were calculated from segmental position data recorded during each trial. (
  • Our results support the idea that the control of leg swing during gait is simplified in two ways: (1) the pattern of dynamic torque at each lower limb joint is produced by appropriately scaling a single motor command and (2) the magnitude of dynamic torque at all three joints can be specified with knowledge of the magnitude of torque at a single joint. (
  • Magnitude and direction of the net force on a particle. (
  • Force magnitude refers to joint torques as well as ground reaction forces (GRF) during the movement. (
  • 2. The lower extremity exoskeleton of claim 1 wherein the magnitude of said second unidirectional torque is generally smaller than the magnitude of said first unidirectional torque. (
  • This expectency varies between individual parts based on the location, direction and magnitude of the forces acting on the part and also the geometery and material compositon of the part. (
  • Vector lengths relate to direction and magnitude of the forces at equal time intervals during the stance [ground contact phase]. (
  • Increases in walking speed were associated with increases in the range of motion and magnitude of torque at each joint although the ratio describing the relative magnitude of torque at each joint remained constant. (
  • Walking speed could therefore be altered by modifying a single value related to the magnitude of torque at one joint. (
  • The magnitude of the buoyant force increases with increasing temperature, due to the corresponding increase in the average molecular velocities. (
  • Using the paper's results, the group has built a prototype of a prosthetic knee that generates a torque profile similar to that of able-bodied knees, using only simple mechanical elements like springs and dampers. (
  • Propulsion is the force that the cyclist generates from the muscles by transmitting torque to the crank. (
  • The new unit is 93% more powerful, generates 62% more torque and yields 20% greater city range compared to the old one. (
  • The 2013 Zero S is 93% more powerful, generates 62% more torque and yields 20% greater city range. (
  • The inflatable actuator generates assistive plantarflexion torque when pressurized by bending on top of the boot. (
  • They have important benefits but to the best of our knowledge have never been implemented on a torque controlled humanoid where model inaccuracies, sensor noise and real-time computation requirements can be problematic. (
  • 3. A sensor in accordance with claim 1 wherein (g) is comprised of an electronic circuitry means for determining the transit time of each of said signals and for using said signal transit times to determine said plurality of force-torque components. (
  • The SX-4462 Hall Effect Magnetic Non-Contact Torque Sensor from TT Electronics enables secure, tactile steering control that is unaffected by vibration, contamination or wear factors. (
  • Axia80 Force/Torque Sensor comes with silicon strain gauges. (
  • Capable of measuring all six components of force and torque, sensor can be directly connected with robot controller. (
  • Suitable for robotic assembly, grinding, and polishing applications, sensor communicates through EtherCAT or Ethernet. (
  • In machine tending, a force torque sensor can help a robot locate jig stops when placing a part in a vice on a CNC machine. (
  • Stern says electronics assembly is driving a lot of demand for ATI's newest force torque sensor, the Axia80 . (
  • Demo of DENSO robot, RC8 controller, and ATI IA force torque sensor. (
  • The DAQ-F/T system allows the transduced to connect to an analogue data acquisition (DAQ) card making it easy to read sensor data from a PC or robot controller ans software is provided which converts the strain gauge data into force/torque data. (
  • The type Nano-17, at just 17mm diameter, is the smallest F/T sensor in the ATI range and has application in dental research, robotic hand research, robotic surgery and finger force research. (
  • Temperature-compensated and constructed of all aluminum, this torque/thrust sensor is able to achieve an impressive 0.2% nonlinearity and yet provide 150% (50 to 150 lb) 125% ((200 lb) over-capacity. (
  • The MBA500 Torque and Thrust Biaxial Sensor offers an excellent solution for measuring Loads in tension and compression as well as torque in a clockwise and counterclockwise direction. (
  • e.g., inertia, Coriolis, and centrifugal forces) will be generated and acted upon each segment when lower extremity joints rapidly alternate between flexion and extension during the swing phase [9]. (
  • Ground reaction forces and three-dimensional kinematics of the body and leg joints were simultaneously recorded, allowing calculation of joint angles and quasi-static net joint torques. (
  • Ostriches executed maneuvers using a simple control strategy that required minimal changes to leg kinematics or net torque production at individual joints. (
  • Therefore, if the alignment is not perfect, joints take forces that the ligaments are not intended to withstand. (
  • Based on torque calculations, we show that load sensors (campaniform sensilla) at the proximal leg joints are well suited to encode the unloading of the leg in individual steps. (
  • Decker's design uses a combination of fabric tensions to push and pull on the knee joints to create a "kinetic chain" of pressure, a setup that the company has dubbed Torque Reforming Systems. (
  • If that force pushes back to the left or right, it creates changes in peak pressures, potentially damaging your joints. (
  • Single joint fatigue affected torque variability at all lower extremity joints, with similar changes for both age groups. (
  • Within the CYBERLEGs project, a novel active KAFO was designed to assist the knee and the ankle joints during ground level walking. (
  • and (ii) provide assistive torque in the most demanding phases of the gait cycle. (
  • The researchers used the measurements to calculate a torque profile - the amount of torque generated by the knee during normal walking. (
  • There are two ways of increasing the amount of torque generated by an engine - either increase the capacity (or, more correctly, capacity times volumetric efficiency), or increase the length of the lever arm (or stroke). (
  • Robotic limbs are designed to dial that torque back. (
  • Force and torque sensing enables robotic processes such as grinding, deburring, sanding and polishing. (
  • Force sensing also aids product testing, packaging, and robotic assembly applications. (
  • Force/Torque sensors are used throughout industry for product testing, robotic assembly, grinding and polishing. (
  • Body kinematics and ground reaction forces were obtained both before and after the exercises, and joint torques were derived via inverse dynamics. (
  • There is a static frictional force between the spool and the ground that keeps the spool from slipping. (
  • though you wrote the net torque as a difference between the applied torque and the frictional force in the first line (the difference does not look like it gives another torque value). (
  • Friction torque is the torque caused by the frictional force that occurs when two objects in contact move. (
  • A rotational wristlock (in budo referred to as kote hineri, and in Aikido referred to as a type of sankyō, 三教, "third teaching") is a very common type of wristlock, and involves forced supination or pronation of the wrist, and is typically applied by grabbing and twisting the hand. (
  • Like all torques, it is a rotational force which may be measured in newton metres or pounds-feet. (
  • Preventing cable overstretch that can lead to faulty cable installation, touchscreen-operated G-Series Smart Pull produces physical, visual, and audible alerts to let contractors know when pulling force of cable exceeds 80% of manufacturer recommendations. Second alert is given when pulling force has met 100% of tension limit (10,000 lb max). (
  • Notably, our approach can be easily tuned to simulate weakened muscles, produces physiologically realistic ground reaction forces and smooth muscle activations and torques, and can be implemented on a standard workstation to produce results within a few hours. (
  • You will also have a hard time finding a heavy-duty version of a slip wrench that produces the same level of torque as a regular click torque wrench. (
  • What is very different from the human and dog, however, is that the lateral spread of the roach's legs produces significant "sideways" forces and torques on the body. (
  • It has been suggested that the control of unconstrained movements is simplified via the imposition of a kinetic constraint that produces dynamic torques at each moving joint such that they are a linear function of a single motor command. (
  • We suggest that the flexible bending model of the foot yields to reduced knee joint torques, ultimately reduces stress on the muscle activities of the knee extensors during the stance phase of the gait. (
  • In use, the hip actuators create a torque to move the leg supports backward relative to the exoskeleton trunk during a stance phase, which pushes the exoskeleton trunk forward. (
  • 7. The lower extremity exoskeleton of claim 1 wherein said first unidirectional torque is decreasing in Value when first leg support is in stance phase and said second leg support is in swing phase. (
  • but weakness in the triceps surae leading to residual ankle dorsiflexion and therefore weakening the PF-KE couple resulting in residual knee flexion during the stance phase Post-operative gait analysis with ground reaction orthosis to the ankles showed near normal kinematics in the knees Advances in Management of Gait Abnormalities n n n Improved technology in gait analysis Better understanding of the abnormalities Technological advancement e.g. (
  • However, among these studies, only a few examined the muscle power of lower limbs [5,16,19],and the lower extremity joint torques and muscle power of a gait during maximum-velocity sprint running have not been analyzed yet. (
  • If we had a perfectly lossless, infinitely variable transmission and drivetrain, it wouldn't matter one bit how much torque the engine had at the output -- the only thing that would matter would be power, which is the product of torque and angular velocity. (
  • So, with engines, power is the torque multiplied by the radial velocity. (
  • Students also can learn and complete research using a Biodex, which measures force and torque over a pre-set range of motion and velocity. (
  • Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1 . (
  • The velocity factor was caluated with the assumption that the gears were precision shaved and ground. (
  • The buoyant force is a result of differences in the average molecular velocity of the air/liquid molecules across the surface of the object. (
  • Dynamic torque control of a hydraulic quadruped robot. (
  • Six-axis force and torque (F/T) sensors measure force and torque in many applications including electrical and mechanical assembly, product testing, robot material handling and medical research. (
  • F/T sensors give robot and research applications the ability to sense forces and moments applied in six degrees of freedom (Fx, Fy, Fz, Tx, Ty and Tz). (
  • Torques generated by these external forces play a vital role in affecting the function of the lower extremity muscle groups during sprinting. (
  • Among them, the most simple is to connect a force transducer directly to a muscle [ 8 ]. (
  • If, however, synergistic muscle action results from performance optimization and task constraints (joint kinematics and external forces), such optimization approaches are expected to result in low-dimensional synergistic muscle activations that are similar to EMG-based synergies. (
  • Because of this redundancy, a given walking pattern, characterized by joint kinematics and reaction forces between the ground and the feet, can be generated by infinitely many possible muscle recruitment strategies. (
  • In response to the loading manipulations, only the internal oblique muscle responded in a manner that was consistent with stabilization of the trunk against forces that cause the trunk to sag sagittally. (
  • The body, because of all of these different reaction surfaces, needs to get used to so many different situations, that Muscle Memory, or the body getting used to combinations of timing, muscle use, joint position on impact, ground reaction forces and more, can be lower because of so many situation options. (
  • While increased strength of the hip abductors, extensors, and external rotators has been commonly theorized to improve eccentric control of hip adduction and internal rotation, and thus decrease frontal plane knee motion and loading, previous work evaluating the relationship between peak torque of these muscle groups and frontal plane biomechanics is equivocal. (
  • Our simulations include the computation of foot-ground reaction forces, as well as the neuromuscular dynamics using computationally efficient muscle torque generators and excitation-activation equations. (
  • Associated joint torques and muscle activations have been analyzed two-dimensionally, neglecting possible three-dimensional (3D) compensatory movements in those who struggle with sit-to-stand transfer. (
  • We examined muscle forces, muscleinduced accelerations, and interlimb muscle force differences during sit-to-stand transfer in young, healthy adults. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously recorded leg kinematics, ground reaction forces and muscle activity in freely walking stick insects ( Carausius morosus ). (
  • Galileo Research Fact Sheet #124: Can Galileo Therapy improve muscle force and endurance in COPD-patients? (
  • Quadriceps muscle strength was evaluated as isokinetic peak torque (60 /sec) using a CYBEX NORM and balance control was evaluated by center of mass - base of support relationships and ground reaction forces during gait perturbations. (
  • Age and gender moderate the effects of localized muscle fatigue on lower extremity joint torques used during quiet stance. (
  • This study examined the effects of localized muscle fatigue, age, and gender on lower extremity joint torques used during quiet stance. (
  • We hypothesize that, by lowering the total passive ankle joint stiffness with the AFO, patient s active range of motion will increase while supporting the patients muscle forces during gait. (
  • The biomechanics effects of the orthosis device were studied on simulated joint angles and torques, muscle force, and experimental ground reaction forces. (
  • Moreover, PPRP subject supports greater joint torques and lower muscle force due to the blocked knee joint device. (
  • Dynamic equations of motion quanified muscle torques and joint power. (
  • Muscle cars with lots of rear-end torque will swing out and low to the ground, high down force cars such as open-wheel racing will hug the road no matter what. (
  • Identified in the figure are the external forces such as the joint reaction forces ( J 's), muscle forces ( M 's), weight ( W ), and the additional external forces from the environment. (
  • Force vector M is the muscle force which is the sum of all the forces produced by the muscles. (
  • Since vector m - j is the relative position of the application point of M to the joint center, as shown on Figure 2 , T becomes the torque produced by the muscle force about the joint center ( joint torque ). (
  • This quantity is meaningful since it gives the amount of torque produced by the muscle about the joint. (
  • On the other hand, F ( net joint force ) is simply the sum of J and M and it does not provide any specific information in terms of muscle activation or the stress on the bones involved in the articulation. (
  • Maintaining astronaut bone and muscle health in microgravity is an ongoing concern for NASA, and now the agency is "forcing" the issue with a new investigation. (
  • Enhancing researchers' understanding of exercise form and the forces applied to the human body while using this unique spaceflight exercise hardware will help them recommend the best exercise regimens for safe and effective bone and muscle strength maintenance during spaceflight. (
  • Friction torque can be disruptive in engineering. (
  • Ball bearings are an example of an attempt to minimize the friction torque. (
  • Friction torque can also be an asset in engineering. (
  • Bolts and nuts, or screws are often designed to be fastened with a given amount of torque, where the friction is adequate during use or operation for the bolt, nut or screw to remain safely fastened. (
  • When a golf ball hits the ground it begins to spin in part because of the friction torque applied to the golf ball from the friction between the golf ball and the ground. (
  • Direct yaw torque control actuated through electric drivetrains and friction brakes: theoretical design and experimental assessment. (
  • When it is moving, it has to apply a force to counter the forces of friction and aerodynamic drag. (
  • Every component in the assembly has a life expectancy due wear generated by constant friction and other forces acting on the parts. (
  • The force of the string on the hair is made up of its vertical component (N), equal and opposite in direction to the "bow pressure," and a horizontal component that is the friction between the hair and the string. (
  • The forces in the fingers and thumb of course have horizontal components, but they balance the friction from the hair and do not determine bow pressure. (
  • The difference in implement weight does factor into the amount of force needed to overcome inertia and to balance against the centrifugal forces. (
  • A method of controlling a machine drive having a driveline PTO establishes a driveline torque perturbation via conversion of internal inertia through two transmission neutral conditions. (
  • Males and females exhibited increased ankle torque variability after different tasks, with males showing more variability after ankle fatigue and females after shoulder and lumbar fatigue. (
  • AT force then was calculated using the ankle torque obtained from inverse dynamics. (
  • However, as the time to generate peak torque exceeds the time during which frontal plane motion occurs during movement tasks, the capacity to rapidly develop torque may be more closely related to frontal plane biomechanics. (
  • Let's label another column force , and a few more with drag , rolling resistance , engine torque , engine rpm , wheel rpm , trans gear ratio , drive ratio , wheel torque , and drive force . (
  • Gravity pulls on the rider because of the component of vertical gravitational force that is in the direction of the bike. (
  • How do low horizontal forces produce disproportionately high torques in human locomotion? (
  • Joint Torque and Mechanical Power of Lower Extremity and Its Relevance to Hamstring Strain during Sprint Running. (
  • The two most common measurements of a cars power is horsepower and torque . (
  • Fully modular Z-Force® quick-swap technology allows you to swap power packs in seconds. (
  • Torque is the amount of "turning power" you have, much in the same way you turn a wrench. (
  • If I understand it at least partly correctly, 'torque' is engine power at low rpms, while 'horsepower' is the same measurement, but taken at at a specific higher rpm. (
  • To see this, let us consider a cyclist riding along a road at a power output of 300 watts and look at the relative contribution of each of the four main resistive forces on the rider. (
  • So which do you need more of to go fast - power or torque? (
  • Now, another aspect to realise is that power and torque are intimately related. (
  • So, as you can see, power and torque are very intimately related. (
  • For increased power, you can increase either (or both) the torque, or the revs at which that torque is generated. (
  • Now this decrease in revvability more than compensates for the torque increase, which is why very high power output engines tend to have very short strokes (once again, engine strength issues ignored). (
  • Karim Nice "How Force, Power, Torque and Energy Work" 11 September 2000. (
  • Imagine instant torque and power from a standstill. (
  • Zero Motorcycles' all-new Z-Force™ power pack and motor are the state-of-the art. (
  • A deflecting beam torque wrench uses a similar principle to a regular beam torque wrench, except that instead of the main beam bending to indicate the force you are using, a deflecting beam moves to measure the power. (
  • For the force requirement on the gears to rotate the grind wheel at 10,000 RPM, the power consumption of the grinder was researched. (
  • From the power consumption the torque was calculated to be 0.315 Nm, which equates to about 2.61 lbs of force on the workpeice from the grind wheel. (
  • Since the exhaust filter removes particulate matter instead of the engine, the engine is left free to do what it is designed to do --delivering all of the power, torque, plus transient response needed at the exact moment needed. (
  • More power to the ground for greater productivity. (
  • Quickly releases and re-engages to reduce power train torque loads for smoother shifting, long life and a more comfortable ride. (
  • Cat final drives work as a system with the planetary power shift transmission to deliver maximum power to the ground. (
  • In figures 1 and 2 a - c , we present a free-body diagram of hypothesized forces during maximal accelerations of quadrupeds. (
  • Although various kinds of methodologies have been suggested to estimate individual muscular forces, many of them require a costly measurement system accompanied by complex preprocessing and postprocessing procedures. (
  • The suggested method can be set up easily and can immediately convert motion information into muscular forces. (
  • The estimated muscular forces were qualitatively analyzed in the perspective of gait functions and compared with the electromyography signal. (
  • Many studies have been conducted to estimate muscular forces in living things, especially humans. (
  • However, although various methodologies have been proposed, estimation of muscular forces remains as a challenging task. (
  • Moreover, the true relationship between EMG signals and muscular forces is not yet fully understood. (
  • During typical movements, the range of motion at a joint will change as will the associated muscular forces and torques. (
  • Limited attempts have been made to measure ground reactions during overground sprinting, and few studies have used such data to estimate hamstring kinetics during stance and swing phases [23]. (
  • ATI six-axis force torque sensors measure force in x, y, z and torque in x, y, z. (
  • The posture adopted in a given movement dictates the activation of the muscles responsible for force production. (
  • This preliminary study opens a promising way to study patterns of force production in the framework of handcycling movement analysis. (
  • Moreover, it depicts the torque applied to each joint, which results in the movement itself. (
  • The horsepower rating would determine a car's top speed . Torque on the other hand would determine how a car would accelerate. (
  • But this torque can tell you a lot about how fast the car can accelerate. (
  • During running, the front legs decelerate backwards during ground impact to absorb forces, while the hind legs push forward to accelerate the animal into the next step. (
  • 5. How much torque is needed to accelerate a car tire (roughly cylindrical, with a radius of 25 cm and a mass of 10 kg) from a dead stop to 100 rad/s in 6 s? (
  • In contrast, when the fore-aft forces were manipulated by running up- and downhill, all four of the monitored muscles changed their activity in a manner consistent with stabilization of the trunk against sagittal shearing. (
  • In trotting dogs, the pattern of activity of the obliquely oriented hypaxial muscles is consistent with the possible functions of (i) stabilization against vertical accelerations that cause the trunk to sag in the sagittal plane and (ii) stabilization against forces that tend to shear the trunk in the sagittal plane. (
  • In contrast, changes in the level of recruitment of the oblique hypaxial muscles were not consistent with stabilization of the trunk against torques that induce yaw at the girdles. (
  • control means having input from said sensing means and output to said actuator means, position and strength of said orthosis muscles being adaptively responsive to said sensing means input to said control means including force or operating characteristics of legs of said patient to selectively provide extended, contracted or stable leg positions. (
  • The low point in the S-M diagram corresponds to the middle of the ground impact phase of the running leg, when it is maximally bent and energy has been stored in the flexing of the muscles and tension in the tendons. (
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the influence of hip abduction, extension, and external rotation rate of torque development (RTD) and frontal-plane hip and knee biomechanics. (
  • 2 Comparison of left knee abduction/adduction torques achieved without matching experimental leg torques, where positive torque represents abduction and negative torque represents adduction. (
  • The GRF induces high bending torques at the proximal CTr joint. (
  • This wheel loader offers a standard lock up clutch torque converter, standard manual front locking differential axles, and improved standard ride control to significantly improve your fuel economy, performance and ergonomics. (
  • Torque is the amount of force that your car can exert on the ground. (
  • So if your car tires have a radius of 1ft, it would exert double the torque than if it had a 2ft radius. (
  • Newtons are a unit of force, and at the surface of the earth a 1kg object will exert a force on the ground of 9.8N, due to gravitation. (
  • Tests with end-users showed that the assistive action resulted in physiological profiles of the knee and ankle angles and torques, showing a first proof of feasibility for the presented system. (
  • We characterize the torque generated by the ExoBoot at various pressures and ankle angles, achieving a maximum torque of 39 Nm at 483 kPa (70 psi) and 60 degrees ankle angle. (
  • The present paper provides a thorough analysis and reveals the yaw torque generated by tyre lateral forces, due to the well-known combined slip effect. (
  • Optimizations without Experimental Leg Torque Tracking. (
  • 5 Comparison of left ankle dorsiflexion/planarflexion motion achieved without matching experimental leg torques, where positive angle represents dorsiflexion and negative angle represents planarflexion. (
  • Whereas, a flexible arch disperses shock better, but all that flexibility in the mid and fore foot can cause overpronation which stresses and torques your feet, shins, knees, hips and back causing its own host of problems. (
  • Controlled Throttle Shifting - Regulates engine RPM, torque converter lock-up and transmission clutch engagement for smoother shifts and longer component life. (
  • Several studies have used the inverse dynamics approach to quantify lower extremity joint torques during sprinting [5-8]. (
  • Therefore, understanding the coordination of muscular torque and the loading conditions of the hamstring during sprinting is beneficial to further quantify the torque component one by one during probing joint torques [24]. (
  • Students are often able to use the EMG in collaboration with Force Plates, which measure the ground reaction forces generated by the body, to quantify balance, gait and other parameters of biomechanics. (
  • 1. Screws and bolts are often rated with a maximum torque they can withstand during tightening before they break. (
  • Built to withstand the forces of high torque and impact loads, final drives provide high torque multiplication to further reduce drive train stress. (
  • 1] and [2] basically says that the sum of all the external forces acting on the system is the same to the rate of change in the momentum of the system and the sum of all the external torques acting on the system is equal to the rate of change in the angular momentum of the system, respectively. (
  • Compared with the sound condition, a net-propulsive force was produced by the lame diagonal limbs due to a reduced braking force in the affected forelimb and an increased propulsive force in the contralateral hindlimb when the dogs walked and trotted. (
  • To regain pitch stability and ensure steady speed for a given locomotor cycle, the dogs produced a net-braking force when the sound diagonal limbs were on the ground by exerting greater braking forces in both limbs during walking and additionally reducing the propulsive force in the hindlimb during trotting. (
  • The movements of the children's normal and prosthetic limbs were recorded in three dimensions using a WATSMART motion analysis system, and the ground reaction forces were recorded from a force platform. (
  • With the method of designing, clamping the top-level nodes with the ground, I hope to divert the lateral inertial stresses of the earthquake into more powerful areas of the structure than those currently driven. (
  • Achilles tendinopathy and patellofemoral pain are common running injuries associated with increased Achilles tendon (AT) forces and patellofemoral joint (PFJ) stresses. (
  • This study examined AT forces and PFJ stresses at different running speeds in high-performing endurance runners. (
  • AT forces and PFJ stresses were estimated from kinematic and kinetic data. (
  • On the role of load motion compensation in high-performance force control. (
  • Keep in mind that cars with very high torque should be coupled with tires that have very good traction, or else you would just be spinning your tires and burning rubber, unless that's what you really want. (
  • The cars that have high numbers on torque and horsepower aren't actually good on fuel efficiency and are quite expensive. (
  • The sport often requires high speed flipping or rotation that is not slowed down in the air prior to impact with the ground, but instead, at the time of impact with the ground or matting. (
  • Excellent performance and high precision are achieved through two separate outputs for applied torque and thrust forces. (
  • Grinding forces are a primary concern in creep-feed grinding, because it involves high wheel to workpiece conformity. (
  • Low specific grinding energy is necessary in this kind of grinding to achieve high metal removal rates and to prevent burning the workpiece. (
  • Whatever value you use to describe the vertical position of the sprite(not the y axis value but the value which denotes how high in the air it is) should not be allowed to go below 0(or whatever value corresponds to the ground surface). (
  • To explain these disproportionately high metabolic costs we hypothesized that low horizontal ground forces g. (
  • 7000 Series zero turn mower with high-volume 52" (132 cm) TURBO FORCE® deck. (
  • Powered by high-torque 25 HP (19 kw) Kubota® diesel 898cc Engine, Fast ground speed of 11.2 mph (18 km/h). (
  • High-capacity TURBO FORCE decks deliver unsurpassed strength, a superior cut, and increased productivity in extreme mowing conditions. (
  • The TURBO FORCE deck is constructed of 7-gauge, high-strength steel which is 33% thicker and 32% higher in yield strength than ordinary 10-gauge commercial steel used in 7/10 decks. (
  • The Kubota 25 hp (18.6 kw) liquid-cooled diesel engines are geared for high torque while also delivering fast 11.2 mph (18 kph) ground speeds. (
  • The only feasible approach is high-torque, high-speed machines that employ high temperature superconductors. (
  • Determine the normal force exerted by the ground on (a) the front wheel and on (b) each of the two rear wheels. (
  • When a cyclist applies the brake to his/her forward wheel, the bike tips forwards due to the frictional torque between the wheel and the ground. (
  • In low gear, even with losses, the torque available at the wheel should be quite a bit higher than the torque at the output of the engine. (
  • SWIFT® Evo Wheel Force Transducer comes with new graphical user interface. (
  • Meeting SAE J267 and J328 standards, SWIFT® Evo Wheel Force Transducer is suitable for use in Road Load Data Acquisition (RDLA), tire tread wear simulation, suspension dynamics characterization, durability testing, and advanced simulation and modeling. (
  • Left-right torque vectoring technology as the core of super all wheel control (S-AWC). (
  • This force is transmitted by the chain to the rear wheel and, ultimately, to the ground by the rear tire. (
  • Product testing such as steering wheel torque, automotive seat testing etc. (
  • Just as an increase in accelerating torque in a motorcycle results in nose-up pitching and reduced weight support on the front wheel, a similar principle applies to accelerating quadrupeds (where the hind leg is equivalent to a spoke of the rear wheel and most of the propulsive musculature is arranged to retract, or pull the leg backwards). (
  • All four-wheel-drive models offer a generous 9.6 inches of ground clearance. (
  • By distributing drive force to any one wheel in contact with the ground, A-TRAC can help make terrain irregularities and slippery patches virtually transparent to the driver. (
  • Fig. 2-With a sharp cutting wheel, small increases in grinding forces cause metal removal rates to jump up, as in Slope A. With a dull-cutting wheel, increasing the grinding forces only raises the removal rates a little, as in Slope B. (
  • Fig. 3-The grinding wheel rotates in opposite directions to create up or down cutting. (
  • Creep-feed is essentially a process to remove large amounts of stock in a single pass of the grinding wheel-and then to produce the prescribed surface tolerances and finishes in a second pass. (
  • Compared to other grinding processes, creep-feed grinding involves faster cycle times, higher metal-removal rates, better dimensional accuracy and fewer burrs because of the relatively larger areas of conformity between the grinding wheel and workpiece. (
  • All experiments with creep-feed grinding used a standard machine tool and a water-soluble oil coolant that was delivered to the wheel/work interface at velocities to match the wheel peripheral speed. (
  • A sharp slope (such as the one labeled "A") shows large increases in the metal removal rates resulting in small increases in grinding forces, the sign of a sharp-cutting or soft-acting wheel. (
  • In contrast, a flat or shallow slope (such as the one labeled "B") shows little change in the removal rate and large increases in grinding forces, the sign of a dull-cutting or hard acting wheel. (
  • This calculates to 12.4626 N of force at the gears to rotate the grind wheel at 10,000 RPM. (
  • The procedure is based on the optimization where the cost function is the minimization of the difference between the knee joint torques of healthy walking and the walking with the transfemural prosthesis. (
  • This change results with the alteration of the knee joint torque that is required [ 8 , 9 ] for the tracking of the desired trajectory. (
  • 369 foot-pounds means that if you had a wrench that was 1 foot long, and applied a force of 369 pounds directly perpendicular to that wrench, you would get 369 foot-pounds of torque. (
  • Tighten up the nuts and bolts under the hood of your car (or on your lawnmower or bicycle) with a new torque wrench. (
  • A torque wrench is a specialized tool prominent in automotive repair that addresses various parts of a car. (
  • The torque wrench sets the torque limit so you don't accidentally overtighten the fasteners. (
  • However, a torque wrench should not be used for loosening fasteners. (
  • This can cause the torque wrench to become uncalibrated, meaning you may not reach (or you might exceed) your desired torque level. (
  • There are various torque wrench styles and sizes, each offering unique weaknesses and strengths that you should be aware of before picking up a new tool. (
  • A regular beam torque wrench doesn't rely on anything except the flex of the wrench to measure the degree of torque being exerted on the nut. (
  • This measurement occurs when you apply force to the wrench, and the beam bends just slightly, changing where it intersects the scale. (
  • However, it's an excellent option for an experienced DIYer or professional who may not want to work with the more popular click-style torque wrench. (
  • This scale can be adjusted on some products to limit the maximum torque the wrench can apply. (
  • However, the deflecting beam torque wrench's biggest benefit over the standard beam torque wrench is that it is more durable, allowing you to use it for a longer period without having to replace the tool. (
  • The split beam style of torque wrench is another beam type. (
  • With this torque wrench style, you can usually set the torque limit so that you don't have to worry about overtightening. (
  • It may also include a 'click' sound, as with the click-style torque wrench, to indicate when you have reached the desired torque level. (
  • A slip-style torque wrench is one of the least popular designs for professionals in the automotive industry. (
  • It does not have a scale or gauge, so you cannot monitor the current torque being exerted with this type of wrench. (
  • With the slip torque wrench, you get a cheap, effective tool for smaller projects, like fixing a bicycle. (
  • If a screw is rated at 50 N · m and you have a 15 cm wrench, how much force can you use to tighten it? (