Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Receptors that bind and internalize GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR. Their MW is believed to be 150 kD. These receptors are found mainly on a subset of myelomonocytic cells.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A transient increase in the number of leukocytes in a body fluid.
Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The cells in the granulocytic series that give rise to mature granulocytes (NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS). These precursor cells include myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes and metamyelocytes.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The process of generating white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS of the BONE MARROW. There are two significant pathways to generate various types of leukocytes: MYELOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes in the blood are derived from MYELOID STEM CELLS, and LYMPHOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOCYTES) are generated from lymphoid stem cells.
Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.
Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A CXC chemokine that has stimulatory and chemotactic activities towards NEUTROPHILS. It has specificity for CXCR1 RECEPTORS and CXCR2 RECEPTORS.
The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
A defect of leukocyte function in which phagocytic cells ingest but fail to digest bacteria, resulting in recurring bacterial infections with granuloma formation. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by mutations in the CYBB gene, the condition is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. When chronic granulomatous disease is caused by CYBA, NCF1, NCF2, or NCF4 gene mutations, the condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A condition characterized by the recurrence of HEMOGLOBINURIA caused by intravascular HEMOLYSIS. In cases occurring upon cold exposure (paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria), usually after infections, there is a circulating antibody which is also a cold hemolysin. In cases occurring during or after sleep (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria), the clonal hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a global deficiency of cell membrane proteins.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Chemical substances that attract or repel cells. The concept denotes especially those factors released as a result of tissue injury, microbial invasion, or immunologic activity, that attract LEUKOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; or other cells to the site of infection or insult.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the GRANULOCYTE lineage and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Separation of one or more kinds of cells from whole blood with the return of other blood cell constituents to the patient or donor. This is accomplished with an instrument that uses centrifugation to separate the cells into different layers based on the differences in cell density (displacement) or drag coefficients in a current (elutriation). The procedure is commonly used in adoptive transfer to isolate NK cells, lymphocytes, or monocytes.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Cell surface receptors for colony stimulating factors, local mediators, and hormones that regulate the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hemopoietic cells.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
A peripheral blood picture resembling that of leukemia or indistinguishable from it on the basis of morphologic appearance alone. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The minor fragment formed when C5 convertase cleaves C5 into C5a and COMPLEMENT C5B. C5a is a 74-amino-acid glycopeptide with a carboxy-terminal ARGININE that is crucial for its spasmogenic activity. Of all the complement-derived anaphylatoxins, C5a is the most potent in mediating immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE), smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION; HISTAMINE RELEASE; and migration of LEUKOCYTES to site of INFLAMMATION.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Disorders in which phagocytic cells cannot kill ingested bacteria; characterized by frequent recurring infection with formulation of granulomas.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
A technique to study CELL MIGRATION in the INFLAMMATION process or during immune reactions. After an area on the skin is abraded, the movement of cells in the area is followed via microscopic observation of the exudate through a coverslip or tissue culture chamber placed over the area.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Molecules on the surface of some B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that recognize and combine with the C3b, C3d, C1q, and C4b components of complement.
Effective in the initiation of protein synthesis. The initiating methionine residue enters the ribosome as N-formylmethionyl tRNA. This process occurs in Escherichia coli and other bacteria as well as in the mitochondria of eucaryotic cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A seven-membered aromatic ring compound. It is structurally related to a number of naturally occurring antifungal compounds (ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS).
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A myeloproliferative disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by abnormal proliferation of all hematopoietic bone marrow elements and an absolute increase in red cell mass and total blood volume, associated frequently with splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and thrombocythemia. Hematopoiesis is also reactive in extramedullary sites (liver and spleen). In time myelofibrosis occurs.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.

Steroids and hematopoiesis. III. The response of granulocytic and erythroid colony-forming cells to steroids of different classes. (1/3501)

Selected androgenic and nonandrogenic steroids enhance in vitro granulocytic and erythroid colony formation by mouse marrow cells, but do so by influencing either different target cells or cells in different states of cell cycle. Etiocholanolone, a naturally occurring nonandrogenic testosterone metabolite, permits cells not in active cycle to respond to colony-stimulating factor or erythropoietin. Fluoxymesterone, a synthetic androgen, appears to enhance colony growth by increasing the responsiveness of target cells to tropic stimuli. The majority of cells responding to this androgen are in active DNA synthesis. Direct comparison, however, of etiocholanolone-dependent erythroid or granulocytic colony-forming cells demonstrates nonidentity of the target cells. Thus colony-forming units responding to different classes of steroids are in different states of cell cycle and are physically separable. The enhancement of the in vitro response of colony-forming cells to regulating hormones by steroids such as etiocholanolane suggests a mechanism by which such agents may be therapeutically effective in certain cases of marrow failure in man.  (+info)

Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. (2/3501)

The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

MENT, a heterochromatin protein that mediates higher order chromatin folding, is a new serpin family member. (3/3501)

Terminal cell differentiation is correlated with the extensive sequestering of previously active genes into compact transcriptionally inert heterochromatin. In vertebrate blood cells, these changes can be traced to the accumulation of a developmentally regulated heterochromatin protein, MENT. Cryoelectron microscopy of chicken granulocyte chromatin, which is highly enriched with MENT, reveals exceptionally compact polynucleosomes, which maintain a level of higher order folding above that imposed by linker histones. The amino acid sequence of MENT reveals a close structural relationship with serpins, a large family of proteins known for their ability to undergo dramatic conformational transitions. Conservation of the "hinge region" consensus in MENT indicates that this ability is retained by the protein. MENT is distinguished from the other serpins by being a basic protein, containing several positively charged surface clusters, which are likely to be involved in ionic interactions with DNA. One of the positively charged domains bears a significant similarity to the chromatin binding region of nuclear lamina proteins and with the A.T-rich DNA-binding motif, which may account for the targeting of MENT to peripheral heterochromatin. MENT ectopically expressed in a mammalian cell line is transported into nuclei and is associated with intranuclear foci of condensed chromatin.  (+info)

Transduction of primitive human marrow and cord blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells with adeno-associated virus vectors. (4/3501)

We evaluated the capacity of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to transduce primitive human myeloid progenitor cells derived from marrow and cord blood in long-term cultures and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays. Single-colony analyses showed that AAV vectors transduced CD34(+) and CD34(+)38(-) clonogenic cells in long-term culture. Gene transfer was readily observed in LTC-ICs derived from 5-, 8-, and 10-week cultures. Recombinant AAV (rAAV) transduction was observed in every donor analyzed, although a wide range of gene transfer frequencies (5% to 100%) was noted. AAV transduction of LTC-ICs was stable, with week-8 and -10 LTC-ICs showing comparable or better transduction relative to week-5 LTC-ICs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses performed to determine the fate of AAV vectors in transduced cells showed that 9% to 28% of CD34(+) and CD34(+)38(-) cells showed stable vector integration as evidenced by chromosome-associated signals in metaphase spreads. Comparisons of interphase and metaphase FISH suggested that a fraction of cells also contained episomal vector at early time points after transduction. Despite the apparent loss of the episomal forms with continued culture, the number of metaphases containing integrated vector genomes remained stable long term. Transgene transcription and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) expression was observed in CD34(+), CD34(+)38(-) LTC-ICs in the absence of selective pressure. These results suggest that primitive myeloid progenitors are amenable to genetic modification with AAV vectors.  (+info)

A novel spliced form of SH2-containing inositol phosphatase is expressed during myeloid development. (5/3501)

SH2-containing Inositol Phosphatase (SHIP) is a 145 kD protein expressed in hematopoietic cells. SHIP is phosphorylated on tyrosine after receptor binding by several cytokines and has a negative role in hematopoiesis. We cloned a murine complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence for an isoform of SHIP with an internal 183 nucleotide deletion, encoding a protein 61 amino acids shorter than 145 kD SHIP. This deletion eliminates potential SH3-domain binding regions and a potential binding site for the p85 subunit of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. Using polyclonal anti-SHIP antibodies, we and others have previously observed a 135 kD SHIP isoform that is coexpressed with 145 kD SHIP. Here, we used monoclonal antibodies raised against the region deleted in the spliced form to show that the product of the novel spliced SHIP cDNA is antigenically identical to the 135 kD SHIP isoform. Like 145 kD SHIP, 135 kD SHIP expression was induced on differentiation of bone marrow cells. After macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) stimulation of FDC-P1(Fms) myeloid cells, both 145 and 135 kD SHIP forms were tyrosine phosphorylated and could be coimmunoprecipitated with antibodies to Shc and Grb2. However, experiments showed only a weak association of 135 kD SHIP with p85. A potentially analogous 135 kD SHIP species also appears in human differentiated leukocytes.  (+info)

The intracellular serpin proteinase inhibitor 6 is expressed in monocytes and granulocytes and is a potent inhibitor of the azurophilic granule protease, cathepsin G. (6/3501)

The monocyte and granulocyte azurophilic granule proteinases elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are implicated in acute and chronic diseases thought to result from an imbalance between the secreted proteinase(s) and circulating serpins such as alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin. We show here that the intracellular serpin, proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI-6), is present in monocytes, granulocytes, and myelomonocytic cell lines. In extracts from these cells, PI-6 bound an endogenous membrane-associated serine proteinase to form an sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-stable complex. Using antibodies to urokinase, elastase, proteinase 3, or cathepsin G, we demonstrated that the complex contains cathepsin G. Native cathepsin G and recombinant PI-6 formed an SDS-stable complex in vitro similar in size to that observed in the extracts. Further kinetic analysis demonstrated that cathepsin G and PI-6 rapidly form a tight 1:1 complex (ka = 6.8 +/- 0.2 x 10(6) mol/L-1s-1 at 17 degrees C; Ki = 9.2 +/- 0.04 x 10(-10) mol/L). We propose that PI-6 complements alpha1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (which control extracellular proteolysis) by neutralizing cathepsin G that leaks into the cytoplasm of monocytes or granulocytes during biosynthesis or phagocytosis. Control of intracellular cathepsin G may be particularly important, because it has recently been shown to activate the proapoptotic proteinase, caspase-7.  (+info)

Mechanisms of acute inflammatory lung injury induced by abdominal sepsis. (7/3501)

Sequestration of neutrophils and release of histotoxic mediators are considered important for the development of pathologic alterations of the lung defined as adult respiratory distress syndrome. Mechanisms of inflammatory lung injury caused by abdominal sepsis were investigated using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model that closely mimics the human disease. In the CASP model, a continuous leakage of intraluminal bacteria into the peritoneal cavity is induced by implantation of a stent in the ascending colon, generating a septic focus. In contrast to the cecal ligation and puncture model of peritonitis, survival of mice following CASP surgery is dependent on IFN-gamma, but independent of tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we show that the systemic inflammation induced by CASP surgery results in a rapid and profound increase of lung vascular permeability that was associated with the activation and recruitment of neutrophils to the lung. Activation of circulating granulocytes was characterized by increased production of serine proteinases and reactive oxygen metabolites, as well as elevated expression of cell surface Mac-1. Expression of MIP-2, KC, MIP-1alpha and E-selectin mRNA in lung was strongly increased within 3 h following CASP surgery, whereas up-regulation of IP-10, MCP-1 and P-selectin was delayed. In contrast, induction of RANTES, LIX, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA was weak or not detectable after CASP surgery. Importantly, recruitment of leukocytes to the lung was normal in lipopolysaccharide-resistant mice, and was not affected by antibody neutralization of TNF or the chemokines MIP-2 and KC.  (+info)

Bone marrow scintigraphy using technetium-99m antigranulocyte antibody in malignant lymphomas. (8/3501)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical reliability of immunoscintigraphy (IS) to detect infiltration of the bone marrow in patients with malignant lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Whole body IS was performed in 103 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) using Tc-99m labelled anti-NCA-95 which allows visualization of the granulopoietic bone marrow. Of these, 52% were studied prior to any therapy. Findings were compared to posterior iliac crest biopsy as well as MRI and/or follow-up examination. Criteria of marrow infiltration were a positive biopsy, positive follow-up, or positive results of MRI. RESULTS: Comparison of IS and biospy revealed concordant findings in 69 and discordant findings in 34 of 103 patients. Of the 34 patients with discordant results, IS showed lesions suspicious of bone marrow infiltration in 29 patients despite normal biopsy findings. When follow-up and additional examinations were taken into consideration, 10 patients remained with probably false positive and five with false negative IS findings. IS proved to be highly sensitive and specific in patients with HD (100% and 84%, respectively) and high-grade NHL (93% and 84%, respectively). Moderate sensitivity (60%) was found in low-grade NHL. This was possibly due to false negative IS in three to five patients with chemotherapy in contrast to one of five false negative results in patients without chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Bone marrow scintigraphy using antigranulocyte antibodies is highly sensitive in HD and high-grade NHL. Positive findings in IS subsequent to a negative biopsy should be followed by guided re-biopsy or MRI.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective reduction of human tumor cell populations by human granulocytes in vitro. AU - Townsend, Courtney. AU - Townsend, C. M.. AU - Galbraith, M. A.. AU - Eilber, F. R.. AU - Morton, D. L.. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - Human peripheral blood granulocytes at a 10:1 effector cell:target cell ratio were shown by an in vitro semiquantitative staining procedure to reduce the number of human tumor cells, but not that of normal cells. Microscopic observations revealed that this selective reduction of tumor cells by granulocytes was a function of both detachment and cytolysis. The cytotoxic effect of granulocytes on the tumor cells was confirmed by a quantitative 5-[ 125I]iodo-2-deoxyuridine release assay. The data indicate that human granulocytes at a relatively low effector:target cell ratio (10:1) have the capacity to recognize and destroy human tumor cells in vitro.. AB - Human peripheral blood granulocytes at a 10:1 effector cell:target cell ratio were shown by an in vitro ...
Granulocytes are the major type of phagocytes constituting the front line of innate immune defense against bacterial infection. to treat serious infection in alcoholic patients with the disorder of granulopoieis. This article reviews the recent development in understanding alcohol-induced disruption of marrow granulopoiesis and the granulopoietic response with the focus on progress in delineating cell signaling mechanisms underlying the alcohol-induced injury to hematopoietic tissue. Attempts in exploring effective therapy to boost individual treatment Larotaxel with this field shall also end up being discussed. tradition of marrow cells from regular individuals in nutritional medium containing alcoholic beverages can induce cytoplasmic vacuolization (Yeung, et al., 1988). The essential alcoholic beverages focus for inducing vacuolization can be 62.5 mg/dl. The percentage of cells developing vacuoles shows up correlating using the focus of alcoholic beverages. In the center, vacuolization in ...
B Zakhireh, RK Root; Development of Oxidase activity by human bone marrow granulocytes, Blood, Volume 54, Issue 2, 1 August 1979, Pages 429-439, https://doi.org
To the editor: In a recent article, Winston and associates (1) presented data that led them to conclude that therapeutic granulocyte transfusions offered no substantial benefit over optimal antimicrobial therapy alone in managing infected patients with granulocytopenia. We have difficulty extrapolating their observations to granulocyte transfusion therapy as given at our institution (2) and others (3) where doses of three to six times as many granulocytes are administered routinely. The authors have criticized other randomized trials of granulocyte transfusions in neutropenic patients for having too few patients. We find the major weakness of this study to be too few granulocytes ...
Background LINK-A lncRNA acts as an oncogene in triple-negative breast cancer, but its involvement in other diseases is unknown. levels of LINK-A lncRNA and survivin were positively correlated in mantle cell lymphoma patients however, not in healthful controls. Conclusions LINK-A overexpression marketed cell proliferation lncRNA, inhibited cell apoptosis, and upregulated survivin appearance, while LINK-A lncRNA knockdown got the opposite impact. cell proliferation assay After transfection, CCK-8 assay was performed to identify cell proliferation. Cells had been gathered and cell suspensions using a cell thickness of 6104 cells per ml had been ready. Each well of the 96-well dish was filled up with a 0.1-ml cell suspension containing 6103 cells and cells were cultured within an incubator (37C, 5% CO2). CCK-8 option (10 ul, Sigma-Aldrich) was added 24, 48, 72, and 96 h afterwards. After that, cells had been cultured for yet another 4 h and OD beliefs at 450 nM had been assessed utilizing a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effects of Oxidizing Species Derived from Molecular Oxygen on the Proliferation In Vitro of Human Granulocyte‐Macrophage Progenitor Cells. AU - BROXMEYER, HAL E.. AU - COOPER, SCOTT. AU - GABIC, THEODORE. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - In order to better understand the enhancing effects of lowered oxygen (O2) tension on the growth in vitro of granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM), the effects of oxidizing species derived from molecular O2 were assessed on CFU-GM. Low density or nonadherent low density normal human bone marrow cells were plated at ambient (20%) or lowered (5%) O2 tension in the presence of a source of colony stimulating factors, and in the absence or presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose oxidase or horseradish peroxidase, alone or in various combinations. Enhanced colony and cluster formation of CFU-GM was noted when low density cells were grown at 5% O2, or when cells were grown at 20% O2 in the presence of superoxide dismutase or ...
The anti-CD11/CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) submitted in the Second International Workshop on Ruminant Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, were analysed for their reactivity with the ovine homologue of CD11/CD18. Their reactivity was tested on healthy sheep tissues, and alveolar macrophages, afferent dendritic cells, peripheral blood granulocytes and monocytes. The CD11a/CD18 mAbs found positive in the sheep were reactive with all the cell populations tested. The CD11b mAbs reacted with all the cells except afferent dendritic cells, whereas CD11c were non-reactive to blood granulocytes. This is in contrast to humans and cattle where blood granulocytes express CD11c. PMID: 8310662. ...
We are at the hospital every day, sometimes two or three times a day if the day includes labs and doctors visits in addition to the daily two hour infusion of anti-fungal medicine. This medicine can cause a drop in potassium, so each morning we arrive to check Phoebes potassium and then return hours later for the medicine. We try to time this around meal times and quality time so that it doesnt feel like we are always at the hospital. The days that include infusions of granulocytes are especially busy and include an overnight stay at the hospital. The granulocytes need to be given 12 hours after the antifungal medicine, so on these days, Jon brings Phoebe in to the medicine room at 4 am and I arrive at the hospital at 8:30am to donate granulocytes. The donation process takes about two and a half hours and the granulocytes are started once we are admitted to the in patient unit in the early evening. Its busy. Right now we are giving granulocytes once a week on Fridays and Im hoping that I can ...
Top 10 tissues for 1552667_a_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): peripheral blood granulocyte, blood neutrophil granulocyte, granulocyte (polymorphonuclear leukocyte), double positive thymocyte, peripheral blood lymphocyte, splenic CD8 activated T-cell (unspecified), thymocyte, peripheral blood CD8 cytotoxic T-cell (unspecified), peripheral blood plasmacytoid dendritic cell, umbilical cord blood neutrophil granulocyte
Granulocytes are pivotal regulators of tissue injury. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate granulopoiesis under inflammatory conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcriptional coregulator B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) limits granulopoiesis under emergency (i.e., inflammatory) conditions, but not homeostatic conditions. Treatment of mouse myeloid progenitors with G-CSF - serum concentrations of which rise under inflammatory conditions - rapidly increased Bcl3 transcript accumulation in a STAT3-dependent manner. Bcl3-deficient myeloid progenitors demonstrated an enhanced capacity to proliferate and differentiate into granulocytes following G-CSF stimulation, whereas the accumulation of Bcl3 protein attenuated granulopoiesis in an NF-κB p50-dependent manner. In a clinically relevant model of transplant-mediated lung ischemia reperfusion injury, expression of Bcl3 in recipients inhibited emergency granulopoiesis and limited acute graft damage. These data ...
Top 10 tissues for 1552275_s_at (Homo sapiens, Affymetrix Probeset): umbilical cord blood neutrophil granulocyte, foreskin-derived neonatal fibroblast, trabecular meshwork cell, tonsillar centrocyte, eye cell, tonsillar centroblast, germinal center B-cell, peripheral blood granulocyte, corpus callosum, subthalamic nucleus
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. They are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN, PML, or PMNL) because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into three segments. This distinguishes them from the mononuclear agranulocytes. In common parlance, the term polymorphonuclear leukocyte often refers specifically to neutrophil granulocytes, the most abundant of the granulocytes; the other types (…
Granulocytopoiesis definition. granulocytopoiesis gran·u·lo·cy·to·poi·e·sis (grānyə-lō-sītə-poi-ēsĭs) n. See granulopoiesis. granu·lo·cyto·poi·etic (-ětĭk) adj.
This book also reviews the role of granulocytes on the onset of tissue-destructive diseases when exposed to stress. In addition to the cases of disease, some physiological phenomena are also responsible for the stress-induced granulocytosis. Thus this book will also expands upon the role of granulocytes associated with various diseases and some physiological responses. Other topics discussed in this book include the role of basophil, the minute group of granulocyte, in tropical infections and in immune regulations; polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (neutrophils), which are the most dangerous cells in the organism and their role in transient states of autoimmunity, and the effects of nucleoli change during differentiation and maturation of granulocytes ...
Granulocytes are pivotal regulators of tissue injury. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate granulopoiesis under inflammatory conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the transcriptional coregulator B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 (Bcl3) limits granulopoiesis under emergency (i.e., inflammatory) conditions, but not homeostatic conditions. Treatment of mouse myeloid progenitors with G-CSF - serum concentrations of which rise under inflammatory conditions - rapidly increased Bcl3 transcript accumulation in a STAT3-dependent manner. Bcl3-deficient myeloid progenitors demonstrated an enhanced capacity to proliferate and differentiate into granulocytes following G-CSF stimulation, whereas the accumulation of Bcl3 protein attenuated granulopoiesis in an NF-κB p50-dependent manner. In a clinically relevant model of transplant-mediated lung ischemia reperfusion injury, expression of Bcl3 in recipients inhibited emergency granulopoiesis and limited acute graft damage. These data ...
Activated granulocyte. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of an activated granulocyte, or polymorphonucleocyte (PMN), white blood cell. Granulocytes are part of the immune system and are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. They are released from the bone marrow in response to foreign bodies and infection. Magnification x4000 when printed 10cm wide. - Stock Image C011/1303
Granulocyte. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a granulocyte in bone marrow. Granulocytes are a category of white blood cell characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. Magnification: x8000 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C007/4044
G-CSF; Colonystimulating factor 3 (granulocyte); CSF beta; CSF3;Csfg; Filgrastim; GCSA; GCSF; Lenograstim;Macrophage granulocyte inducer 2; MGI 2;Pluripoietin;Anti-Granulocyte stimulatin factor (G-CSF) (human) labelled with biotin antibodies, P09919
Fucosyltransferase (FT) activity of normal lymphocytes, normal granulocytes, and various types of human leukemic cells and electrofocusing pattern of FT activity in human leukemic cells and normal lymphocytes were examined using asialofetuin as an acceptor. Levels of FT activity in normal lymphocytes were higher than those of normal granulocytes in which FT activity was almost undetectable. The FT activity was higher in blast cells of acute myeloblastic leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis than in blast cells of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia. The level of FT activity was lower in cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia than that of normal lymphocytes, but it was higher than that of normal granulocytes. Three main isoelectric forms of FT in leukemic blast cells were identified by isoelectrofocusing, and they each had a characteristic focusing point: around pH 4.5 (peak 1); pH 4.9 (peak 2); and pH 5.2 (peak 3). In blast cells ...
A leukocyte that has granules in its cytoplasm. A type of white Blood cell that attacks and destroys foreign substances. These are leukocytes which have specific granules. The three different types of granulocytes have different types of specific granules. Granulocytes are spherical in shape, contain nuclei and include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. These cells are part of the formed elements of whole Blood. ...
Granulocytes are released from the bone marrow and make up the major group of leukocytes in the blood. They represent a heterogeneous population of myeloid innate immune cells characterized by the presence of intracellular granules as well as segmented and lobed nuclei of various shapes. Therefore, they are also referred to as polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC). Recently, along with their well described involvement in inflammation, they have also been shown capable of antigen presentation. Miltenyi Biotec provides numerous tools for granulocyte research, including standardized and automated enrichment of viable and fully functional cells, a pre-requisite to obtain high quality and reproducible data ...
Granulocytes are a type of white blood cells that are present in the cytoplasm in the form of granules. They have many other names in which the most common one is Polymorphonuclear leukocytes; this name became constant because of the different structures of the nucleus that are present in this and connected in three different parts. There are three main types of these. The first one of which is known as neutrophils, that are mostly found in the blood that is flowing in the body and are the most abundant one present among all of them. They make up around 60% of total granulocytes and in one are present in billions just in one liter of blood. The next ones are the eosinophils, they are shaped just like human kidney and have around two to four lobes. They do not have a fixed number in the body because they keep on changing with the blood steam movement. They are essential for the body since they help in killing several kinds of parasites in the body. The last ones are called Basophil; these are the ...
[Current data on granulocytes donations].: Granulocyte transfusion is uncommon but essential for some aplastic patients with major infection and those with sept
Neutrophils are terminally differentiated phagocytic cells that represent the first line of defense against pathogens. The study of neutrophils in vitro is difficult owing to a short life span. Immortalized cell line models fail to recapitulate all the effector functions of primary cells. Furthermore, the study of murine neutrophil function in vivo is limited by the lack of a model system that can be genetically manipulated (e.g. gene knockout or overexpression) ex vivo. We describe here the development and use of conditionally immortalized granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (GMP) capable of unlimited expansion, genetically tractable, and that can be transplanted into mice to study neutrophil function in vivo. These GMP cell lines were derived from UBC-GFP mice by the transduction of an MSCVneo ER-HoxB8 retrovirus such that factor-dependent cell lines emerge in the presence of stem cell factor and b-estradiol (E2). Upon removal of E2 in vitro or transplantation into irradiated recipients, ...
Further optimization of the LG7455 structure series could lead to a new generation of orally-available small-molecule human GCSFR agonists for the treatment of neutropenia. We are pleased to feature exciting data from one of our novel programs in Ligands internal un-partnered pipeline, said Matthew W. Foehr, Chief Operating Officer of Ligand Pharmaceuticals. Our R&D team continues Ligands rich heritage of being at the forefront of new areas of drug discovery and development. This first-in-class program may provide the most significant innovation in the treatment of neutropenia since the approval of the first GCSF biologic in the early 1990s. About Ligands Small- Molecule GCSF Program GCSF is a glycoprotein growth factor and cytokine produced by different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells. GCSF acts on its homodimeric receptor (GCSFR) to stimulate proliferation of granulocytic progenitor cells and induce their survival and differentiation into ...
The effect of beta adrenergic agents on granulocyte deformability was investigated using the filtration technique. Three groups of granulocytes were studied: 1) cells treated with isoproterenol (10−6 to 10−3 M); 2) cells treated with propranolol (10−
The RARα gene is invariably involved in the APL-associated chromosomal translocations (1, 2). Therefore, alteration of RARα pathway has been thought to play a central role in APL pathogenesis. Indeed, RA inhibits the proliferation of hematopoietic precursors and promotes the terminal granulocytic differentiation of granulocyte/monocyte progenitors and multipotent erythroid/monocytic cells. Vitamin A deficiency, unligated RARα, RARα antagonist, or DN RARα can block myeloid differentiation (23). Moreover, the X-RARα fusion proteins can block differentiation when overexpressed in myeloid leukemia cell lines such as U937 cells and interference with PML function seems not to be required for this function (20, 21). These observations support the notion that DN blockade of the RARα pathway is crucial for APL leukemogenesis. Our in vivo genetic analysis challenges this notion, allowing us to reach three major conclusions.. The first major conclusion is that HDAC1-dependent DN blockade of RARα ...
Granulocytes, the most abundant types of leukocytes, are the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. However, the plasticity and diversity of granulocytes have been increasingly revealed, especially with regards to their versatile functions in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells (APC) under pathological or inflammatory conditions. In addition, they can acquire surface expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules as well as T cell stimulatory behavior when cultured with selected cytokines. The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes, is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leucocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen
Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is a rare type of cancer affecting mostly adults. It is a cancer of granulocytes (one of the main types of white blood cells). In CML too many granulocytes are produced and they are released into the blood when they are immature and unable to work properly. The immature white blood cells are known as blasts. The production of other types of blood cells is also disrupted. Normally, white blood cells repair and reproduce themselves in an orderly and controlled manner, but in chronic myeloid leukaemia the process gets out of control and the cells continue to divide and mature abnormally. The disease usually develops very slowly, which is why it is called chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Miller, A M.; Page, P L.; Hartwell, B L.; and Robinson, S H., Inhibition of growth of normal murine granulocytes by cocultured acute leukemic cells. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 31 ...
Leukaemias and other cancers possess a rare population of cells capable of the limitless self-renewal necessary for cancer initiation and maintenance. Here we show that leukaemia stem cells (LSC) can maintain the global identity of the progenitor from which they arose while activating a limited stem-cell- or self-renewal-associated programme. We isolated LSC from leukaemias initiated in committed granulocyte macrophage progenitors through introduction of the MLL-AF9 fusion protein encoded by the t(9;11)(p22;q23). The LSC were capable of transferring leukaemia to secondary recipient mice when only four cells were transferred, and possessed an immunophenotype and global gene expression profile very similar to that of normal granulocyte macrophage progenitors. However, a subset of genes highly expressed in normal haematopoietic stem cells was re-activated in LSC. LSC can thus be generated from committed progenitors without widespread reprogramming of gene expression, and a leukaemia ...
Leukemia affects two types of white blood cells that are responsible for protecting the body from disease: lymphocytes and granulocytes. Leukemias that affect lymphocytes are known as lymphocytic or lymphoblastic, and those that affect granulocytes are called myeloid or myelogenous leukemias ...
A cell type of the immune system. Granulocytes are filled with granules of toxic chemicals that enable them to digest microorganisms. Basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils are examples of granulocytes. See also Basophil; Eosinophil; Neutrophil ...
What is an IG count? With the exception of blood from neonates or pregnant women, the appearance of immature granulocytes in the peripheral blood indicates an early-stage response to infection, inflammation or other stimuli of the bone marrow. Being able to detect them quickly and reliably opens doors to new diagnostic possibilities for related disorders. Current areas of research regarding the diagnostic significance of circulating immature granulocytes focus on the early and rapid discrimination of bacterial from viral infections, particularly in children, recognising bacterial infection in neonates, and the early recognition of bacterial infection and sepsis in adults, which is of vital importance in particular for intensive care patients. Valuable information for immediate action - at no additional cost IG counts are relevant especially for patients who are highly susceptible to infections because of a suppressed immune system and because the increased IG count indicates the severity of the ...
The team used intervention, granulocyte/monocyte apheresis with the Adacolumn Apheresis System or sham apheresis in a 2:1 ratio for 9 weeks of treatment in a North American pivotal study.. The research team also conducted a smaller, companion study of identical design in Europe and Japan including 47 patients.. The researchers found in the pivotal study, that clinical remission rates were 17% and 11% for the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis- and sham-treatment groups, respectively.. The team observed clinical response in 44% and 39% of the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis- and sham-treatment groups, respectively.. Similar changes were observed for the apheresis- and sham-treatment groups for endoscopic remission and response, and changes in Mayo and quality-of-life scores.. The researchers noted that the companion study and pooled data from both studies also yielded similar results.. Dr Sands team concluded, In this study, granulocyte/monocyte apheresis was well tolerated but did not demonstrate ...
Principal Investigator:YAMADA Michiyuki, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Functional biochemistry
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [D Venturelli, R Martinez, P Melotti, I Casella, C Peschle, C Cucco, G Spampinato, Z Darzynkiewicz, B Calabretta].
The recovery, structure and function of dog granulocytes were determined before and after freeze preservation. Leucocytes were isolated from defibrinated or anticoagulated whole blood and subsequent erythrocyte sedimentation on a column of 2:1 dextran (6%)-Isopaque (33.9%). Granulocytes isolated by these procedures were examined for changes in O2 consumption associated with phagocytosis, in vitro directed migration (chemotaxis), bactericidal activity, and ultrastructure before and after freezing. Granulocytes were frozen in DMSO (7.5%) and autologous serum of HBSS and 20% autologous serum at the rate of -1 C/min to -80 C and stored in liquid N2 vapor. It is concluded that dog granulocytes freeze preserved by these methods are functional in vitro, but that phagocytic, directed migration, and bactericidal functions and ultrastructure are impaired to different degrees, according to the method of isolation and preparation for storage. These results indicate the need for continued investigation on the
What is the difference between CML and CLL? Granulocytes are the cancerous cells in CML whereas lymphocytes are the cancerous cells in CLL. CML is a member of..
Looking for band-form granulocyte? Find out information about band-form granulocyte. A leukocyte containing granules in the cytoplasm. Also known as granular leukocyte; polymorph; polymorphonuclear leukocyte Explanation of band-form granulocyte
Rapid and persistent monocyte and granulocyte infiltration is detected at the treatment site following EP-enhanced plasmid delivery. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&am
Monocyte/Granulocyte Antibodies available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Monocyte/Granulocyte Antibody catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Question: How do granulocytes affect my ATAC data? Answer: Granulocytes, specifically neutrophils, can be present in PBMC and BMMC...
Profiling of oral tumors by proteomics and immunoproteomics towards discovery of biomarkers and therapeutic targets, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of granulocyte membrane proteins, Signal transduction in Granulocytes, Protein Kinase C in erythrocytes,
RD is a rare and life-threatening disease affecting infants in the immediate newborn period. Although previous studies have shown that mutations in the AK2 gene are responsible for RD, the rarity of this condition and the lack of suitable animal and cellular models have represented significant obstacles to defining its molecular and cellular pathophysiology. Here we describe ak2 mutant zebrafish and patient-derived iPSCs as platforms to investigate the effects of AK2 mutations on hematopoiesis and to explore novel therapeutic approaches.. Manipulations of AK activity in different organisms results in impaired adenine nucleotide homeostasis, block of ATP export from mitochondria, and reduced cell growth and metabolism, as well as increased susceptibility to metabolic stress (Bandlow et al., 1988; Janssen et al., 2000; Pucar et al., 2000, 2002). Impairment of AK2 activity in humans leads to the severe lymphocyte and granulocyte differentiation defects and sensorineural deafness characteristic for ...
A surfactant in Stromatolyser-4DL causes lysis of red blood cells. At the same time, the cell membranes of white blood cells are slightly perforated.. The polymethine fluorescence marker Stromatolyser-4DS migrates into the WBC and binds in particular to nucleic acids and cell organelles. Additionally an organic acid in the Stromatolyser-4DL binds specifically to the granules in eosinophils as a result of which they can be differentiated from neutrophils by means of a higher side scatter signal.. Our XE- and XT-Series analysers provide five populations of white blood cells in the DIFF scattergram, including the Immature Granulocyte population.. The XS analysers scattergrams displays the following five populations: lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils. ...
We investigated interactions between breast cancer cells and CD45-CD34+ WAT progenitors because the latter promote tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis in preclinical breast cancer models (15, 16). We found that the proteins GM-CSF and MMP9 were significantly upregulated in murine and human WAT progenitors on exposure to a variety of breast cancer cell types in vitro and in vivo. These proteins were not upregulated in other WAT cells (e.g., hematopoietic cells). Both ASCs and ECs-constituents of the CD45-CD34+ WAT fraction-produced GM-CSF and MMP9 when cocultured with breast cancer cells, consistent with previous findings that ASCs and ECs cooperate to support breast cancer growth, angiogenesis, and metastatic spread (16).. GM-CSF is a growth factor for hematopoietic and immune cells, which mobilizes stem cells and induces macrophage/granulocyte differentiation (33). Other roles include the regulation of inflammation and autoimmunity (34). MMP9 is a type IV collagenase whose increased ...
Necrosis no symptoms malaise Monocyte % Monocyte Absolute Immature Granulocyte % Neutrophil % Neutrophil Absolute WBC ESR - Sed Rate LDH Lactate dehydrogenase
The production and functional activity of two important white blood cells, the granulocytes and macrophages, are regulated mainly by a group of glycoprotein colony-stimulating factors. The colony-stimulating factors have been mass-produced with recombinant technology and are now proving of value in preventing or suppressing infections in a variety of individuals with subnormal or defective formation of blood cells. ...
Granulocytes, which are the most abundant immune cells, are components of the innate immune system that are characterized cytoplasmic granules.
Functions of granulocytes. In: Williams WJ, Beutler E, Erslev AJ, Rundles RW, eds. Hematology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977:685- ... The Granulocyte: Function and Clinical Utilization. New York: Alan R. Liss, 1977; 13: 87-102. 20. Stossel TP, Hartwig JH, Boxer ... Qualitative abnormalities of granulocytes. In: Williams WJ, Beutler E, Erslev AJ, Rundles RW, eds. Hematology. New York: McGraw ... Granulocyte Physiology Function and Dysfunction. Washington D.C.: American Association of Blood Banks, 1979:49-61. 38. Stossel ...
ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Baker AP, Bergman F, Paul KG (April 1967). "Studies of eosinophil granulocytes. 3. Steroid hormones and ...
Granulocytes are the most abundant cell type. They rapidly attach to foreign surfaces and readily engage in phagocytosis. ... Prohemocytes are small cells of unknown function, which may result from the asymmetric mitosis of granulocytes. Schlenke TA, ... In mosquitoes, hemocytes are functionally divided into three populations: granulocytes, oenocytoids and prohemocytes. ...
Eosinophils, like other granulocytes, contain granules (or sacs) filled with digestive enzymes and cytotoxic proteins which ... Eosinophils are one form of terminally differentiated granulocytes; they function to neutralize invading microbes, primarily ... granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin 3, interleukin 5) that: a) cause bone marrow precursor cells, i.e ...
Other features may include; leukocytosis (50% of cases); left shift and dysplasia of monocytes and granulocytes; presence of ...
"MicroRNA expression profile in granulocytes from primary myelofibrosis patients". Experimental Hematology. 35 (11): 1708-18. ...
These immature granulocytes are seen in peripheral blood smears. Diagnosis is confirmed when a bone marrow biopsy demonstrates ... or immature granulocyte precursor cells which indicates leukoerythroblastosis is occurring because the displaced hematopoietic ...
... a serious condition in which granulocytes are markedly decreased. Some people have anecdotally noted that their continued use ...
... , also known as granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), is a colony forming unit. It is derived from CFU-GEMM. The "GM" ... stands for "granulocyte, monocyte". It is the precursor for monoblasts and myeloblasts. Production is stimulated by granulocyte ... macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). There is some controversy over which granulocytes derive from CFU-GM. There is ...
... allows for distinction between these two types of granulocytes. Additionally, CD16 expression varies between the different ...
... granulocyte levels less than 5% of normal) and neutropenia (deficiency of neutrophil granulocytes). Granulocytes live only one ... Granulopoiesis: the genesis of granulocytes[edit]. Granulocytes are derived from stem cells residing in the bone marrow. The ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.[1] They are also ... the most abundant granulocyte is the neutrophil granulocyte, which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules. ...
"GEMM" stands for granulocyte, erythrocyte, monocyte, megakaryocyte. The common myeloid progenitor (CMP) and the common lymphoid ...
Other cells activated by CD28 ligation in humans are eosinophil granulocytes. They can release IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-13. ...
Chondrostean fish (sturgeons, paddlefish and bichirs) possess a major site for the production of granulocytes within a mass ... These organs house typical immune cells (granulocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells). They also possess an identifiable thymus ... The chondrostean kidney is an important hemopoietic organ; where erythrocytes, granulocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages ... neutrophils and granulocytes are believed to reside in the spleen whereas lymphocytes are the major cell type found in the ...
Stendahl O, Molin L, Lindroth M (1983). "Granulocyte-mediated release of histamine from mast cells. Effect of myeloperoxidase ...
Methods for stimulating granulocyte-macrophage lineage using thrombopoietin. 1999 US Patent #6,099,830: Inventors: Kaushansky K ...
Like all circulating granulocytes, basophils can be recruited out of the blood into a tissue when needed. Basophils appear in ... The mast cell, another granulocyte, is similar in appearance and function. Both cell types store histamine, a chemical that is ... Basophils are the least common type of granulocyte, representing about 0.5% to 1% of circulating white blood cells. However, ... Franco CB, Chen CC, Drukker M, Weissman IL, Galli SJ (April 2010). "Distinguishing mast cell and granulocyte differentiation at ...
... s (also known as neutrocytes or heterophils) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and make up 40% to 70% of all ... When adhered to a surface, neutrophil granulocytes have an average diameter of 12-15 micrometers (µm) in peripheral blood ... 2004). "Chlamydia pneumoniae multiply in neutrophil granulocytes and delay their spontaneous apoptosis". J. Immunol. 172 (3): ... which is expressed mainly in neutrophil granulocytes, leads to a constitutively active acute-phase response and causes attacks ...
The layer beneath the buffy coat contains granulocytes and red blood cells. The buffy coat is commonly used for DNA extraction ...
Immature granulocyte Immature granulocytes are immature forms of neutrophils and other granulocytes (eosinophils and basophils ... Immature granulocytes are normally found in the bone marrow, but not in peripheral blood. When present in significant ... A left shift, meaning an increase in band neutrophils or immature granulocytes, can indicate infection, inflammation or bone ... Chronic myeloid leukemia often presents with a high number of immature granulocytes in the peripheral blood. Abnormal ...
... has been shown in vitro to induce apoptosis in neutrophil granulocytes. If this mechanism turns out to be safe, ...
Proost P, Wuyts A, Conings R, Lenaerts J, Billiau A, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J (1993). "Human and bovine granulocyte ... is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that is also known as granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2). As ... "Characterization of synthetic human granulocyte chemotactic protein 2: usage of chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 and in vivo ... its former name suggests, CXCL6 is a chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes. It elicits its chemotactic effects by ...
Hasegawa S, Suda T, Negi K, Hattori Y (January 2007). "Lung large cell carcinoma producing granulocyte-colony-stimulating ... including neuroendocrine tumor-related products and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Vimentin, an ...
It does not however obstruct the phagocytic or other defense roles of granulocytes. Due to the selectivity of its inhibition, ... and thus is effective in preventing the production of the superoxide in human white blood cells or neutrophilic granulocytes. ...
RALD is characterized by lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, autoimmunity, and elevation in granulocytes and monocytes. It shares ... and elevated granulocytes and monocytes. The absolute or relative monocytosis in particular is an important characteristic of ...
Decreased function of monocytes and granulocytes during HIV-1 infection correlates with CD4 cell counts. Eur. J. Med. Res. 1: 9 ... Upon stimulation, granulocytes and monocytes produce reactive oxygen metabolites (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, ... Phagocytosis and burst activity of granulocytes and monocytes after stem cell transplantation. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 129(6): 634-7 ... Dihydrorhodamin 123: a new flow cytometric indicator for respiratory burst activity in neutrophil granulocytes. ...
December 2010). "Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor promotes lung metastasis through mobilization of Ly6G+Ly6C+ granulocytes ... For instance, inhibiting chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) and granulocyte ...
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), available as filgrastim, can reduce the risk of infection. In some cases, G-CSF ... "Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in glycogen storage disease type 1b. Results of the European Study on Glycogen Storage ... "Different effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and erythropoietin on erythropoiesis". Stem Cell Research & Therapy ... "Thrombocytopenia in association with splenomegaly during granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor treatment in mice is not caused ...
GS-ANA are antibodies directed to granulocyte specific nuclear antigens. Atypical ANCA are thought to be antigens similar to ... p-ANCA has three subtypes, classical p-ANCA, p-ANCA without nuclear extension and granulocyte specific-antinuclear antibody (GS ... against antigens in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes (the most common type of white blood cell) and monocytes. They are ... without nuclear extension has perinuclear staining without nuclear extension and GS-ANA shows nuclear staining on granulocytes ...
Jilma B, Hergovich N, Stohlawetz P, Eichler HG, Bauer P, Wagner OF (August 1999). "Circadian variation of granulocyte colony ... variation in the amount of circulating white blood cells and changes in the levels of hematopoietic cytokines and granulocyte ...
Hurwitz A. A., Yu T. F., Leach D. R., Allison J. P. CTLA-4 blockade synergizes with tumor-derived granulocyte-macrophage colony ... Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines ... Abe J., Wakimoto H., Yoshida Y., Aoyagi M., Hirakawa K., Hamada H. Antitumor effect induced by granulocyte/macrophage-colony- ... 4 The abbreviations used are: PCA, prostate cancer; DC, dendritic cell; DTH, delayed-type hypersensitivity; GM-CSF, granulocyte ...
... granulocyte levels less than 5% of normal) and neutropenia (deficiency of neutrophil granulocytes). Granulocytes live only one ... Granulopoiesis: the genesis of granulocytes[edit]. Granulocytes are derived from stem cells residing in the bone marrow. The ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.[1] They are also ... the most abundant granulocyte is the neutrophil granulocyte, which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules. ...
... granulocyte levels less than 5% of normal) and neutropenia (deficiency of neutrophil granulocytes). Granulocytes live only one ... Granulocytes are produced via granulopoiesis in the bone marrow. There are four types of granulocytes (full name ... the most abundant granulocyte is the neutrophil granulocyte, which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules. Neutrophils are ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells in the innate immune system characterized by the presence of specific granules ...
Granulocytes in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of professional healthcare and anatomy chart templates that ... Leukocytes - Granulocytes. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Leukocytes - Granulocytes in minutes with ... Leukocytes - Granulocytes. Three granular or polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Basophil, Neutrophil, and Eosinophil. Red blood cell ...
The specific types of granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. ... Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that has small granules. These granules contain proteins. ... Granulocytes, specifically neutrophils, help the body fight bacterial infections. The number of granulocytes in the body ... Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that has small granules. These granules contain proteins. The specific types of ...
A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell that includes neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. ... A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell that includes neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. ...
Granulocytes - White blood cells (leukocytes), manufactured in the bone marrow, that contain granules. They destroy and digest ... Granulocytes - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ... Medical Word - Granulocytes. Ans : White blood cells (leukocytes), manufactured in the bone marrow, that contain granules. They ...
Granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies and myeloid cell immune functions in healthy subjects Kanji ... Zebrafish granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor signaling promotes myelopoiesis and myeloid cell migration Clifford ...
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... E. Löhde,1 H. Raude,1 M. Lück,1 E. Kraas,1 ... Activation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) by C5a is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple organ ...
Galbraith, P. R., Valberg, L. S., and Brown, M., Patterns of granulocyte kinetics in health, infection and in carcinomas, Blood ... Rytomaa, T., and Kiviniemi, K., Control of granulocyte production. I. Chalone and anti chalone; two specific humoral regulators ... Murphy P. (1976) Tissue Consumption of Granulocytes and Control Mechanisms for Granulopoiesis. In: The Neutrophil. Springer, ...
... any of several types of white blood cells with a granular cytoplasmOrigin of granulocyte granul(e) + -o- + -cyte... ... granulocyte. Noun (plural granulocytes). *(cytology, immunology) Any of various blood cells that have granules in their ... granulocyte. noun. Any of a group of white blood cells having granules in the cytoplasm. Neutrophils, eosinophils, and ... granulocyte. gran·u·lo·cyte. any of several types of white blood cells with a granular cytoplasm ...
The hungry granulocyte Its fate and regulation of production. 273. Sitzung am 7. November 1979 in Düsseldorf. ...
... each of which is counted separately to determine the absolute granulocyte count. A normal AGC reading is between 2,500... ... there are two types of granulocytes: ploys and bands, ... granulocytes higher than normal * low granulocytes in blood ... Any granulocyte count under 2,500 indicates a higher possibility of infection afflicting the body. A granulocyte count of less ... According to About.com, there are two types of granulocytes: ploys and bands, each of which is counted separately to determine ...
... the most common causes of high granulocyte count include bone marrow disorders, infections and autoimmune disorders. Also ... Healthline explains that granulocytosis happens when too many granulocytes are present in the blood. Granulocytes are a type of ... According to Healthline, granulocytes are produced and developed in the bone marrow. They are released and circulated through ... According to Healthline, the most common causes of high granulocyte count include bone marrow disorders, infections and ...
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.[1] They are also ... Basophil granulocytes. Their names are derived from their staining characteristics; for example, the most abundant granulocyte ... the most abundant of the granulocytes. Granulocytes or PMN are released from the bone marrow by the regulatory complement ... Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.[1] They are also ...
... granulocytes explanation free. What is granulocytes? Meaning of granulocytes medical term. What does granulocytes mean? ... Looking for online definition of granulocytes in the Medical Dictionary? ... granulocytes. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to granulocytes: Monocytes, Lymphocytes, ... Mechanisms of mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.. Granulocyte colony- ...
Background: GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) is a growth factor that is used to supplement culture ... Background: GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) is a growth factor that is used to supplement culture ... GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) supplementation in culture media for women undergoing assisted ... Armstrong, S., MacKenzie, J., Woodward, B., Pacey, A., & Farquhar, C. (2020, July 16). GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony- ...
Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the ... Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells of the ... Granulocytes (Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil) - Mast cell precursors. Dendritic cells (Langerhans cells, Follicular dendritic ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Eosinophil_granulocyte". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
G-BMC stands for Granulocytes in Bone Marrow Cells. G-BMC is defined as Granulocytes in Bone Marrow Cells very rarely. ... How is Granulocytes in Bone Marrow Cells abbreviated? ... www.acronymfinder.com/Granulocytes-in-Bone-Marrow-Cells-(G_BMC ... n.d.) Acronym Finder. (2019). Retrieved May 24 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Granulocytes-in-Bone-Marrow-Cells-(G_BMC ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Granulocytes-in-Bone-Marrow-Cells-(G_BMC).html,G-BMC,/a,. ...
Not to be confused with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF ... Sallerfors B, Olofsson T (October 1992). "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony- ... "Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 12 November 2014.. ... granulocyte differentiation. • immune response. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • positive ...
Granulocyte. Definition. Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that has small granules, which contain proteins. The ... Granulocytes, specifically neutrophils, help the body fight bacterial infections. The number of granulocytes in the body ... Granulocytes are counted as part of a white blood cell differential test. ... Resistance of the body to infection: I. leukocytes, granulocytes, the monocyte-macrophage system, and inflammation. In: Hall JE ...
SK channels mediate NADPH oxidase-independent reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in granulocytes. Alex J. Fay, ... To distinguish NADPH oxidase-dependent and -independent pathways of granulocyte ROS production, it is necessary to remove NADPH ... SK channels mediate NADPH oxidase-independent reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in granulocytes ... SK channels mediate NADPH oxidase-independent reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in granulocytes ...
... ... "Automated Measurement of Immature Granulocytes: Performance Characteristics and Utility in Routine Clinical Practice," ...
Low-density granulocytes: a distinct class of neutrophils in systemic autoimmunity.. Carmona-Rivera C1, Kaplan MJ. ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a normal-density (A-C) and of a low-density granulocyte (D-F) isolated from a patient ... A distinct subset of proinflammatory, low-density granulocytes (LDGs) isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cell ... Nuclear lobes are clearly defined in normal density granulocytes, while LDGs demonstrate less lobulated nuclei. ...
Splenic pooling of granulocytes. A. M. Peters, S. H. Saverymuttu, A. Keshavarzian, R. N. Bell, J. P. Lavender ... Based on actual erythrocyte time, this corresponds to a granulocyte transit time of 8.6-11.5 min, in close agreement with the ... 1. The intrasplenic kinetics of granulocytes, isolated in plasma and labelled in plasma with 111In-tropolonate, have been ... 7. We conclude that the normal spleen contains a reservoir of granulocytes which is in dynamic equilibrium with circulating ...
2) Human granulocytes respond to freezing and thawing in a manner typical of many mammalian cells in that they exhibit a ... 3) Human granulocytes show some sensitivity to dilution stresses since survival depends somewhat on the concentration of ... The reasons for the sharp decrease in cell viability following incubation of frozen-thawed granulocytes at 37/sup 0/C are not ... Exposure to 1 and 2 M glycerol at room temperature damages human granulocytes in a few minutes. Reducing the exposure ...
A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells (APC ... In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen-presenting capacity of granulocyte subsets (neutrophils ... A substantial body of recent evidence demonstrates that granulocytes can acquire the function as antigen-presenting cells (APC ... In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen-presenting capacity of granulocyte subsets (neutrophils ...
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Jonathan L. McQualter, Rima Darwiche, Christine Ewing, Manabu Onuki, Thomas W ... Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Jonathan L. McQualter, Rima Darwiche, Christine Ewing, Manabu Onuki, Thomas W ... 1997) Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor exacerbates collagen induced arthritis in mice. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 56:364- ... Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor-mediated induction of class II MHC antigen on human monocytesa possible role ...
Granulocyte Function in Women With Diabetes and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria. Daniela Balasoiu, Kok C van Kessel, Hennie J van Kats ... Granulocyte Function in Women With Diabetes and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria. Daniela Balasoiu, Kok C van Kessel, Hennie J van Kats ... Granulocyte Function in Women With Diabetes and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Leukocytes were found more often in the urine of bacteriuric women (P , 0.05). No differences in any of the granulocyte ...
  • The specific types of granulocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Granulocytes, specifically neutrophils, help the body fight bacterial infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A granulocyte is a type of white blood cell that includes neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are granulocytes. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Granulocytes are WBC that contain granules in their cytoplasm and consist of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils in the peripheral blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We report here that 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), an activator of Ca 2+ -activated potassium channels of small conductance (SK) and intermediate conductance (IK), causes production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by neutrophils and granulocyte-differentiated PLB-985 cells. (pnas.org)
  • Low-density granulocytes: a distinct class of neutrophils in systemic autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • In this brief review, we summarize the current knowledge on the antigen-presenting capacity of granulocyte subsets (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils). (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we will focus on the three main granulocyte subsets (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and summarize current knowledge about their role as APCs in experimental and clinical systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is an endogenous hematopoietic growth factor that induces terminal differentiation and release of neutrophils from the bone marrow ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (neutrophils) are gaining renewed interest regarding their involvement in chronic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (diva-portal.org)
  • Granulocytes include NEUTROPHILS , BASOPHILS , EOSINOPHILS and their precursors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neutrophils are the most common type of granulocyte. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adhesion and diapedesis of granulocytes (which include neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils) have mostly been analyzed in context to non-lymphoid endothelium (Ref. 1 & 2). (thermofisher.com)
  • Granulocytes are a subtype of leukocytes that include basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils. (caltech.edu)
  • We review methods to isolate granulocytes from human tissue, summarize present data about the expression of nAChRs in the three granulocyte cell types (basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils), describe current knowledge of the effects of nicotine exposure on human granulocyte protein expression, and highlight areas of interest for future investigation. (caltech.edu)
  • In the present paper we show that, at concentrations above 500 nM, thapsigargin also has an opposite effect: it inhibits store-regulated Ca2+ influx into Fura-2-loaded human neutrophil granulocytes. (biochemj.org)
  • CD44 regulates phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes, but not apoptotic lymphocytes, by human macrophages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophil granulocytes by macrophages at inflammatory sites is an important determinant of the process by which inflammation resolves. (jimmunol.org)
  • Inhibition of in vitro leukotriene B4 biosynthesis in human neutrophil granulocytes and docking studies of natural quinones. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, twenty-three quinone compounds of plant origin were tested in vitro for their potential to inhibit leukotriene B4 (LTB4) biosynthesis in activated human neutrophil granulocytes with 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of this study was to establish a method of investigating intestinal eosinophil and neutrophil granulocytes by flow cytometry, and to compare the distribution and activity of these cells in different stages of ulcerative colitis (UC). (bmj.com)
  • Basophils are the least common of the granulocytes , representing about 0.01% to 0.3% of circulating leukocytes (white blood cells). (wikidoc.org)
  • Like all circulating granulocytes, basophils can be recruited out of the blood into a tissue when needed. (wikidoc.org)
  • Granulocytes are produced via granulopoiesis in the bone marrow . (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Healthline, the most common causes of high granulocyte count include bone marrow disorders, infections and autoimmune disorders. (reference.com)
  • According to Healthline, granulocytes are produced and developed in the bone marrow. (reference.com)
  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia, primary myelofibrosis and polycythemia vera are some kinds of bone marrow diseases that cause high granulocyte count. (reference.com)
  • Granulocytes or PMN are released from the bone marrow by the regulatory complement proteins. (bionity.com)
  • They are granulocytes that develop in the bone marrow before migrating into blood. (bionity.com)
  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor ( G-CSF or GCSF ), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 ( CSF 3 ), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream . (wikipedia.org)
  • The G-CSF-receptor is present on precursor cells in the bone marrow , and, in response to stimulation by G-CSF, initiates proliferation and differentiation into mature granulocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a granulocyte in bone marrow. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Granulocytes are derived from stem cells in bone marrow. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The role of the sensitivity of bone marrow cells to, and the pharmacokinetics of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the rhythm of leukocyte-increasing effect was investigated in ICR male mice housed under a standardized light-dark cycle (lights on at 0700, off at 1900). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Eosinophil granulocytes , commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils ), are white blood cells of the immune system that are responsible for combating infection and parasites in vertebrates. (bionity.com)
  • According to About.com, there are two types of granulocytes: ploys and bands, each of which is counted separately to determine the absolute granulocyte count. (reference.com)
  • Granulocytes, also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, are characterized by their ability to produce, store, and release compounds from intracellular granules. (caltech.edu)
  • Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Resistance of the body to infection: I. leukocytes, granulocytes, the monocyte-macrophage system, and inflammation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Background: GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) is a growth factor that is used to supplement culture media in an effort to improve clinical outcomes for those undergoing assisted reproduction. (mendeley.com)
  • They differentiate from myeloid precursor cells in response to the cytokines interleukin 3 (IL-3), interleukin 5 (IL-5), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). (bionity.com)
  • Not to be confused with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor . (wikipedia.org)
  • The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is considered to play a central role in maintaining chronic inflammation. (rupress.org)
  • reference 10), necessary for T cell activation by foreign proteins, induction of monocyte/macrophage MHC class II expression ( 11 ), enhancement of the phagocytic activity and antigen presenting function of macrophages and/or microglia ( 12 )( 13 ), priming of monocytes for cytokine production ( 14 )( 15 ), and enhancement of macrophage and granulocyte adherence ( 16 )( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor administered as prophylaxis for reduction of sepsis in extremely preterm, small for gestational age neonates (the PROGRAMS trial): a single-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. (wordnik.com)
  • 2006) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor regulates effector differentiation of invariant natural killer T cells during thymic ontogeny. (wordnik.com)
  • Following infection with cytomegalovirus, human granulocyte-macrophage progenitors carry the viral genome but fail to support productive replication. (pnas.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is often used to treat leucopenia. (springer.com)
  • Harvesting and enrichment of hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilized into the peripheral blood of normal donors by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or G-CSF: potential role in allogeneic marrow transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Emerging applications of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (springer.com)
  • Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors are cytokines that act in hematopoiesis by controlling the production, differentiation, and function of 2 related white cell populations of the blood, the granulocytes and the monocytes-macrophages. (uniprot.org)
  • This study is investigating whether granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves symptoms and blood flow in people with PAD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Endogenous Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GMCSF) is released in rheumatoid arthritis patients, who are largely protected from Alzheimerâ s disease (AD). (omicsonline.org)
  • We have previously reported that CNI-1493, a macrophage deactivator, reduced mortality in infant rats infected with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) with associated decrease in the number of granulocytes in the infected tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate proliferation of leukemic blasts and sensitize these cells to the cytotoxic effects of S-phase-specific drugs. (nature.com)
  • 8 , 9 Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a glycoprotein which supports proliferation and differentiation of a broad range of hematologic, especially myeloid, precursor cells. (nature.com)
  • Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance granulocyte and macrophage number and function, their use in the management of neonatal sepsis may be beneficial. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigates the potential for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to effect a clinically relevant increase in neutrophil number when used prophylactically in high-risk preterm neonates, and assesses its safety in this population. (aappublications.org)
  • The hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have become standard treatment for preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and accelerating neutrophil recovery after marrow transplantation. (aappublications.org)
  • Outside of the setting of a clinical trial, few data support the use of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with ALL. (medscape.com)
  • Regulation of wound healing by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after vocal fold injury. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) facilitates epithelial wound healing, and recently, growth factor therapy has been applied to promote tissue repair. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The serum inhibitor activities of granulocyte-macrophage colony formation were evaluated by the in vitro culture technique in 60 patients with cancer and control subjects including 24 normal adults and 27 patients with a variety of nonneoplastic disorders. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other white blood cells which are not granulocytes (" agranulocytes ") are mainly lymphocytes and monocytes . (bionity.com)
  • Flow cytometry data for lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively, in their corresponding. (lu.se)
  • The inflammation affects the colonic mucosa, with accumulation of lymphocytes, monocytes, mast cells, and neutrophil and eosinophil granulocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Leukocytes - Granulocytes in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • Granulocytes, the most abundant types of leukocytes, are the first line of defense against pathogen invasion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given that granulocytes constitute 50-70% of circulating leukocytes, this indicates a significantly smaller scope of IL-6 signaling than previously anticipated and has important implications for therapeutic IL-6 inhibition and the mechanisms of action thereof. (jimmunol.org)
  • Granulocytes circulate through the body via peripheral blood and account for approximately 25-75% of CD45 + leukocytes. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • The mechanism of cell adhesion and transmigration vary according to the nature of the blood vessels and type of leukocytes (granulocyte or agranulocyte). (thermofisher.com)
  • The number of granulocytes in the body usually increases when there is a serious infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Any granulocyte count under 2,500 indicates a higher possibility of infection afflicting the body. (reference.com)
  • A granulocyte count of less than 1,000 means an increased risk of infection, and any number below 1,000 means the body can become easily infected. (reference.com)
  • The increased efficacy of granulocyte transfusions in conjunction with antibiotic therapy against microbial infection during agranulocytosis or granulocytopenia has been well documented. (dtic.mil)
  • This is the first demonstration of an effect of parasitic infection in man on the granulocyte regulatory system, and opens the way for future studies in this area. (ajtmh.org)
  • An inflammatory response induced by infection, injury or an allergen triggers granulocytes to move into tissues towards the foreign invader, in a process called extravasation. (thermofisher.com)
  • Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue. (doaj.org)
  • Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. (doaj.org)
  • Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm . (wikipedia.org)
  • Wright staining results showed that granulocytes (R3) with the small nucleus and plenty of cytoplasm were the most complex and usually oval or spherical in shape and larger than hyalinocytes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a normal-density (A-C) and of a low-density granulocyte (D-F) isolated from a patient with SLE display various types of granules in their cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • Granulocytes are part of the immune system and are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Recognizes an unidentified antigen in the cytoplasm of mature granulocytes. (novusbio.com)
  • Granulocytopenia is an abnormally low concentration of granulocytes in the blood. (bionity.com)
  • Furthermore, when rabbits were treated with nitrogen mustard (1.75 mg/kg) and developed sustained granulocytopenia, exposure to hyperoxia for 72 h resulted in fewer granulocytes in lung lavages and less edematous lung injury. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, when rabbits were similarly treated with nitrogen mustard but did not maintain sustained granulocytopenia throughout the exposure to hyperoxia, increased numbers of granulocytes were found in lung lavages and the degree of edematous lung injury increased to levels not different from those observed in oxygen-exposed rabbits that had not been treated with nitrogen mustard. (nih.gov)
  • To the editor: In a recent article, Winston and associates (1) presented data that led them to conclude that therapeutic granulocyte transfusions offered no substantial benefit over optimal antimicrobial therapy alone in managing infected patients with granulocytopenia. (annals.org)
  • What Causes a High Granulocyte Count? (reference.com)
  • Also called granulocytosis, a high granulocyte count usually indicates a health problem. (reference.com)
  • The authors have criticized other randomized trials of granulocyte transfusions in neutropenic patients for having too few patients. (annals.org)
  • Researchers are encouraged to conduct adequately powered multi-centre trials of granulocyte transfusions in neutropenic septic neonates. (cochrane.org)
  • Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. (doaj.org)
  • for example, the most abundant granulocyte is the neutrophil granulocyte , which has neutrally staining cytoplasmic granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that has small granules. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Granulocytes are a type of white blood cells that seems to contain small granules when examined under a microscope. (reference.com)
  • Granulocyte function testing (chemotaxis, opsonization, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and killing) was performed in the first 20 patients (10 with and 10 without asymptomatic bacteriuria) and in 7 healthy control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Granulocytes isolated by these procedures were examined for changes in O2 consumption associated with phagocytosis, in vitro directed migration (chemotaxis), bactericidal activity, and ultrastructure before and after freezing. (dtic.mil)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased in formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-stimulated granulocytes following CNI-1493 treatment, whereas F-actin content, motility and chemotaxis were decreased under the same conditions. (diva-portal.org)
  • The effects of CNI-1493 on both NO production in LPS/IFN γ -activated macrophages and ROS production, F-actin content, motility and chemotaxis in granulocytes, may contribute to the reduced inflammatory response and increased survival in Hib-infected animals treated with CNI-1493. (diva-portal.org)
  • An eosinophilic granulocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA sequencing and mass-spectrometry revealed abundant RNA and protein expression of ADGRG3/GPR97 in granulocyte precursors and terminally differentiated neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic granulocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), including neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic granulocytes, execute highly effective responses against microorganisms, which are of critical importance for tissue homeostasis and wound healing ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate the need for continued investigation on the effects of storage variables on the preservation of granulocytes. (dtic.mil)
  • Hematologists, both in training (medical students) and trainees (junior doctors), doctors and scientists involved in the area of granulocyte and constitutional marrow failure syndromes. (ehaweb.org)
  • This three-day meeting was organized in collaboration with the EHA Scientific Working Group on Granulocytes and Constitutional Marrow Failure Syndromes, under the guidance of the chair Prof Carlo Dufour. (ehaweb.org)
  • The main objective was to update the participants on the latest achievements in the pathogenesis of granulocyte disorders, constitutional marrow failure syndromes (CMFS), Gaucher disease (GD) and leukemia predisposition genes, on the tools on how to be able to identify and appropriately manage these patients and the newest available treatments. (ehaweb.org)
  • Activation of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) by C5a is thought to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure during sepsis and after trauma. (hindawi.com)
  • Granulocyte transfusions can be a supportive addition in selected severely neutropenic patients with marrow failure and bacterial sepsis when the usual therapy of antibiotics and drainage, etc. has failed. (fairview.org)
  • Most cases of bacterial sepsis in severely neutropenic patients respond to antibiotic therapy and granulocyte transfusions are rarely needed. (fairview.org)
  • More evidence is needed on the effects of granulocyte infusions for babies with sepsis and neutropenia (decreased number of white blood cells). (cochrane.org)
  • The primary objective was to determine the effect of granulocyte or buffy coat transfusions as adjuncts to antibiotics, after confirmed or suspected sepsis in neutropenic neonates, on all-cause mortality during hospital stay and neurological outcome at ≥ year of age. (cochrane.org)
  • Studies where neutropenic neonates with suspected or confirmed sepsis were randomised or quasi-randomised to granulocyte or buffy coat transfusions at any dose or duration, and reporting any outcome of interest were included. (cochrane.org)
  • Forty-four infants with sepsis and neutropenia were randomised in three trials to granulocyte transfusions or placebo /no transfusion. (cochrane.org)
  • Delta neutrophil index in automated immature granulocyte counts for assessing disease severity of patients with sepsis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We performed a randomized, double-masked, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled trial of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rG-CSF) administration to 44 preterm neonates who had blood cultures obtained and antibiotics begun because of the clinical diagnosis of early-onset sepsis. (aappublications.org)
  • It is concluded that dog granulocytes freeze preserved by these methods are functional in vitro, but that phagocytic, directed migration, and bactericidal functions and ultrastructure are impaired to different degrees, according to the method of isolation and preparation for storage. (dtic.mil)
  • Sheridan JW, Metcalf D. A low molecular weight factor in lung-conditioned medium stimulating granulocyte and monocyte colony formation in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate how CNI-1493 affects granulocytes and macrophages in vitro. (diva-portal.org)
  • 1. The intrasplenic kinetics of granulocytes, isolated in plasma and labelled in plasma with 111 In-tropolonate, have been studied in normal subjects, patients with negative studies for inflammatory disease and patients with positive studies, with the aim of identifying the nature of splenic activity seen after 111 In-labelled granulocyte administration. (clinsci.org)
  • A distinct subset of proinflammatory, low-density granulocytes (LDGs) isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fractions of patients with SLE has been described. (nih.gov)
  • Granulocytes belong to the myeloid cell family and represent the most abundant cell type in peripheral blood. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • We evaluated an automated immature granulocyte (IG) count in the peripheral blood with the XE-IG Master (Sysmex Corporation). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tumor tissues and peripheral blood from mesothelioma patients were evaluated for presence of granulocytes, which were then tested for their T-cell suppression potential. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recently biosimilars of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) became available for prophylaxis and treatment of postchemotherapy neutropenia and for mobilization of peripheral blood CD34+ cells for either autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. (wiley.com)
  • Granulocytes are the most abundant type of leukocyte circulating in the peripheral blood. (caltech.edu)
  • We found that oral administration of BRO in a model of moderate-to-severe bronchoalveolar inflammation in rats attenuated the inflammatory response by reducing both systemic leukocytosis as well as local infiltration of granulocytes into lung tissue and alveolar space. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Erjefalt JS, Uller L, Malm-Erjefalt M, Persson CG (2004) Rapid and efficient clearance of airway tissue granulocytes through transepithelial migration. (springer.com)
  • Substance P also induced granulocyte infiltration, although the infiltrate were modest and were seen at doses of peptide from 5 to more than 20-fold higher than those required for induction of tissue swelling. (jci.org)
  • The effects of substance P on tissue swelling, vascular permeability, and granulocyte infiltration were virtually entirely mast cell dependent. (jci.org)
  • In this context, a number of conclusions can be drawn from the data presented: (1) Exposure to 1 and 2 M glycerol at room temperature damages human granulocytes in a few minutes. (unt.edu)
  • 3) Human granulocytes show some sensitivity to dilution stresses since survival depends somewhat on the concentration of glycerol used and the severity of the dilution procedure. (unt.edu)
  • The Granulocyte Antigen Working Party of the ISBT has formulated rules for well-defined human neutrophil antigens (HNAs), as presented in the following tabulation, although at this writing they have not met with universal acceptance. (amamanualofstyle.com)
  • Kooijman R, Coopens A, Hooghe-Peters E (2002) IGF-1 inhibits spontaneous apoptosis in human granulocytes. (springer.com)
  • In contrast to the previous dogma, we show in this article that circulating mouse and human granulocytes are unable to induce p-STAT3 or p-STAT1 after stimulation with IL-6 or an IL-6/soluble IL-6R complex. (jimmunol.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that this is due to a lack of gp130 expression on mouse and human granulocytes, despite their expression of membrane-bound IL-6R. (jimmunol.org)
  • The EUROIMMUN IFA Granulocyte assays, commonly referred to as ANCA Mosaic™, are designed as indirect immunofluorescence tests for the qualitative or semi-quantitative determination of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) of immunoglobulin class IgG in human serum. (businesswire.com)
  • Studies have been done to determine the levels of human urinary granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in Egyptian patients with active bilharziasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Analysis of human tumors showed that the mesothelioma microenvironment is enriched in infiltrating granulocytes, which inhibit T-cell proliferation and activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Culture of healthy-donor granulocytes with human mesothelioma cells showed that GM-CSF upregulates NOX2 expression and the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from granulocytes, resulting in T-cell suppression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conclude that the specific presence of GPR97 regulates antimicrobial activity in human granulocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each Monocyte/Granulocyte Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Monocyte/Granulocyte Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Porcine. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Monocyte/Granulocyte monoclonal antibodies. (novusbio.com)
  • Moreover, granulocyte gp130 expression is lost during maturation, because granulocyte-monocyte progenitor cells express gp130 and respond to IL-6. (jimmunol.org)
  • 3. The use of granulocyte transfusions is restricted to severely neutropenic patients with marrow failure that is not expected to return to normal granulopoiesis in the near future. (fairview.org)
  • The second scientific meeting on EHA-SWG Scientific Meeting on Granulocytes and Constitutional Marrow Failure Disorders and Leukemia Predisposing Genes was held on October 10-12, 2019 in Prague, Czech Republic. (ehaweb.org)
  • The dose is a single granulocyte transfusion per day. (fairview.org)
  • 3. Results from a group of volunteers showed a rapid and reversible response to a chemotactic tripeptide, with a fall in single granulocyte count and the appearance of doublets and triplets. (portlandpress.com)
  • Importantly, the absence of gp130 is not only a feature of mature granulocytes in healthy individuals, it is also observed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Evaluation of immature granulocyte counts by the XE-IG master: upgraded software for the XE-2100 automated hematology analyzer. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Granulocyte transfusions are not needed in infected patients with antibody-mediated immune neutropenia with a normal marrow whose severe neutropenia is due to rapid destruction of granulocytes. (fairview.org)
  • Granulocyte concentrates are available only through consultation with a transfusion medicine physician. (fairview.org)
  • 4. The number of granulocytes in a granulocyte transfusion is only a fraction of that produced and released daily by the marrow of a healthy non-infected person. (fairview.org)
  • 7. Granulocyte donations have significantly more risks for the donor than other blood donations and these risks should be considered when weighing the risk and benefit prior to ordering the transfusion. (fairview.org)
  • 9. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is readily transmitted by granulocyte transfusion. (fairview.org)
  • We have difficulty extrapolating their observations to granulocyte transfusion therapy as given at our institution (2) and others (3) where doses of three to six times as many granulocytes are administered routinely. (annals.org)
  • Therefore, granulocyte transfusion to septic neutropenic neonates may improve outcomes. (cochrane.org)
  • G-CSF stimulates the production of granulocytes , a type of white blood cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a drug by some immunosuppressed individuals. (wordnik.com)
  • The classic view of granulocytes as terminally differentiated, short-lived phagocytes is therefore changing to phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous cells that are engaged in cross-talk with other leukocyte populations and provide an additional link between innate and adaptive immunity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further research led him to discover that the mouse that appeared to be immune from cancer had an extra amount of potent granulocytes for specifically killing cancer cells without harming normal cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the plasticity and diversity of granulocytes have been increasingly revealed, especially with regard to their versatile functions in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • As key components in the innate immune system, granulocytes have generally been considered as rapid responders in the first line of defense against pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, a substantial body of evidence has indicated that there is a functional heterogeneity and plasticity among granulocytes, with most emphasis on their versatile abilities in shaping adaptive immune responses ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 5. Granulocyte transfusions should not be infused at the same time as infusions of medications that have a high incidence of causing adverse reactions (e.g., amphotericin B, intravenous immune globulin, Campath, IL-2, ATG). (fairview.org)
  • Preterm babies are not yet able to adequately form granulocytes, which are a key part of the immune system's ability to fight infections. (cochrane.org)
  • Colotta F, Re F, Polentarutti N, Sozzani S, Mantovani A (1992) Modulation of granulocyte survival and programmed cell death by cytokines and bacterial products. (springer.com)
  • This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. (doaj.org)
  • Substance P-induced augmentation of cutaneous vascular permeability and granulocyte infiltration in mice is mast cell dependent. (jci.org)
  • As former work indicated the possible presence of the aGPCR GPR97 in granulocytes, we studied its cellular distribution, molecular structure, signal transduction, and biological function in PMNs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Granulocytes normally circulate in the blood unattached and in response to inflammatory signals such as TNFs (Tumor Necrosis Factors), interleukins, complement components, GCSF (Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor), histamine, etc. (thermofisher.com)
  • A protein that stimulates white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply and mature. (nih.gov)
  • Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties and is known to mobilize stem cells, it may be useful in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. (cmaj.ca)
  • It can be used as a marker of granulocytes in normal tissues or inflammatory processes. (novusbio.com)
  • Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis. (diva-portal.org)
  • The mean transit time of granulocytes through the spleen, about 10 min, is remarkably similar to that of platelets. (clinsci.org)
  • Granulocytes were frozen in DMSO (7.5%) and autologous serum of HBSS and 20% autologous serum at the rate of -1 C/min to -80 C and stored in liquid N2 vapor. (dtic.mil)
  • 4. The application of deconvolution analysis to the blood and splenic time-activity curves generated a splenic retention (or washout) curve consistent with dynamic exchange of granulocytes between blood and spleen. (clinsci.org)
  • 5. Taking splenic activity to be reversible, comparison of the 111 In signal from the spleen 40 min after injection of 111 In-labelled granulocytes with that given from the spleen after the injection of 111 In-labelled erythrocytes (relative to their respective blood levels) indicated that intrasplenic granulocyte transit time was 14.4 (± se 1.1) times that of erythrocytes. (clinsci.org)
  • 6. The reversibility of splenic 111 In activity after labelled granulocyte injection was confirmed by observing falls in splenic activity between 40 min and 24 h and between 3 and 24 h, which were greater in patients with inflammatory disease than those without. (clinsci.org)
  • Following the successful FDA clearance of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) IFA on HEp-cells, Crithidia luciliae (anti-dsDNA) and Crithidia luciliae sensitive (anti-dsDNA) IFA, the granulocyte IFA mosaicMosaic ™ assays for the detection of ANCA are the most recent assays to receive FDA clearance for use with the EUROPattern Suite. (businesswire.com)
  • There are currently no images for Granulocyte Marker Antibody (NBP2-34750B). (novusbio.com)
  • The EUROPLUS Granulocyte Mosaic™ EUROPattern assay allows for additional monospecific detection of anti-PR3, anti-MPO and anti-GBM IgG antibodies. (businesswire.com)
  • In this animated and interactive object, learners examine the structure and functions of granulocytes and agranulocytes. (wisc-online.com)
  • A granuloma is a tumor containing granulocytes, and a "granulomatosis" is a necrotizing granuloma. (bionity.com)
  • In this study, the effect of the mesothelioma tumor microenvironment on circulating and infiltrating granulocytes and T cells is investigated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Different cocultures of granulocytes and/or mesothelioma tumor cells and/or T cells were set up to identify the mechanism of T-cell inhibition. (aacrjournals.org)