Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Transistors, Electronic: Electrical devices that are composed of semiconductor material, with at least three connections to an external electronic circuit. They are used to amplify electrical signals, detect signals, or as switches.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Nanowires: Nanometer-scale wires made of materials that conduct electricity. They can be coated with molecules such as antibodies that will bind to proteins and other substances.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.beta-Keratins: Keratins that form into a beta-pleated sheet structure. They are principle constituents of the corneous material of the carapace and plastron of turtles, the epidermis of snakes and the feathers of birds.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Nanospheres: Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chemical EngineeringCarcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Imprinting: A methodology for chemically synthesizing polymer molds of specific molecules or recognition sites of specific molecules. Applications for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) include separations, assays and biosensors, and catalysis.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Magnets: Objects that produce a magnetic field.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Electric Capacitance: The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Fireflies: The family Lampyidae, which are bioluminescent BEETLES. They contain FIREFLY LUCIFERIN and LUCIFERASES. Oxidation of firefly luciferin results in luminescence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electromagnetic Phenomena: Characteristics of ELECTRICITY and magnetism such as charged particles and the properties and behavior of charged particles, and other phenomena related to or associated with electromagnetism.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Phonons: Quanta of acoustic energy which move at the speed of sound.Scattering, Small Angle: Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Silica Gel: A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.DNA, Catenated: CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Tin: A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques: The use of a quartz crystal microbalance for measuring weights and forces in the micro- to nanogram range. It is used to study the chemical and mechanical properties of thin layers, such as polymer coatings and lipid membranes; and interactions between molecues.Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Thermal Conductivity: The heat flow across a surface per unit area per unit time, divided by the negative of the rate of change of temperature with distance in a direction perpendicular to the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Recycling: The extraction and recovery of usable or valuable material from scrap or other discarded materials. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed.)Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Magnetic Fields: Areas of attractive or repulsive force surrounding MAGNETS.EthylaminesCarbon Disulfide: A colorless, flammable, poisonous liquid, CS2. It is used as a solvent, and is a counterirritant and has local anesthetic properties but is not used as such. It is highly toxic with pronounced CNS, hematologic, and dermatologic effects.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Streptavidin: A 60-kDa extracellular protein of Streptomyces avidinii with four high-affinity biotin binding sites. Unlike AVIDIN, streptavidin has a near neutral isoelectric point and is free of carbohydrate side chains.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Tellurium: Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Melopsittacus: A genus, commonly called budgerigars, in the family PSITTACIDAE. In the United States they are considered one of the five species of PARAKEETS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Dendrimers: Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)PrintingAzasteroids: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Radio: The transmission and reception of electric impulses or signals by means of electric waves without a connecting wire, or the use of these waves for the wireless transmission of electric impulses into which sound is converted. (From Webster's 3d)Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Fluorine: A nonmetallic, diatomic gas that is a trace element and member of the halogen family. It is used in dentistry as flouride (FLUORIDES) to prevent dental caries.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Sodium Hydroxide: A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)TextilesGermanium: A rare metal element with a blue-gray appearance and atomic symbol Ge, atomic number 32, and atomic weight 72.63.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".PaperChemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Electroplating: Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Microscopy, Scanning Probe: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a very sharp conducting needle is swept just a few angstroms above the surface of a sample. The tiny tunneling current that flows between the sample and the needle tip is measured, and from this are produced three-dimensional topographs. Due to the poor electron conductivity of most biological samples, thin metal coatings are deposited on the sample.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
He has also done research with carbon nanotubes and graphene. Some of Häkkinen's work after 2010 was related to the structural ... Most of his work is related to the different types of nano-structures. He has studied electronic, optical, magnetic, chemical ... and chemical properties of metal nanoparticle/bionanoparticle (virus) hybrids. Normally a virus is so small that observing it ...
... vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs), or vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) are cylindric nanostructures with graphene layers ... The metal is capable of forming nanosize carbon structures, and growing nanosize carbon structures by means of a chemical vapor ... Allotropes of carbon Carbon nanotubes Carbon black Carbon nanocone Carbon fiber Impalefection, a method of cell transfection ... Carbon nanofibers with graphene layers wrapped into perfect cylinders are called carbon nanotubes. Carbon has a high level of ...
This includes graphene, carbon nanotubes, transition metal dichalcogenides, phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride as well as ... metal and silicon nanostructures produced by a variety of techniques such as mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition ... Journal of American Chemical Society, Carbon etc. Zuankai Wang and Jonghwan Suhr are tenure-track assistant professors Keyan ... carbon nanotube) and two-dimensional (graphene) films", M.S. (2012). Rahul Mukherjee, "Nanostructured anode concepts for high ...
... carbon nanostructures based on graphene and quantum dots, metal nanoparticles for antimicrobial treatment and technology of ... Quantification of the Interaction Forces between Metals and Graphene by Quantum Chemical Calculations and Dynamic Force ... Magnetic nanostructures Carbon Nanostructures, Biomolecules and Simulations Biologically Active Complexes and Molecular Magnets ... Halogenated Graphenes: Rapidly Growing Family of Graphene Derivatives", ACS Nano 7, 6434-6464 (2013). T. Zeleny, M. Ruckenbauer ...
... has been used in laboratory to make nanostructured titanium dioxide, graphene, carbon and other ... Solvothermal synthesis is a method of producing chemical compounds. It is very similar to the hydrothermal route (where the ... and crystallinity of metal oxide nanoparticles or nanostructures. These characteristics can be altered by changing certain ... Hu, Gang; Ma, Ding; Cheng, Mojie; Liu, Lin; Bao, Xinhe (2002). "Direct synthesis of uniform hollow carbon spheres by a self- ...
Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene,and Associated Devices III) 2012-Present: Conference chair of MRS Meeting 2008-Present: Program ... Synthesis of Large-Area Graphene Layers on Poly-Nickel Substrate by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Wrinkle Formation (Advanced ... www.ibs.re.kr/kr/research/nanostructure/nanostructure.jsp ^Present Director of Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for ... Flexible Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Non-volatile Memory Device with Oxygen-decorated Graphene Electrode', Advanced Materials ...
"Molten salt corrosion of graphite as a possible way to make carbon nanostructures". Carbon. 56: 121-131. doi:10.1016/j.carbon. ... Chemical vapor deposition deposits a layer of graphene on top. The graphene can be peeled from the wafer using a dry process ... Graphene can be created by cutting open carbon nanotubes.[86] In one such method multi-walled carbon nanotubes are cut open in ... Graphite particles can be corroded in molten salts to form a variety of carbon nanostructures including graphene.[17] Hydrogen ...
... solid-state chemical sensors, organic opto-electronics, neural-electronic interfaces and self-assembling nanostructures. The ... Gunlycke, Daniel; White, Carter T. (31 July 2014). "Specular graphene transport barrier". Physical Review B. 90 (3). Bibcode: ... carbon nanotube electronics, electronic sensors, mechanical nano-resonators, ... graphene devices, high-power extremely high frequency (35-220 GHz) amplifiers, acoustic lensing, information-rich orbital ...
"Scanning probe microscopy study of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene transferred to Au(111)". Carbon. 95: 318-322. doi: ... Mechanism in observation of subsurface nanostructures". Physical Review B. 53 (16): 11091-11099. Bibcode:1996PhRvB..5311091K. ... 10.1016/j.carbon.2015.08.033.. *^ Tang, Shujie; Wang, Haomin; Zhang, Yu (2013). "Precisely aligned graphene grown on hexagonal ... double-layer graphene,[14] or Van der Waals heterostructure of graphene and hBN.[15][16] ...
European Carbon Association Award (2015) French-Italian Chemical Societies Award, French Chemical Society (2015) ACS Nano ... who is best known for his work on the functionalization of carbon nanostructures, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and ... graphene. He developed a series of organic reactions that make these materials more biocompatible, less or even non toxic, ... Federchimica Prize, Association of the Italian Chemical Industries (1995) National Prize for Research, Italian Chemical Society ...
... on the electronics and photonics of carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene, and has laid the foundations of future carbon-based ... 4] "Carbon nanostructures form the future of electronics and optoelectronics". Eureka Alert. Retrieved 28 April 2011. Nanometer ... Phaedon Avouris (Greek: Φαίδων Αβούρης; born 1945) is a Greek chemical physicist. He is an IBM Fellow and the group leader for ... and optoelectronic properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene. The work includes the design, fabrication, and study of ...
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. They can be considered a rolled up graphene ... Uses include accelerometers, or detectors of chemical substances in the air. As noted by Richard Feynman in his famous talk in ... Carbon nanotubes and graphene's physical strength allows carbon based materials to meet higher stress demands, when common ... Along with the mechanical benefits of carbon based materials, the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene allow ...
Carbon nanotube chemistry Colossal carbon tube Filamentous carbon Graphene oxide paper List of software for nanostructures ... and availability of chemical bonds on the exterior for functionalization without disrupting the carbon core may enable ... Carbon nanotube Boron nitride nanotube Buckypaper Carbide-derived carbon Carbon nanocone Carbon nanofibers Carbon nanoparticles ... "Thermal conductivity of a new carbon nanotube analog: The diamond nanothread". Carbon. 98: 232-237. doi:10.1016/j.carbon. ...
... thanks to a newly developed carbon nanostructure. The team grew nanocrystals of iron and nickel on carbon. Traditional ... The result was a strong chemical bond between the materials, which the team identified and studied at the synchrotron. A team ... This has implications for the use of graphene in a variety of future products. A collaboration between the University of Regina ... "Canadian Light Source spots speed bumps in graphene's electron highway". 15 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2012. Woodhouse, p. ...
Carbon nanotube, includes general nanotube terminology and diagrams. DNA nanotube, a two-dimensional lattice which curves back ... Nanotechnology Nanomaterials Nanostructure Self-assembling peptide Радушкевич, Л. В. (1952). О Структуре Углерода, ... The three scientists have been the first ones to show images of a nanotube with a solitary graphene wall. BCN nanotube ( ~BCN ... Chemical Physics Letters. 460 (4-6): 517-520. Bibcode:2008CPL...460..517M. doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2008.06.063. ...
Carbon nanostructures such as graphene oxide (GO) sheets, nano tubes, and fullerenes have proven antimicrobial properties when ... Thirdly, a multitude of chemical structures, such as fullerenes and metal oxides, allow for a diverse set of chemical ... Current research on the carcinogenic effects, if any, of carbon nanostructures is still in its infancy and there is therefore ... the large aspect ratio of carbon nanotubes, high surface energy in GO sheets). Human applications of carbon nano materials have ...
also reported a similar structure, namely "graphene-carbon nanotube hybrids", grown directly onto carbon fiber paper to form an ... Stoner, Brian R.; Jeffrey T. Glass (2012). "Carbon nanostructures: a morphological classification for charge density ... "Deposition of aligned bamboo-like carbon nanotubes via microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition". J. Appl. Phys. 88 ... "Stand-up structure of graphene-like carbon nanowalls on CNT directly grown on polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber paper as ...
His research is involved specifically in transport within nanostructures and carbon nanotubes, which revolves around graphene, ... "developed a novel mobile chemical sensor device that allows users to track their health and fitness through chemicals in their ... including carbon nanotubes and graphene, and hybrid nanostructures based on these materials conjugated with proteins, synthetic ... Nanotechnology AIP Advances Graphene Carbon nanotubes "Nano/Bio Interface Center". Nanotech.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2015-03-27. " ...
Nanoparticles such as graphene,[3] carbon nanotubes, molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide are being used as reinforcing ... In general, two-dimensional nanostructures can reinforce the polymer better than one-dimensional nanostructures, and inorganic ... The transition from micro- to nano-particles lead to change in its physical as well as chemical properties. Two of the major ... Carbon nanotubes, gold particles and synthetic polymers are used for this purpose. This immobilization has been achieved ...
The reaction occurs on carbon nanotubes, graphene, and similar carbon frameworks, where the four adjacent six-membered rings of ... "Stone-Wales-type transformations in carbon nanostructures driven by electron irradiation". Phys. Rev. B. 83 (24): 245420-245433 ... As a result, the defect creates a region with greater chemical reactivity, including acting as a nucleophile[citation needed] ... Incorporation of defects along a carbon-nanotube network can program a carbon-nanotube circuit to enhance the conductance along ...
Box-shaped graphene (BSG) nanostructure is an example of 3D nanomaterial. BSG nanostructure has appeared after mechanical ... The fullerenes are a class of allotropes of carbon which conceptually are graphene sheets rolled into tubes or spheres. These ... 1991). "Molecular Self-Assembly and Nanochemistry: A Chemical Strategy for the Synthesis of Nanostructures". Science. 254 (5036 ... Lapshin, R. V. (2016). "STM observation of a box-shaped graphene nanostructure appeared after mechanical cleavage of pyrolytic ...
Few-Layer graphenes from ball-milling of graphite with melamine, ChemComm, 47, 10936-10938, 2011. Carbon nanohorns ... Biomaterials, 33, 8152-8159, (2012). Degree of Chemical Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes Determines Tissue Distribution ... her research focused on microwave radiation for the activation of carbon nanostructures in solvent-free conditions, developing ... Asbestos-like pathogenicity of long carbon nanotubes can be alleviated by chemical functionalization.Angewandte Chemie. DOI: ...
... carbon nanotubes and graphene sheets, nanoparticles and crystalline samples. MBN Explorer has been utilized in different ... simulation of irradiation-induced chemical transformations by means of irradiation-driven molecular dynamics. MBN Explorer is ... of titanium-based nanomaterials Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling List of software for nanostructures ...
Synthetic diamond and carbon nanotubes (e.g., Buckypaper) Programmable matter Graphene Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion, ... Main article: Chemical kinetics. Chemical kinetics is the study of the rates at which systems that are out of equilibrium ... Nanostructure deals with objects and structures that are in the 1-100 nm range.[10] In many materials, atoms or molecules ... Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon steels. An iron-carbon alloy is only considered ...
The term carbon nanotube refers to a cylinder with a rolled graphene sheet. CNT can be single walled (SWNT) or multi-walled ( ... The target was to identify the non-covalent binding between hemoglobin and relevant chemicals. Among 13 different chemicals ... recently, a new technique named nanostructure Imaging mass spectrometry (NIMS) was introduced as a result of using explosive ... Graphene is a type of popular carbon nanomaterial discovered in 2004. It has a large surface area that could effectively attach ...
Synthetic diamond and carbon nanotubes (e.g., Buckypaper) Programmable matter Graphene Hypothetical, experiments, diffusion, ... Main article: Chemical kinetics. Chemical kinetics is the study of the rates at which systems that are out of equilibrium ... Nanostructure deals with objects and structures that are in the 1-100 nm range.[10] In many materials, atoms or molecules ... Iron alloyed with various proportions of carbon gives low, mid and high carbon steels. An iron-carbon alloy is only considered ...
We have recently developed a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) process to produce FLG. We present results on the ... While transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of few layer graphene, Raman spectra bear the characteristics of ... single layer graphene with a relative low defect density indicating that the interaction between layers is reduced in FLG ... The growth of few layer graphene (FLG) in powder form by CVD is particularly promising for its large scale production and use ...
... and Zero Bandgap of Graphene The Graphene Science Handbook is ... Cylindrical Carbon Nanostructures Grown by Catalytic Chemical ... This handbook describes the fabrication methods of graphene; the nanostructure and atomic arrangement of graphene; graphenes ... The Graphene Science Handbook is a six-volume set that describes graphenes special structural, electrical, and chemical ... Graphene Science Handbook Nanostructure and Atomic Arrangement By Mahmood Aliofkhazraei. , Nasar Ali. , William I. Milne. , ...
d Division of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, College of Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 52, Ewhayeodae-gil, ... Composite hollow nanostructures composed of carbon-coated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-reduced graphene oxide as an efficient ... Composite hollow nanostructures composed of carbon-coated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-reduced graphene oxide as an efficient ... Herein, we report for the first time an efficient one-step approach to synthesize conductive Ti3+ self-doped carbon-coated TiO2 ...
N-doped carbon nanotubes/N-doped graphene architecture (N-CNTs/N-graphene). We used nickel foam as substrate, melamine as a ... with 2D graphene have attracted more and more attentions due to their excellent chemical, physical and electrical properties. ... In this study, we firstly report a novel and facile one-step process using template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to ... The obtained 3D N-CNTs/N-graphene exhibits high graphitization, a regular 3D structure and excellent nitrogen doping and good ...
Fundamental Structural, Electronic, and Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanostructures: Graphene, Fullerenes, Carbon Nanotubes, ... Modeling of Quasi-One-Dimensional Carbon Nanostructures with Density Functional Theory Veronica Barone, Oded Hod, Juan E. ... Special emphasis is placed on the environmental effects of nanostructures. Part four is devoted to an important class of ... The section includes a discussion of basic ideas such as molecular structure, molecular descriptors and chemical similarity. ...
He has also done research with carbon nanotubes and graphene. Some of Häkkinens work after 2010 was related to the structural ... Most of his work is related to the different types of nano-structures. He has studied electronic, optical, magnetic, chemical ... and chemical properties of metal nanoparticle/bionanoparticle (virus) hybrids. Normally a virus is so small that observing it ...
1.Low Carbon Economy (LCE) Group, Chemical Engineering Discipline, School of EngineeringMonash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan ... facets on a graphene scaffold as photo-active hybrid nanostructures for reduction of carbon dioxide to methane. ... Park, S.; Ruoff, R. S. Chemical methods for the production of graphenes. Nat. Nanotechnol. 2009, 4, 217-224.CrossRefGoogle ... photocatalysis nitrogen-doped TiO2 {001} facet acid treated solvent exfoliated graphene carbon dioxide reduction visible light ...
He is the head of the Chemical Physics of Low-Dimensional Nanostructures group. The main focus of this group is to conduct ... The main materials studied are graphene, carbon nanotubes, polymer inorganic nanowires and inorganic layered compounds. ... Professor Jonathan Coleman is currently Professor of Chemical Physics in the School of Physics and a Principal Investigator in ... interdisciplinary research on the physics and chemistry of materials with an emphasis on low dimensional nanostructures. ...
Meanwhile, hollow transition metal oxide nanostructures have promising potential for advanced energy storage applications. ... Strong chemical bonds between transition metal oxides and carbon materials which enable fast electron transfer kinetics are ... Strong chemical bonds between transition metal oxides and carbon materials which enable fast electron transfer kinetics are ... This surface-confined strategy may pave a way for realizing strong chemical bonds between hollow oxides and carbon-based ...
Carbon nanostructures grow under extreme particle bombardment. (Phys.org) -Nanostructures, such as graphene and carbon ... Graphene microphone outperforms traditional nickel and offers ultrasonic reach. Scientists have developed a graphene based ... Carbon nanotubes grown in combustion flames. An international research teams theoretical simulation of the synthesis of single ... Breakthrough graphene production could trigger revolution in artificial skin development. A pioneering new technique to produce ...
... which can produce defect-free 2D nanosheets from a range of layered materials such as graphene, MoS2 and black phosphorous. An ... inorganic 2D nanosheets and carbon nanotubes. We focus on liquid processing of these nanomaterials with the aim of developing ... Our research focuses on the study of low-dimensional nanostructures including graphene, ... Our research focuses on the study of low-dimensional nanostructures including graphene, inorganic 2D nanosheets and carbon ...
Carbon allotropes can be classified according to the carbon atom hybridization. In principle, there are different ways, based ... Main Allotropes of Carbon: A Brief Review: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0492-4.ch006: ... which can be used to classify carbon nanostructures. Classifications vary function of the field of nanostructure applications. ... carbon nanotubes, diamond and amorphous carbon. In addition, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) techniques, frequently used for ...
Im Focus: A transistor of graphene nanoribbons. Transistors based on carbon nanostructures: what sounds like a futuristic dream ... Graphene ribbons that are only a few atoms wide, so-called graphene nanoribbons, have special electrical properties that make ... has discovered that a chemical called triazole is significantly more effective than similar chemicals researchers have explored ... The findings were published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. "Triazole will greatly reduce many of the problems ...
... graphene, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and hybrid micro-/nanostructures have been utilized to fabricate stretchable sensors [8 ... Creating wearable chemical sensors that can identify and quantify biomarkers from sweat-such as electrolytes (sodium, chloride ... and chemical properties. Polymers, such as polydimethylsiloxane, silicon, and thermoplastic elastomers, are used as flexible ... is now only possible through a probe that depends on direct chemical concentration with the analyte (dissolved compounds) [7]. ...
Two outstanding examples are carbon nanostructures (e.g., graphene) and topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3), which constitute ... Reactive chemical doping of the Bi2Se3 topological insulator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 177602 (2011). Article. R. S. Sundaram, M. ... and two-dimensional nanostructures, including inorganic semiconductor nanowires and graphene nanoribbons. Here the aim is to ... Carbon-based field effect transistors for nanoelectronics. Adv. Mater. 21, 2586 (2009). Article. I. Gierz, C. Riedl, U. Starke ...
Specifically, the chemical and electrochemical synthesis of 2-dimensional nanomaterials such as graphene. I am also experienced ... in preparing one-dimensional nanostructures such as multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with abundant functional groups. All ... PhD in Chemical and Biological Engineering from the Faculty of Engineering University of Porto (FEUP), Portugal ... Inga Fischer Hjalmars Award, 2014: for the most outstanding thesis in the field of theoretical chemistry, Swedish Chemical ...
Dr Kasturi Vimalanathan is working with Professor Raston on these carbon nanostructures, which are made of graphene-single ... The VFD can also bend SWCNTs into rings without reactive chemicals or stabilising surfactants. The diameter of the nanorings is ... Graphene consists of flat layers of carbon and has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, ... Professor Rastons group is using the VFD to create carbon nanostructures that could increase the efficiency of solar cells and ...
... and applications of materials containing true nanosize dimensions or nanostructures that enable novel/enhanced properties or ... graphene foams or sponges, carbon nanotube forests, carbon fibers, carbon nanowalls, and porous carbon materials, can lead to a ... In addition to chemical and physical modifications, the functions of carbon nanomaterials can be altered by adding or doping ... amorphous carbon, and more recently, graphene. Carbon nanomaterials or nanostructures offer exceptional flexibility in ...
Carbon nanomaterials for gas adsorption. [M L Terranova; Silvia Orlanducci; Marco Rossi, Ph. D.;] -- The increasing interest ... induced to benchmark carbon nanomaterials as one of the ongoing strategic ... ... 1. Techniques for the measurement of gas adsorption by carbon nanostructures / D.P. Broom --. 2. Physical and chemical ... 5. Structural and electronic properties of hydrogenated graphene / Tanglaw Roman and Hideaki Kasai --. 6. Gas desorption from ...
... and applications of materials containing true nanosize dimensions or nanostructures that enable novel/enhanced properties or ... Chemical modification of the graphene surface is common, such as acid treatment, which imparts -COOH groups at the broken links ... The major challenge for these hydrophobic carbon nanostructures is their dispersion in an aqueous medium. Several approaches ... The surface of the graphite nanoplatelets is pure graphene where the carbon is in a sp2 configuration. This presents a ...
... vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCFs), or vapor grown carbon nanofibers (VGCNFs) are cylindric nanostructures with graphene layers ... The metal is capable of forming nanosize carbon structures, and growing nanosize carbon structures by means of a chemical vapor ... Allotropes of carbon Carbon nanotubes Carbon black Carbon nanocone Carbon fiber Impalefection, a method of cell transfection ... Carbon nanofibers with graphene layers wrapped into perfect cylinders are called carbon nanotubes. Carbon has a high level of ...
Developing high-value nanostructured carbon from bio-char, for electrical and natural gas energy storage, is critical to ... Carbon Materials from High Ash Bio-char: A Nanostructure Similar to Activated Graphene * 1. 2013 American Transactions on ... Understanding chemical reactions between carbons and NaOH and KOH, An insight into the chemical activation mechanism, Carbon, ... Activated carbon samples with high mesoporous volume ( 1 ml/g), and nanostructure similar to activated graphene were prepared ...
Microstructural modifications in diamond like carbon thin films.... Porous nickel telluride nanostructures as bifunctional ... Raman imaging on high quality graphene grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. Raman imaging on high quality graphene ... Raman imaging on high quality graphene grown by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition Raman imaging on high quality graphene ... Controlled growth of high-quality graphene using hot filament chemical vapour deposition. ...
... chemical modification and combining carbon based sub-classes into new hybrid structures make the carbon nanostructure even more ... two-dimensional graphene shows metallic behavior with exceptional electron mobility. Moreover the possibility to even further ... Carbon Nanotube, single-walled carbon nanotube, nitrogen doped, chemical vapor deposition, fullerene, hybrid structures ... In this thesis carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on iron/cobalt catalyst particles. The ...
  • The interest stems from the fact that covalently bonded carbon atoms can form a wide variety of structures with zero-, one- and two-dimensional configuration with different physical properties. (diva-portal.org)
  • Figure 1 (a) and (b) also shows the convention on how the carbon atoms are counted across zigzag and armchair GNRs to distinguish ribbons with different widths. (degruyter.com)
  • The work will be of interest to those considering graphene elements in flexible touchscreens or memories that store bits by controlling electric dipole moments of carbon atoms, the researchers said. (nanowerk.com)
  • Perfect graphene an atom-thick sheet of carbon is a conductor, as its atoms electrical charges balance each other out across the plane. (nanowerk.com)
  • But curvature in graphene compresses the electron clouds of the bonds on the concave side and stretches them on the convex side, thus altering their electric dipole moments, the characteristic that controls how polarized atoms interact with external electric fields. (nanowerk.com)
  • The researchers used density functional theory to compute dipole moments for individual atoms in a graphene lattice and then figure out their cumulative effect. (nanowerk.com)
  • Graphene is composed of two-dimensional and hexagonal rings of sp 2 carbon atoms. (intechopen.com)
  • Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties. (bioportfolio.com)
  • They have also focused on the chemical assignment of single atoms or molecules correlated to the atomic structures including defects and dopants by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). (gatan.com)
  • How do atoms vibrate in graphene nanostructures? (gatan.com)
  • In order to understand advanced materials like graphene nanostructures and optimize them for devices in nano-, opto- and quantum-technology it is crucial to understand how phonons - the vibration of atoms in solids - influence the materials' properties. (gatan.com)
  • Chemical reactions involving carbon and sulphur atoms held within a nanotube lead to the formation of atomically thin strips of carbon, known as graphene nanoribbon, decorated with sulphur atoms around the edge. (futurity.org)
  • Graphene consists of hexagonal rings of carbon atoms packed in periodic structure with symmetry D 6h , and due to its electronic, mechanical, and other physical and chemical characteristics, it is of great interest for scientific community. (springeropen.com)
  • As an initial atomic configuration fragment, a flat hexagonal lattice of 40 carbon atoms (Fig. 1 ) or 12 elementary hexagonal cells of graphene with symmetry type D 6h were modeled and optimized in the same basis and function. (springeropen.com)
  • Graphene is single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a continuous honeycomb network and is the latest addition to the nanocarbon family. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Due to their high flexibility, lightweight and good electrical conductivity, graphene papers have demonstrated the promising potential for crucial applications in electrochemical sensors and energy technologies among others. (intechopen.com)
  • In this chapter, we present some examples to overview recent advances in the research and development of two-dimensional (2D) graphene papers as new materials for electrochemical sensors. (intechopen.com)
  • In terms of electrochemical-sensing applications, the emphasis is on enzyme-graphene and nanoparticle-graphene paper-based systems for the detection of glucose. (intechopen.com)
  • Electrochemical sensors can ideally fulfil that goal by converting a chemical or a biological response into a processable and quantifiable signal. (intechopen.com)
  • It may also allow the creation of partitions and cavities with varying electrochemical potential, more acidic or basic, depending on the curvature in the 3-D carbon architecture. (nanowerk.com)
  • In analogy to lithium-ion technology, bilayer graphene is employed as an electrode in an electrochemical cell for the first time. (mpg.de)
  • Here we report that nanometre-size N-doped graphene quantum dots (NGQDs) catalyse the electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into multi-carbon hydrocarbons and oxygenates at high Faradaic efficiencies, high current densities and low overpotentials. (rice.edu)
  • Development of a paper-based electrochemical immunosensor using an antibody-single walled carbon nanotubes bio-conjugate modified electrode for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens Ulsan, Korea. (seclusiasis.com)
  • The synergistic effect between the highly conductive graphene and the nanoflake Co(OH) 2 structure was responsible for the high electrochemical performance of the hybrid electrode. (springer.com)
  • Laser scribing of highperformance and flexible graphene-based electrochemical capacitors. (springer.com)
  • Graphene and related materials hold promise for the future of electrochemical sensors - detectors that measure the concentration of oxygen, toxic gases, and other substances - but many applications require greater sensitivity at lower detection ranges than scientists have been able to achieve. (pddnet.com)
  • A Northwestern University research team and partners in India have recently developed a new method for amplifying signals in graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensors through a process called "magneto-electrochemical immunoassay. (pddnet.com)
  • Graphene-based nanocomposite films have recently been used as an effective sensing platform for the development of electrochemical sensors and biosensors because of their unique facile surface modification characteristics and high charge mobility. (pddnet.com)
  • electrochemical and electronic device fabrication and structural and chemical characterisation of surfaces. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • By applying PolyU's novel technology, graphene roll is embedded into TZB composite (which mainly compose of TiO2). (ft.lk)
  • The results show that the graphene/CNT nanocomposite has moderate to low cytotoxicity, high-transfection efficiency, and great potential as a gene carrier agent in nonviral-based therapy. (intechopen.com)
  • Carbon has a high level of chemical bonding flexibility, which lends itself to the formation of a number of stable Organic and Inorganic Molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, gas-phase molecules are decomposed at high temperatures and carbon is deposited in the presence of a transition metal catalyst on a substrate where subsequent growth of the fiber around the catalyst particles is realized. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, while fullerene molecules (zero-dimensional carbon structures) realize semiconductor behavior, two-dimensional graphene shows metallic behavior with exceptional electron mobility. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1. They take the form of cylindrical carbon molecules and have novel properties that make them potentially https://www.gpebusinessschool.org/write-me-top-university-essay-on-pokemon-go useful in a wide variety of applications. (seclusiasis.com)
  • The maximum concentrations achieved are the points at which the van der Waals forces overcome the interactive forces between the graphene sheets and the solvent molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have developed the low-accelerating voltage transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) equipped with high-order aberration correctors to visualize the atomic structures of low-dimensional materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, and transition-metal dichalcogenides as well as soft matters such as organic molecules and biomaterials. (gatan.com)
  • Researchers know that physical and chemical properties of molecules inserted into carbon nanotubes are different to the properties of free molecules, presenting a powerful mechanism for harnessing their functional properties, such as magnetic or optical, and for controlling their chemical reactivity. (futurity.org)
  • The Rice team chemically unzipped carbon nanotubes into ribbons and then collapsed them into porous, three-dimensional aerogels, simultaneously decorating the ribbons' edges with boron and nitrogen molecules. (rice.edu)
  • The mechanism of the resonance enhancement of vibration modes of the molecules adsorbed on graphene in CARS experiments is proposed. (springeropen.com)
  • Transforming atmospheric N2 into molecules that can be incorporated by most organisms (N2 fixation) is either done by microorganisms or through energetically costly chemical processes (lightning strikes, Haber- Bosch (H-B) process). (uantwerpen.be)
  • The main focus of this group is to conduct interdisciplinary research on the physics and chemistry of materials with an emphasis on low dimensional nanostructures. (tcd.ie)
  • Inga Fischer Hjalmars Award, 2014: for the most outstanding thesis in the field of theoretical chemistry, Swedish Chemical Society, Sweden. (vscht.cz)
  • Apparently, graphene chemistry is one of the best choices to solve these problems. (nanowerk.com)
  • Permanent chemical anchoring using click chemistry leads to surface-active silicones. (pittstate.edu)
  • Michael A. Brook, Scott E. Laengert, Ben Macphail, Robert Bui, Sijia Zheng, Alyssa F. Schneider, Mengchen Liao, Yang Chen and Jianfeng Zhang are at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at McMaster University in Ontario, Canada. (pittstate.edu)
  • Organic chemical engineering is a branch that applies physical sciences (physical science and organic natural science), life sciences (microbiology and organic chemistry ), together with connected arithmetic and financial matters to deliver, change, transport, and appropriately utilize chemicals, materials and vitality. (chemistryconferences.org)
  • Pharmacology is additionally a branch of biological chemistry, and medicines committed the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. (chemistryconferences.org)
  • The research appeared in the American Chemical Society journal Chemistry of Materials . (rice.edu)
  • Our research covers a wide range of topics at the interface of materials science, surface physics and chemistry , with a particular focus on low-dimensional organic & carbon-based materials. (unibe.ch)
  • Chemistry of Carbon Na. (degruyter.com)
  • Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have attracted interest and excitement across a broad spectrum of sciences from engineering, materials, chemistry, biology to medicine. (dur.ac.uk)
  • In this way, they could for the first time determine all vibrational modes of freestanding graphene as well as the local extension of different vibrational modes in a graphene nanoribbon. (gatan.com)
  • While transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of few layer graphene, Raman spectra bear the characteristics of single layer graphene with a relative low defect density indicating that the interaction between layers is reduced in FLG powders. (nsti.org)
  • The goals of this paper are to identify the correspondence between available notations, to calculate the optical modes of graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone, and to compare them with experimental data obtained by Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. (springeropen.com)
  • Here, we want to give two main used notations in literature [ 4 , 5 ] for easy interpretation of Raman spectra and dispersion of graphene. (springeropen.com)
  • Dispersion is not universally recognized characteristics in contrast to Raman spectra which is a passport for graphene and graphene-based materials. (springeropen.com)
  • That is why we calculate, visualize, and compare the optical modes in graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone with Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) experiment data. (springeropen.com)
  • Here, we discussed a resonant character of conventional Raman and CARS spectra for graphene. (springeropen.com)
  • The fundamental characteristics (morphology, elemental composition and structure) of these nanostructures were characterised by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Auger and Raman spectroscopy. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and MMWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The potential graphene application includes photoelectric elements, various medical applications, adsorbents for environmental pollutants, and use as a semiconductor material. (intechopen.com)
  • Semiconductor made into nanofibre of diameter as small as 60nm (less than 1/1,000 of a human hair) have been widely used in modern daily life photonic devices (such as solar cells, photocatalyst for cleaning the environment), and non-photonic devices (such as chemical-biological sensor, lithium battery). (ft.lk)
  • The novel semiconductor nanofibre so produced has superb conductivity, which provides a graphene superhighway for electrons to transport more quickly to oxide the absorbed pollutants. (ft.lk)
  • Such novel semiconductor nanofibre can convert about 90% of NO to NO2, a 35% increase compared to composite without graphene. (ft.lk)
  • Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have discovered that large area graphene is able to preserve electron spin over an extended period, and communicate it over greater distances than had previously been known. (phys.org)
  • A team of researchers from the University of Southampton's Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) has developed a new way to fabricate a potential challenger to graphene. (phys.org)
  • But researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have pinpointed a chemical that could allow PEM fuel cells to operate at a much higher temperature without moisture, potentially meaning that polymer fuel cells could be made much more cheaply than ever before and finally run at temperatures high enough to make them practical for use in cars and small electronics. (innovations-report.com)
  • A team lead by Dr. Meilin Liu, a professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Georgia Tech, has discovered that a chemical called triazole is significantly more effective than similar chemicals researchers have explored to increase conductivity and reduce moisture dependence in polymer membranes. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Rice lab of Boris Yakobson in collaboration with researchers in Moscow found the effect is pronounced and predictable in nanocones and should apply equally to other forms of graphene. (nanowerk.com)
  • The researchers discovered it may be possible to access what they call an electronic flexoelectric effect in which the electronic properties of a sheet of graphene can be manipulated simply by twisting it a certain way. (nanowerk.com)
  • Researchers' evaluations of graphene as an adsorbent for solid phase extraction with chlorophenols when applied to the analysis of river water samples had recoveries above 77.2% [ 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • With this pilot experiment using graphene nanostructures these researchers have shown the uniqueness of their approach, which will be published in the latest issue of Nature. (gatan.com)
  • The researchers used tiny magnetic particles encapsulated in inert coating of silicon dioxide to make core-shell nanostructures with favorable magnetic properties of metallic iron while preventing them from oxidation or significant degradation. (pddnet.com)
  • Gerasimenko, O.E. Glukhova, G.V. Savostyanov, V.M. Podgaetsky Laser structuring of carbon nanotubes in the albumin matrix for the creation of composite biostructures // J. Biomed. (famous-scientists.ru)
  • Gerasimenko, O.E. Glukhova , G.V. Savostyanov , M.S. Savelyev, L.P. Ichkitidze, Y.P. Masloboev, S.V. Selishchev, V.M. Podgaetsky Laser Structuring of Carbon Nanoframe in a Protein Matrix for the Creation of 3-D Composite Materials and Coatings for Applications in Tissue Engineering // Proc. (famous-scientists.ru)
  • 16. O.E. Glukhova, M.M. Slepchenkov, D.S. Shmygin Nanoindentation of a new graphene/phospholipid composite: a numerical simulation. (famous-scientists.ru)
  • As carbon is readily available at low cost, CNFs are popular additives to composite materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graphene has great potential to be used for low-cost, flexible, and highly efficient photovoltaic devices due to its excellent electron-transport properties and extremely high carrier mobility. (nanowerk.com)
  • As of 2014 exfoliation produced graphene with the lowest number of defects and highest electron mobility. (wikipedia.org)
  • A scanning electron microscope image, left, and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope image show an activated, sulfur-containing porous carbon sample. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Archana Pandey, Abhishek Prasad, Jason P. Moscatello, Mark Engelhard, Chongmin Wang, Yoke Khin Yap, " Very Stable Electron Field Emission from Strontium Titanate Coated Carbon Nanotube Matrices with Low Emission Thresholds ," ACS Nano 7, 117 (2013). (mtu.edu)
  • The figure, above right, shows a f iltered high-resolution transmission electron micrograph of a graphene sheet produced in our laboratory. (dur.ac.uk)
  • The results were attributed to a cooperative effect of the hybridization of TiO 2 with rGO, Ti 3+ self-doping and the formation of a carbon-coating layer over the TiO 2 particles. (rsc.org)
  • Considerable interest has been drawn in the layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of nanosized carbon particles due to their excellent thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Growth of large area of high-quality graphene was developed on metal substrates [ 10 ], and individual graphene sheets can be also prepared by micromechanical cleavage [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Optical modes of single-layer graphene were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with periodic boundary conditions (PBC) and STO-3G basis with the correlation functional VWN5. (springeropen.com)
  • The PIG hybrid was chemically activated at temperatures of 400-800 °C, which resulted in nitrogen (N)-doped graphene sheets. (nih.gov)
  • Subtle adjustments in the manufacture of a polymer-based carbon sorbent make it the best-known material either for capturing the greenhouse gas or balancing carbon capture with methane selectivity, according to Rice chemist Andrew Barron. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Making filters with a 3-to-1 ratio of KOH to polymer gave it a surface area of 2,700 square meters per gram and maximized carbon dioxide uptake under pressures of 5 to 30 bar. (nanotech-now.com)
  • Like carbon nanotubes, which can be considered to be a rolled up sheet of graphene, the material has exceptional electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Often overlooked is the potential formation of graphene derivatives under currently approximated early Earth conditions. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Herein, an oxygen vacancy assisted hydroxyl modification method is proposed to encapsulate Mn 3 O 4 hollow spheres with controlled shell numbers in reduced graphene oxide (Mn 3 O 4 -rGO). (rsc.org)
  • We discuss various synthetic techniques for polymerization and planarization steps, possible approaches for chemical modification of GNRs, and compare the properties of GNRs that could be achieved by different synthetic methods. (degruyter.com)
  • Another objective is to realize spintronic devices, for instance by implementing strong spin-splitting into a quantum well state, or hybridizing molecular magnets with carbon nanostructures. (mpg.de)
  • Quantum chemical approaches to the description of the electronic structure of real materials can be used to predict even strong electronic correlation effects with high accuracy. (mpg.de)
  • Fundamental modes of graphene layer at the Г (D 6h ), K (D 3h ), and M (D 2h ) points of the Brillouin zone were identified by using the apparatus of the quantum-mechanical projection operator. (springeropen.com)
  • It shows that the films mainly exhibited the feature of amorphous carbon when W concentration in the films was less than 4.38 at. (hindawi.com)
  • Graphene has attracted enormous attention due to its extraordinary combination of electronic, mechanical, thermal and optical properties [ 1 ]. (degruyter.com)
  • These hybrid superstructures have been extensively studied both at theoretical and experimental base due to their interesting mechanical, chemical, optoelectronic, catalytic, and electronic properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers were used for https://fablesounds.com/uncategorized/sample-cover-letter-records-clerk enhancing the mechanical properties of cementitious materials (Tyson, 2011). (seclusiasis.com)
  • Graphene is a fascinating material with unique properties, such as extreme mechanical strength, ultrahigh electrical and thermal conductivities and remarkable transparency. (mpg.de)