Great BritainIrelandMustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Scrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseSocial Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Education, Pharmacy, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform graduate pharmacists of recent advances in their particular field.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.EnglandWalesNorthern IrelandHemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of nuclear medicine services.ScotlandMouth Protectors: Devices or pieces of equipment placed in or around the mouth or attached to instruments to protect the external or internal tissues of the mouth and the teeth.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Pharmacy Administration: The business and managerial aspects of pharmacy in its broadest sense.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.EuropeSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.United States

Incidence of repeated legal abortion.(1/14168)

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Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (2/14168)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

A comparison of three methods of setting prescribing budgets, using data derived from defined daily dose analyses of historic patterns of use. (3/14168)

BACKGROUND: Prescribing matters (particularly budget setting and research into prescribing variation between doctors) have been handicapped by the absence of credible measures of the volume of drugs prescribed. AIM: To use the defined daily dose (DDD) method to study variation in the volume and cost of drugs prescribed across the seven main British National Formulary (BNF) chapters with a view to comparing different methods of setting prescribing budgets. METHOD: Study of one year of prescribing statistics from all 129 general practices in Lothian, covering 808,059 patients: analyses of prescribing statistics for 1995 to define volume and cost/volume of prescribing for one year for 10 groups of practices defined by the age and deprivation status of their patients, for seven BNF chapters; creation of prescribing budgets for 1996 for each individual practice based on the use of target volume and cost statistics; comparison of 1996 DDD-based budgets with those set using the conventional historical approach; and comparison of DDD-based budgets with budgets set using a capitation-based formula derived from local cost/patient information. RESULTS: The volume of drugs prescribed was affected by the age structure of the practices in BNF Chapters 1 (gastrointestinal), 2 (cardiovascular), and 6 (endocrine), and by deprivation structure for BNF Chapters 3 (respiratory) and 4 (central nervous system). Costs per DDD in the major BNF chapters were largely independent of age, deprivation structure, or fundholding status. Capitation and DDD-based budgets were similar to each other, but both differed substantially from historic budgets. One practice in seven gained or lost more than 100,000 Pounds per annum using DDD or capitation budgets compared with historic budgets. The DDD-based budget, but not the capitation-based budget, can be used to set volume-specific prescribing targets. CONCLUSIONS: DDD-based and capitation-based prescribing budgets can be set using a simple explanatory model and generalizable methods. In this study, both differed substantially from historic budgets. DDD budgets could be created to accommodate new prescribing strategies and raised or lowered to reflect local intentions to alter overall prescribing volume or cost targets. We recommend that future work on setting budgets and researching prescribing variations should be based on DDD statistics.  (+info)

Why do dyspeptic patients over the age of 50 consult their general practitioner? A qualitative investigation of health beliefs relating to dyspepsia. (4/14168)

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of late-diagnosed gastric cancer is poor, yet less than half of dyspeptic patients consult their general practitioner (GP). AIM: To construct an explanatory model of the decision to consult with dyspepsia in older patients. METHOD: A total of 75 patients over the age of 50 years who had consulted with dyspepsia at one of two inner city general practices were invited to an in-depth interview. The interviews were taped, transcribed, and analysed using the computer software NUD.IST, according to the principles of grounded theory. RESULTS: Altogether, 31 interviews were conducted. The perceived threat of cancer and the need for reassurance were key influences on the decision to consult. Cues such as a change in symptoms were important in prompting a re-evaluation of the likely cause. Personal vulnerability to serious illness was often mentioned in the context of family or friends' experience, but tempered by an individual's life expectations. CONCLUSION: Most patients who had delayed consultation put their symptoms down to 'old age' or 'spicy food'. However, a significant minority were fatalistic, suspecting the worst but fearing medical interventions.  (+info)

A single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a simple acupuncture treatment in the cessation of smoking. (5/14168)

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking is a major cause of preventable disease and premature death. Physicians should play an active role in the control of smoking by encouraging cessation and helping the smoker to choose the most suitable aid to cessation. AIM: To evaluate a simple, ear acupuncture treatment for the cessation of smoking. METHOD: Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 78 currently smoking volunteers from the general public. Volunteers attended an acupuncture clinic in a general practice setting and were given a single treatment of electroacupuncture using two needles at either an active or a placebo site plus self-retained ear seeds for two weeks. The major outcome measure was biochemically validated total cessation of smoking at six months. RESULTS: A total of 12.5% of the active treatment group compared with 0% of the placebo group ceased smoking at six months (P = 0.055, 95% confidence interval -0.033 to 0.323). CONCLUSION: This simple ear electroacupuncture treatment was significantly more effective in helping volunteers to quit smoking than placebo treatment.  (+info)

Health at work in the general practice. (6/14168)

BACKGROUND: Poor mental health and high stress levels have been reported in staff working in general practice. Little is known about how practices are tackling these and other issues of health at work in the absence of an established occupational healthcare service. AIM: To establish the extent of knowledge and good practice of health at work policies for staff working in general practice. METHOD: Practice managers in 450 randomly selected general practices in England were interviewed by telephone, and the general practitioner (GP) with lead responsibility for workplace health in the same practice was surveyed by postal questionnaire. We surveyed the existence and implementation of practice policies, causes and effects of stress on practice staff, and agreement between practice managers and GPs on these issues. RESULTS: Seventy-one per cent of GPs and 76% of practice managers responded, with at least one reply from 408 (91%) practices and responses from both the practice manager and GPs from 252 (56%) practices. Seventy-nine per cent of practices had a policy on monitoring risks and hazards. The proportion of practices with other workplace health policies ranged from 21% (policy to minimize stress) to 91% (policy on staff smoking). There was a tendency for practices to have policies but not to implement them. The three causes of stress for practice staff most commonly cites by both GP and practice manager responders were 'patient demands', 'too much work', and 'patient abuse/aggression'. Sixty-five per cent of GPs felt that stress had caused mistakes in their practices. Although there was general agreement between the two groups, there was a considerable lack of agreement between responders working in the same practices. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed substantial neglect of workplace health issues with many practices falling foul of health and safety legislation. This report should help general practices identify issues to tackle to improve their workplace health, and the Health at Work in the NHS project to focus on areas where their targeted help will be most worthwhile.  (+info)

Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour. (7/14168)

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

SWORD '97: surveillance of work-related and occupational respiratory disease in the UK. (8/14168)

SWORD is one of seven clinically based reporting schemes which together now provide almost comprehensive coverage of occupational diseases across the UK. Although SWORD is now in its tenth year, participation rates remain high. Of an estimated 3,903 new cases seen this year, 1,031 (26%) were of occupational asthma, 978 (25%) of mesothelioma, 794 (20%) of non-malignant pleural disease, 336 (9%) of pneumoconiosis and 233 (6%) of inhalation accidents. Incidence rates of occupational asthma were generally highest among workers in the manufacture of wood products, textiles and food (particularly grain products and crustaceans) and additionally, in the production of precious and non-ferrous metals, rubber goods, detergents and perfumes, and in mining. Health care workers were noted to have a surprisingly high incidence of inhalation accidents. Occupational asthma attributed to latex has increased dramatically; the highest rates are among laboratory technicians, shoe workers and health care workers.  (+info)

  • Proof Silver Britannia coin bears the Early Releases Label, indicating that the coin was received by the grading service within the first thirty days of release, and also carries the exclusive Great Britain label. (moderncoinmart.com)
  • Designed by Suzie Zamit, the reverse features Britannia, the female personification of Britain, standing right, casting a watchful eye to the sea, armed with trident and shield, with royal lion at her feet, inscribed border "BRITANNIA," "1 oz FINE SILVER 999," "2016. (moderncoinmart.com)
  • and that the King's Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords spiritual and temporal and Commons of Great Britain in Parliament assembled, had, hath and of right ought to have, full power and authority to make laws and statutes of sufficient force and validity to bind the colonies and people of America, subjects of the Crown of Great Britain in all cases whatsoever. (google.co.uk)
  • Using nationally representative, longitudinal data from the first 14 waves of the British Household Panel Survey we examine the labour market returns to inter-regional migration in Great Britain. (repec.org)
  • The determinants of regional migration in Great Britain: a duration approach ," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A , Royal Statistical Society, vol. 174(1), pages 127-153, January. (repec.org)
  • The Determinants of Regional Migration in Great Britain: A Duration Approach ," IZA Discussion Papers 3783, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (repec.org)
  • Using data from five sweeps of the UK Millennium Cohort Study at the ages of 9 months, 3 years, 5 years, 7 years and 11 years, this paper analyses the role of household income, relative to other socio-economic factors, in influencing children's chances of moving up or down the age-specific cognitive ability distribution as they grow older. (unicef-irc.org)
  • Three universities in Scotland appear in the top 25: the University of Edinburgh , University of Glasgow and the University of St Andrews , while the best university in Wales is Cardiff University ranked at number 25. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • The term "Great Britain" often extends to include surrounding islands that form part of England, Scotland, and Wales, and is also sometimes loosely applied to the UK as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England (which had already comprised the present-day countries of England and Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • England , Scotland , and Wales are mostly on the island of Great Britain, and the term "Great Britain" is often used to include the whole of England, Scotland and Wales including their component adjoining islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The island of Great Britain comprises the separate nations of England , Wales and Scotland and the term is often used as if it was synonymous with the state officially known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, but commonly known as the ' United Kingdom ', whereas technically speaking Northern Ireland (and previous to that Ireland ) are not part of Great Britain. (everything2.com)
  • Athelstan claimed to be 'Emperor of Britain' in the tenth century, the Norman kings of England regarded themselves as being the superior overlords of the whole island and Edward I clearly pursued an imperial vision of a united island in his campaigns in both Wales and Scotland in the thirteenth century. (everything2.com)
  • It is therefore somewhat ironic that it was a Scot who was to bring the idea of Great Britain somewhat closer to realisation, as it was James VI of Scotland who succeeded the last of the Tudors, Elizabeth I to become king James I of England in 1603. (everything2.com)
  • It is obviously not in the interests of Scotland or the UK to give Shetland any more autonomy and this campaign is doomed to achieving nothing more than superficial concessions. (whatreallyhappened.com)
  • However, now that the Crown has shown in court that it is unable to produce any proof that Shetland is part of Scotland or the UK, the onus is on our representatives to make sure that the powers they are asking for belong to those they are asking. (whatreallyhappened.com)
  • There is a case before the Scottish Courts right now over this uss,e and it will be interesting to see how Scotland, with its recent fight to declare independence from Great Britain, handles the issue that there seems to be no legal proof that Shetland or Orkney are part of Scotland. (whatreallyhappened.com)
  • Great Britain is a European island consisting of England , Scotland , and Wales , all of which send representatives to the Parliament of the United Kingdom . (conservapedia.com)
  • Together we can build a more prosperous nation, a Scotland that is a force for good, a voice for peace in our world. (thenation.com)
  • For 20 years, bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been spreading in Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) and is now endemic in the southwest and parts of central England and in southwest Wales, and occurs sporadically elsewhere. (nature.com)
  • Great Britain is now included in our Global Passes, letting you explore the entire island from John O'Groats at the tip of Scotland to Land's End in the Southwestern corner or England. (eurail.com)
  • This UK university league table reveals the 93 best UK universities and colleges, according to the trusted Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2018 . (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Bright lights point to the stage in 2018 as a host of theatrical shows are set to dazzle audiences in London's glitzy West End and around the country, showcasing the best of classic and modern theater. (visitbritain.com)
  • Murray will discuss Douglass and other African-American abolitionists who traveled to Britain, during a free presentation, 'Frederick Douglass: New Haven to Great Britain,' at the New Haven Museum on Wednesday, February 21, 2018, at 5:30 p.m. (courant.com)
  • He remained in Brazil for more than 30 years before returning voluntarily to Britain in 2001 to resume serving his sentence, in ill health and saying that he wanted to ''walk into a pub and order a pint of bitter. (nytimes.com)
  • Since January 2001 it has been mandatory for stock-keepers in Great Britain to notify the British Cattle Movement Service of all cattle births, movements and deaths 5 . (nature.com)
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136) refers to the island as Britannia major ("Greater Britain"), to distinguish it from Britannia minor ("Lesser Britain"), the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, which had been settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Britannia major or Great Britain was originally purely a geographical expression for the British mainland, named thus either because it was simply the largest of the many islands that made up the British Isles or in order to distinguish it from Britannia minor, Lesser Britain or Brittany and possibly, by happy coincidence, both. (everything2.com)
  • The "Great" had to be appended to "Britain" mainly to distinguish it from Brittany - also known as Britannia minor, or lesser Britain, the French peninsula that had been settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by Celtic immigrants from the British Isles. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Read on for our pick of the country's best brews, plus the shops, bars , pubs and taprooms in which to get well acquainted with them. (timeout.com)
  • In fact, Great Britain has become the "main center for Islamic finance outside the Muslim world. (americanthinker.com)
  • The term Great Britain was first used as a political expression in 1547 during what is known as the Rough Wooing when Henry VIII of England sought to marry his son, the soon to be Edward VI to the infant Mary, Queen of Scots with the intention of united the two kingdoms under one crown. (everything2.com)
  • [note In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the realm of islands, there is nothing greater than Great Britain," says the professor, who was born on the island of Malta and teaches in Canada, a country that boasts three of the world's 10 largest islands - Baffin, Ellesmere and Victoria. (bbc.co.uk)
  • With an area of 209,331 km2 (80,823 sq mi), Great Britain is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, and the ninth-largest island in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Great Britain" also has a purely geographic meaning, as the largest island of the British Isles . (conservapedia.com)
  • The biggest earthquake to hit the British Isles for 25 years was centred on Market Rasen in Lincolnshire but was felt across the UK, with the most distant reports coming from Aberdeen. (sky.com)
  • The damage caused by the "great English earthquake" was extensive and in some cases irreparable. (sky.com)
  • Hitting 6.1 on the Richter scale, this is the largest magnitude earthquake to have struck the UK. (sky.com)
  • Of those who left the UK last year, 196,000 were British citizens while 189,000 were 'long-term migrants' who had been living in the UK for more than a year. (mirror.co.uk)
  • But the number of long-term migrants who arrived in the UK in the year to July 2006 was 574,000 - slightly down on the previous year. (mirror.co.uk)
  • The original Cheirological Society of Great Britain , the most prominent British organization promoting the art of palmistry, was founded in 1889 by Katherine St. Hill and continued to be active through the early decades of the twentieth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • And I can see the advantages - debt is eroded by increases in prices and, with the Bank of England stubbornly keeping interest rates at a record low and printing money, things can only get better. (cnbc.com)
  • Lyme Park , found in Cheshire, England, was once a great sporting estate, and today, visitors can stroll the vast grounds, which include several lakes, rose gardens and lots of deer. (gadling.com)
  • Yet, Sharia law in Britain flies in the face of the notion of one law for all since the funds are based on the Koran and structured around Islamic Sharia law. (americanthinker.com)
  • The international community was quick to offer their support to the beleaguered Britain, but a troubling response came from that nation's own leader. (freedomworks.org)
  • Great Britain awoke Thursday to a day of political drama, including two Cabinet resignations, market volatility, a severely weakened prime minister, and nasty headlines, all in response to a draft agreement laying out the terms of its exit from the European Union. (courthousenews.com)
  • Most islands that claim this distinction are actually very small, and are only called "great" to distinguish them from even smaller nearby islands with the same name. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Of the 93 top universities in the UK, around 20 are in London, including well-known institutions such as Imperial College London and University College London, and more recently established universities such as the University of Westminster and the University of Greenwich . (timeshighereducation.com)
  • There is the 0.07 sq km Great Captain Island for example, lying off the coast of Greenwich in Connecticut, US. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Record numbers of people are leaving the UK over fears about crime, the economy and immigration - and because of the dreadful British weather. (mirror.co.uk)
  • Fears are growing that Britain could become a target for a major terrorist attack. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Look up Great Britain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rates of interest of between 2.35 percent and 4 percent on tax-free Instant Savings Accounts (ISAs) are sold by banks as great deals for savers - but this month consumer price inflation came in at an annual rate of 5.2 percent. (cnbc.com)
  • Spend another £19.98 to qualify for free UK delivery. (waterstones.com)
  • Your order qualifies for free UK delivery. (waterstones.com)
  • A motion graphic illustrating the total number of people who have died on the roads and their mode of transport in Great Britain 2010. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Clifford added people are also leaving as they are worried the UK can't cope with the influx of people coming to Britain. (mirror.co.uk)
  • And this morning I began to lay out my vision for a truly meritocratic Britain that puts the interests of ordinary, working class people first. (conservatives.com)
  • Over the years, British food culture has embraced flavours and influences from all the people who came and made Great Britain their home. (penguin.co.uk)
  • Anyway, any American who is skeptical about national health insurance but has an open mind should read this testimonial from another American who is currently living in a country with national health insurance-Britain. (slate.com)
  • We will ensure that our independent schools play a greater role by creating more good school places in the state sector for children from ordinary working class families and ensuring that they succeed. (conservatives.com)
  • Jan Williams and Chris Teasdale have spent six years travelling the UK in their Caravan Gallery, anthropologists of the ordinary, conducting participant observation of the fraying edges of culture as it rubs against society's margins. (foto8.com)