A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
Histiocytic, inflammatory response to a foreign body. It consists of modified macrophages with multinucleated giant cells, in this case foreign-body giant cells (GIANT CELLS, FOREIGN-BODY), usually surrounded by lymphocytes.
A disorder of the skin, the oral mucosa, and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma often resulting from trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma.
The most benign and common form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis which involves localized nodular lesions predominantly of the bones but also of the gastric mucosa, small intestine, lungs, or skin, with infiltration by EOSINOPHILS.
Granulomatous disorders affecting one or more sites in the respiratory tract.
Benign granulomatous disease of unknown etiology characterized by a ring of localized or disseminated papules or nodules on the skin and palisading histiocytes surrounding necrobiotic tissue resulting from altered collagen structures.
A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw.
Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.
Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation of periapical tissue resulting from irritation following pulp disease or endodontic treatment.
A tumor-like nodule or mass of inflammatory granulation tissue projecting into the lumen of the LARYNX.
Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
A tumor-like mass resulting from the enlargement of a tuberculous lesion.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones, and parotid glands.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Sarcoidosis affecting predominantly the lungs, the site most frequently involved and most commonly causing morbidity and mortality in sarcoidosis. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is characterized by sharply circumscribed granulomas in the alveolar, bronchial, and vascular walls, composed of tightly packed cells derived from the mononuclear phagocyte system. The clinical symptoms when present are dyspnea upon exertion, nonproductive cough, and wheezing. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p431)
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
A slow-growing benign pseudotumor in which plasma cells greatly outnumber the inflammatory cells.
A tumor-like inflammatory lesion of the lung that is composed of PLASMA CELLS and fibrous tissue. It is also known as an inflammatory pseudotumor, often with calcification and measuring between 2 and 5 cm in diameter.
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).
A condition that is characterized by inflammation, ulceration, and perforation of the nose and the PALATE with progressive destruction of midline facial structures. This syndrome can be manifested in several diseases including the nasal type of EXTRANODAL NK-T-CELL LYMPHOMA and GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS.
'Gingival diseases' is a general term for conditions affecting the soft tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, primarily characterized by inflammation, bleeding, redness, or swelling, which can progress to periodontal disease if left untreated.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Infection of the LIVER with species of MYCOBACTERIUM, most often MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. It is characterized by localized small tuberculous miliary lesions or tumor-like mass (TUBERCULOMA), and abnormalities in liver function tests.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
Inbred CBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical and uniform, which makes them useful for scientific research, particularly in the areas of immunology and cancer.
A genus of bacteria causing GRANULOMA INGUINALE and other granulomatous lesions.
'Skin diseases' is a broad term for various conditions affecting the skin, including inflammatory disorders, infections, benign and malignant tumors, congenital abnormalities, and degenerative diseases, which can cause symptoms such as rashes, discoloration, eruptions, lesions, itching, or pain.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Facial dermatoses refers to various skin conditions that affect the face, causing symptoms such as redness, inflammation, papules, pustules, scaling, or pigmentation changes, which can be caused by a range of factors including genetics, infections, allergies, and environmental factors.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
'Splenic diseases' refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or integrity of the spleen, leading to various symptoms and potential complications such as anemia, infection, or abdominal pain.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Lip diseases refer to various medical conditions that primarily affect the lips, causing symptoms such as inflammation, pain, dryness, discoloration, or abnormal growths, which may result from infectious, autoimmune, genetic, traumatic, or neoplastic causes.

Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda). (1/1842)

Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness.  (+info)

Enhanced Th1 and dampened Th2 responses synergize to inhibit acute granulomatous and fibrotic responses in murine schistosomiasis mansoni. (2/1842)

In murine schistosomiasis mansoni, CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 cells participate in the ovum-induced granulomatous inflammation. Previous studies showed that the interleukin-12 (IL-12)-induced Th1 response strongly suppressed the Th2-cell-mediated pulmonary granuloma development in naive or primed mice. However, liver granulomas were only moderately suppressed in egg-vaccinated, recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12)-treated infected mice. The present study shows that repeated rIL-12 injections given during early granuloma development at 5 to 7 weeks after infection prolonged the Th1 phase and resulted in gamma interferon-mediated suppression of liver granulomas. The timing is crucial: if given at 6 to 8 weeks, during the Th2-dominated phase of florid granuloma growth, the treatment is ineffective. Daily injections of rIL-12 given between 5 and 7.5 weeks during the period of granuloma growth achieved a somewhat-stronger diminution in granuloma growth with less deposition of collagen but caused 60% mortality and liver pathology. In contrast, combined treatment with rIL-12 and anti-IL-4-anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (MAb) injections given during the Th2 phase strongly inhibited liver granuloma growth without mortality. The diminished inflammatory response was accompanied by less deposition of collagen in the liver. Moreover, neutralization of endogenous IL-12 by anti-IL-12 MAbs effectively decreased the early Th1 phase (between 5 and 6 weeks after infection) but not the developing Th2 phase (5 to 7 weeks) of granuloma development. These studies indicate that the granulomatous response in infected mice can be manipulated by utilizing the Th1-Th2-subset antagonism with potential salutary results in the amelioration of fibrous pathology.  (+info)

N,N'-Diacetyl-L-cystine-the disulfide dimer of N-acetylcysteine-is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in rodents. (3/1842)

Oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used clinically for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NAC is easily oxidized to its disulfide. We show here that N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC) is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity (CS)/delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in rodents. Oral treatment of BALB/c mice with 0.003 to 30 micromol/kg DiNAC leads to enhancement of a CS reaction to oxazolone; DiNAC is 100 to 1000 times more potent than NAC in this respect, indicating that it does not act as a prodrug of NAC. Structure-activity studies suggest that a stereochemically-defined disulfide element is needed for activity. The DiNAC-induced enhancement of the CS reaction is counteracted by simultaneous NAC-treatment; in contrast, the CS reaction is even more enhanced in animals treated with DiNAC together with the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine. These data suggest that DiNAC acts via redox processes. Immunohistochemically, ear specimens from oxazolone-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice treated with DiNAC display increased numbers of CD8(+) cells. DiNAC treatment augments the CS reaction also when fluorescein isothiocyanate is used as a sensitizer in BALB/c mice; this is a purported TH2 type of response. However, when dinitrofluorobenzene is used as a sensitizer, inducing a purported TH1 type of response, DiNAC treatment reduces the reaction. Treatment with DiNAC also reduces a DTH footpad-swelling reaction to methylated BSA. Collectively, these data indicate that DiNAC in vivo acts as a potent and effective immunomodulator that can either enhance or reduce the CS or DTH response depending on the experimental conditions.  (+info)

The requirement of an adherent cell substratum for the growth of developing plasmacytoma cells in vivo. (4/1842)

The intraperitoneal injection of pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane) produces an environment conductive to primary plasmacytoma growth in as few as 3 days. After pristane injection, the total free peritoneal cell population increases from a normal value of 1.55 X 10(6) to 5.28 X 10(6) and remains at this elevated level for at least 50 days. The adherent peritoneal cell population, composed of both mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is the primary source of this increase. In the pristane-conditioned peritoneum, these cells rapidly form a chronic granuloma on the peritoneal connective tissues. Daily subcutaneous treatment of mice with 0.5 mg of hydrocortisone beginning simultaneously with pristane injection prevents the increase in the peritoneal cell population, granuloma formation, d the production of a conditoned environment. In mice treated with hydrocortisone beginning 3 days after pristane injection, however, neither the peritoneal cell increase nor the production of a conditioned environment is prevented. The intraperitoneal injection of thioglycolate medium at 4-day intervals produces an elevation of the free adherent peritoneal cell population similar to pristane, but does not produce a granuloma or a conditioned environment. The intraperitoneal transfer of thioglycolate-induced adherent peritonel cells to mice treated with pristane and hydrocortisone simultaneously restores the production of a conditioned environment. These findings indicate that the adherent peritoneal cell population is responsible for the conditioning effect, and that the establishment of a resident population of these cells is necessary to produce conditioning.  (+info)

Experimental murine schistosomiasis in the absence of B7 costimulatory molecules: reversal of elicited T cell cytokine profile and partial inhibition of egg granuloma formation. (5/1842)

The granulomatous inflammation in infection with the helminth Schistosoma mansoni represents a cellular hypersensitivity reaction mediated by, and dependent upon, MHC class II-restricted CD4+ Th cells sensitized to parasite egg Ags. The current work examines the role and significance of the B7:CD28/CTLA-4 pathway in providing the costimulation necessary for the activation of these pathogenic T cells. In vitro T cell responses in B7-1-/- mice, 7-8 wk postinfection, were no different from wild-type controls, but the absence of B7-2 molecules resulted in a decrease in egg Ag-induced proliferation with increased IFN-gamma production. Both B7-1-/- and B7-2-/- mice exhibited intact granuloma formation. In contrast, CD4+ Th cells from B7-1/2 double-deficient mice displayed a dramatic loss of proliferative capacity upon stimulation with egg Ag. Most strikingly, these T cells secreted only IFN-gamma, but not IL-4 and IL-10, a pattern entirely opposite to that displayed by wild-type controls. Despite these major differences in T cell reactivity, B7-1/2-/- mice had only a limited reduction of granuloma size and fibrosis, without appreciable difference in cellular composition. These results show that substantial granuloma formation can occur under conditions of limited T cell expansion and restricted Th1-type cytokine production. They also support the notion that the combined effect of B7 signaling is not as critical for Th1 cell activation as it is for the development of the Th2 dominant environment characteristic of the evolving schistosome infection in H-2b mice.  (+info)

Role of macrophage scavenger receptors in hepatic granuloma formation in mice. (6/1842)

In mice homozygous for the gene mutation for type I and type II macrophage scavenger receptors (MSR-A), MSR-A-/-, the formation of hepatic granulomas caused by a single intravenous injection of heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum was delayed significantly for 10 days after injection, compared with granuloma formation in wild-type (MSR-A+/+) mice. In the early stage of granuloma formation, numbers of macrophages and their precursor cells were significantly reduced in MSR-A-/- mice compared with MSR-A+/+ mice. In contrast to MSR-A+/+ mice, no expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma mRNA was observed in MSR-A-/- mice by 3 days after injection. Also in MSR-A-/- mice, uptake of C. parvum by Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages in the early stage of granuloma formation was lower and elimination of C. parvum from the liver was slower than in MSR-A+/+ mice. In the livers of MSR-A+/+ mice, macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells possessed MSR-A, but this was not seen in the livers of MSR-A-/- mice. In both MSR-A-/- and MSR-A+/+ mice, expression of other scavenger receptors was demonstrated. These data suggest that MSR-A deficiency impairs the uptake and elimination of C. parvum by macrophages and delays hepatic granuloma formation, particularly in the early stage.  (+info)

The p47(phox-/-) mouse model of chronic granulomatous disease has normal granuloma formation and cytokine responses to Mycobacterium avium and Schistosoma mansoni eggs. (7/1842)

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disorder of NADPH oxidase in which phagocytes are defective in generating reactive oxidants. CGD patients suffer from recurrent infections and exuberant and persistent tissue granuloma formation. We hypothesized that abnormal granulomata in CGD may result from aberrant T-cell-mediated cytokine responses. To assess Th-1-type cytokine responses and granulomata, we challenged p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice with avirulent (SmD) or virulent (SmT) variants of Mycobacterium avium 2-151. To assess Th-2-type cytokine responses and granulomata, we used Schistosoma mansoni eggs (SME). Mononuclear cells were harvested, and cytokine responses were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or reverse transcriptase PCR. Following SmD or SmT challenge, splenocytes from p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice generated similar polar Th-1 responses (increased levels of gamma interferon and basal levels of interleukin 4 [IL-4] and IL-5). By 8 weeks after SmT challenge, exuberant splenic granulomata developed in p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice. After SME challenge, thoracic lymph node mononuclear cells from p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice generated similar mixed Th-1 and Th-2 cytokine responses to SME antigen and concanavalin A. Peak lung granuloma sizes and rates of regression were similar in p47(phox-/-) and wild-type mice. These results suggest that exuberant granulomatous inflammation in CGD is probably not the result of skewing of T-cell responses toward the Th-1 or Th-2 pole. Appropriate regression of established tissue granulomata in p47(phox-/-) mice challenged with SME suggests that abnormal granuloma formation in CGD is stimulus dependent and is not an invariant feature of the disease.  (+info)

Sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract and its association with lupus pernio. (8/1842)

In a series of 34 patients with sarcoidosis affecting the upper respiratory tract and nose, 26 had lupus pernio (LP) and 17 had sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract (SURT). In nine patients these features coexisted. A patient presenting with SURT carried a 50% risk of developing LP although one feature could be present without the other. Both were disorders of women of the child-bearing years of life. SURT, like LP, was an indicator of chronic fibrotic sarcoidosis, developing insidiously and progressing indolently over the years. It was complicated by ulceration, septal perforation, and LP. Three patients had nasal septal perforations, in two instances following submucous resection. This operation is contraindicated in patients with active sarcoidosis, particularly when granulomas are found on nasal biopsy. The Kveim-Siltzbach skin test was positive in all patients with SURT, making it invaluable in the differential diagnosis of granuloma of the nasal cavity.  (+info)

A granuloma is a small, nodular inflammatory lesion that occurs in various tissues in response to chronic infection, foreign body reaction, or autoimmune conditions. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of epithelioid macrophages, which are specialized immune cells with enlarged nuclei and abundant cytoplasm, often arranged in a palisading pattern around a central area containing necrotic debris, microorganisms, or foreign material.

Granulomas can be found in various medical conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fungal infections, and certain autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. The formation of granulomas is a complex process involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, which aim to contain and eliminate the offending agent while minimizing tissue damage.

A granuloma is a type of organized immune response that occurs when the body encounters a foreign substance that it cannot eliminate. A "foreign-body" granuloma specifically refers to this reaction in response to an exogenous material, such as a splinter, suture, or other types of medical implants.

Foreign-body granulomas are characterized by the formation of a collection of immune cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes, which surround and attempt to isolate the foreign material. Over time, this collection of immune cells can become walled off and form a well-circumscribed mass or nodule.

Foreign-body granulomas may cause localized symptoms such as pain, swelling, or inflammation, depending on their location and size. In some cases, they may also lead to complications such as infection or tissue damage. Treatment typically involves removing the foreign body, if possible, followed by anti-inflammatory therapy to manage any residual symptoms or complications.

A pyogenic granuloma is not precisely a "granuloma" in the strict medical definition, which refers to a specific type of tissue reaction characterized by chronic inflammation and the formation of granulation tissue. Instead, a pyogenic granuloma is a benign vascular tumor that occurs most frequently on the skin or mucous membranes.

Pyogenic granulomas are typically characterized by their rapid growth, bright red to dark red color, and friable texture. They can bleed easily, especially when traumatized. Histologically, they consist of a mass of small blood vessels, surrounded by loose connective tissue and inflammatory cells.

The term "pyogenic" is somewhat misleading because these lesions are not actually associated with pus or infection, although they can become secondarily infected. The name may have originated from the initial mistaken belief that these lesions were caused by a bacterial infection.

Pyogenic granulomas can occur at any age but are most common in children and young adults. They can be caused by minor trauma, hormonal changes, or underlying medical conditions such as pregnancy or vasculitis. Treatment typically involves surgical excision, although other options such as laser surgery or cauterization may also be used.

Eosinophilic granuloma is a term used in pathology to describe a specific type of inflammatory lesion that is characterized by the accumulation of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, and the formation of granulomas. A granuloma is a small nodular structure formed by the accumulation of immune cells, typically including macrophages, lymphocytes, and other inflammatory cells.

Eosinophilic granulomas can occur in various organs of the body, but they are most commonly found in the lungs, skin, and bones. In the lungs, eosinophilic granulomas are often associated with hypersensitivity reactions to inhaled antigens, such as dust mites or fungal spores. They can also be seen in association with certain diseases, such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, an uncommon disorder characterized by the abnormal proliferation of a type of immune cell called Langerhans cells.

The symptoms of eosinophilic granuloma depend on the location and extent of the lesion. In the lungs, eosinophilic granulomas may cause cough, chest pain, or shortness of breath. In the skin, they may present as nodules, plaques, or ulcers. In the bones, they can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

The diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma is typically made based on a combination of clinical, radiological, and pathological findings. Treatment may include avoidance of known antigens, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive medications, depending on the severity and location of the lesion.

A granuloma in the respiratory tract refers to a small nodular lesion that forms in the lung tissue due to an ongoing immune response. It is typically composed of macrophages, lymphocytes, and other inflammatory cells that cluster together around a foreign substance or organism that the body cannot eliminate.

Granulomas can form in response to various stimuli, including infectious agents such as mycobacteria (tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria), fungi, and parasites, as well as non-infectious causes like inhaled particles (e.g., silica, beryllium) or autoimmune diseases (e.g., sarcoidosis).

These lesions can cause damage to the lung tissue over time, leading to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. Diagnosis often involves imaging studies like chest X-rays or CT scans, followed by biopsy and microscopic examination to confirm the presence of granulomas and identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive medications.

Granuloma annulare is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition characterized by the formation of small, red or flesh-colored bumps that form rings or arcs. These lesions are usually found on the hands and feet but can occur anywhere on the body. The exact cause of granuloma annulare is unknown, but it may be associated with triggers such as insect bites, viral infections, sun exposure, or certain medications.

Histologically, granuloma annulare is characterized by a specific type of inflammatory cell infiltrate, consisting of histiocytes (a type of white blood cell) arranged in palisades around the edges of small collections of mucin (a glycoprotein). This distinctive pattern helps to differentiate granuloma annulare from other skin conditions.

Granuloma annulare is generally a benign condition that does not cause any symptoms or complications, although some people may experience itching or discomfort in the affected areas. In most cases, the lesions will resolve on their own within a few months to two years, although they can recur in some individuals. Treatment options for granuloma annulare include topical corticosteroids, phototherapy, and intralesional steroid injections, although observation is also a reasonable approach in many cases.

A giant cell granuloma is a type of non-cancerous (benign) lesion characterized by the presence of large collections of immune cells called macrophages, which have fused together to form multinucleated giant cells. These lesions can occur in various tissues throughout the body but are most commonly found in the oral cavity and jawbone.

Giant cell granulomas can be further classified into two types: central (or bone) giant cell granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Central giant cell granulomas arise from the bone, while peripheral giant cell granulomas occur in the soft tissues of the gingiva or mouth lining.

Central giant cell granulomas are more aggressive than peripheral ones and can cause significant bone destruction if left untreated. They typically affect younger individuals, with a higher prevalence in females than males. The exact cause of central giant cell granulomas is not well understood but may be associated with local trauma, hormonal imbalances, or genetic factors.

Peripheral giant cell granulomas are less aggressive and usually present as painless, slow-growing nodules on the gums. They typically affect adults, with a higher prevalence in females than males. Peripheral giant cell granulomas may be associated with local irritants such as plaque, calculus, or dental restorations.

Treatment for giant cell granulomas depends on their size, location, and aggressiveness. Surgical excision is the most common treatment approach, but other options such as curettage, corticosteroid injections, or medication therapy may also be considered. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are essential to monitor for recurrence.

Granuloma inguinale, also known as donovanosis, is a chronic bacterial infection that primarily affects the genital area, although it can spread to other parts of the body. It is caused by the bacterium Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly called Calymmatobacterium granulomatis). The infection results in painless, progressive ulcerative lesions that bleed easily and may cause significant scarring if left untreated.

The medical definition of Granuloma inguinale is:

A sexually transmitted infection caused by the intracellular bacterium Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly Calymmatobacterium granulomatis). The infection typically presents as painless, beefy-red, granulomatous ulcers or nodules in the genital, inguinal, and perianal regions. The lesions may bleed easily and can cause significant scarring if left untreated. Granuloma inguinale is prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, such as parts of India, Papua New Guinea, central Australia, southern Africa, and the Caribbean. Diagnosis is typically made by identifying Donovan bodies (intracellular bacterial inclusions) in tissue smears or biopsy specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics such as azithromycin, doxycycline, or ciprofloxacin for several weeks to ensure complete eradication of the infection.

A periapical granuloma is a type of dental lesion that occurs at the root tip of a tooth (the apical region) in response to an infection in the pulp tissue. It is a collection of inflammatory cells, mainly composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes, within the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The granuloma forms as a result of the body's attempt to contain the spread of infection from the pulp into the surrounding tissues.

The primary cause of periapical granulomas is untreated dental caries or tooth trauma, which allows bacteria to invade the pulp chamber and eventually reach the apical region. The resulting inflammation can lead to bone resorption and the formation of a radiolucent area around the apex of the affected tooth, visible on a dental radiograph.

Periapical granulomas may not always cause noticeable symptoms, but some patients might experience pain, swelling, or sensitivity in the affected tooth. Treatment typically involves root canal therapy to remove the infected pulp tissue and medicate the canals, followed by a filling or crown to seal and protect the tooth. In some cases, extraction of the tooth may be necessary if the infection is severe or if the tooth cannot be restored.

A laryngeal granuloma is not a specific medical condition but rather a type of benign growth that can form in the larynx or voice box. It is characterized by the presence of chronic inflammation and an overgrowth of granulation tissue, which is made up of fibrous connective tissue and small blood vessels.

Laryngeal granulomas typically occur at the back of the vocal cords, near the opening of the esophagus. They can cause symptoms such as hoarseness, throat pain or discomfort, coughing, and difficulty swallowing.

The most common causes of laryngeal granulomas are repetitive trauma to the vocal cords, such as from prolonged or forceful voice use, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or inhaled irritants. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause, such as reducing voice use or treating GERD, as well as removing the granuloma through surgery or other medical interventions.

Parasitic liver diseases refer to conditions caused by protozoa or helminths (parasitic worms) that infect and damage the liver. These parasites can enter the body through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected host. Some examples of parasitic liver diseases include:

1. Ascariasis: Caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, which can infect the liver and bile ducts, leading to inflammation, obstruction, and abscess formation.
2. Echinococcosis (Hydatid disease): A rare but serious condition caused by the larval stage of tapeworms from the genus Echinococcus. The liver is the most commonly affected organ, with cysts forming in the liver parenchyma that can grow slowly over several years and cause complications such as rupture or secondary bacterial infection.
3. Fascioliasis: A foodborne trematode (fluke) infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica, which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
4. Leishmaniasis: A protozoan infection caused by Leishmania spp., which can affect various organs, including the liver. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is the most severe form of the disease, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, fever, and anemia.
5. Toxoplasmosis: A protozoan infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can affect the liver and other organs. While most immunocompetent individuals remain asymptomatic or experience mild flu-like symptoms, immunocompromised patients are at risk of severe liver damage and disseminated disease.
6. Schistosomiasis: A trematode (fluke) infection caused by Schistosoma spp., which affects the liver and portal venous system. The parasites lay eggs in the liver, causing granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis, and portal hypertension.
7. Fasciolopsiasis: A trematode (fluke) infection caused by Fasciolopsis buski, which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
8. Paragonimiasis: A trematode (lung fluke) infection caused by Paragonimus spp., which can affect the lungs, brain, and other organs, including the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
9. Clonorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Clonorchis sinensis, which affects the bile ducts and liver. The parasites lay eggs in the bile ducts, causing inflammation, cholangitis, and cholangiocarcinoma.
10. Opisthorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Opisthorchis spp., which affects the bile ducts and liver. The parasites lay eggs in the bile ducts, causing inflammation, cholangitis, and cholangiocarcinoma.
11. Heterophyiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Heterophyes spp., which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
12. Metagonimiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Metagonimus spp., which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
13. Echinostomiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Echinostoma spp., which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
14. Gastrodiscoidiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Gastrodiscoides spp., which affects the large intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
15. Fascioliasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Fasciola spp., which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
16. Paragonimiasis: A trematode (lung fluke) infection caused by Paragonimus spp., which affects the lungs and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
17. Schistosomiasis: A trematode (blood fluke) infection caused by Schistosoma spp., which affects the blood vessels and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
18. Clonorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Clonorchis sinensis, which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
19. Opisthorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Opisthorchis spp., which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
20. Metagonimiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Metagonimus spp., which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
21. Heterophyesiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Heterophyes spp., which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
22. Echinostomiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Echinostoma spp., which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
23. Fasciolopsiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Fasciolopsis buski, which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
24. Paragonimiasis: A trematode (lung fluke) infection caused by Paragonimus spp., which affects the lungs and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
25. Spirometra mansoni: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Spirometra mansoni, which affects the brain and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
26. Taenia solium: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Taenia solium, which affects the brain and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
27. Hymenolepis nana: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Hymenolepis nana, which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
28. Diphyllobothrium latum: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Diphyllobothrium latum, which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
29. Echinococcus granulosus:

Schistosomiasis mansoni is a parasitic infection caused by the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. The disease cycle begins when human hosts come into contact with fresh water contaminated with the parasite's larvae, called cercariae, which are released from infected snail intermediate hosts.

Once the cercariae penetrate the skin of a human host, they transform into schistosomula and migrate through various tissues before reaching the hepatic portal system. Here, the parasites mature into adult worms, mate, and produce eggs that can cause inflammation and damage to the intestinal wall, liver, spleen, and other organs.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni may include fever, chills, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and blood in stool or urine. Chronic infection can lead to severe complications such as fibrosis of the liver, kidney damage, bladder cancer, and neurological disorders.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, proper sanitation, and access to safe drinking water. Treatment typically involves administering a single dose of the drug praziquantel, which is effective in eliminating the adult worms and reducing egg production. However, it does not prevent reinfection.

A tuberculoma is a granulomatous lesion in the brain caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically consists of caseating necrosis surrounded by a layer of epithelioid histiocytes, Langhans' giant cells, and lymphocytes. Tuberculomas can be single or multiple and may cause various neurological symptoms depending on their size and location. They are often associated with tuberculous meningitis but can also occur in immunocompromised individuals without obvious systemic infection.

"Schistosoma mansoni" is a specific species of parasitic flatworm, also known as a blood fluke, that causes the disease schistosomiasis (also known as snail fever). This trematode has a complex life cycle involving both freshwater snails and humans. The adult worms live in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly in the venous plexus of the intestines, where they lay eggs that are excreted through feces. These eggs can hatch in fresh water and infect specific snail species, which then release a free-swimming form called cercariae. These cercariae can penetrate the skin of humans who come into contact with infested water, leading to infection and subsequent health complications if left untreated.

The medical definition of "Schistosoma mansoni" is: A species of trematode parasitic flatworm that causes schistosomiasis in humans through its complex life cycle involving freshwater snails as an intermediate host. Adult worms reside in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly those surrounding the intestines, and release eggs that are excreted through feces. Infection occurs when cercariae, released by infected snails, penetrate human skin during contact with infested water.

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disorder characterized by the formation of granulomas (small clumps of inflammatory cells) in various organs, most commonly the lungs and lymphatic system. These granulomas can impair the function of the affected organ(s), leading to a variety of symptoms. The exact cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but it's thought to be an overactive immune response to an unknown antigen, possibly triggered by an infection, chemical exposure, or another environmental factor.

The diagnosis of sarcoidosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as chest X-rays and CT scans), and laboratory tests (including blood tests and biopsies). While there is no cure for sarcoidosis, treatment may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Corticosteroids are often used to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, while other medications may be prescribed to treat specific organ involvement or symptoms. In some cases, sarcoidosis may resolve on its own without any treatment.

"Mycobacterium marinum" is a slow-growing, gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). It is commonly found in fresh and saltwater environments, including aquariums and swimming pools. This pathogen can cause skin infections, known as swimmer's granuloma or fish tank granuloma, in individuals who have exposure to contaminated water. The infection typically occurs through minor cuts or abrasions on the skin, leading to a localized, chronic, and slowly progressive lesion. In some cases, disseminated infection can occur in people with weakened immune systems.

References:
1. Chan, R. C., & Cohen, S. M. (2017). Nontuberculous mycobacterial skin infections. Clinics in dermatology, 35(4), 416-423.
2. Kohler, P., Bloch, A., & Pfyffer, G. E. (2002). Nontuberculous mycobacteria: an overview. Swiss medical weekly, 132(35-36), 548-557.
3. Sanguinetti, M., & Bloch, S. A. (2019). Mycobacterium marinum skin infection. American journal of clinical dermatology, 20(2), 219-226.

Sarcoidosis, pulmonary is a specific form of sarcoidosis, which is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas (small clusters of immune cells) in one or more organs. In pulmonary sarcoidosis, these granulomas primarily affect the lungs, but can also involve the lymph nodes within the chest. The condition is often asymptomatic, but some individuals may experience symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. Pulmonary sarcoidosis can lead to complications like pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of lung tissue) and chronic interstitial lung disease, which can impact lung function and quality of life. The exact cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but it is believed to involve an abnormal immune response triggered by exposure to certain antigens, such as environmental particles or infectious agents.

Parasitic lung diseases refer to conditions caused by infection of the lungs by parasites. These are small organisms that live on or in a host organism and derive their sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasitic lung diseases can be caused by various types of parasites, including helminths (worms) and protozoa.

Examples of parasitic lung diseases include:

1. Pulmonary echinococcosis (hydatid disease): This is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The larvae form cysts in various organs, including the lungs.
2. Paragonimiasis: This is a food-borne lung fluke infection caused by Paragonimus westermani and other species. Humans become infected by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans (such as crabs or crayfish) that contain the larval stage of the parasite.
3. Toxocariasis: This is a soil-transmitted helminth infection caused by the roundworm Toxocara canis or T. cati, which are found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Humans become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil, undercooked meat, or through contact with an infected animal's feces. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, larval migration can lead to lung involvement in some cases.
4. Amebic lung disease: This is a rare complication of amebiasis, which is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite usually infects the large intestine, but it can spread to other organs, including the lungs, through the bloodstream.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: This is a waterborne protozoan infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, immunocompromised individuals can develop disseminated disease, including pulmonary involvement.

Symptoms of parasitic lung diseases vary depending on the specific organism and the severity of infection but may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, and sputum production. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as stool or blood examinations for parasites or their antigens. Treatment depends on the specific organism but may include antiparasitic medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or snail fever, is a parasitic infection caused by several species of the trematode flatworm Schistosoma. The infection occurs when people come into contact with freshwater contaminated with the parasite's larvae, which are released by infected freshwater snails.

The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and mature into adult worms in the blood vessels of the urinary tract or intestines. The female worms lay eggs, which can cause inflammation and scarring in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and brain.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis may include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and diarrhea. In chronic cases, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and seizures. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation and lack of access to safe drinking water. It is preventable through improved water supply, sanitation, and snail control measures. Treatment typically involves the use of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the adult worms.

A "Plasma Cell Granuloma" is a specific type of granulomatous inflammation that is characterized by the presence of numerous plasma cells. Plasma cells are white blood cells that produce antibodies, which are proteins that help the body fight off infections and diseases. In a Plasma Cell Granuloma, there is an excessive accumulation of these cells, leading to the formation of a nodular lesion or mass.

Plasma Cell Granulomas can occur in various organs, including the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and oral cavity. They are often associated with chronic inflammation, autoimmune disorders, or malignancies. The exact cause of Plasma Cell Granulomas is not always known, but they may be triggered by infections, foreign bodies, or other stimuli that induce an immune response.

Histologically, a Plasma Cell Granuloma is composed of a central area of plasma cells surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes and macrophages. The lesion may also contain multinucleated giant cells, eosinophils, and other inflammatory cells. Treatment options for Plasma Cell Granulomas depend on the location and extent of the lesion, as well as the underlying cause. Surgical excision is often curative, but medical therapy may be necessary in some cases.

Pulmonary plasma cell granuloma is a benign lung lesion characterized by the accumulation of plasma cells and the formation of granulomas. It is also known as inflammatory pseudotumor or plasma cell histiocytoma. The etiology of pulmonary plasma cell granuloma remains unclear, but it is thought to be related to a chronic inflammatory response or an abnormal immune reaction.

The lesion typically consists of a mass or nodule in the lung tissue, which may be discovered incidentally on chest imaging. Symptoms, if present, may include cough, chest pain, and shortness of breath. The diagnosis is usually made by histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen, which shows a mixture of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and histiocytes, with the formation of granulomas.

Treatment is generally not necessary unless the lesion is causing symptoms or growing in size. In such cases, surgical resection may be recommended. The prognosis is excellent, with a low risk of recurrence after surgical removal.

Epithelioid cells are a type of cell that can be found in certain types of tissue in the body, including connective tissue and some organs. These cells have a characteristic appearance under a microscope, with an enlarged, oval or round shape and a pale, abundant cytoplasm. They may also have a nucleus that is centrally located and has a uniform, rounded shape.

Epithelioid cells are often seen in the context of inflammation or disease, particularly in relation to granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis. In these conditions, epithelioid cells can form clusters known as granulomas, which are a hallmark of the diseases. The exact function of epithelioid cells is not fully understood, but they are thought to play a role in the immune response and may help to contain and eliminate foreign substances or pathogens from the body.

A lethal midline granuloma (LMG) is a rare and aggressive form of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation that typically involves the nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and/or the central nervous system. It is called "lethal" because of its rapid progression and high mortality rate if left untreated.

LMG is a type of granuloma, which is a collection of immune cells that form in response to chronic inflammation or infection. In LMG, the granulomas are characterized by extensive necrosis (tissue death) and vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels).

The exact cause of LMG is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with a variety of factors, including infections (such as fungal or mycobacterial infections), autoimmune disorders, and lymphoproliferative diseases. Treatment typically involves a combination of surgical debridement, antimicrobial therapy, and immunosuppressive drugs. Despite treatment, the prognosis for LMG is generally poor, with a high rate of recurrence and significant morbidity and mortality.

Gingival diseases are infections or inflammations that affect the gingiva, which is the part of the gum around the base of the teeth. These diseases can be caused by bacteria found in dental plaque and can lead to symptoms such as redness, swelling, bleeding, and receding gums. If left untreated, gingival diseases can progress to periodontal disease, a more serious condition that can result in tooth loss. Common types of gingival diseases include gingivitis and periodontitis.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

"Mycobacterium bovis" is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is the causative agent of tuberculosis in cattle and other animals, and can also cause tuberculosis in humans, particularly in those who come into contact with infected animals or consume unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and survive for long periods in a dormant state, making them difficult to eradicate from the environment. "Mycobacterium bovis" is closely related to "Mycobacterium tuberculosis," the bacterium that causes tuberculosis in humans, and both species share many genetic and biochemical characteristics.

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

A foreign-body reaction is an immune response that occurs when a non-native substance, or "foreign body," is introduced into the human body. This can include things like splinters, surgical implants, or even injected medications. The immune system recognizes these substances as foreign and mounts a response to try to eliminate them.

The initial response to a foreign body is often an acute inflammatory reaction, characterized by the release of chemical mediators that cause vasodilation, increased blood flow, and the migration of white blood cells to the site. This can result in symptoms such as redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.

If the foreign body is not eliminated, a chronic inflammatory response may develop, which can lead to the formation of granulation tissue, fibrosis, and encapsulation of the foreign body. In some cases, this reaction can cause significant tissue damage or impede proper healing.

It's worth noting that not all foreign bodies necessarily elicit a strong immune response. The nature and size of the foreign body, as well as its location in the body, can all influence the severity of the reaction.

'Mycobacterium tuberculosis' is a species of slow-growing, aerobic, gram-positive bacteria that demonstrates acid-fastness. It is the primary causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in humans. This bacterium has a complex cell wall rich in lipids, including mycolic acids, which provides a hydrophobic barrier and makes it resistant to many conventional antibiotics. The ability of M. tuberculosis to survive within host macrophages and resist the immune response contributes to its pathogenicity and the difficulty in treating TB infections.

M. tuberculosis is typically transmitted through inhalation of infectious droplets containing the bacteria, which primarily targets the lungs but can spread to other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). The infection may result in a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from latent TB infection (LTBI) to active disease. LTBI represents a dormant state where individuals are infected with M. tuberculosis but do not show symptoms and cannot transmit the bacteria. However, they remain at risk of developing active TB throughout their lifetime, especially if their immune system becomes compromised.

Effective prevention and control strategies for TB rely on early detection, treatment, and public health interventions to limit transmission. The current first-line treatments for drug-susceptible TB include a combination of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of M. tuberculosis present significant challenges in TB control and require more complex treatment regimens.

Hepatic tuberculosis (HTB) is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) that involves the liver. It can occur as a result of the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a primary site of infection, usually the lungs, through the bloodstream to the liver.

In hepatic tuberculosis, the liver may become enlarged and tender, and patients may experience symptoms such as fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, and abdominal discomfort. Liver function tests may show elevated levels of certain enzymes, such as alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT).

Diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis can be challenging, as the symptoms and laboratory findings are nonspecific. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI may show evidence of liver involvement, but a definitive diagnosis usually requires histological examination of liver tissue obtained through biopsy.

Treatment of hepatic tuberculosis involves the use of multiple antituberculous drugs, typically including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. The duration of treatment is usually at least six months, but may be longer in some cases. It is important to monitor liver function tests closely during treatment, as these medications can cause liver damage in some individuals.

Mycobacterium infections are a group of infectious diseases caused by various species of the Mycobacterium genus, including but not limited to M. tuberculosis (which causes tuberculosis), M. avium complex (which causes pulmonary and disseminated disease, particularly in immunocompromised individuals), M. leprae (which causes leprosy), and M. ulcerans (which causes Buruli ulcer). These bacteria are known for their ability to resist destruction by normal immune responses and many disinfectants due to the presence of a waxy mycolic acid layer in their cell walls.

Infection typically occurs through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated materials. The severity and manifestations of the disease can vary widely depending on the specific Mycobacterium species involved, the route of infection, and the host's immune status. Symptoms may include cough, fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, skin lesions, or lymphadenitis. Diagnosis often requires specialized laboratory tests, such as culture or PCR-based methods, to identify the specific Mycobacterium species involved. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and may require long-term therapy.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

Cord factors are a group of glycolipids that are found on the surface of mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. These cord factors are called "cord factors" because they help to form characteristic "cords" or cable-like structures when mycobacteria grow in clumps.

Cord factors contribute to the virulence of mycobacteria by inhibiting the ability of certain immune cells, such as macrophages, to destroy the bacteria. They do this by preventing the fusion of lysosomes (which contain enzymes that can break down and kill the bacteria) with phagosomes (the compartments in which the bacteria are contained within the macrophage). This allows the mycobacteria to survive and replicate inside the host cells, leading to the development of tuberculosis.

Cord factors have also been shown to induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to tissue damage and the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Therefore, cord factors are an important target for the development of new therapies and vaccines against tuberculosis.

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

'Calymmatobacterium' is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are typically found as part of the normal microbiota in the skin and mucous membranes of some animals. The most well-known species in this genus is Calymmatobacterium granulomatis, which is the causative agent of granuloma inguinale (also known as donovanosis), a sexually transmitted infection that primarily affects the genital area and causes painful ulcers and granulomas.

Calymmatobacterium species are fastidious organisms, meaning they have specific growth requirements and can be difficult to culture in the laboratory. They are typically transmitted through direct contact with infected tissue or bodily fluids, and infection can lead to a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection and the immune status of the host.

In addition to granuloma inguinale, Calymmatobacterium species have also been associated with other diseases in animals, including respiratory tract infections and skin lesions in dogs and cats. However, their role as primary pathogens in these contexts is not well-established.

Skin diseases, also known as dermatological conditions, refer to any medical condition that affects the skin, which is the largest organ of the human body. These diseases can affect the skin's function, appearance, or overall health. They can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, allergies, environmental factors, and aging.

Skin diseases can present in many different forms, such as rashes, blisters, sores, discolorations, growths, or changes in texture. Some common examples of skin diseases include acne, eczema, psoriasis, dermatitis, fungal infections, viral infections, bacterial infections, and skin cancer.

The symptoms and severity of skin diseases can vary widely depending on the specific condition and individual factors. Some skin diseases are mild and can be treated with over-the-counter medications or topical creams, while others may require more intensive treatments such as prescription medications, light therapy, or even surgery.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any unusual or persistent changes in your skin, as some skin diseases can be serious or indicative of other underlying health conditions. A dermatologist is a medical doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also involve other organs and tissues in the body. The infection is usually spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and microbiological tests such as sputum smear microscopy and culture. In some cases, molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used for rapid diagnosis.

Treatment usually consists of a standard six-month course of multiple antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. In some cases, longer treatment durations or different drug regimens might be necessary due to drug resistance or other factors. Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and early detection and treatment of infected individuals to prevent transmission.

Schistosoma is a genus of flatworms that cause the disease schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever. These parasitic worms infect freshwater snails and then release a form of the parasite that can penetrate the skin of humans when they come into contact with contaminated water. The larvae mature into adult worms in the human body, living in the blood vessels of the bladder, intestines or other organs, where they lay eggs. These eggs can cause serious damage to internal organs and lead to a range of symptoms including fever, chills, diarrhea, and anemia. Schistosomiasis is a significant public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

Facial dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the face. These can include a wide range of disorders, such as:

1. Acne vulgaris: A common skin condition characterized by the formation of comedones (blackheads and whiteheads) and inflammatory papules, pustules, and nodules. It primarily affects the face, neck, chest, and back.
2. Rosacea: A chronic skin condition that causes redness, flushing, and visible blood vessels on the face, along with bumps or pimples and sometimes eye irritation.
3. Seborrheic dermatitis: A common inflammatory skin disorder that causes a red, itchy, and flaky rash, often on the scalp, face, and eyebrows. It can also affect other oily areas of the body, like the sides of the nose and behind the ears.
4. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): A chronic inflammatory skin condition that causes red, itchy, and scaly patches on the skin. While it can occur anywhere on the body, it frequently affects the face, especially in infants and young children.
5. Psoriasis: An autoimmune disorder that results in thick, scaly, silvery, or red patches on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the face.
6. Contact dermatitis: A skin reaction caused by direct contact with an allergen or irritant, resulting in redness, itching, and inflammation. The face can be affected when allergens or irritants come into contact with the skin through cosmetics, skincare products, or other substances.
7. Lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disorder that can cause a butterfly-shaped rash on the cheeks and nose, along with other symptoms like joint pain, fatigue, and photosensitivity.
8. Perioral dermatitis: A inflammatory skin condition that causes redness, small bumps, and dryness around the mouth, often mistaken for acne. It can also affect the skin around the nose and eyes.
9. Vitiligo: An autoimmune disorder that results in the loss of pigmentation in patches of skin, which can occur on the face and other parts of the body.
10. Tinea faciei: A fungal infection that affects the facial skin, causing red, scaly, or itchy patches. It is also known as ringworm of the face.

These are just a few examples of skin conditions that can affect the face. If you experience any unusual symptoms or changes in your skin, it's essential to consult a dermatologist for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Neurocysticercosis is a neurological disorder caused by the infection of the brain's tissue with larval stages of the parasitic tapeworm, Taenia solium. The larvae, called cysticerci, can invade various parts of the body including the brain and the central nervous system, leading to a range of symptoms such as seizures, headaches, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disorders.

The infection typically occurs when a person ingests tapeworm eggs through contaminated food or water, and the larvae hatch and migrate to various tissues in the body. In neurocysticercosis, the cysticerci can cause inflammation, swelling, and damage to brain tissue, leading to neurological symptoms that can vary depending on the location and number of cysts in the brain.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis typically involves a combination of imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans, blood tests, and sometimes lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to examine cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment may involve anti-parasitic medications to eliminate the cysts, anti-inflammatory drugs to manage swelling and inflammation, and symptomatic treatment for seizures or other neurological symptoms.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The infection typically enters the body when a person inhales droplets containing the bacteria, which are released into the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB can vary but often include:

* Persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks and may produce phlegm or blood-tinged sputum
* Chest pain or discomfort, particularly when breathing deeply or coughing
* Fatigue and weakness
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever and night sweats
* Loss of appetite

Pulmonary TB can cause serious complications if left untreated, including damage to the lungs, respiratory failure, and spread of the infection to other parts of the body. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics that can last several months, and it is essential for patients to complete the full treatment regimen to ensure that the infection is fully eradicated.

Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of TB in children, and measures to prevent the spread of the disease, such as covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, wearing a mask in public places, and avoiding close contact with people who have active TB.

"Mycobacterium avium is a species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that belongs to the family Mycobacteriaceae. It is a slow-growing mycobacterium that is widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and water. M. avium is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, and disseminated infection in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. It is also known to cause pulmonary disease in elderly people with structural lung damage. The bacteria are resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive in hostile environments for extended periods."

Schistosomiasis japonica is a specific form of schistosomiasis, which is also known as snail fever. It is caused by the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma japonicum. This disease is prevalent in East Asian countries like China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

The life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum involves freshwater-dwelling snails as an intermediate host. Humans get infected through direct contact with contaminated water, where the parasite's larvae are released from the snails. The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the liver. Here, they mature into adult worms and start producing eggs, which are excreted through feces or urine.

The symptoms of Schistosomiasis japonica can vary depending on the stage and severity of the infection. In the early stages, individuals might experience skin rashes, fever, chills, and muscle aches. As the parasite eggs travel through the body, they can cause inflammation and damage to various organs, including the liver, intestines, and lungs. Chronic infections can lead to severe complications such as fibrosis, scarring, and increased risk of bladder cancer.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, proper sanitation, and snail control. Treatment typically involves administering the drug praziquantel, which is effective against Schistosoma japonicum and other schistosome species.

The petrous bone is a part of the temporal bone, one of the 22 bones in the human skull. It is a thick and irregularly shaped bone located at the base of the skull and forms part of the ear and the cranial cavity. The petrous bone contains the cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals of the inner ear, which are responsible for hearing and balance. It also helps protect the brain from injury by forming part of the bony structure surrounding the brain.

The term "petrous" comes from the Latin word "petrosus," meaning "stony" or "rock-like," which describes the hard and dense nature of this bone. The petrous bone is one of the densest bones in the human body, making it highly resistant to fractures and other forms of damage.

In medical terminology, the term "petrous" may also be used to describe any structure that resembles a rock or is hard and dense, such as the petrous apex, which refers to the portion of the petrous bone that points towards the sphenoid bone.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the lymph node, also known as scrofula or tuberculous lymphadenitis, is a specific form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It involves the infection and inflammation of the lymph nodes (lymph glands) by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. The lymph nodes most commonly affected are the cervical (neck) and supraclavicular (above the collarbone) lymph nodes, but other sites can also be involved.

The infection typically spreads to the lymph nodes through the bloodstream or via nearby infected organs, such as the lungs or intestines. The affected lymph nodes may become enlarged, firm, and tender, forming masses called cold abscesses that can suppurate (form pus) and eventually rupture. In some cases, the lymph nodes may calcify, leaving hard, stone-like deposits.

Diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis often involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans), and microbiological or histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through fine-needle aspiration biopsy or surgical excision. Treatment typically consists of a standard anti-tuberculosis multi-drug regimen, which may include isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for at least six months. Surgical intervention might be necessary in cases with complications or treatment failure.

Nontuberculous Mycobacterium (NTM) infections refer to illnesses caused by a group of bacteria called mycobacteria that do not cause tuberculosis or leprosy. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment, such as in water, soil, and dust. They can be spread through inhalation, ingestion, or contact with contaminated materials.

NTM infections can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, skin, and soft tissues. Lung infections are the most common form of NTM infection and often occur in people with underlying lung conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or bronchiectasis. Symptoms of NTM lung infection may include cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats.

Skin and soft tissue infections caused by NTM can occur through direct contact with contaminated water or soil, or through medical procedures such as contaminated injections or catheters. Symptoms of NTM skin and soft tissue infections may include redness, swelling, pain, and drainage.

Diagnosis of NTM infections typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies, and laboratory tests to identify the specific type of mycobacteria causing the infection. Treatment may involve multiple antibiotics for an extended period of time, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

"Schistosoma japonicum" is a species of parasitic flatworms (trematodes) that causes schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever, in humans. This disease is prevalent in East Asian countries such as China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

The life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum involves freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. The parasites lay eggs in the blood vessels of the human host, which then pass through the body and are excreted into water. When the eggs hatch, they release miracidia that infect specific species of freshwater snails. After several developmental stages within the snail, the parasite releases cercariae, which can infect humans by penetrating the skin during contact with infested water.

Once inside the human host, the cercariae transform into schistosomula and migrate to the lungs, then to the liver, where they mature into adult worms. The adult worms pair up, mate, and produce eggs that can cause inflammation, granulomas, and fibrosis in various organs, depending on their location.

Schistosoma japonicum is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, with symptoms ranging from fever, rash, and diarrhea to more severe complications such as liver damage, bladder cancer, and kidney failure. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with infested water, treating infected individuals, and improving sanitation and hygiene practices.

Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare form of tuberculosis that affects the skin. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, including M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum. CTB can occur as a primary infection after direct inoculation of the skin with the bacteria, or it can be secondary to a distant focus of infection such as lung or lymph node TB.

The clinical presentation of CTB is varied and can include papules, nodules, pustules, ulcers, plaques, or scaly lesions. The lesions may be painless or painful, and they can be associated with systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

CTB can be diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination, skin biopsy, culture, and PCR testing. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics, often for six to nine months or more. The most commonly used drugs are isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Surgical excision may be necessary in some cases.

Prevention measures include early detection and treatment of pulmonary TB, BCG vaccination, and avoiding contact with people with active TB.

Splenic diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the spleen. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, which plays a vital role in filtering the blood and fighting infections. Some common splenic diseases include:

1. Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen due to various causes such as infections, liver disease, blood disorders, or cancer.
2. Hypersplenism: Overactivity of the spleen leading to excessive removal of blood cells from circulation, causing anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia.
3. Splenic infarction: Partial or complete blockage of the splenic artery or its branches, resulting in tissue death and potential organ dysfunction.
4. Splenic rupture: Traumatic or spontaneous tearing of the spleen capsule, causing internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening conditions.
5. Infections: Bacterial (e.g., sepsis, tuberculosis), viral (e.g., mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus), fungal (e.g., histoplasmosis), or parasitic (e.g., malaria) infections can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
6. Hematologic disorders: Conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, lymphomas, leukemias, or myeloproliferative neoplasms can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement or dysfunction.
7. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or vasculitis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
8. Cancers: Primary (e.g., splenic tumors) or secondary (e.g., metastatic cancer from other organs) malignancies can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement, dysfunction, or rupture.
9. Vascular abnormalities: Conditions such as portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, or splenic vein thrombosis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
10. Trauma: Accidental or intentional injuries to the spleen can lead to bleeding, infection, or organ dysfunction.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Lip diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the lips, which can be caused by different factors such as infections, inflammation, allergies, or autoimmune disorders. Some examples of lip diseases include:

1. Cheilitis: It is an inflammation of the lips, which can cause dryness, cracking, and soreness. It can be caused by various factors, including irritants, allergies, or infections.
2. Angular cheilitis: It is a condition that causes inflammation and redness at the corners of the mouth. It can be caused by fungal or bacterial infections, ill-fitting dentures, or vitamin deficiencies.
3. Herpes simplex labialis: Also known as cold sores, it is a viral infection that causes painful blisters on the lips and around the mouth. The virus can be spread through close contact with an infected person.
4. Actinic cheilitis: It is a precancerous condition caused by excessive exposure to the sun, which leads to dry, scaly, or thickened patches on the lips.
5. Fordyce spots: These are small, painless, white or yellowish bumps that appear on the lips and inside the mouth. They are harmless and do not require treatment.
6. Lip cancer: It is a type of skin cancer that affects the lips, usually caused by excessive exposure to the sun. The symptoms include a sore or lump on the lip that does not heal, bleeding, pain, or numbness.

If you experience any symptoms related to lip diseases, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

The plural is granulomas or granulomata. The adjective granulomatous means "characterized by granulomas". Lick granuloma, a ... Necrosis in granulomas Granuloma without necrosis in a lymph node of a person with sarcoidosis Granuloma with central necrosis ... Examples of this use of the term granuloma are the lesions known as vocal cord granuloma (known as contact granuloma), pyogenic ... and intubation granuloma, all of which are examples of granulation tissue, not granulomas. "Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma" is ...
703-5 Localized granuloma annulare Generalized granuloma annulare Patch-type granuloma annulare Subcutaneous granuloma annulare ... Granuloma Necrobiosis lipoidica Dennis, Mark; Bowen, William Talbot; Cho, Lucy (2012). "Granuloma annulare". Mechanisms of ... "Granuloma annulare , DermNet NZ". Ghadially, Ruby (15 October 2020). "Granuloma Annulare: Treatment & Management". Medscape. ... "Generalized granuloma annulare with tuberculoid granulomas: A rare histopathological variant", Indian Journal of Dermatology, ...
It is also known as donovanosis, granuloma genitoinguinale, granuloma inguinale tropicum, granuloma venereum, granuloma ... "Granuloma Inguinale". MSD. Retrieved 12 July 2021. "Granuloma Inguinale (Donovanosis) - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". www.cdc ... The proper clinical designation for donovanosis is "granuloma inguinale". A granuloma is a nodular type of inflammatory ... Granuloma inguinale is a bacterial disease caused by Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly known as Calymmatobacterium granulomatis ...
... is a cutaneous condition most commonly seen in central Africa, and rarely elsewhere, characterized by skin ... Skin lesion Meyers, Wayne; Connor, DH; Shannon, R (January 1970). "Histologic characteristics of granuloma multiforme (Mkar ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Kumari, Rashmi; Devinder Mohan, Thappa; Chougule, Abhijit; Adityan, Balaji (2009). "Granuloma ... disease). Including a comparison with leprosy and granuloma annulare. Report of first case from Congo (Kinshasa)". ...
Sperm granulomas may also have a yellow, white, or cream colored center when cut open. While some sperm granulomas can be ... Sperm granulomas are quite common after surgery, occurring in up to 40% of patients. On the contrary, sperm granulomas comprise ... Sperm granuloma can also mimic the presence of an abnormal number of testis on ultrasound. Sperm granulomas are mostly ... In a case study on sperm granuloma and antisperm antibody count in donkeys, it was found that sperm granuloma resulted in an ...
However, since granulomas and other vocal cord polyps may take weeks or months to develop, intubation granulomas may sometimes ... Primary treatment for intubation granulomas tends to involve surgical excision of the granuloma. However, single treatment ... resulting in laryngeal granuloma formation in the subglottis of the larynx. Diagnosis of intubation granulomas are achieved ... Intubation granuloma is a benign growth of granulation tissue in the larynx or trachea, which arises from tissue trauma due to ...
... is a cutaneous condition characterized histologically by a dermal infiltrate of macrophages.: 706 Actinic ... Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma Skin lesion List of cutaneous conditions James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al ... granuloma is an asymptomatic granulomatous reaction that affects sun-exposed skin, most commonly on the face, neck, and scalp. ...
Mercury granulomas is the result of mercury exposure, a skin condition characterized by foreign-body giant cell reaction.: 46 ... Granuloma Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology ...
Lick granulomas are caused by a variety of factors. One common cause of lick granulomas appears to be psychological, related to ... which is the granuloma. A major cause of lick granuloma appears to be psychological, related to stress, anxiety, separation ... creating a new lick granuloma, if they are prevented from licking at the original one while it heals. Overall, lick granulomas ... A lick granuloma, also known as acral lick dermatitis, is a skin disorder found most commonly in dogs, but also in cats. In ...
In humans, eosinophilic granulomas are considered as a benign tumors that occurs mainly in children and adolescents. EG is a ... "Feline Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex In Cats , VCA Animal Hospitals". vcahospitals.com. Retrieved 2022-01-31. Abbott, Dawn E. ... Human eosinophilic granuloma is characterized by abnormal proliferation of Langerhans cells (LCs). LCs are antigen-presenting ... Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is relatively common condition, characterized by number of patterns affecting oral ...
Granuloma Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology ... Zirconium granulomas are a skin condition characterized by a papular eruption involving the axillae, and are sometimes ...
Silicone granulomas are a skin condition that occur as a reaction to liquid silicones, and are characterized by the formation ... Granuloma Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology ... Inn, F. X.; Imran, F. H.; Ali, M. F.; Ih, R; z, Z (2012). "Penile augmentation with resultant foreign material granuloma and ... The formation and consequences of silicon-induced granulomas is not well described or understood. The extent of damage that ...
In some instances, a mass of tissue, or granuloma, will form at the base. Umbilical granulomas occur after umbilical cord ... If the granuloma is not visible with the open eye, gentle pressure on the surrounding site or a surgical tweezer can be used to ... Umbilical granulomas appear as round, pink lumps found at the base of the umbilicus after the removal of the umbilical cord. It ... Umbilical granulomas are also painless since they do not contain nerve fibers. In some cases, they may contain an odorless ...
... (also known as fish tank granuloma and swimming pool granuloma) is a rare skin condition caused by a non- ... Swimming pool granuloma can occur when there is inadequate chlorination of swimming pools. Aquarium granuloma is relatively ... Aquarium granuloma presents as a slow-growing, inflamed red bump (nodule or plaque) at the site of infection. It is ... "Fish Tank Granuloma - American Osteopathic College of Dermatology (AOCD)". Assiri, A., Euvrard, S., & Kanitakis, J. (2019). ...
... into the skin that then induces the granuloma formation.: 46 Granuloma Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al ... Silica granulomas are a skin condition which may be caused by automobile and other types of accidents which produces tattooing ...
The name "pyogenic granuloma" is misleading, as it is neither pyogenic or a true granuloma. Rather, it is a capillary ... Lee, Joyce; Lynde, Charles (1 November 2001). "Pyogenic Granuloma: Pyogenic Again? Association betweenPyogenic Granuloma and ... "Pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma and peripheral ossifying fibroma: retrospective analysis of 138 cases". ... Pyogenic granulomas may be seen at any age, and are more common in females than males. In pregnant women, lesions may occur in ...
... , also sometimes referred to as a radicular granuloma or apical granuloma, is an inflammation at the tip of ... Periapical granuloma is not a true granuloma due to the fact that it does not contain granulomatous inflammation; however, ... periapical granuloma is a common term used. Patients who have a periapical granuloma are usually asymptomatic; however, when ... Periapical granuloma is an infrequent disorder that has an occurrence rate between 9.3 to 87.1 percent. ...
Beryllium granulomas is a skin condition caused by granulomatous inflammation of the skin which may follow accident laceration ... Exposure to beryllium is associated with an increased risk for cancer [cite]. Granuloma List of cutaneous conditions James, ... Chronic exposure to beryllium can be histologically characterised by non-caseating granulomas-structures formed in certain ... Because of this, beryllium associated granulomas are occasionally responsive to steroids and other immunosuppressants [cite]. ...
... is an uncommon benign chronic skin disease of unknown origin characterized by single or multiple cutaneous ... ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6. Wigley, J. E. (1945). "Eosinophilic Granuloma. ? Sarcoid of Boeck". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ...
... may refer to: Acanthoma fissuratum Epulis fissuratum This disambiguation page lists articles associated ... with the title Granuloma fissuratum. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the ...
Several different terms are used to refer to contact granulomas (contact ulcer, vocal fold granuloma, vocal process granuloma, ... Benign granulomas, not to be confused with other types of granulomas, occur on the vocal process of the vocal folds, where the ... Smaller granulomas may result in a tickling sensation or slight discomfort. Signs of contact granulomas are frequent coughing ... In medical literature today, the term vocal process granuloma is preferred over the term contact ulcer or contact granuloma; ...
... is a lesional pattern of pulmonary inflammatory pseudotumor. Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma is ... Esme, H; Ermis, S. S.; Fidan, F; Unlu, M; Dilek, F. H. (2004). "A case of pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma associated with ... Liu, T; Kyrollos, M; Kravcik, S (2007). "Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma in HIV/AIDS". The Canadian Journal of Infectious ... Atagi, S; Sakatani, M; Akira, M; Yamamoto, S; Ueda, E (1994). "Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma with Castleman's disease". ...
Granuloma Annulare is characterized by rings of closely set, small, smooth, firm papules, usually skin colored, but they also ... Perforating granuloma annulare is a skin condition of unknown cause, usually appearing on the dorsal hands, presenting as ... They are generally asymptomatic and nonpruritic (Fairlie, 2004). Reports of associations between Granuloma Annulare and ... Granuloma annulare Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical ...
... pyogenic granuloma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histopathological analysis of plasma cell granulomas have been found ... Plasma cell granulomas are generally found to be benign, but in some cases, the granulomas have the ability to initiate ... Since plasma cell granulomas have the ability to occur at any site, even though they are uncommon, it should be included in ... Plasma cell granulomas have been characterized showing a ratio of IgG4:IgG of greater than 40 percent. A ratio above 40 percent ...
... is a cutaneous condition that appears in the anogenital region of infants as a complication of ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. De Zeeuw R, Van Praag MC, Oranje AP (2000). "Granuloma gluteale infantum: a case report". Pediatr ... According to some, no granulomas are found. Superficial granulomatous pyoderma List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; ...
A fibrin ring granuloma, also known as doughnut granuloma, is a histopathological finding that is characteristic of Q fever. On ... Fibrin ring granulomas may also be seen in Hodgkin's disease and infectious mononucleosis. Granuloma Rosen, MD, Yale. "Fibrin ... de Bayser L, Roblot P, Ramassamy A, Silvain C, Levillain P, Becq-Giraudon B (July 1993). "Hepatic fibrin-ring granulomas in ... Tjwa M, De Hertogh G, Neuville B, Roskams T, Nevens F, Van Steenbergen W (2001). "Hepatic fibrin-ring granulomas in ...
... (LMG) is an historical term for a condition in which necrotic and highly destructive lesions develop ... Hartig G, Montone K, Wasik M, Chalian A, Hayden R (April 1996). "Nasal T-cell lymphoma and the lethal midline granuloma ... Subsequent studies found that the cells infiltrating the midline tissues in cases of lethal midline granuloma that were not ... Patients presenting with highly localized midline facial disease fit the historical definition of lethal midline granuloma. ...
... is a skin condition of unknown cause, tending to affect children and young to middle-aged adults, ... usually appearing on the lateral or dorsal surfaces of the fingers or hands, elbows, dorsal feet, and ankles.: 703 Granuloma ...
... is a skin condition of unknown cause, most commonly affecting children, with girls affected ... twice as commonly as boys, characterized by skin lesions most often on the lower legs.: 704 Granuloma annulare Skin lesion List ...
... is a skin condition of unknown cause, tending to affect women in the fifth and sixth decades, ... 703 Granuloma annulare List of cutaneous conditions List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous ...
The plural is granulomas or granulomata. The adjective granulomatous means "characterized by granulomas". Lick granuloma, a ... Necrosis in granulomas Granuloma without necrosis in a lymph node of a person with sarcoidosis Granuloma with central necrosis ... Examples of this use of the term granuloma are the lesions known as vocal cord granuloma (known as contact granuloma), pyogenic ... and intubation granuloma, all of which are examples of granulation tissue, not granulomas. "Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma" is ...
A granuloma is a clump of cells that forms when the immune system tries to fight off a harmful substance but cannot remove it ... A granuloma is a clump of cells that forms when the immune system tries to fight off a harmful substance but cannot remove it ... A necrotizing granuloma is an area of inflammation in which tissue has died. Necrotizing means dying or decaying. ...
Persons with granuloma inguinale and HIV infection should receive the same regimens as those who do not have HIV. ... Persons who have had sexual contact with a patient who has granuloma inguinale within the 60 days before onset of the patients ... Granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) is a genital ulcerative disease caused by the intracellular gram-negative bacterium ... The causative organism of granuloma inguinale is difficult to culture, and diagnosis requires visualization of dark-staining ...
Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign inflammatory dermatosis. T. ... Ghadially R. Granuloma annulare, actinic granuloma. Arndt K, et ... Granuloma annulare is relatively common disease that occurs in all age groups, but it is rare in infancy. [1, 2] Granuloma ... Perforating granuloma annulare [4] : This form is very rare. Perforating granuloma annulare is usually localized to the dorsal ... The frequency of granuloma annulare is in the general population is unknown. Granuloma annulare does not favor a particular ...
A lung granuloma is typically harmless and has no symptoms. Learn more here. ... Inflammatory granulomas. Lung granulomas may be caused by the following inflammatory conditions:. *Granulomatosis with ... This means calcium is forming deposits in the granulomas. The calcium deposits make these kinds of lung granulomas more easily ... On a chest X-ray, some lung granulomas can potentially look like cancerous growths. However, granulomas are noncancerous and ...
These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Pyogenic Granuloma." Click on the image (or right click) to ... Pyogenic Granuloma, Epulis Gravidarum, Lobular Capillary Hemangioma. ...
Read more about Annular Elastolytıc Gıant Cell Granuloma in a Ten-Year-Old Chıld ...
Venomous aquatic animals; Traumatic aquatic animals; Echinoderms; Sea urchin; Sea urchin granuloma; Foreign body granulomas ... sarcoid granulomas) compatible with the sea urchin granuloma hypothesis. The patient was treated by surgical exeresis of ... Granulomas por ouriço-do-mar são lesões de caráter granulomatoso, crônicas, causada por acidentes com espículas de ouriço-do- ... Granulomas por ouriço-do-mar são lesões de caráter granulomatoso, crônicas, causada por acidentes com espículas de ouriço-do- ...
OBrien granuloma, Actinic elastosis, Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma, Giant cell elastophagocytosis, Meischer ... granuloma of the face. Authoritative facts from DermNet New Zealand. ... How is actinic granuloma diagnosed?. The clinical diagnosis of actinic granuloma is suspected when there is an annular dermal ... OBrien granuloma, Actinic elastosis, Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma, Giant cell elastophagocytosis, Meischer ...
... in Child. See also in: Cellulitis DDx. Captions Print Filter Images View all Images (14). (with subscription ... While Majocchi granuloma is most common in young adults, it can be seen in children as well. It is also common in females who ... Majocchi granuloma is most often caused by Trichophyton rubrum and less commonly by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or ... Majocchi granuloma in Child. See also in: Cellulitis DDx. Print Images (14) ...
METHODS--Sera from patients with proven granuloma inguinale, other sexually acquired genital ulcerations and blood donors from ... an indirect immunofluorescence technique may prove valuable for the diagnosis of individual cases of granuloma inguinale and as ... areas where granuloma inguinale is rarely encountered as well as from disease-endemic regions were tested. Sera were tested ... tissue sections of lesions containing Donovan bodies was evaluated as a serological test for the diagnosis of granuloma ...
Intraneural injection of 10(7) BCG organisms into an unsensitized animal induces an epithelioid cell granuloma in 2 weeks ... Nerve damage induced by mycobacterial granulomas in guinea pig sciatic nerves Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1988 Jun;56(2):283 ... Intraneural injection of 10(7) BCG organisms into an unsensitized animal induces an epithelioid cell granuloma in 2 weeks ... In contrast, intraneural injection of 10(9) cobalt-irradiated Mycobacterium leprae organisms induces a macrophage granuloma in ...
Fungal granuloma following endoscopic third ventriculostomy for infantile hydrocephalus. Publication Type : Journal Article ... Infective complications rarely occur following ETV and fungal infections or granulomas have not been reported so far. The ... Cite this Research Publication : Ra Kariyattil and Panikar, Db, "Fungal granuloma following endoscopic third ventriculostomy ... authors report the occurrence and management of a fungal granuloma incidentally detected during a repeat ventriculoscopy for a ...
... in Adult. Print Images (7) Contributors: Benjamin L. Mazer MD, MBA, David Sullo MD. Other Resources ... Given the constellation of findings, this is most compatible with an eosinophilic granuloma.. +5 More images of Eosinophilic ...
A granuloma is a clump of cells that forms when the immune system tries to fight off a harmful substance but cannot remove it ... A necrotizing granuloma is an area of inflammation in which tissue has died. Necrotizing means dying or decaying. ... Tuberculosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis are conditions that cause necrotizing granulomas.. Tuberculosis. Pulmonary ...
Archivos de Bronconeumologia is a scientific journal that preferentially publishes prospective original research articles whose content is based upon results dealing with several aspects of respiratory diseases such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinics, surgery, and basic investigation. Other types of articles such as reviews, editorials, a few special articles of interest to the society and the editorial board, scientific letters, letters to the Editor, and clinical images are also published in the Journal. It is a monthly Journal that publishes a total of 12 issues and a few supplements, which contain articles belonging to the different sections ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex in Dogs. Find specific details on this topic and related ... Also see professional content regarding eosinophilic granuloma complex Eosinophilic Inflammatory Skin Diseases . ... Eosinophilic granuloma complex is rare in dogs. It is recognized more commonly in cats and horses. When seen in the dog, this ...
The name pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma ... The pyogenic granuloma is a relatively common, tumorlike, exuberant tissue response to localized irritation or trauma. ... The name pyogenic granuloma is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma ... encoded search term (Oral Pyogenic Granuloma) and Oral Pyogenic Granuloma What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Control of pathogens by formation of abscesses and granulomas is a major strategy of the innate immune system, especially when ... Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells form suppurative granulomas following Listeria monocytogenes infection ... Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-expressing dendritic cells form suppurative granulomas following Listeria monocytogenes infection ... are major cellular components of suppurative granulomas in vivo. Induction of IDO by DCs is a cell-autonomous response to ...
Online download statistics by month: March 2013 to November ...
Central Nervous System Brucellosis Granuloma and White Matter Disease in Immunocompromised Patient Mohammed Alqwaifly. , Fahad ... Histiocytes form small nonnecrotizing granuloma (center) (original magnification ×100). B) High magnification view showing an ... Central Nervous System Brucellosis Granuloma and White Matter Disease in Immunocompromised Patient. ... of a brain biopsy specimen from a 46-year-old immunocompromised woman with central nervous system brucellosis granuloma and ...
"Granuloma, Plasma Cell" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Granuloma, Plasma Cell" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Granuloma, Plasma Cell" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Granuloma, Plasma Cell". ...
All these granulomas showed similar, numerous cytoplasmic granules in epithelioid and giant cells with the properties of ... It suggests a common mechanism of granuloma formation but does not identify any particular exogenous cause. The findings ... A morphological and histochemical study was made of epithelioid cell granulomas: (a) classical sarcoid type, namely, ... The presence of residual bodies demonstrates the following features the morphological similarity of the granulomas studied, and ...
Granuloma-like structures form following PR3 stimulation of PBMC. Whole PBMCs isolated from three different patients with GPA ... The formation and function of granulomas. Annu Rev Immunol 2018;36:639-65. doi:10.1146/annurev-immunol-032712-100022. ... Granulomas are exclusively found in GPA and form around multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), at sites of microabscesses, ... Granulomas are organised aggregates of inflammatory cells that serve to isolate and contain certain infectious antigens or ...
Plasma cell granuloma (PCG) is a rare benign tumor that is difficult to differentiate from malignancy. Depending on the ... Plasma Cell Granuloma; Posterolateral thoracotomy; Minimally invasive valve surgery; Lobectomy National Category Cardiac and ... Resection of a plasma cell granuloma combining a conventional posterolateral left-sided thoracotomy with a minimally invasive ...
Vocal cord granulomas diagnosed on reviewing videolaryngoscopy images Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Actinic granuloma is a unique and distinct entity: a comparative study with granuloma annulare. Am J Dermatopathol 2002; 24: ... The relationship between AEGCG and granuloma annulare remains controversial, and an exact distinction of AEGCG from granuloma ... Limas C. The spectrum of primary cutaneous elastolytic granulomas and their distinction from granuloma annulare: a ... absence of palisading granuloma, (although sarcoidal granuloma is sometimes present in AEGCG). The histopathological features ...
A granuloma pyogenicum or telangiectaticum is a benign blood vessel proliferation, this location will eventually heal but a ... This is often a granuloma telangiectaticum. The place can be frozen with nitrogen but this does not often help. Surgical ...
Granuloma Annulare - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Etiology of Granuloma Annulare Etiology of granuloma annulare is unclear, but proposed mechanisms include cell-mediated ... Diagnosis of granuloma annulare is usually clinical but can be confirmed by skin biopsy. Unlike tinea corporis Diagnosis Tinea ... Treatment of Granuloma Annulare *. For localized lesions, sometimes potent topical or intralesional corticosteroids, topical ...
  • Granuloma annulare (GA) is a benign inflammatory dermatosis. (medscape.com)
  • however, not until 1902 did Radcliffe-Crocker label it as granuloma annulare. (medscape.com)
  • Granuloma annulare is relatively common disease that occurs in all age groups, but it is rare in infancy. (medscape.com)
  • Localized granuloma annulare: This is the most common form. (medscape.com)
  • Localized granuloma annulare is characterized by skin-colored to violaceous lesions up to 5 cm in diameter. (medscape.com)
  • Localized granuloma annulare has a predilection for the feet, ankles, lower limbs, and wrists. (medscape.com)
  • Generalized granuloma annulare: This form occurs predominantly in adults. (medscape.com)
  • Subcutaneous granuloma annulare is characterized by firm or hard asymptomatic nodules in the deep dermis or subcutaneous tissues, with individual lesions measuring from 5 mm to 4 cm in diameter. (medscape.com)
  • Perforating granuloma annulare is usually localized to the dorsal hands and fingers or may be generalized on the trunk and extremities. (medscape.com)
  • Arcuate dermal erythema: This is an uncommon form of granuloma annulare that manifests as infiltrated erythematous patches that may form large, hyperpigmented rings with central clearing. (medscape.com)
  • Some authorities consider actinic granuloma (AG) to be a subset of granuloma annulare, but others view actinic annulare as a separate, but related, entity. (medscape.com)
  • Proposed pathogenic mechanisms for granuloma annulare include cell-mediated immunity (type IV), immune complex vasculitis, and an abnormality of tissue monocytes. (medscape.com)
  • The etiology of granuloma annulare is usually unknown, and the pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood, with a vast majority of granuloma annulare cases occurring in patients who are otherwise healthy. (medscape.com)
  • The range of predisposing events and associated diseases is diverse, and granuloma annulare is thought to represent a reaction pattern with many different initiating factors. (medscape.com)
  • Familial cases of granuloma annulare observed in identical twins and siblings in several generations, along with an association of granuloma annulare with HLA phenotypes, suggest the possibility of a hereditary component in some cases. (medscape.com)
  • HLA-A29 and HLA-BW35 levels are reported to be increased in generalized granuloma annulare. (medscape.com)
  • Some reports associate chronic stress with granuloma annulare as a trigger of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Granuloma annulare also has some predilection for the sun-exposed areas and photodamaged skin. (medscape.com)
  • There is debate around whether it is a distinct entity or a variant of granuloma annulare . (dermnetnz.org)
  • Actinic granuloma is difficult to distinguish from other granulomatous disorders, particularly granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica . (dermnetnz.org)
  • The spectrum of primary cutaneous elastolytic granulomas and their distinction from granuloma annulare: a clinic pathological analysis. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Granuloma annulare is a benign, chronic, idiopathic condition characterized by papules or nodules that expand peripherally to form a ring around normal or slightly depressed skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many diseases, infections, drugs, and environmental factors have been reported in patients with granuloma annulare, but any associations are still unclear. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diagnosis of granuloma annulare is usually clinical but can be confirmed by skin biopsy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • which can cause raised annular lesions with central clearing), granuloma annulare typically has no scale and does not itch. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibitor therapy has been reported to be effective in treating granuloma annulare but has also been reported as a potential inciting factor in some patients. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Diagnose granuloma annulare clinically (eg, by the characteristic rings with central clearing and absence of scaling). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Shop Now for Over-the-Counter Treatments for Granuloma Annulare. (dubaient.com)
  • 7 Effective Natural Treatments for Granuloma Annulare. (dubaient.com)
  • Many people start to put on usual tips and Natural Remedies for Granuloma Annulare, as the effect, they have ease and detox response. (dubaient.com)
  • How Might Granuloma Annulare Be Treated With Home. (dubaient.com)
  • Granuloma Annulare: Symptoms and Treatment. (mfine.co)
  • People with diseases such as HIV infection, may be more likely to develop Granuloma Annulare. (mfine.co)
  • Granuloma Annulare is a skin condition which mostly consists of raised, reddish or skin colored bumps (lesions) that form ring patterns, usually on your hand and feet. (mfine.co)
  • Causes of granuloma annulare are not exactly known. (mfine.co)
  • Here are some best Natural home cure for Generalized Granuloma Annulare Treatment completely without any side effects. (natural-health-news.com)
  • Granuloma annulare is a harmless type of skin rash that often presents with ring-shaped lesions. (cliffordlobermd.com)
  • Granuloma annulare is more prevalent in women. (cliffordlobermd.com)
  • Perforating granuloma annulare (PGA) is a rare subtype of GA. It is characterized by crops of erythematous umblicated or scaly papules. (iranjd.ir)
  • Generalized perforating granuloma annulare with varioliform scars: A case report', Iranian Journal of Dermatology , 10(1), pp. 78-82. (iranjd.ir)
  • Examples of this use of the term granuloma are the lesions known as vocal cord granuloma (known as contact granuloma), pyogenic granuloma, and intubation granuloma, all of which are examples of granulation tissue, not granulomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two lesions, peripheral ossifying fibroma and peripheral giant cell granuloma, are clinically identical to the pyogenic granuloma when they occur on the gingiva. (medscape.com)
  • If 100 biopsies of pyogenic granuloma-appearing lesions of the gingiva are submitted for histologic examination, approximately 75% will be pyogenic granulomas, 20% will be peripheral ossifying fibromas, and 5% will be peripheral giant cell granulomas. (medscape.com)
  • Actinic granuloma (2) is generally involved in the entity of AEGCG (1), but is localized in chronically sun-exposed and damaged regions, while normally demonstrating solitary or multiple, typical annular lesions with erythematous raised borders, whereas AEGCG includes lesions showing a generalized distribution and involving both covered as well as sun-exposed areas (3). (medicaljournals.se)
  • Eosinophilic granuloma lesions are more like symptoms of a variety of underlying causes such as allergy or even bacterial infection. (vin.com)
  • Reports of granuloma faciale-like lesions of the oral mucosa are rare. (medscape.com)
  • Roustan G, Sánchez Yus E, Salas C, Simón A. Granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Nasiri S, Rahimi H, Farnaghi A, Asadi-Kani Z. Granuloma faciale with disseminated extra facial lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a common inflammatory skin disease of cats, which consists of a group of lesions that affect the skin, mucocutaneous junctions, and oral cavity. (felipedia.org)
  • Granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) is a genital ulcerative disease caused by the intracellular gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella granulomatis (formerly known as Calymmatobacterium granulomatis ). (cdc.gov)
  • Although granuloma inguinale was previously endemic in Australia, it is now extremely rare ( 536 , 537 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The causative organism of granuloma inguinale is difficult to culture, and diagnosis requires visualization of dark-staining Donovan bodies on tissue crush preparation or biopsy. (cdc.gov)
  • All persons who receive a diagnosis of granuloma inguinale should be tested for HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Persons who have had sexual contact with a patient who has granuloma inguinale within the 60 days before onset of the patient's symptoms should be examined and offered therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • For these reasons, pregnant and lactating women with granuloma inguinale should be treated with a macrolide regimen (erythromycin or azithromycin). (cdc.gov)
  • Persons with granuloma inguinale and HIV infection should receive the same regimens as those who do not have HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Zeiger, Roni F.. "Granuloma Inguinale. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Medicine Central , im.unboundmedicine.com/medicine/view/Diagnosaurus/114106/all/Granuloma_inguinale. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Granuloma inguinale (also known as "Donovanosis") is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection of endemic proportions in many underdeveloped countries. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Clinically, granuloma inguinale is characterized by painless genital ulcers that appear 10 to 40 days after contact and that can be mistaken for syphilis. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Granuloma inguinale must be differentiated from the other chronic ulcerative infections such as chancroid, chronic streptococcal infection and syphilis. (pediagenosis.com)
  • In later stages, granuloma inguinale may look like advanced genital cancers, lymphogranuloma venereum, and cutaneous amebiasis. (pediagenosis.com)
  • Complications of granuloma inguinale infection include genital mutilation and scarring, loss of skin color in the genital area and genital elephantiasis from scarring. (pediagenosis.com)
  • The eosinophilic granuloma, which is also called linear granuloma or collagenolytic granuloma, produces a classical swollen lower lip or chin or a classical long, narrow lesion running down the back of the thigh. (vin.com)
  • Also known as linear granuloma or collagenolytic granuloma, eosinophilic granulomas occur on the caudal thighs, face, and oral cavity (particularly the tongue and palate). (felipedia.org)
  • Pulmonary hyalinizing granuloma" is a lesion characterized by keloid-like fibrosis in the lung and is not granulomatous. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are pulmonary granulomas and can cause a serious condition known as pulmonary sarcoidosis. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • A lung transplant is the only way to repair your condition in the most extreme cases where granulomas cause severe pulmonary sarcoidosis. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Transbronchial biopsy in patients with pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. (nih.gov)
  • Neoplasms associated with pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. (nih.gov)
  • Reactive eosinophilic pleuritis: a lesion to be distinguished from pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical diagnosis of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma on lung biopsy. (nih.gov)
  • To diagnose a granuloma, your doctor may use a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or ultrasounds, or they may take a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • Furthermore, the name eosinophilic granuloma implies a final diagnosis, but this is generally not the case, either. (vin.com)
  • In this course you will learn about pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Eosinophilic granuloma. (vetacademy.org)
  • Perianal granulomas present some degree of diagnostic difficulty, with standard histologic diagnosis often doing little to clarify their etiology. (medscape.com)
  • Biopsy helped confirm the diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma. (medscape.com)
  • In terms of the underlying cause, the difference between granulomas and other types of inflammation is that granulomas form in response to antigens that are resistant to "first-responder" inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infections, inflammatory diseases, and other factors such as the following are associated with lung granulomas. (healthline.com)
  • Majocchi-like granulomas, deep ulcerated fungal infections, severe tinea capitis and corporis, and fungal nail involvement are characteristic of an inherited deficiency of CARD9 (caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9), an inflammatory cascade-associated protein. (logicalimages.com)
  • A granuloma is a solid grouping of inflammatory cells coming together in a lump or solid structure. (vin.com)
  • Background: Umbilical granuloma is a common inflammatory reaction which occurs during falling of umbilicus. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • These granulomas are clusters of inflammatory cells. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • A spectrum of diseases, mostly infectious or inflammatory conditions, can produce granulomas in the perianal region and perineum. (medscape.com)
  • The antigen causing the formation of a granuloma is most often an infectious pathogen or a substance foreign to the body, but sometimes the offending antigen is unknown (as in sarcoidosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • The formation of a granuloma or granulomas is a fascinating process. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) (1) is a rare granulomatous skin disease, characterized by elastolysis, elastophagocytosis, and an abundance of multinucleated giant cells. (medicaljournals.se)
  • The incidence of perianal granuloma of non-Crohn disease etiology seems to be increasing worldwide, albeit more slowly in the Western world than in the developing world. (medscape.com)
  • The peripheral giant cell granuloma has an unknown etiology, with some dispute as to whether this lesion represents a reactive or neoplastic process. (medscape.com)
  • A granuloma is an aggregation of macrophages that forms in response to chronic inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A necrotizing granuloma is an area of inflammation in which tissue has died. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lung granulomas, also referred to as rheumatoid or lung nodules, occur in 20 percent of people with RA, a condition that causes joint pain and inflammation. (healthline.com)
  • Trauma from the piercing itself can cause inflammation or infection which can lead to granuloma formation. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • The most common types are pyogenic granulomas which are caused by bacterial infection or inflammation from trauma such as a piercing, contact granulomas which are caused by an allergic reaction to metals used in jewelry, and foreign body granulomas which are caused by an ill-fitting piece of jewelry. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • Granulomas can form around the site of a nose piercing due to inflammation or infection caused by trauma from the piercing, an ill-fitting piece of jewelry, or an allergic reaction to metals used in jewelry. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • During the examination, your doctor or piercer will inspect the area for any signs of infection or inflammation and may use imaging tests such as X-rays or ultrasounds to determine the size and location of the granuloma. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • Topical Medications: Topical medications, such as antibiotics or corticosteroids, may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and help treat infection in a granuloma nose piercing. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • Umbilical granuloma (UG) is the most common umbilical abnormality in neonates, causing inflammation and drainage. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Granulomas are areas of inflammation that form when the body's immune system tries to fight off an infection or other foreign substance. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Cholesterol granuloma is a granulomatous inflammation in reaction to the cholesterol. (causapedia.com)
  • The presence of granulomas in or around the area of a nose piercing should always be addressed as quickly as possible. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • The distinguishing feature of acute beryllium disease is the presence of granulomas. (cdc.gov)
  • However, granulomas are noncancerous and often cause no symptoms or require treatment. (healthline.com)
  • While lung granulomas usually have no symptoms, their underlying cause may present symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • There are seldom symptoms associated with lung granulomas themselves. (healthline.com)
  • Lung granulomas with no abnormal symptoms may not need to be treated. (healthline.com)
  • One of the most common symptoms of a granuloma nose piercing is redness and swelling in or around the area of the piercing. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • What are the symptoms of pyogenic granulomas? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Liquid nitrogen, laser therapy, and various forms of oral medications are used to treat the symptoms of granulomas. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Tuberculosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis are conditions that cause necrotizing granulomas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a disease complex that presents in three main forms, namely an eosinophilic ulcer (also known as a rodent or indolent ulcer), an eosinophilic plaque or an eosinophilic granuloma . (birnamvet.co.za)
  • For example, granulomas with numerous eosinophils may be a clue to coccidioidomycosis or allergic bronchopulmonary fungal disease, and granulomas with numerous neutrophils suggest blastomycosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, aspiration pneumonia, or cat-scratch disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Majocchi granuloma (nodular granulomatous perifolliculitis) is a perifollicular and nodular process caused by infection of the follicle with a dermatophyte fungal species. (logicalimages.com)
  • Infective complications rarely occur following ETV and fungal infections or granulomas have not been reported so far. (amrita.edu)
  • The authors report the occurrence and management of a fungal granuloma incidentally detected during a repeat ventriculoscopy for a non-functioning ETV. (amrita.edu)
  • Lesion excisional biopsy was performed.Depending on the volume, the pyogenic granuloma tends to regress completely after pregnancy, but in some cases it is necessary to consider the surgical removal of the lesion, because the granuloma could modify the diet, social life and marriage, important factors to adequate pregnancy development. (bvsalud.org)
  • A mucosal variant of the skin lesion granuloma faciale. (medscape.com)
  • However, most authorities believe peripheral giant cell granuloma is a reactive lesion. (medscape.com)
  • 2021. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/761169/0/granuloma. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • subcutaneous granulomas (pseudobuboes) also might occur. (cdc.gov)
  • Lung granulomas may occur with this condition that mostly affects the salivary and lacrimal glands, preventing your body from producing enough saliva and tears. (healthline.com)
  • Majocchi granuloma can occur following trauma to the skin or from occlusion of hair follicles. (logicalimages.com)
  • The pyogenic granuloma can occur anywhere in the oral cavity, whereas the peripheral ossifying fibroma and peripheral giant cell granuloma only occur on the gingiva or alveolar mucosa. (medscape.com)
  • Three quarters of all oral pyogenic granulomas occur on the gingiva, with the lips, tongue (especially the dorsal surface), and buccal mucosa also affected. (medscape.com)
  • The pyogenic granuloma has been called a "pregnancy tumor" and does occur in 1% of pregnant women. (medscape.com)
  • Pyogenic granulomas occur at any age, but they most frequently affect young adults. (medscape.com)
  • However, if granulomas occur in the lungs or other internal organs, your doctor will have to perform a CT scan, x-ray, or blood test to diagnose it. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Intraneural injection of 10(7) BCG organisms into an unsensitized animal induces an epithelioid cell granuloma in 2 weeks similar to that found in tuberculoid leprosy patients. (nih.gov)
  • B) High magnification view showing an angiocentric epithelioid granuloma cuffed by mature lymphocytes (original magnification ×200). (cdc.gov)
  • A granuloma is a nodule consisting of mainly epithelioid macrophages. (medscape.com)
  • Plasma cell granuloma (PCG) is a rare benign tumor that is difficult to differentiate from malignancy. (diva-portal.org)
  • A granuloma pyogenicum or telangiectaticum is a benign blood vessel proliferation, this location will eventually heal but a scar will be present. (cmtc.nl)
  • Granuloma faciale (GF) is an uncommon benign chronic skin disease of unknown origin characterized by single or multiple cutaneous nodules, usually occurring over the face. (medscape.com)
  • Some pyogenic granulomas regress after childbirth without surgical intervention. (medscape.com)
  • The pyogenic granulomas are most commonly found on the gingiva, but they can also be found on other oral locations. (medscape.com)
  • What are pyogenic granulomas? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pyogenic granulomas are round, raised bumps on the skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pyogenic granulomas form when tiny blood vessels called capillaries grow larger than usual, and the tissue around them swells. (msdmanuals.com)
  • How do doctors treat pyogenic granulomas? (msdmanuals.com)
  • A related term, caseation (literally: turning to cheese) refers to a form of necrosis that, to the unaided eye, appears cheese-like ("caseous"), and is typically a feature of the granulomas of tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Necrosis in granulomas Granuloma without necrosis in a lymph node of a person with sarcoidosis Granuloma with central necrosis in a lung of a person with tuberculosis: Note the Langhans-type giant cells (with many nuclei arranged in a horseshoe-like pattern at the edge of the cell) around the periphery of the granuloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actinic granuloma is an uncommon skin disease that presents with asymptomatic annular (ring-shaped) plaques on sun-exposed sites. (dermnetnz.org)
  • What is the cause of actinic granuloma? (dermnetnz.org)
  • What are the clinical features of actinic granuloma? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Actinic granuloma begins as flesh-coloured or pink papules (small bumps) which coalescence into annular plaques (larger thickened patches) ranging in size from 1 to 10 cm in diameter. (dermnetnz.org)
  • How is actinic granuloma diagnosed? (dermnetnz.org)
  • What is the treatment of actinic granuloma? (dermnetnz.org)
  • Treatment of actinic granuloma can be difficult. (dermnetnz.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Umbilical granuloma is an overgrowth of granulation tissue following the separation of umbilical cord. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Histologic analysis of a brain biopsy specimen from a 46-year-old immunocompromised woman with central nervous system brucellosis granuloma and white matter disease, Saudi Arabia. (cdc.gov)
  • One institutional biopsy service reported the mean age of 235 patients with peripheral giant cell granuloma to be 46 years, with a range from 6-88 years. (medscape.com)
  • When lung tissue becomes inflamed from an infection or other cause, cells called histiocytes cluster to form nodules called granulomas. (healthline.com)
  • If the initial swarm of macrophages isn't enough to stop the spread of infection, more granulomas form and flee to the scene. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Sea urchin granuloma is a chronic granulomatous skin disease caused by frequent and successive penetration of sea urchin spines which have not been removed from wounds. (scielo.br)
  • Stem cell transplantation may be necessary for chronic granulomatous disease caused by granulomas. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Vassallo C, Derlino F, Croci GA, Brazzelli V, Borroni G. Chronic localized leukocytoclastic vasculitis: clinicopathological spectrum of granuloma faciale with and without extrafacial and mucosal involvement. (medscape.com)
  • Lung granulomas are associated with some common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) that prevent your body from fighting infections and diseases. (healthline.com)
  • In many cases, however, granulomas form without apparent cause in autoimmune disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Peripheral giant cell granuloma is uncommon but not rare. (medscape.com)
  • Similarly, radiologists often use the term granuloma when they see a calcified nodule on X-ray or CT scan of the chest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lung Granulomas: What Do You Need to Know? (healthline.com)
  • The calcium deposits make these kinds of lung granulomas more easily seen on imaging tests, such as chest X-rays or CT scans . (healthline.com)
  • On a chest X-ray, some lung granulomas can potentially look like cancerous growths. (healthline.com)
  • Lung granulomas may form in response to respiratory conditions such as the following. (healthline.com)
  • People with leukemia may develop lung granulomas due to lymphomatoid granulmatosis, a rare condition caused by the overproduction of lymphocytes, or white blood cells. (healthline.com)
  • While some granulomas don't require any treatment, some may require surgeries or even lung transplants. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, this is another type of vasculitis that may cause granulomas to form in the lungs. (healthline.com)
  • According to a 2019 study , up to 36 percent of people with IBD had granulomas in their lungs or organs other than their gastrointestinal tracts. (healthline.com)
  • A granuloma is a cluster of white blood cells that typically form in the lungs as a defense mechanism, but they can also form on the head, skin, or several other body parts. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • It's important to diagnose internal granulomas soon after their formation, especially granulomas in the lungs. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • The ingredients may otherwise cause local tissue necrosis and granuloma in the lungs. (who.int)
  • Granulomas often get mistaken for cancerous growths because of how they appear, but they are, in fact, natural defenders that your body creates. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Who are the top experts researching treatments for umbilical granuloma? (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • What are the top concepts researched in studies about umbilical granuloma? (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • What are some of the top places that specialize in umbilical granuloma? (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Treating Umbilical Granuloma With Topical Clobetasol Propionate Cream At Home Is. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Salt Treatment For Umbilical Granuloma - An Effective, Cheap, And Available. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Introduction: Umbilical granuloma (UG) is the most common cause of umbilical mass and it is formed in the first few weeks of life after the umbilical cord separates. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Umbilical granulomas are the most common anomaly of the umbilicus in neonates and infants. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • in umbilical granuloma are vascular polymorphism comprised of linear irregular and arborizing vessels with structureless areas distributed over a milky-red background. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • An umbilical granuloma is a rubbery, red growth that can form around the navel (umbilicus) after a baby is born. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • An umbilical granuloma typically forms. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Como aplicar nitrato de prata para cauterização de granuloma umbilical de recém-nascido? (bvs.br)
  • Granuloma Faciale and Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis: Similar Entities in Different Anatomic Sites. (medscape.com)
  • A granuloma is often surrounded by a lymphocyte cuff and fibrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Pyogenic granuloma is an entity often associated with expansion of soft tissues. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lever and Leeper first recognized granuloma faciale as a distinct entity in 1950. (medscape.com)
  • Majocchi granuloma is most often caused by Trichophyton rubrum and less commonly by Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Epidermophyton floccosum . (logicalimages.com)
  • In pregnant women is commonly called granuloma gravidarum or pregnancy tumor. (bvsalud.org)
  • Granulomas in Crohn disease have been postulated to represent an adaptive mechanism for removal or localization of the causative agent because patients with a long clinical history show fewer granulomas than do those with a shorter clinical history. (medscape.com)
  • Peñarrocha-Diago MA, Cervera-Ballester J, Maestre-Ferrín L, Peñarrocha-Oltra D. Peripheral giant cell granuloma associated with dental implants: clinical case and literature review. (medscape.com)
  • Herein, we report a case of cholesterol granuloma in petrous apex with the clinical and radiological findings. (causapedia.com)
  • Transepithelial elimination of mucinous, degenerating collagen fibers and surrounding palisading lymphohistiocytic granulomas, are important histologic features. (iranjd.ir)
  • Cutaneous granulomas result from beryllium inhalation only. (cdc.gov)
  • Solitary, well-demarcated, brown-red plaque associated with granuloma faciale. (medscape.com)
  • Your doctor or piercer can diagnose the granuloma and recommend a treatment plan. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • In some cases, oral medications may be prescribed for the treatment of a granuloma nose piercing. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • There are several different treatment options for granulomas based on their location and severity. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • Granuloma faciale has a tendency to relapse after treatment. (medscape.com)
  • An analysis of peripheral giant cell granuloma associated with dental implant treatment. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, intraneural injection of 10(9) cobalt-irradiated Mycobacterium leprae organisms induces a macrophage granuloma in 5 weeks, similar to that found in lepromatous leprosy patients. (nih.gov)
  • Peripheral giant cell granuloma in anterior maxilla: case report in a child. (medscape.com)
  • A genetic predisposition to EGC may exist because eosinophilic granulomas and indolent ulcers have been observed in a colony of specific pathogen-free cats and other cats with limited genetic diversity[4]. (felipedia.org)
  • In pathology, a granuloma is an organized collection of macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macrophages (specifically histiocytes) are the cells that define a granuloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loosely dispersed macrophages are not considered to be granulomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show in human listeriosis that DCs expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), together with macrophages, are major cellular components of suppurative granulomas in vivo. (jci.org)
  • Although the structure of the granulomas and multinucleated giant cells in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is known, little is established about what drove granuloma formation and why it is infrequently found in patients with myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies. (bmj.com)
  • Corticosteroids are often used to treat skin granulomas and come in the form of injections, creams, or pills. (burnettdermatology.com)
  • There were no features of necrobiosis, palisading granuloma, or mucin deposition in either specimens. (medicaljournals.se)
  • We describe a patient with a PCG involving the left lower lobe extending into the left atrium, that was resected en bloc using a conventional posterolateral thoracotomy combined with a surgical approach predominantly used for minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. (diva-portal.org)
  • This report presents the case of a 27-year-old patient in the eighth month of pregnancy, with granuloma gravidarumon the buccal mucosa, region of tooth 42, that was interfering with quality of life of the patient. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multiple brown-red plaques on the face associated with granuloma faciale (same patient as in Media Files 13-16). (medscape.com)
  • Perianal granuloma and multiple fistulous tracts in a patient with severe perianal Crohn disease. (medscape.com)
  • In order to diagnose a granuloma nose piercing, a medical examination is usually necessary. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • Histiocytes form small nonnecrotizing granuloma (center) (original magnification ×100). (cdc.gov)
  • Methods We stimulated purified monocytes and whole peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with GPA, patients with MPA or healthy controls with PR3 or MPO and visualised MGC and granuloma-like structure formation using light, confocal and electron microscopy, as well as measuring the cell cytokine production. (bmj.com)
  • They make this assumption since granulomas usually contain calcium, although the cells that form a granuloma are too tiny to be seen by a radiologist. (wikipedia.org)
  • When granulomas first form, they're soft. (healthline.com)
  • A deeper and more nodular form of Majocchi granuloma has also been reported in transplant patients and immunocompromised patients. (logicalimages.com)
  • Granulomas are exclusively found in GPA and form around multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), at sites of microabscesses, containing apoptotic and necrotic neutrophils. (bmj.com)
  • Granulomas can form due to a variety of factors, including trauma from the piercing, an ill-fitting piece of jewelry, and allergic reactions to metals used in jewelry. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • A granuloma is a raised, red lump that can form in or around the area of a pierced nose. (thisweekinlibraries.com)
  • Granulomas can form when the immune system attempts to fend off and isolate an antigen, such as an infectious pathogen or a foreign body. (medscape.com)
  • Granulomatous disease is a medical condition characterized by the formation of granulomas in the body. (keyopinionleaders.com)
  • Granuloma faciale is primarily a disease of middle age (median age, 45 y). (medscape.com)
  • The granulomas of Crohn disease may be sarcoid-type or nonspecific. (medscape.com)
  • Peripheral giant cell granuloma associated with hyperparathyroidism secondary to end-stage renal disease: a case report. (medscape.com)
  • Inguinal granuloma (donovans) is a rare sexually transmitted disease. (doclandmed.com)
  • Small granuloma in the posterior third of the left vocal chord as a result of prolonged contact with an endotracheal tube of ventilation. (stening.blog)
  • Eye exam may show a subretinal granulomatous mass or posterior pole granuloma. (cdc.gov)