Catechin: An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.Tea: The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Biflavonoids: Dimers (homo and hetero) of FLAVONOIDS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Gallic Acid: A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Camellia: A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.PicratesCentaurea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain 5-methyl-8-hydroxycoumarin. The common name of centaury is more often used for CENTAURIUMRutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Protocatechuate-3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC 1.13.11.3.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Chlorophyta: A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.Transition Elements: Elements with partially filled d orbitals. They constitute groups 3-12 of the periodic table of elements.Paullinia: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE. The seed of P. cupana is the source of guarana powder which contains 4% CAFFEINE.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Cistus: A plant genus of the family CISTACEAE. The common name of rock rose is also sometimes used with the closely related Helianthemum genus (CISTACEAE).Combretum: A plant genus of the family COMBRETACEAE. Triterpenes and combretastatin have been identified in members of this genus.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Propiolactone: Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Counterfeit Drugs: Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
  • Many prefer black tea's flavor, although it contains lower total levels of catechins. (science20.com)
  • Ferruzzi currently is conducting an in vivo study, or study on a live organism, to quantify the ability of juices and vitamin C to increase levels of catechins in the intestines and bloodstream of animals and, by extension, in humans. (science20.com)
  • The average retention levels of catechins in the baked and steamed bread were 75.3-89.5% and 81.4-99.3%, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. (nih.gov)
  • Epidemiological and animal studies have indicated that consumption of green tea and high vitamin E intake are associated with a reduced risk of developing certain forms of cancer. (dr-rath-foundation.org)
  • Epidemiological studies on green tea consumption have results that are more mixed than in vivo animal studies. (healthkismet.com)
  • A review paper by Shirikami et al, investigates epidemiological studies and a large number of experimental studies on Green Tea and its anti-Cancer benefits. (scoop.it)
  • Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. (hindawi.com)
  • Though the evidence is inconclusive as of yet, some epidemiological studies seem to suggest that regularly drinking large amounts of green tea may prolong human life. (fsu.edu)
  • In the present study, we have investigated the ventricular muscle internal dynamics and pressure developed during systole and diastole by inserting a micro-catheter into the left ventricle of the RCM mice with or without treatment of desensitizer green tea extracts catechins. (biomedcentral.com)