An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A receptor for MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR encoded by the c-fms proto-oncogene (GENES, FMS). It contains an intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinase activity. When activated the receptor undergoes autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of down-stream signaling molecules and rapid down-regulation.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Receptors that bind and internalize the granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor. Their MW is believed to be 84 kD. The most mature myelomonocytic cells, specifically human neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, express the highest number of affinity receptors for this growth factor.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The parent cells that give rise to both cells of the GRANULOCYTE lineage and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Receptors that bind and internalize GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR. Their MW is believed to be 150 kD. These receptors are found mainly on a subset of myelomonocytic cells.
High affinity receptors for INTERLEUKIN-3. They are found on early HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS; progenitors of MYELOID CELLS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS. Interleukin-3 receptors are formed by the dimerization of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The cells in the granulocytic series that give rise to mature granulocytes (NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS). These precursor cells include myeloblasts, promyelocytes, myelocytes and metamyelocytes.
Cell surface receptors for colony stimulating factors, local mediators, and hormones that regulate the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hemopoietic cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-5. They are heterodimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT. Signaling from interleukin-5 receptors can occur through interaction of their cytoplasmic domains with SYNTENINS.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Organic esters of thioglycolic acid (HS-CH2COOH).
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The serous fluid of ASCITES, the accumulation of fluids in the PERITONEAL CAVITY.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP140(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.
Heparin-binding proteins that exhibit a number of inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. Originally identified as secretory products of MACROPHAGES, these chemokines are produced by a variety of cell types including NEUTROPHILS; FIBROBLASTS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS. They likely play a significant role in respiratory tract defenses.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A receptor subunit that is a shared component of the INTERLEUKIN-3 RECEPTOR; the INTERLEUKIN-5 RECEPTOR; and the GM-CSF RECEPTOR. High affinity receptor complexes are formed with each of these receptors when their respective alpha subunits are combined with this shared beta subunit.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Cell surface proteins that bind interleukins and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The phenomenon of antibody-mediated target cell destruction by non-sensitized effector cells. The identity of the target cell varies, but it must possess surface IMMUNOGLOBULIN G whose Fc portion is intact. The effector cell is a "killer" cell possessing Fc receptors. It may be a lymphocyte lacking conventional B- or T-cell markers, or a monocyte, macrophage, or polynuclear leukocyte, depending on the identity of the target cell. The reaction is complement-independent.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Factors secreted by stimulated lymphocytes that prime macrophages to become nonspecifically cytotoxic to tumors. They also modulate the expression of macrophage cell surface Ia antigens. One MAF is INTERFERON-GAMMA. Other factors antigenically distinct from IFN-gamma have also been identified.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/4412)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated signaling pathways in human neutrophils. Involvement of Jak2 in the stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. (2/4412)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulates many of the biological activities of human neutrophils. The signaling pathways via which these effects are mediated are not fully understood. We have shown previously that GM-CSF treatment of human neutrophils activates the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway and, more specifically, Jak2, STAT3, and STAT5B in neutrophils. GM-CSF also stimulates the activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) in a tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. Here we report that pretreating the cells with a Jak2 inhibitor (AG-490) abolishes tyrosine phosphorylation of the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase induced by GM-CSF. Furthermore, p85 was found to associate with Jak2, but not with Lyn, in stimulated cells in situ and with its autophosphorylated form in vitro; however, Jak2 did not bind to either of the two Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of the p85 subunit of PI3-kinase. Although STAT5B bound to the carboxyl-terminal SH2 domain of p85, it was absent from the complex containing PI3-kinase and Jak2. These results suggest that stimulation of the activity of PI3-kinase induced by GM-CSF is mediated by Jak2 and that the association between Jak2 and p85 depends on an adaptor protein yet to be identified.  (+info)

Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 correct osteopetrosis in mice with osteopetrosis mutation. (3/4412)

Although young mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis (op) mutation usually developed prominent osteopetrosis, its severity was markedly reduced in aged op/op mice. This age-associated reversal of osteopetrosis was accompanied by the expansion of bone marrow cavities and increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and of macrophages in the bone marrow. The TRAP-positive cells were mononuclear and developed ruffled borders and numerous vesicles, vacuoles, and granules. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant elevation of serum granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-3 levels in the aged op/op mice. To examine whether GM-CSF and/or IL-3 could correct osteopetrosis in young op/op mice, 5 ng of recombinant murine (rm)GM-CSF and/or 100 ng of rmIL-3 were injected daily into young op/op mice. In these treated young op/op mice, the bone marrow cavities were expanded significantly at 2 weeks after administration, associated with significantly increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and bone marrow macrophages. TRAP-positive cells increased in number with days after injection. These results suggest that GM-CSF and IL-3 induce the development of osteoclasts to correct osteopetrosis in the op/op mice with aging.  (+info)

Receptor clearance obscures the magnitude of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor responses in mice to endotoxin or local infections. (4/4412)

Marrow cells from mice lacking high-affinity receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF; betac-/- mice) were shown to bind and internalize much less GM-CSF than cells from normal (betac+/+) mice. betac-/- mice were used to determine the effect of negligible receptor-mediated clearance on detectible GM-CSF responses to the intravenous injection of endotoxin or the intraperitoneal injection of casein plus microorganisms. Unlike the minor serum GM-CSF responses to endotoxin seen in betac+/+ mice, serum GM-CSF levels rose 30-fold to 9 ng/mL in betac-/- mice even though loss of GM-CSF in the urine was greater than in betac+/+ mice. Organs from betac-/- and betac+/+ mice had a similar capacity to produce GM-CSF in vitro, as did peritoneal cells from both types of mice when challenged in vitro by casein. However, when casein was injected intraperitoneally, betac-/- mice developed higher and more sustained levels of GM-CSF than did betac+/+ mice. The data indicated that receptor-dependent removal of GM-CSF masks the magnitude of GM-CSF responses to endotoxin and local infections. Because of this phenomenon, serum GM-CSF concentrations can be a misleading index of the occurrence or nonoccurrence of GM-CSF responses to infections.  (+info)

Comparison of monocyte-dependent T cell inhibitory activity in GM-CSF vs G-CSF mobilized PSC products. (5/4412)

This study compares the immune properties of peripheral blood stem cell (PSC) products mobilized with different hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs) as well as apheresis products and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from normal individuals. We found that monocytes in mobilized PSC products appear to inhibit T cell function independent of whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was used for mobilization. In addition, the GF used to mobilize the stem cell product may be less important to the CD4:CD8 ratio than the extent of prior chemotherapy, as we found an inverse correlation between chemotherapy and the CD4:CD8 ratio. In other observations, all apheresis products, whether mobilized or unmobilized, contained significantly more monocytes compared to normal PBL. The mononuclear cells (MNC) from G-CSF or GM-CSF mobilized PSC products had a similar T cell phytohemagglutinin (PHA) mitogenic response that was significantly lower (P = 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively) than non-mobilized apheresis products. We also examined the T cell inhibitor (TI) activity of the MNC from the PSC products for allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation and found that PSC products significantly reduced the proliferation of allogeneic PBL to PHA. A significant correlation (P = 0.001, r = 0.517) between the frequency of monocytes and TI activity also was observed.  (+info)

Identification of AUF-1 ligands reveals vast diversity of early response gene mRNAs. (6/4412)

Cell activation is associated with diverse and widespread changes in gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. AUF1 is a recently described cytoplasmic protein which likely participates in the post-transcriptional regulation (PTR) of AU-rich (ARE) mRNAs including those coding for cytokines and proto-oncogenes. Individual mRNAs subject to AUF1-mediated PTR can be predicted if AREs are present or the mRNA in question interacts in vitro or in vivo with AUF1. However, there are few, if any, general approaches for characterizing the overall repertoire of mRNAs subject to PTR by AUF1. In an effort to identify these mRNAs, we incubated total mRNA from mitogen-activated peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) with AUF1 in vitro. AUF1-mRNA complexes were retarded on membranes, bound mRNAs eluted with high salt, and either used to generate a cDNA library or rebound to AUF1 a second or third time prior to elution and cDNA library construction. We have obtained partial nucleotide sequences from 130 clones which shows that the AUF1 selected libraries are rich in mRNAs containing 3' untranslated region AREs including a large number of early response gene cDNAs. As a test of the validity of this method, we also show that a randomly selected, novel mRNA contained in the library is stabilized upon cell activation.  (+info)

Selective recruitment of CCR4-bearing Th2 cells toward antigen-presenting cells by the CC chemokines thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine. (7/4412)

Helper T cells are classified into Th1 and Th2 subsets based on their profiles of cytokine production. Th1 cells are involved in cell-mediated immunity, whereas Th2 cells induce humoral responses. Selective recruitment of these two subsets depends on specific adhesion molecules and specific chemoattractants. Here, we demonstrate that the T cell-directed CC chemokine thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) was abundantly produced by monocytes treated with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or IL-3, especially in the presence of IL-4 and by dendritic cells derived from monocytes cultured with GM-CSF + IL-4. The receptor for TARC and another macrophage/dendritic cell-derived CC chemokine macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is CCR4, a G protein-coupled receptor. CCR4 was found to be expressed on approximately 20% of adult peripheral blood effector/memory CD4+ T cells. T cells attracted by TARC and MDC generated cell lines predominantly producing Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5. Fractionated CCR4+ cells but not CCR4- cells also selectively gave rise to Th2-type cell lines. When naive CD4+ T cells from adult peripheral blood were polarized in vitro, Th2-type cells selectively expressed CCR4 and vigorously migrated toward TARC and MDC. Taken together, CCR4 is selectively expressed on Th2-type T cells and antigen-presenting cells may recruit Th2 cells expressing CCR4 by producing TARC and MDC in Th2-dominant conditions.  (+info)

Thrombopoietin-induced conformational change in p53 lies downstream of the p44/p42 mitogen activated protein kinase cascade in the human growth factor-dependent cell line M07e. (8/4412)

Thrombopoietin is a cytokine with potent megakaryocytopoietic and thrombopoietic activities in vivo. Wild-type p53 is a conformationally flexible, anti-oncogenic transcription factor that plays a principal role in mediating growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis in factor-dependent hematopoietic cells. We recently reported that Tpo induces a conformational change in and functional inactivation of p53, coincident with its anti-apoptotic effects, in the human factor-dependent cell line M07e. In an effort to identify potential signaling cascades through which Tpo illicits these effects on p53, we report here that treating M07e cells with MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059 dramatically suppressed Tpo-induced conformational change in p53 as well as Tpo-enhanced viability in M07e cells in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active Raf1 in M07e cells induced conformational change in p53 independent of Tpo stimulation. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway revealed that JAK/STAT signaling plays an insignificant role in conformational modulation of p53 and apoptosis suppression. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase did not have a significant effect on p53 conformation but did have a weak but significant effect on Tpo-enhanced viability. Cytokine-induced activation of the MAPK pathway and the subsequent functional neutralization of p53, may be an event by which apoptosis is commonly suppressed in hematopoiesis.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effect of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in leukocytopenic mice. AU - Tanaka, T.. AU - Okamura, S.. AU - Okada, K.. AU - Suga, A.. AU - Shimono, N.. AU - Ohhara, N.. AU - Hirota, Y.. AU - Sawae, Y.. AU - Niho, Y.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The effects of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in ICR mice were investigated. Mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and were then injected intraperitoneally with rmGM-CSF three times daily, beginning on the day after CPA treatment, for 7 days. The number of peripheral blood leukocytes in both CPA- and rmGM-CSF-treated mice and control CPA-treated mice reached a nadir on day 4, when P. aeruginosa was injected intraperitoneally. The administration of rmGM-CSF significantly increased the proportion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity. AU - Dranoff, Glenn. AU - Jaffee, Elizabeth. AU - Lazenby, Audrey. AU - Golumbek, Paul. AU - Levitsky, Hyam. AU - Brose, Katja. AU - Jackson, Valerie. AU - Hamada, Hirofumi. AU - Pardoll, Drew. AU - Mulligan, Richard C.. PY - 1993/4/15. Y1 - 1993/4/15. N2 - To compare the ability of different cytokines and other molecules to enhance the immunogenicity of tumor cells, we generated 10 retroviruses encoding potential immunomodulators and studied the vaccination properties of murine tumor cells transduced by the viruses. Using a B16 melanoma model, in which irradiated tumor cells alone do not stimulate significant anti-tumor immunity, we found that irradiated tumor cells expressing murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulated potent, long-lasting, and specific anti-tumor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor expressed from a bicistronic simian immunodeficiency virus-based integrase-defective lentiviral vector does not enhance T-cell responses in mice. AU - Michelini, Zuleika. AU - Negri, Donatella. AU - Biava, Mirella. AU - Baroncelli, Silvia. AU - Spada, Massimo. AU - Leone, Pasqualina. AU - Bona, Roberta. AU - Blasi, Maria. AU - Nègre, Didier. AU - Klotman, Mary E.. AU - Cara, Andrea. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - As a prelude to immunization studies in nonhuman primates, we compared in mice the immunogenicity of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-based integrase (IN)-defective lentiviral vector (IDLV) encoding the model antigen-enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) in the presence or absence of the murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) expressed from an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) sequence. BALB/c mice were immunized once intramuscularly with IDLV expressing eGFP alone or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on myelosuppression induced by multiple cycles of high-dose chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer. AU - Hoekman, Klaas. AU - Wagstaff, John. AU - Van Groeningen, Cees J.. AU - Vermorken, Jan B.. AU - Boven, Epie. AU - Pinedo, Herbert M.. PY - 1991/11/6. Y1 - 1991/11/6. N2 - In this study, 18 patients with advanced breast cancer were treated with multiple cycles of doxorubicin (75 or 90 mg/m2) plus cyclophosphamide (750 or 1000 mg/m2) every 21 days. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (250 μg/m2 per day) was administered by continuous infusion during 10 days (days 2-12), starting in the first or second cycle of chemotherapy. Sixteen (89%) of 18 patients (95% confidence interval, 65%-99%) achieved an objective remission, five (28%) of which were complete. The median duration of response was 7 months. When GM-CSF was used for the first time, it had an effect on the ...
Find information on Sargramostim (Leukine, rHu GM-CSF - recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, interactions, nursing implications, mechanism of action, half life, administration, and more. Davis Drug Guide PDF.
Release of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from T cells is important in the differentiation, maturation, and survival of inflammatory cells. Here the induction of GMCSF expression from T cells was dependent on transcription and translation and was prevented by dexamethasone. In primary human CD3+ T cells, up to 3.3 kb of human GM-CSF promoter was strongly activated by PMA + PHA. Mutations in either the -85/-76 nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB site or the activator protein-1 region in the -54/-31 conserved lymphokine element 0 (CLEO) site substantially reduced promoter activity. Both GM-CSF promoter and NF-kappaB-dependent constructs were unresponsive to dexamethasone whereas the release of GM-CSF was potently repressed. Analysis of GM-CSF mRNA and protein expression at various time points and the effect of adding dexamethasone after the stimulus revealed the existence of potent mechanisms of inhibition acting at a translational level. The expression of tristetraproline and ...
Purchase Recombinant Human Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor(CSF2). It is produced in E.coli. High purity. Good price.
The specific aim of this study was to examine the prophylactic as well as the therapeutic efficacies of irradiated mouse CT26 colon cancer cells, infected with recombinant adenoviruses harboring cDNAs specific for granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN-gamma) and monocyte chemotactic protein1 (MCP-1). Results showed that tumor cells secrete the respective cytokines for several days after infection and subsequent irradiation. Vaccination with irradiated GM-CSF-secreting CT26 cells protected 90% of syngeneic mice challenged with live parental cells. On the other hand, vaccination with irradiated IFNgamma or MCP-1-secreting CT26 cells totally failed to protect mice from tumor development after challenge with parental cells. None of the tumor-free mice initially vaccinated with irradiated GM-CSF-producing CT26 cells developed tumor upon repeated challenge with parental cells during the entire observation period. The establishment of specific and long-lasting ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative effect of recombinant IL-1, -2, -3, -4, and -6, IFN-γ, granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, and histamine-releasing factors on the secretion of histamine from basophils. AU - Alam, R.. AU - Welter, J. B.. AU - Forsythe, P. A.. AU - Lett-Brown, M. A.. AU - Grant, J. A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - Most cytokines possess multiple biologic activities. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of rIL-1β, -2, -3, -4 and -6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF on basophils from 16 donors and the amount of histamine releases was compared with that by partially purified mononuclear cell-derived histamine-releasing factor (HRF) and anti-IgE. We found that only IL-3 and GM-CSF at relatively high doses (50 to 500 ng/ml) released small amounts of histamine (3 to 14%) from two allergic donors. In contrast, both HRF and anti-IgE released significant amounts of histamine from all donors. Other cytokines did not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) stimulates primitive and definitive erythropoiesis in mouse embryos expressing hGM-CSF receptors but not erythropoietin receptors. AU - Hisakawa, Hiroaki. AU - Sugiyama, Daisuke. AU - Nishijima, Ichiko. AU - Xu, Ming Jiang. AU - Wu, Hong. AU - Nakao, Kazuki. AU - Watanabe, Sumiko. AU - Katsuki, Motoya. AU - Asano, Shigetaka. AU - Aral, Ken Ichi. AU - Nakahata, Tatsutoshi. AU - Tsuji, Kohichiro. PY - 2001/12/15. Y1 - 2001/12/15. N2 - Although erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) are crucial for the proliferation, survival, and terminal differentiation of erythroid progenitors, it remains to be elucidated whether EPOR-unique signaling is required for erythropoiesis. To address this issue, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) receptor (hGMR)-transgenic mice and heterozygous EPOR mutant mice were crossed by in vitro fertilization. In methylcellulose clonal culture of fetal liver (FL) ...
Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of the controlled slow-release granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) system in burn wound healing. ...
The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor also known as CD116 (Cluster of Differentiation 116), is a receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which stimulates the production of white blood cells. The receptor is normally located on myeloblast, mature neutrophil, but not on any erythroid or megakaryocytic lineage cells. It is associated with Surfactant metabolism dysfunction type 4. The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor is a heterodimer composed of at least two different subunits; an α chain, and a β chain which is also present in the receptors for IL-3 and IL-5. The α subunit contains a binding site for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The β chain is involved in signal transduction. Association of the α and β subunits results in receptor activation. Upon dimerisation of the α and β subunits the β subunit becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by members of the Janus kinase (JAK) family. This leads to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor on Neuronal Senescence in Ultraviolet Irradiated Skin. AU - Moon, Kyung Chul. AU - Lee, Hyun Su. AU - Son, Seung Tae. AU - Lee, Jae Sun. AU - Dhong, Eun-Sang. AU - Jeong, Seong-Ho. AU - Han, Seung-Kyu. PY - 2019/5/1. Y1 - 2019/5/1. N2 - Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation affects neuronal structures of the skin and accelerates skin aging. Cytokine cascades in keratinocytes after UV irradiation may result in a paracrine inhibitory effect on nerve cells. The purpose of the present study was to determine the direct effect of cytokines induced by UV radiation on nerve cells in terms of neuronal senescence. Our group performed a preliminary study to determine cytokines induced in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. Among 40 cytokines studied, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was increased 4-fold in inflammation antibody array. The GM-CSF was added to cultured human neuroblastoma cells. To evaluate the effect of ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is active in enhancing the production of mature myeloid cells in vitro and several phase 1/11 clinical trials have suggested that its administration may accelerate neutrophil recovery after autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). We have conducted a multicentre randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial in patients with poor prognosis malignant lymphoma receiving an identical high-dose combination chemotherapy regimen with ABMT. 61 patients were entered and 29 in each arm of the trial were evaluated. Treatment with GM-CSF did not affect the period of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of , 0.1 x 10(9)/l) but accelerated recovery to an ANC of 0.5 x 10(9)/l (median 14 d v 20 d in controls, P = 0.001).There was no significant difference in platelet recovery between the groups (GM-CSF group platelet dependent for 25 d v control 19 d, P = NS). The number of positive blood cultures was similar in both groups ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor inducer on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction. AU - Maekawa, Yuichiro. AU - Anzai, Toshihisa. AU - Yoshikawa, Tsutomu. AU - Sugano, Yasuo. AU - Mahara, Keitaro. AU - Kohno, Takashi. AU - Takahashi, Toshiyuki. AU - Ogawa, Satoshi. PY - 2004/10/6. Y1 - 2004/10/6. N2 - We sought to determine the influence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induction on post-myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling, especially in relation to the inflammatory response and myocardial fibrosis. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor modifies wound healing by promoting monocytopoiesis and infiltration of monocytes and macrophages into injured tissue; however, the effect of GM-CSF induction on the infarct healing process and myocardial fibrosis is unclear. A model of MI was produced in Wistar rats by ligation of the left coronary artery. The MI animals were randomized to receive GM-CSF ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pilot study of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-2 as immune adjuvants for a melanoma peptide vaccine. AU - Block, Matthew S.. AU - Suman, Vera J.. AU - Nevala, Wendy K.. AU - Kottschade, Lisa A.. AU - Creagan, Edward T.. AU - Kaur, Judith S.. AU - Quevedo, Jorge Fernando. AU - McWilliams, Robert R.. AU - Markovic, Svetomir N.. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - Thus far, peptide vaccines used to stimulate tumor-specific immune responses in patients with melanoma have been largely unsuccessful. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-2 are immune-potentiating cytokines that have improved vaccine responses in preclinical models. We hypothesized that higher doses of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and addition of low-dose interleukin-2 might augment responses to vaccine antigens. Patients with resected stage II, III, or IV melanoma were treated with vaccines containing three melanoma-associated peptides ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase i/ii trial of zidovudine, interferon-α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. AU - Davey, Richard T.. AU - Davey, Victoria J.. AU - Metcalf, Julia A.. AU - Zurlo, John J.. AU - Kovacs, Joseph A.. AU - Falloon, Judith. AU - Polis, Michael A.. AU - Zunich, Kathryn M.. AU - Masur, Henry. AU - Lane, H. Clifford. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - Twenty-four patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who had CD4+ counts of 0.2-0.5 X 109 cells/l received granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in combination with zidovudine plus escalating doses of daily subcutaneous inter- feron-a. Mean neutropenia-inducing doses of interferon-α were 9.4 X 106 and 10.6 X 106 IU/day for groups receiving 100 or 200 mg zidovudine every 4 h, respectively. Mean GM-CSF doses used to reverse neutropenia were 0.64 and 0.63 μg/kg/day for these two groups, respectively, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophage colony-stimulating factor in cooperation with transforming growth factor-β1 induces the differentiation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells into Langerhans cells under serum-free conditions without granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. AU - Mollah, Zia U.A.. AU - Aiba, Setsuya. AU - Nakagawa, Satoshi. AU - Hara, Masahiro. AU - Manome, Hideaki. AU - Mizuashi, Masato. AU - Ootani, Tomoyuki. AU - Yoshino, Yumiko. AU - Tagami, Hachiro. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - Macrophage colony-stimulating factor has not been considered as a factor responsible for dendritic cell or Langerhans cell development from hematopoietic progenitor cells. In this study, we examined whether macrophage colony-stimulating factor could be used instead of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for the in vitro development of Langerhans cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. We replaced granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor with macrophage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on bovine in vitro embryo development and blastocyst interferon-s secretion. AU - Hickman, CF. AU - Ainslie, A. AU - Ealy, AD. AU - Ashworth, CJ. AU - Rooke, JA. N1 - 621723. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. KW - Blastocyst. KW - Bovine. KW - Development. KW - Effect. KW - Embryo. KW - Factor. KW - In Vitro. KW - Ovine. KW - Secretion. M3 - Article. VL - 46. SP - 608. EP - 615. JO - Reproduction in Domestic Animals. JF - Reproduction in Domestic Animals. SN - 0936-6768. ER - ...
The exact nature of poor wound healing in diabetes is uncertain. Neutrophils play a critical role in the host defense mechanism, and it is suggested that impaired neutrophil functions cause healing difficulties with or without infections in diabetic patients. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is used clinically when given systematically to increase the circulating neutrophils, but its wound-healing effects have not been systematically studied. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of GM-CSF on incisional wound healing in an experimental diabetic rat model. Forty rats were randomly divided into three groups, group I receiving saline as control, diabetes-induced group II receiving saline and diabetes-induced group III receiving GM-CSF. The anesthetized rats in all groups were wounded 21 days after diabetes induction by streptozotocin. Blood neutrophil counts and neutrophil fractions were also determined three days after wounding. Tensile strengths of wounded skin ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - CpG oligonucleotides enhance the tumor antigen-specific immune response of a granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-based vaccine strategy in neuroblastoma. AU - Sandler, Anthony D.. AU - Chihara, Hiroshi. AU - Kobayashi, Gen. AU - Zhu, Xiaoyan. AU - Miller, Michal A.. AU - Scott, David. AU - Krieg, Arthur M.. PY - 2003/1/15. Y1 - 2003/1/15. N2 - Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-transduced autologous tumor cells form the basis of many immunotherapeutic strategies. We tested whether combining this approach with T-helper 1 (Th-1)-like immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) would improve therapeutic efficacy in an established model of murine neuroblastoma. The weakly immunogenic Neuro-2a cell line was used in syngeneic A/J mice. CpG 1826 was tested for its antitumor effect alone and as an adjuvant to Neuro-2a cells retrovirally transduced to express murine GM-CSF (GM/Neuro-2a). Three days after wild-type (WT) tumor cell inoculation, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute myeloid leukemia cells in G0 phase of the cell cycle that are unresponsive to conventional chemotherapy are sensitive to treatment with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/diphtheria toxin fusion proteins. AU - Jedema, Inge. AU - Barge, Renée M Y. AU - Frankel, Arthur E.. AU - Willemze, Roel. AU - Falkenburg, J. H Frederik. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Objective. Unresponsiveness to chemotherapy is a major problem in the treatment of leukemia, which can be caused by unresponsiveness of noncycling cells to cell cycle-dependent cytotoxic agents. Targeted toxins consisting of a targeting and activating cytokine (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) and diphtheria toxin (DT) can be used to overcome this kind of resistance of leukemic cells. In this study we manipulated the cell cycle and proliferative status of leukemic cells, explored the effect on sensitivity to DT, and determined the ability of DT388GMCSF fusion proteins to activate and ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of human interleukin-11 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in transgenic plants. AU - Lee, Bo Ye. AU - Lee, Jeong Hyun. AU - Yoon, Hoon Seok. AU - Kang, Kyung Ho. AU - Kim, Kyung Nam. AU - Kim, Jae-Hong. AU - Kim, Ju Kon. AU - Kim, Jeong Kook. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - The production of therapeutic proteins for human diseases in plants results in many economic benefits, including reduced risk of animal virus contamination, high yields, and reduced production and storage costs. Human cytokines, interleukin-11 (hIL-11) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF), cDNAs were introduced into rice or tobacco, using either the maize ubiquitin promoter or the 35S promoter. The primary hIL-11 transgenic rice plants exhibited stunted growth and a sterile phenotype, whereas the hIL-11 transgenic tobacco plants did not. This suggests that hIL-11 expression in rice disrupts the normal growth and development of the plant. The ...
AIC2A and AIC2B are closely related genes encoding components of the receptors for murine interleukin-3 (IL-3) (AIC2A) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-5 (AIC2B). We have studied the parallel regulation of expression of these genes in erythroid and myeloid progenitor cell lines. AIC2A and AIC2B transcription was transiently induced in these cells in response to a variety of hematopoietic growth factors, including erythropoietin (EPO), monocyte-CSF, IL-3, GM-CSF, and stem cell factor (SCF or kit ligand). Run-on assays established that the increase occurred mainly at the transcriptional level. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the increase in messenger RNA expression resulted in augmented synthesis of both AIC2A and AIC2B proteins, and binding studies further showed these proteins to be functional. We observed a fourfold increase in low-affinity IL-3 sites in an erythroid precursor cell line stimulated with EPO, and a threefold increase in GM-CSF ...
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Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) are pleiotropic hemopoietic growth factors whose genes are closely linked and induced in T lymphocytes in a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive fashion. Since we found that the human GM-CSF and IL-3 proximal promoters were not sufficient to account for the observed regulation of these genes, we mapped DNase I hypersensitive sites across the GM-CSF/IL-3 locus in the Jurkat human T-cell line to identify additional regulatory elements. We located an inducible DNase I hypersensitive site, 3 kb upstream of the GM-CSF gene, that functioned as a strong CsA-sensitive enhancer of both the GM-CSF and IL-3 promoters. Binding studies employing Jurkat cell nuclear extracts indicated that four sites within the enhancer associate with the inducible transcription factor AP1. Three of these AP1 elements lie within sequences that also associate with factors resembling the CsA-sensitive, T cell-specific transcription factor NFAT. We ...
Increased numbers of eosinophils and mast cells in the bronchial mucosa are characteristic features in subjects with aspirin-sensitive asthma. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are involved in the activation, maturation, and perpetuation of survival o …
Murine sarcoma MC12 cells were transfected with the gene coding for murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Tumorigenicity of a variety of cell clones with different expression of the inserted gene was assessed. All of the genetically manipulated MC12 cell clones examined were found to be less tumorigenic than the parental MC12 cell population. No correlation was observed between the production of GM-CSF by the clones and their tumorigenicity. It has been found that irradiation of the GM-CSF-producing cells with the dose of 150 Gy did not significantly inhibit the GM-CSF production during the period of 5 days after irradiation. These findings provided us with the rationale for using the irradiated GM-CSF-producing MC12 sarcoma vaccine for therapy. It has further been found than immunosensitivity of the genetically manipulated, GM-CSF-producing tumour targets to the IL-2-activated killer (LAK) cell-mediated cytolysis was significantly increased, as compared to the ...
Throughout its development, the embryo is naturally exposed to a large number of cytokines and growth factors that are present in the womans reproductive organs. A growing body of evidence indicates that these factors play a physiological role in the regulation of normal development of the pre-implanted embryo and that these factors therefore help to increase the implantation of the embryo and subsequently ensure optimal development of both foetus and placenta. The cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to be present in the female reproductive organs during early pregnancy in mice, sheep, cows and humans.. 2 ng/ml GM-CSF has been proven safe in a previous study presented at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embrylogy (ESHRE) congress 2007 (A. Loft et al. 2007).. The present investigation (DK001) is to our knowledge the first large prospective randomised in vivo study in humans. Previous publications counting one Korean pilotstudy of 154 ...
Vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor generates potent antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma Academic Article ...
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Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in the generation of granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells from hematopoietic progenitor cells. We have recently demonstrated that GM-CSF has anti-apoptotic functions on neurons, and is neuroprotective in animal stroke models. The GM-CSF receptor α is expressed on adult neural stem cells in the rodent brain, and in culture. Addition of GM-CSF to NSCs in vitro increased neuronal differentiation in a dose-dependent manner as determined by quantitative PCR, reporter gene assays, and FACS analysis. Similar to the hematopoietic factor Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), GM-CSF stimulates neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs. These data highlight the astonishingly similar functions of major hematopoietic factors in the brain, and raise the clinical attractiveness of GM-CSF as a novel drug for neurological disorders.
We report here for the first time that the sputum GM-CSF concentration was increased in COPD, independent of disease severity, and confirm that in asthma the sputum GM-CSF concentration is associated with more severe disease. In asthma our sputum findings were supported by increased GM-CSF and GM-CSFR expression in bronchial biopsies in severe disease. Our study therefore supports our hypothesis that GM-CSF and GM-CSFR expression is increased in asthma and COPD, and in asthma is related to disease severity.. Several lines of evidence support a role for GM-CSF in COPD. GM-CSF is induced by the presence of airway pathogens30 31 and is known to be an important regulator of the activation and survival of key effector cells in COPD, namely the neutrophil and macrophage.32 33 Critically, neutralisation of GM-CSF in animal models attenuates airway inflammation in response to cigarette smoking.7 However, to date there has been a paucity of direct evidence of increased GM-CSF expression in airway ...
Effectiveness of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating issue for treating deep second-degree burns: a scientific evaluation and meta-analysis. Its unsure whether or not remedy by recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating issue (rhGM-CSF) can promote therapeutic of deep second-degree burns. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluation and assess randomised managed trials (RCTs) that investigated the efficacy and security of rhGM-CSF for treating deep second-degree burns. This meta-analysis conformed […]. ...
Acronyms and Abbreviations: AGM, aorta-gonad-mesonephros; BFU-E, burst-forming unit-erythroid; BFU-MK, burst-forming unit-megakaryocyte; CAFC, cobblestone area-forming cell; CAR, CXCL12-abundant reticular; CFC, colony-formingcell; CFU-E, colony-forming unit-erythroid; CFU-GM, colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage; CFU-MK, colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte; CLP, common lymphoid progenitor; CMP, common myeloid progenitor; EBF, early B-cell factor; ECM, extracellular matrix; EGF, epidermal growth factor; EPO, erythropoietin; EPOR, erythropoietin receptor; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; FL, Flt-3 ligand; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; G-CSF-R, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GM-CSF-R, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor; GMP, granulocyte-macrophage progenitor; HSC, hematopoietic stem cell; Ig, immunoglobulin; IL, interleukin; IRF4, interferon regulatory factor 4; LEF, lymphoid-enhancer ...
(2001) Kushner et al. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. PURPOSE: To describe oncolytic effects of treatment with anti-G(D2) monoclonal antibody 3F8 plus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in patients with neuroblastoma (NB).\n\nPA...
Treatment of patients with AIDS-associated lymphoma is achieving inferior results when compared with outcomes for non-AIDS patients. Treatment with mBACOD has been promising, but the toxicity is very high. Patients treated with mBACOD have very low white blood cell counts. GM-CSF has increased the number of white blood cells in animal studies and preliminary human studies. It is hoped that including GM-CSF among the drugs given to lymphoma patients will prevent or lessen the decrease in white blood cells caused by mBACOD.. Patients admitted to the study receive chemotherapy in 21-day cycles. The length of therapy, 2 - 8 months, depends on how the tumor responds to treatment. Four medicines are given on day 1 of each cycle by vein (IV) (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, bleomycin, vincristine). Dosages of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide are increased in later groups of patients if toxicity in the first group is tolerable. A fifth medicine (dexamethasone) is given by mouth (PO) on days 1 - 5 of each ...
Recombinant Human Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor is produced by our Yeast expression system and the target gene encoding Ala18-Glu144 is expressed.
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is often used to treat leucopenia. Other haematopoietins may increase the number of circulating leucocytes with higher efficiency, but GM-CSF
Transgenic expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces the differentiation and activation of a novel dendritic cell population in the lung Academic Article ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The small total number of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) in cord blood limited its use in adult recipients. Since the hematopoiesis might be controlled by both positive and negative factors, the finding of negative cellular components and thereafter depletion of them would be of importance for further expansion of HPC from cord blood in vitro. The role of natural killer cells (NK cells) in hematopoiesis remains unclear and needs to be elucidated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cord blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured in a liquid culture system containing the hematopoietic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-6, stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and G-CSF for a total of 20 days with or without depletion of NK cells. RESULTS: The percentage of CD34+ cells was significantly higher in the NK-cell-depleted group at each time point (day 5, day 10, day 15, day 20). This finding was further confirmed by examination of functional ...
We report the production of hGM-CSF cytokine in leaves of industrial tobacco cultivars DH-17 and DH-27 by using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression. We prove the concept that very high biomass industrial tobacco plants are suitable platforms for rapid, low cost production of foreign proteins. Successful transient expression of the GM-CSF was achieved in less than three months, opening the possibility for future applications of this approach in rapid response production of various proteins of non-plant origin in industrial tobacco.. ...
Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (sargramostim) as an alternative therapy for fistulizing Crohns disease.
Since antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is considered an important mechanism by which mAbs may exert their antitumor effects, it seems likely that these antitumor effects can be enhanced by the activation of the appropriate effector cell populations. We have used nude mice xenografted with human Daudi tumor cells as a model to compare the antilymphoma effects of unconjugated CD19 (CLB-CD19) and CD20 (BCA-B20) mAbs (IgG2a subclass) alone or in combination with recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhIL-2) or recombinant mouse granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF). Treatment of established tumors with BCA-B20 or rhIL-2 or rmGM-CSF as a single agent, all resulted in highly significant decreases of tumor growth rates, but did not increase the number of complete regressions. The combination of CLB-CD19 or BCA-B20 mAbs with rhIL-2 or rmGM-CSF resulted in larger decreases of growth rates than either of the agents alone. Complete eradication of large Daudi tumors could be ...
In vitro studies as well as clinical trials indicate that the cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhance the ability of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) to eliminate microbial organisms. Toll-like receptor (TLR) proteins, homologs of the Drosophila protein Toll, have been found on the surface of mammalian cells and are important in the responses of macrophages to bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens. TLR4 is critical for the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria, while TLR2 is important for response to gram-positive bacteria, bacterial peptides, and yeast zymosan. We demonstrate that TLR2, but very little TLR4, is present on the surface of human neutrophils. In addition we demonstrate that GM-CSF and G-CSF dramatically up-regulate TLR2 and CD14 surface expression. GM-CSF treatment also up-regulates TLR2 and CD14 mRNA levels in neutrophils. In addition to increasing receptor expression,
Cells and reagents. The cell lines used in this study were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection or the DSMZ. The MM.1S and MM.1R cell lines were a kind gift of Dr. Steven Rosen (Northwestern University, Chicago, IL). Cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 (Life Technologies, Inc.) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. CD70 expression was quantified using the murine anti-CD70 antibody clone 1F6 and a Dako QiFi KiT flow cytometric indirect immunofluorescence assay (Dako). Monocyte-derived macrophages were prepared by culturing adherent leukocytes in 500 units/mL recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (PeproTech) for 10 to 15 days as previously described (25). Cells recovered from these cultures were CD3/CD19 negative and expressed CD14, CD11b, CD16, CD32, and CD64 as determined by flow cytometry. Macrophage and T- and B-cell-specific fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were purchased from BD Biosciences. CD138- and CD70-specific phycoerythrin-conjugated ...
The magnitude of blindness and low vision in this oil what is cialis rich Ozoro community in Delta State is high and majority are avoidable causes of blindness. In contrast, temperate and tropical stoneflies exhibited similar acclimation responses. Subjects in Group A were equally divided into A1 (500 mg single bolus injection) and A2 (500 mg split dose).. Escalated MVAC with or without recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for the initial treatment of advanced malignant urothelial tumors: results of a randomized trial. Central to the system is an infuse-withdraw micropump component that, unlike previous micropump-based systems, has fully integrated drug and fluid storage compartments. Upon electrophoresis on denaturating gels, ribosomal RNA fraction of H.. We conducted a randomized, blinded crossover study of aldosterone vs vehicle and compared the effects of a low-sodium versus a high-sodium diet. Performance prediction of a synchronization link for distributed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diphtheria toxin fused to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Ara-C exert synergistic toxicity against human AML HL-60 cells. AU - Kim, Caryn N.. AU - Bhalla, Kapil. AU - Kreitman, Robert J.. AU - Willingham, Mark C.. AU - Hall, Philip. AU - Tagge, Edward P.. AU - Jia, Tao. AU - Frankel, Authur E.. PY - 1999/6/1. Y1 - 1999/6/1. N2 - Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor fused to truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388-GM-CSF) sensitized wild-type and Bcl2- overexpressing HL60 human leukemia cells to intoxication by Ara-C based on proliferation and clonogenic assays. The toxin/drug combination showed dramatic synergistic toxicity with combination indices of , 0.1. Synergy was not seen with two other protein synthesis inhibiting drugs - ricin and cycloheximide nor with GMCSF alone: No changes in Ara-C incorporation into cellular DNA or cell cycle occupancy were seen. As compared to exposure to DT388-GM-CSF or Ara-C alone, co-treatment produced ...
Full Text - The success rate of assisted reproductive technology is closely correlated with maternal age. Reproductive aging pathologies are frequently caused by impaired DNA repair, genomic instability, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Several reports have shown that resveratrol can prevent age-related diseases by improving mitochondrial function. Improved blastocyst development and mitochondrial output by dichloroacetic acid (DCA) supplementation were reported in aged mice. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has significant effects on implantation rates in women with previous miscarriages. Therefore, this study was conducted to observe how those compounds influence the developmental and the reproductive potential of aged oocytes. BDF1 female mice at 58–62 weeks old were used for this study. MII oocytes were fertilized and cultured in MRC media supplemented with or without resveratrol (0.5 μM), GM-CSF (2 ng/ml) or DCA (1.0 mM). The addition of resveratrol, GM-CSF or
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Mapping the intracytoplasmic regions of the α granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor necessary for cell growth regulation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Title: Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) in the Mechanism of Human Ovulation and its Clinical Usefulness. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):T. Waseda, H. Tomizawa, R. Fujii, S. Makinoda and N. Hirosaki. Affiliation:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, 920-0293 Japan.. Keywords:human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), clomiphene, luteinized unruptured follicle (LUF), cytokine, granulocyte, leukocyte, ovulation, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Abstract: In 1980, Espey proposed a famous hypothesis that mammalian ovulation is comparable to an inflammatory reaction and many researches have proved the validity of his hypothesis in the last three decades. For example, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and other inflammatory cytokines presence was proven in the preovulatory follicle. Since granulocyte is the major ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neutralization of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor decreases amyloid beta 1-42 and suppresses microglial activity in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease. AU - Manczak, Maria. AU - Mao, Peizhong. AU - Nakamura, Kazuhiro. AU - Bebbington, Christopher. AU - Park, Byung. AU - Reddy, P. Hemachandra. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The purpose of our study was to investigate microglia and astrocytes that are associated with human mutant amyloid precursor protein and amyloid beta (Aβ). We investigated whether the anti-granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) antibody can suppress microglial activity and decrease Aβ production in Alzheimers disease transgenic mice (Tg2576 line). An antibody to mouse GM-CSF was introduced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections into the brains of 10-month-old Tg2576 male mice. We assessed the effect of several GM-CSF-associated cytokines on microglial activities and their association with Aβ using ...
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cord blood levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in preterm infants and to study the relationship of these levels to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and absolute neutrophil counts.. STUDY DESIGN: G-CSF and GM-CSF levels in the cord blood of preterm neonates (n = 74) either with or without maternal PIH were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.. RESULTS: Infants in the PIH group had lower white blood cell, absolute neutrophil, absolute lymphocyte, and monocyte counts. The levels of G-CSF in cord blood were significantly lower in infants whose mothers had PIH (P =.04) and in infants with neutropenia (P =. 01). G-CSF levels were positively correlated with both absolute neutrophil count (P =.02) and total white blood cell count (P =.01). GM-CSF was undetectable in all subjects. According to logistic regression with neutropenia as the dependent variable, only maternal PIH (P ...
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a syndrome characterised by respiratory failure caused by pulmonary surfactant accumulation and resulting in respiratory insuiciency and an increased incidence of infections.[1] The current standard therapy is whole-lung lavage, which is used to physically remove the accumulated surfactant.[2] PAP can be grouped into distinct categories based on clinical, histopathological, biochemical and genetic data.[3]. Surfactant homeostasis is critical for lung function and is tightly regulated, in part by pulmonary granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is required for surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages and alveolar macrophage maturation[4] The effects of GM-CSF are mediated by cell-surface receptors composed of GM-CSF-binding a-chains and affinity-enhancing β-chains (encoded by CSF2RA and CSF2RB, respectively)[4] Primary PAP occurs when GM-CSF signalling is disrupted[3] either on an auto-immune basis, where high levels of ...
Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) modulates the function of mature neutrophils by priming for enhanced chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism in response to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-Met-Leu-Phe). Our studies establish a relationship between f-Met-Leu-Phe receptor number and affinity and neutrophil chemotaxis and oxidative metabolism. A brief (5- to 15-min) exposure to physiologic concentrations of GM-CSF (10 pM to 100 pM) enhances f-Met-Leu-Phe-induced neutrophil chemotaxis by 85%, correlating with a rapid threefold increase (46,000/cell to 150,000/cell) in high-affinity neutrophil f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors. More prolonged incubation (1 to 2 hr) of neutrophils with GM-CSF is accompanied by a change to low-affinity f-Met-Leu-Phe receptors (Kd = 29 nM to Kd = 99 nM) concomitant with priming for enhanced neutrophil oxidative metabolism. Moreover, enhanced chemotactic responses to f-Met-Leu-Phe are no longer evident after more prolonged incubation of ...
GM-CSF Receptor Alpha Sf9 Human Recombinant, Colony Stimulating Factor 2 Receptor Alpha Subunit, Colony Stimulating Factor 2 Receptor, Alpha, Low-Affinity (Granulocyte-Macrophage), Alpha-GM-CSF Receptor, GM-CSF-R-Alpha, CD116 Antigen, GMCSFR-Alpha, GMR-Alpha, CDw116, CSF2RY, CSF2R, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor Alpha Chain, GM-CSF Receptor Alpha Subunit, AlphaGMR, CSF2RAX, CSF2RAY, CSF2RX, GMCSFR, CD116, SMDP4, GMR.
Abbkine Scientific has announced the launch of its new kit, the EliKine™ Mouse GM-CSF ELISA Kit otherwise known as EliKine™ GMCSF Mouse ELISA Kit. The launch of the product reiterates the companys commitment to enhancing research and investigation in the field of life science.. The product has a Mouse reactivity, employing a two-site sandwich ELISA to quantitate CSF2 in samples. With colorimetric detection method and assay duration with multiple steps standard sandwich ELISA assay with a working time of 3-5 hours, the kit stands tall amongst its peers on the market.. The featured kit includes Mouse GM-CSF microplate, Mouse GM-CSF standard, Mouse GM-CSF detect antibody, EliKine™ Streptavidin-HRP, Standard diluent, Assay buffer, HRP substrate, Stop solution, Wash buffer and Plate covers.. The major feature and benefit of the EliKine™ Mouse GM-CSF ELISA Kit besides having a calibration range of 7.8 pg/mL-500 pg/mL is its high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Mouse ...
Neutrophils have long been suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of SCD. The absolute neutrophil count is higher in SCD patients in steady-state than in ethnicity-matched healthy controls and is positively correlated with SCD severity.27 A high leukocyte count is also a risk factor for early death, acute chest syndrome (ACS), hemorrhagic stroke and sickle nephropathy.3128 Conversely, decreased neutrophil count may have positive effects, as suggested by a report of an alleviated SCD phenotype in a patient with associated congenital neutropenia who experienced the first episodes of VOC after the introduction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to treat neutropenia.32 Thus, G-CSF and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) should be strictly avoided in SCD patients because myeloid growth factors are responsible for VOC and ACS.3433 Hydroxyurea may have clinical benefit for SCD patients even in the absence of elevated fetal hemoglobin (HbF) level, but a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How long after neutrophil recovery should myeloid growth factors be continued in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients?. AU - Verma, A.. AU - Pedicano, J.. AU - Trifilio, S.. AU - Singhal, S.. AU - Tallman, M.. AU - Winter, J.. AU - Williams, S.. AU - Gordon, L.. AU - Monreal, J.. AU - Mehta, J.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by the Auxiliary Board of the Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2004/4. Y1 - 2004/4. N2 - Growth factors are routinely used after autotransplantation to accelerate hematopoietic recovery, and are continued until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is ≥0.5 × 109/l on 3 consecutive days. Since ANC often increases to very high levels with this strategy, we discontinued growth factor on the first day ANC reached 0.5 × 109/l in 45 patients (Study Group), and compared their subsequent ANC to 108 historic controls who received growth factor longer. ...
Looking for online definition of Multipotential colony-stimulating factor in the Medical Dictionary? Multipotential colony-stimulating factor explanation free. What is Multipotential colony-stimulating factor? Meaning of Multipotential colony-stimulating factor medical term. What does Multipotential colony-stimulating factor mean?
Looking for online definition of colony-stimulating factor in the Medical Dictionary? colony-stimulating factor explanation free. What is colony-stimulating factor? Meaning of colony-stimulating factor medical term. What does colony-stimulating factor mean?
Human osteoclast formation from monocyte precursors under the action of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) was suppressed by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with down-regulation of critical osteoclast-related nuclear factors. GM-CSF in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor resulted in mononuclear cells that were negative for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and negative for bone resorption. CD1a, a dendritic cell marker, was expressed in GM-CSF, RANKL, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-treated cells and absent in osteoclasts. Microarray showed that the CC chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), was profoundly repressed by GM-CSF. Addition of MCP-1 reversed GM-CSF suppression of osteoclast formation, recovering the bone resorption phenotype. MCP-1 and chemokine RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) permitted formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in the ...
therapy.. In addition, intralesional therapy with either of two cytokines-namely, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, Leukine)1 and interleukin-2 (IL-2, Proleukin)2-each gave promising results, but they were never used sequentially or in combination. Intralesional therapy with GM-CSF can increase the number and activation of dendritic cells,3 which are very efficient antigen-presenting cells that are capable of processing tumor antigens and crosstalk to lymphocytes. On the other hand, IL-2 administration can stimulate and activate tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, which can result in the induction of cytotoxic T cells. Therefore, we felt that sequential intralesional administration of intralesional GM-CSF followed by IL-2 might complement one another, using the patients own tumor as a source for tumor antigens.. Exploratory Study. In an exploratory study in patients with dermal and subdermal metastatic melanoma, we explored the use of intra lesional therapy with low-dose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhaled granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor for first pulmonary recurrence of osteosarcoma. T2 - Effects on disease-free survival and immunomodulation. A report from the Childrens Oncology Group. AU - Arndt, Carola A.S.. AU - Koshkina, Nadya V.. AU - Inwards, Carrie Y.. AU - Hawkins, Douglas S.. AU - Krailo, Mark D.. AU - Villaluna, Doojduen. AU - Anderson, Peter M.. AU - Goorin, Allen M.. AU - Blakely, Martin L.. AU - Bernstein, Mark. AU - Bell, Sharon A.. AU - Ray, Kaylee. AU - Grendahl, Darryl C.. AU - Marina, Neyssa. AU - Kleinerman, Eugenie S.. PY - 2010/8/1. Y1 - 2010/8/1. N2 - Purpose: Osteosarcoma most commonly recurs in the lung. Based on preliminary data on the antitumor effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in animal models, and promising phase I trials, we embarked on a feasibility study of inhaled GM-CSF in patients with first isolated pulmonary recurrence of osteosarcoma. Experimental Design: Forty-three eligible patients ...
Recently, dendritic cells (DC) transfected with tumor RNA have been used as a cancer vaccine. The efficacy of a cancer vaccine using DC transfected tumor RNA was examined. Of particular interest was whether a vaccine using DC transfected with recrudescent tumor RNA is effective for the treatment of a regrowing tumor after prior immunotherapy. In addition, the usefulness of co-transfection of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) mRNA to augment the DC vaccine was examined. CT26 tumor-bearing mice were immunized by s.c. injection with DC transfected with CT26 mRNA (DC-CT26). The cytotoxic activity against CT26 in mice immunized with DC-CT26 was significantly higher than that in the control group (P , 0.001) and was augmented by GM-CSF mRNA co-transfection (P , 0.05), resulting in remarkable therapeutic efficacy in CT26 s.c. tumor models. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced by the vaccination using DC transfected with mRNA from the recrudescent tumor showed a potent cytotoxicity ...
It is well appreciated that obtaining sufficient numbers of primary microglia for in vitro experiments has always been a challenge for scientists studying the biological properties of these cells. Supplementing culture medium with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) partially alleviates this problem by increasing microglial yield. However, GM-CSF has also been reported to transition microglia into a dendritic cell (DC)-like phenotype and consequently, affect their immune properties. Although the concentration of GM-CSF used in our protocol for mouse microglial expansion (0.5 ng/ml) is at least 10-fold less compared to doses reported to affect microglial maturation and function (≥ 5 ng/ml), in this study we compared the responses of microglia derived from mixed glial cultures propagated in the presence/absence of low dose GM-CSF to establish whether this growth factor significantly altered the immune properties of microglia to diverse bacterial stimuli. These stimuli included the
Polyclonal autoantibodies against human GM-CSF (granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) are a hallmark of PAP (pulmonary alveolar proteinosis) and several other reported autoimmune diseases. MB007 is a high-affinity anti-(human GM-CSF) autoantibody isolated from a patient suffering from PAP which shows only modest neutralization of GM-CSF bioactivity. We describe the first crystal structure of a cytokine-directed human IgG1λ autoantibody-binding fragment (Fab) at 1.9 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. Its CDR3-H substantially differs from all VH7 germline IgG1 structures reported previously. We derive a reliable model of the antigen-autoantibody complex by using NMR chemical shift perturbation data in combination with computational methods. Superposition of the modelled complex structure with the human GM-CSF-GM-CSF ternary receptor complex reveals only little overlap between receptor and Fab when bound to GM-CSF. Our model provides a structural basis for understanding the mode of action of ...
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and macrophages play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Currently, it is not clear whether inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 predominate among the resident macrophages in the synovium. In the present study, we set out to investigate the impact of TLR stimulation on monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophage function and phenotype by mimicking the exposure to abundant TLR agonists as occurs in the context of RA. The response of macrophage subsets to TLR2 and TLR4 activation was evaluated on cluster of differentiation (CD) marker profile; cytokine secretion; gene expression; and NF-κB, interferon regulatory factors 3 and 7 (IRF3/7), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy individuals and patients with RA and differentiated into M1-like and M2-like macrophages by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), respectively.
1. In patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, use of twice daily inhaled granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) did not improve
These studies demonstrate that GM-CSF is a neutrophil chemotactic agent. The concentration of GM-CSF needed to achieve maximal chemotaxis is comparable to that of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 and less than the other known chemoattractants that we studied. We believe that GM-CSF induction of neutrophil chemotaxis has been previously unrecognized because the stimulatory effect occurs in a narrow range of concentrations (Fig. 3⇑A) and requires an extended incubation interval of at least 30 min. Results reported by Harakawa et al. (44) agreed with our finding that GM-CSF produces an early stimulation of neutrophil chemokinesis, but observations were not reported past 15 min, which may have been insufficient to recognize an effect on chemotaxis. Other earlier studies provided contradictory data on the effect of GM-CSF on neutrophil migration. In a checkerboard assay using polycarbonate filters, Wang et al. (45) demonstrated that GM-CSF induced chemotaxis in neutrophils, while Kharazmi ...
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a cytokine that stimulates proliferation and differentiation of phagocytic cells. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor is produced by ovarian epithelial cancer cell lines and might provide a useful serum marker for the disease. Among sera from 69 patients with …
HIV-infected persons are at risk for HBV co-infection which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, protective immunity following HBV vaccination in HIV-infected persons is poor. This randomized, phase II, open-label study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of 40 mcg HBV vaccine with or without 250 mcg GM-CSF administered at day 0, weeks 4 and 12. HIV-infected individuals ,or=18 years of age, CD4 count ,or=200 cells/mm(3), seronegative for HBV and HCV, and naïve to HBV vaccination were eligible. Primary endpoints were quantitative HBsAb titers and adverse events. The study enrolled 48 subjects. Median age and baseline CD4 were 41 years and 446 cells/mm(3), 37 were on ART, and 26 subjects had undetectable VL. Vaccination was well tolerated. Seven subjects in the GM-CSF arm reported transient grade ,or=2 signs/symptoms (six grade 2, one grade 3), mostly aches and nausea. GM-CSF had no significant effect on VL or CD4. Four weeks after vaccination, 26 subjects (59%) ...
MP-AzeFlu, intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and fluticasone propionate (FP), is superior to AZE or FP alone for treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the precise anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of MP-AzeFlu has not been characterized. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of MP-AzeFlu compared with AZE or FP alone in an established in vitro model of eosinophilic inflammation. Nasal mucosal epithelial cells and peripheral blood eosinophils were obtained from human volunteers. Epithelial cells were stimulated with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the presence of MP-AzeFlu, AZE, or FP (1:102 to 1:105 dilution). Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were measured by ELISA. Eosinophils were incubated in 10% human epithelial cell-conditioned medium (HECM) and survival assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM percentage secretion/survival compared with FBS/HECM
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Identification of the soluble granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor protein in vivo and development of a soluable model of the high affinity cell surface receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating ...
DNA binding protein A (dbpA) belongs to the Y-box binding protein family, characterized by an 80 amino-acid cold shock domain that imparts DNA-binding activity. It is also known as cold shock domain protein A (CSDA), CSDA1, ZO-1-associated nucleic acid-binding protein (ZONAB), and single-strand DNA-binding protein NF-GMB. DbpA has been reported to bind to the promoter for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and act as a repressor of transcription. It also binds to full-length mRNA and small RNAs containing the consensus site UCCAUCA, suggesting a role as a repressor of translation. Mutations in the CSDA gene have been associated with hepatocarcinogenesis.. ...
Several laboratories have developed culture systems that allow the generation of large numbers of human dendritic cells (DC) from monocytes using granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interleukin-4 (IL-4). In this work we provided evidence that GM-CSF (100 ng/ml) in combination with a low concentration of IL-4 (5 ng/ml) was efficient in the generation of immature, non-adherent, monocyte-derived DC as the same concentration of GM-CSF, and ten times higher concentration of IL-4 (50 ng/ml). This conclusion was based on the similar phenotype profile of DC such as the expression of CD1a, CD80, CD86, and HLA-DR, down-regulation of CD14, and the absence of CD83, as well as on their similar allostimulatory activity for T cells. A higher number of cells remained adherent in cultures with lower concentrations of IL-4 than in cultures with higher concentrations of the cytokine. However, most of these adherent cells down-regulated CD14 and stimulated the proliferation of ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a growth factor for white blood cells. It induces stem cells to make granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells) and monocytes. The molecule activates STAT5, a protein that initiates gene expression. It is found at high levels in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients.. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2, also known as basic fibroblast growth factor, bFGF) is involved in angiogenesis, proliferation and wound healing. FGF2 binds heparin. It is thought that during wound healing, heparin degrading enzymes activate FGF2, driving the development of new blood vessels.. Neutrophin 3 is a nerve growth factor that regulates the survival and growth of neurons and synapses.. Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates neuron survival and axonal growth. In its absence, neurons undergo apoptosis. It has been found to induce ovulation in some mammals. NGF is often elevated in inflammatory conditions as it suppresses inflammation. ...
en] Macrophages (monocytes/microglia) could play a critical role in central nervous system repair. We have previously found a synchronism between the regression of spontaneous axonal regeneration and the deactivation of macrophages 3-4 wk after a compression-injury of rat spinal cord. To explore whether reactivation of endogenous macrophages might be beneficial for spinal cord repair, we have studied the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the same paraplegia model and in cell cultures. There was a significant, though transient, improvement of locomotor recovery after a single delayed intraperitoneal injection of 2 mu g GM-CSF, which also increased significantly the expression of Cr3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( BDNF) by macrophages at the lesion site. At longer survival delays, axonal regeneration was significantly enhanced in GMCSF-treated rats. In vitro, BV2 microglial cells expressed higher levels of BDNF in the presence of GM-CSF and neurons ...
GM-CSF Receptor alpha recombinant proteins are produced in house and quality guaranteed.All the GM-CSF Receptor alpha recombinant proteins are in stock.
Autologous immunotherapy produced by collecting peripheral mononuclear cells during leukapheresis. Cells include antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which are activated during a culture period with prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, an antigen found in prostatic cancer tissue) linked to granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, which activates immune cells). Induces an immune response against prostatic acid phosphatase. Therapeutic Effects: ↓ spread of prostate cancer. ...
Abstract. Juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia (JCML) is a rare myeloproliferative disorder of early childhood that is clinically and cytogenically distinct fr
Cancer-associated pain is a major cause of poor quality of life in cancer patients and is frequently resistant to conventional therapy. Recent studies indicate that some hematopoietic growth factors, namely granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), are abundantly released in the tumor microenvironment and play a key role in regulating tumor-nerve interactions and tumor-associated pain by activating receptors on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Moreover, these hematopoietic factors have been highly implicated in postsurgical pain, inflammatory pain and osteoarthritic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms via which G-/GMCSF bring about nociceptive sensitization and elicit pain are not known. In order to elucidate G-/GMCSF mediated transcriptional changes in the sensory neurons, we performed a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of changes in the transcriptome of DRG neurons brought about by exposure to GMCSF or GCSF. We present complete
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jae-Yol Lim, Byung Hyune Choi, Songyi Lee, Yun Ho Jang, Jeong-Seok Choi, Young-Mo Kim].
GM-CSF antibody [7U1] (colony stimulating factor 2 (granulocyte-macrophage)) for IHC, Neut, WB. Anti-GM-CSF mAb (GTX52768) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Hemopoietic growth factors regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular progenitor cells. Made available through recombinant DNA technology, they hold tremendous potential for medical uses when a persons natural ability to form blood cells is diminished or defective. Recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) is very effective in treating the diminished red blood cell production that accompanies end-stage kidney disease. Erythropoietin is a sialoglycoprotein hormone produced by peritubular cells of kidney Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte CSF are given to stimulate white blood cell formation in cancer patients who are receiving chemotherapy, which tends to kill their red bone marrow cells as well as the cancer cells. Thrombopoietin shows great promise for preventing platelet depletion during chemotherapy. CSFs and thrombopoietin also improve the outcome of patients who receive bone marrow transplants. Colony-stimulating ...
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Acronyms and Abbreviations: AP2, adaptor protein-2; BCR, B-cell antigen receptor; BMP, bone morphogenic protein; CNTF, ciliary neurotrophic factor; CT-1, cardiotrophin-1; DD, death domain; DR, death receptor; EPO, erythropoietin; EPOR, erythropoietin receptor; ERK, extracellular response kinase; FADD, Fas-associated death domain; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; G-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; Gab, Grb binding; GH, growth hormone; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor; HCR, hematopoietic cytokine receptor; IAP, inhibitors of apoptosis; IKK, I-κB kinase; IL, interleukin; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; ITAM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif; ITIM, immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif; JAK, Janus family kinase; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; LIF, leukemia inhibitory factor; M-CSF, macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NR, nuclear receptor; OSM, oncostatin M; PI3K ...
The effects of media conditioned by leukemic cells from 11 acute myeloblastic leukemia patients on the growth of autologous blast progenitors were studied. First, it was shown that T-cell-depleted leukemic cells from some patients release high levels of colony-stimulating activity into the culture medium, whereas following further depletion of phagocytic cells, the levels of colony-stimulating activity become undetectable. Second, media conditioned by purified blast cell fraction depleted of both T-cells and phagocytic cells potentiated autologous blast progenitor growth both in methylcellulose and suspension cultures stimulated by optimal concentration of media conditioned by human bladder carcinoma line 5637. Third, media conditioned by these purified blast cells generally did not contain measurable colony-stimulating activity or interleukin 1, whereas substantial levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin 1 were observed ...
Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for immune and inflammatory responses and belong to a network of cells that has been termed the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). However, the origin and lineage of these cells remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the isolation and clonal analysis of a mouse bone marrow progenitor that is specific for monocytes, several macrophage subsets, and resident spleen DCs in vivo. It was also possible to recapitulate this differentiation in vitro by using treatment with the cytokines macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Thus, macrophages and DCs appear to renew from a common progenitor, providing a cellular and molecular basis for the concept of the MPS.. ...
Clinical data regarding the use of colony-stimulating factors for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are conflicting because of varying study conditions. Interpretation of data is affected by differences in patients ages, induction regimens, the timing of growth factor administration, the presence of marrow hypoplasia, disease states, differences in the products used, and statistical endpoints. Most trials of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and yeast-derived granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have demonstrated a significant shortening of neutrophil recovery time and a trend toward higher rates of complete remission. Several studies have demonstrated a significant reduction in the rates of morbidity or early mortality with G-CSF or GM-CSF. In vitro data support the concept of enhancing antimicrobial activity with macrophage colony-stimulating factor or GM-CSF. The safety and potential benefit of these cytokines suggest that cytokines should be ...
Phase I study of continuous-infusion recombinant macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with metastatic melanoma Academic Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preclinical and clinical studies of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. AU - Munn, David H. AU - Cheung, Nai Kong V. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026688226&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026688226&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 1387243. AN - SCOPUS:0026688226. VL - 19. SP - 395. EP - 407. JO - Seminars in Oncology. JF - Seminars in Oncology. SN - 0093-7754. IS - 4. ER - ...
Improvement in lung function measured by oxygenation levels and markers for disease severity and lung fibrosis. Treatment with sargramostim was safe, well tolerated and generated T-cells targeted at the SARS-CoV-2 virus, indicating a COVID-19 specific immune response Lexington, MA - February 26, 2021 /PRNewswire/ - Partner Therapeutics, Inc. (PTx) announced top-line results today of the investigator-led SARPAC (Sargramostim in Patients with Acute Hypoxic Respiratory Failure and Acute COVID-19) study of inhaled Leukine® (sargramostim, yeast-derived recombinant human GM-CSF) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients (NCT04326920).1,2 This prospective, randomized, open-label study was led by University Hospital Ghent and conducted at five hospitals in Belgium. The study enrolled 81 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 who were suffering from acute hypoxic respiratory failure requiring supplemental oxygen. The full study and translational results are being prepared for publication.. Lung dysfunction ...
Lenzilumab, a GM-CSF-targeted monoclonal antibody, reduced chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell toxicity and may have potentiated its antitumor effects in ear
... (tradename Leukine) is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that functions as ... "Emerging applications of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor". Blood. 92 (12): 4491-508. doi: ... macrophages, and, myeloid-derived dendritic cells; it can also activate mature granulocytes and macrophages, and can contribute ...
One notable example is the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. There are two main categories of immunostimulants ... For example, female sex hormones are known to stimulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. Some autoimmune diseases ... Dorshkind, Kenneth; Horseman, Nelson D. (1 June 2000). "The Roles of Prolactin, Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, ... Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by ...
Production is stimulated by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). There is some controversy over which ... CFU-GM, also known as granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), is a colony forming unit. It is derived from CFU-GEMM. The "GM" ... Nomenclature of hematopoietic colonies and lineages "Hem I WBC Morphology and Physiology". Archived from the original on ... stands for "granulocyte, monocyte". It is the precursor for monoblasts and myeloblasts. ...
El Ouakfaoui S, Heitz D, Paquin R, Beaulieu AD (February 1999). "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor modulates ...
IL-3 shares the β subunit with IL-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This β subunit sharing ... Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and IL-6. IL-3 is secreted by basophils and activated T cells to ... "Granulocyte-Macrophage colony stimulating factor and interleukin 3: Target cells and kinetics of response in vivo". Stem Cells ... of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), and interleukin-5 (IL-5) receptor complexes ...
March 1985). "Structure and expression of the mRNA for murine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor". The EMBO ... Ludwig researchers in Melbourne discovered and cloned the granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) through a ... The factor is essential to the maturation of key white blood cells, and has been used extensively over the past few decades to ... October 1985). "Purification and characterization of a human tumor necrosis factor from the LuKII cell line". Proceedings of ...
In EG cytokines IL-3, IL-5 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be behind the recruitment and ... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin 5 in eosinophilic gastroenteritis". Gastroenterology. 110 (3 ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) hypersensitivity of myeloid progenitors in vitro. These criteria are ... Immature granulocytes and nucleated red cells in the peripheral blood. White blood cell count >10 x 109/L. Clonal chromosomal ...
... is a recombinant granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor which functions as an immunostimulator. Quittet ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor expands the circulating hematopoietic progenitor cell compartment in humans, ... The effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor on chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression. N ... Antman developed standards for the treatment of patients receiving chemotherapy including pharmacology, growth factors and ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) upregulates CCL17 production in monocytes and macrophages. Dendritic ... January 1998). "Macrophage-derived chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor 4". The Journal of Biological ... It does not interact with granulocytes. It acts as a powerful chemoattractant to T-helper cells and T-regulatory cells because ... CCL17 is a powerful chemokine produced in the thymus and by antigen-presenting cells like dendritic cells, macrophages, and ...
Carr R, Brocklehurst P, Doré CJ, Modi N (January 2009). "Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor administered as ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is sometimes used in neonatal sepsis. However, a 2009 study found ... Infants showing no signs of neonatal sepsis will have a sepsis workup done only if concerning factors are shown. Only a small ... The child can contribute to the onset of sepsis through multiple factors. Mothers contribute to the risk through a variety of ...
Secondary structure analysis has suggested similarity to IL4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF). ... These include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and myelomonocytic growth factor (MGF). GCSF acts in hematopoiesis ... "Disulfide structures of human interleukin-6 are similar to those of human granulocyte colony stimulating factor". Archives of ... "Characterization of a human multilineage-colony-stimulating factor cDNA clone identified by a conserved noncoding sequence in ...
To engineer JX-594, human GMCSF gene (encoding granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor or GM-CSF; driven by a ...
Recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rGM-CSF) can be used as a temporary cure. GM-CSF stimulates ... If the results show patients with low levels of lymphocytes, absence of granulocytes or absence of thymus then the patient may ...
In patients with very low white blood cell counts, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor may be given. Depending on ... in a university hospital in Mexico shows that neutropenia in immunocompromised patients is the most common risk factor for ...
"Association of CrkL with STAT5 in hematopoietic cells stimulated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or ... "Signaling of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) to the small GTPase Rap1 via the large docking protein Gab1 and the ... van Dijk TB, van Den Akker E, Amelsvoort MP, Mano H, Löwenberg B, von Lindern M (November 2000). "Stem cell factor induces ... Sattler M, Salgia R, Shrikhande G, Verma S, Pisick E, Prasad KV, Griffin JD (April 1997). "Steel factor induces tyrosine ...
Lehmann MH (June 1998). "Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor triggers interleukin-10 expression ... adopting the morphology and characteristics of mature macrophages. U937 cells are of the myeloid lineage and so secrete a large ...
"Association of CrkL with STAT5 in hematopoietic cells stimulated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors. In response to cytokines and growth ... STAT5A has been shown to interact with: CRKL, Epidermal growth factor receptor, ERBB4, Erythropoietin receptor, Janus kinase 1 ... "Transcription factor Stat5a/b as a therapeutic target protein for prostate cancer". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 42 (2): 186-92 ...
"Synergistic effects of nerve growth factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on human basophilic cell ... CFU-Baso is a colony forming unit. that gives rise to basophils. Some sources use the term "CFU-Bas". Tsuda T, Wong D, Dolovich ...
"A plasmid encoding murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases protection conferred by a malaria DNA ... Stimulated macrophages secrete IL-12, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ, while stimulated B-cells secrete IL-6 and some IL- ... However, they can also be stimulated to secrete antiviral cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, which do not kill the cell, but ... Macrophage scavenger receptors bind to a variety of macromolecules, including polyribonucleotides and are thus candidates for ...
Harada T, Ohno N (2008). "Contribution of dectin-1 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to ... Experiments suggest that S. crispa contains chemicals which may stimulate the immune system and have many biological properties ... mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB". Int. J. Mol. Med. 30 (2): 344-50. doi:10.3892/ijmm.2012.1000. PMID ...
In addition, ONCOS-102 codes for the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a potent immunostimulatory ...
In addition, CGTG-102 codes for the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a potent immunostimulatory ... "Expression of c-Met receptor and hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in synovial sarcoma and epithelioid sarcoma". Virchows ... "Interaction between the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways: a ... The over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported in a majority of epithelioid sarcomas. EGFR is ...
Interleukin-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, and interleukin-33 enhance anti-Siglec-8 mediated destruction ...
This cells are proliferatively responsive to interleukin-3 (IL-3) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF ... Ihle JN, Askew D (1989). "Origins and properties of hematopoietic growth factor-dependent cell lines". Int J Cell Cloning. 9 (1 ...
"Translocon-associated protein alpha transcripts are induced by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibit ...
... upregulation by granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-5". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and ... They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are ... TH2 and ILC2 cells both express the transcription factor GATA-3, which promotes the production of TH2 cytokines, including the ... Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended ...
... and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling. Furthermore, PAM16 plays a role in the import of ... a novel mitochondria-associated protein involved in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signal transduction". ... mitochondria-associated granulocyte macrophage CSF-signaling molecule, or presequence translocated-associated motor subunit ...
... is used in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to treat people one year of age ... It is a monoclonal antibody used in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for people one ... All participants received naxitamab in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) according to ... "Combination Therapy of Antibody Hu3F8 With Granulocyte- Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in Patients With Relapsed ...
株落刺激(英語:Template:Colony-stimulating factors). *血基質和卟啉 *代謝酶 ... 單核球和顆粒球(英語:Template:Monocyte and granulocyte disease) ... macrophage
株落刺激(英語:Template:Colony-stimulating factors). *血紅素和卟啉 *代謝酶 ... 單核白血球和顆粒白血球(英語:Template:Monocyte and granulocyte disease) ... Neutrophil primary granule proteins HBP and HNP1-3 boost bacterial phagocytosis by human and murine macrophages. J. Clin. ... MeSH(醫學主題詞
... granulocyte - granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) - granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) - ... MAC - macrophage - macrophage-tropic virus - magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - MAI - maintenance therapy - major ... host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I - HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) - HTLV-II - ...
... granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for priming leukocyte-mediated ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... tumor necrosis factor-activated receptor activity. • nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral ... "Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 5 and TRAF2 are involved in CD30-mediated NFkappaB activation". The ... "Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 5 and TRAF2 are involved in CD30-mediated NFkappaB activation". The ...
... as persistent joint pain has been associated with elevated levels of IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ... January 2010). "Factors associated with persistence of arthralgia among Chikungunya virus-infected travellers: report of 42 ... mouse studies suggest that IPS-1 is an important factor,[48] and that IRF3 and IRF7 are important in an age-dependent manner.[ ... and monocyte-derived macrophages. Viral replication is highly cytopathic, but susceptible to type-I and -II interferon.[43] In ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Interferon-gamma. References[edit]. *^ Julius M. Cruse; Robert Edwin Lewis ( ... Lymphokines have many roles, including the attraction of other immune cells, including macrophages and other lymphocytes, to an ...
... granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-15 belongs to ... "Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 22 (2): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2011.04.001. PMC 3994286. PMID 21531164.. ... IL-15 was discovered in 1994 by two different laboratories, and characterized as T cell growth factor.[5] Together with ... IL-15 is constitutively expressed by a large number of cell types and tissues, including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic ...
... and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF).[28] AU-rich elements also regulate the biosynthesis of proto- ... Messages that are being actively translated are bound by ribosomes, the eukaryotic initiation factors eIF-4E and eIF-4G, and ... In some instances, small RNA molecules (sRNA) tens to hundreds of nucleotides long can stimulate the degradation of specific ... "Multiple processing body factors and the ARE binding protein TTP activate mRNA decapping" (PDF), Mol. Cell, 20 (6): 905-15, ...
... induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor". ... Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is ... "Entrez Gene: HGF hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)".. *^ Yang ZJ, Zhang YR, Chen B, Zhang SL, Jia EZ, ... Nakamura T (1992). "Structure and function of hepatocyte growth factor". Progress in Growth Factor Research. 3 (1): 67-85. doi: ...
... of leukocytes and in human neutrophils treated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then stimulated with ... For example, chemotactic factors stimulate human neutrophils to raise cytosolic Ca2+ which triggers cPLA2s, particularly the α ... platelet-activating factor, to stimulate and otherwise activate eosinophils.[18][38][39][40] ... potent chemotactic factor, LTB4, and possibly also weaker chemotactic factor, 5S-HETE, which serve to attract and otherwise ...
granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor ସହ ଦ୍ଵନ୍ଦରେ ପଡ଼ିବେ ନାହିଁ ।. ଫିଲଗ୍ରାସ୍ଟିମ. Clinical data. ... ଗ୍ରାନୁଲୋସାଇଟ କଲୋନି-ସ୍ଟିମୁଲେଟିଙ୍ଗ ଫ୍ୟାକ୍ଟରgranulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) ସ‌ହିତ ଫିଲଗ୍ରାସ୍ଟିମର ସାମଞ୍ଜସ୍ୟ ଅଛି ।[୧] ...
title =A granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-15 fusokine induces a regulatory B cell population ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... Hertzog PJ, Williams BR (June 2013). "Fine tuning type I interferon responses". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews. 24 (3): 217- ... binding interferon-stimulated response elements (ISRE) and gamma activating sequences (GAS), promoting gene transcription.[7][ ... type I IFNs induce interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, classically resulting in a robust anti-viral immune response. ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • receptor binding. • zinc ion ... TRAIL has also been designated CD253 (cluster of differentiation 253) and TNFSF10 (tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, ... The TRAIL gene lacks TATA and CAAT boxes and the promoter region contains putative response elements for transcription factors ...
Therapies such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferons, imiquimod and cellular membrane fractions from ... Immune effector cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells (NK Cell), cytotoxic T ... Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic response towards an antigen. Dendritic cells, a type of antigen ... Cancer immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the immune system to destroy tumors. A variety of strategies are in use or are ...
These same compounds also increase secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor by osteoblasts, which promotes the ... and 50-100 billion granulocytes are produced in this way.[13] ... These factors include insulin-like growth factors I and II, ... Growth factor storage - mineralized bone matrix stores important growth factors such as insulin-like growth factors, ... transforming growth factor-beta, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and bone morphogenetic proteins.[45] ...
Not to be confused with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF ... "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by ... growth factor activity. • granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • ... Metcalf D (July 1985). "The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors". Science. 229 (4708): 16-22. doi:10.1126/science ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... "Information on Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents (ESA) (marketed as Procrit, Epogen, and Aranesp)". U.S. Food and Drug ... "Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents: Aranesp (darbepoetin alfa), Epogen (epoetin alfa), and Procrit (epoetin alfa)". MedWatch - ... In March 2008, a panel of advisers for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) supported keeping erythropoiesis-stimulating ...
Neutropenia may be treated with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) to boost peripheral neutrophil counts. However, ... macrophages, platelets and red blood cells. Patients may also develop progressive marrow failure or transform to acute ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... Macrophages[edit]. In the macrophage, the primary signal for activation is IFN-γ from Th1 type CD4 T cells. The secondary ... tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • protein binding. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • ... tumor necrosis factor-mediated signaling pathway. • platelet activation. • positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic ...
... of the JAK2 protein kinase is necessary for binding and phosphorylation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ... CSF3R colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (granulocyte)".. *↑ OMIM 138971 COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR 3 RECEPTOR, GRANULOCYTE; ... 1996). "Expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and its receptor is regulated during the development of the human ... 2010). "Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemias that overexpress the ...
... is a human monoclonal antibody[1] that inhibits human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ( ...
... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin 5 in eosinophilic gastroenteritis. „Gastroenterology". 3 (110 ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... Activation of macrophages by IFNγ from Th1 helper cells in mycobacterial infections allows the macrophages to overcome the ... Next the Th1 helper cells aggregate around the macrophages and release IFNγ, which activates the macrophages. Further ... Wheelock as a product of human leukocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, and by others as a product of antigen-stimulated ...
Colony-stimulating factors *Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). *Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) ... Migration-stimulating factor (MSF). *Macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP), also known as hepatocyte growth factor-like protein ... while fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factors stimulate blood vessel differentiation (angiogenesis). ... A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth,[1] proliferation, healing, and ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ... Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine produced by lymphocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells. It ... a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, in recurrent ovarian cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 23 (25): 5950-59. doi: ... which is a receptor that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Second, they isolated the DNA sequence that codes the human gene ...
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). *Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fibroblast growth factors (FGF).. *Fibroblast+Growth+Factors at the US National Library ... FGF7 and FGF10 (also known as keratinocyte growth factors KGF and KGF2, respectively) stimulate the repair of injured skin and ... As well as stimulating blood vessel growth, FGFs are important players in wound healing. FGF1 and FGF2 stimulate angiogenesis ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. *Milodistim. *Molgramostim. *Regramostim. *Sargramostim. *Antibodies: ...
Factor V, Factor VII, Factor IX, Factor X, Factor XI, Factor XIII, Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, High-molecular-weight ... Macrophage activation syndrome (T), Macular degeneration, Malignant hyperthermia, Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, ... Tumor necrosis factor, Vasopressin (T), Vibrio, Visfatin ... Von Willebrand factor. *Procedures and treatments - Arterial ...
Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines ... with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates potent, ... granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor tumor cell vaccines elicit more potent antitumor immunity compared with B7 ... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; PSMA, prostate-specific membrane antigen; RCR ...
CFU-GM Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor Filgrastim (Neupogen, a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ... Root RK, Dale DC (March 1999). "Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric ... "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: not just another haematopoietic growth factor". Medical Oncology. 31 (1): 774 ...
... is a receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which stimulates the production of white blood cells. In ... The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor also known as CD116 (Cluster of Differentiation 116), ... Lia F, Rajotte D, Clark SC, Hoang T (Nov 1996). "A dominant negative granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ... Doyle SE, Gasson JC (Aug 1998). "Characterization of the role of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ...
The hematopoietic growth factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), is considered to play a central ... Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Jonathan L. McQualter, Rima Darwiche, Christine Ewing, Manabu Onuki, Thomas W ... Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Jonathan L. McQualter, Rima Darwiche, Christine Ewing, Manabu Onuki, Thomas W ... 1997) Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor exacerbates collagen induced arthritis in mice. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 56:364- ...
... especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply and mature. A laboratory-produced version of ... Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor Speaker ... A protein that stimulates white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply ... A protein that stimulates white blood cells, ...
Surfactant metabolism in transgenic mice after granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor ablation.. Ikegami M1, Ueda T, ... Mice made granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient by homologous recombination maintain normal ... Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/physiology*. *Lysophosphatidylcholines/administration & dosage. * ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is often used to treat leucopenia. Other haematopoietins may increase ... Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for sepsis: a meta- ... Macrophage tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces epithelial expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: ... Induction of macrophage tumoricidal activity by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Science. 1986;232:506-8. ...
Purified human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: direct action on neutrophils. By JC Gasson, RH Weisbart, SE ... Purified human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: direct action on neutrophils. By JC Gasson, RH Weisbart, SE ... Purified human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: direct action on neutrophils Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... The NIF-T was found to potently stimulate the growth of granulocyte and macrophage colonies from human bone marrow and colony ...
GM-CSF stands for Granulocyte-Macrophage-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (pharmacology). GM-CSF is defined as Granulocyte- ... Macrophage-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (pharmacology) very rarely. ... How is Granulocyte-Macrophage-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (pharmacology) abbreviated? ... a href=https://www.acronymfinder.com/Granulocyte_Macrophage_Macrophage-Colony_Stimulating-Factor-(pharmacology)-(GM_CSF).html ...
... namely granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), are ... granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors.. Bali KK1, Venkataramani V, Satagopam VP, Gupta P, Schneider R, Kuner R. ... Transcriptional mechanisms underlying sensitization of peripheral sensory neurons by Granulocyte-/Granulocyte-macrophage colony ... Transcriptional mechanisms underlying sensitization of peripheral sensory neurons by Granulocyte-/Granulocyte-macrophage colony ...
A naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a ... n. A naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a ... n. A cytokine protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate proliferation of leukemic blasts and sensitize these ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate proliferation of leukemic blasts and sensitize these ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) priming with successive concomitant low-dose Ara-C for elderly ... Rossi, H., ODonnell, J., Sarcinelli, F. et al. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) priming with ...
Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance ... granulocyte and macrophage number and function, their use in the management of … ... Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance ... Granulocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors in cord and maternal serum at delivery Pediatr Res. 1994 Feb; ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) are pleiotropic hemopoietic growth factors ... The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin 3 locus is regulated by an inducible cyclosporin A-sensitive ... The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin 3 locus is regulated by an inducible cyclosporin A-sensitive ... The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin 3 locus is regulated by an inducible cyclosporin A-sensitive ...
Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. ... Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Display Files *FASTA ... R-Factor (All). R-Factor (Observed). R-Work. R-Free. R-Free Selection Details. ...
... recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in Daviss Drug Guide including dosage, side effects, ... rHu GM-CSF (recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Ther. Class.. colony-stimulating factors ... rHu GM-CSF (recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor). Ther. Class.. colony-stimulating factors ...
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor • GM-CSF = granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor • CSF = colony-stimulating ... The hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony ... 1992) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF): receptor ... granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and interleukin-3) on phagocyte ...
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) facilitates epithelial wound healing, and recently, growth factor ... Regulation of wound healing by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor after vocal fold injury.. [Jae-Yol Lim, Byung ... The mRNA levels of genes related to ECM components and ECM production-related growth factors, such as HGF and TGF-ß1, were ...
D. Kim, M. Kim, H. Kang et al., "The supplementation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in culture ... I. Agerholm, A. Loft, F. Hald et al., "Culture of human oocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has no ... S. A. Robertson and R. F. Seamark, "Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF): one of a family of epithelial ... S. A. Robertson, C. Sjöblom, M. J. Jasper, R. J. Norman, and R. F. Seamark, "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ...
... is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo ... Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts ... Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells under the ... D. Kim, M. Kim, H. Kang et al., "The supplementation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in culture ...
Keywords: granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, cancer, antitumor, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, esophageal ... Recent studies demonstrate the possible antitumor effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); however ... In addition, EC cells stimulated with GM-CSF were more likely to have suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), ... Novel role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: antitumor effects through inhibition of epithelial-to- ...
... ... A cDNA sequence coding for a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has been isolated from cDNA libraries ... we identified clones encoding a factor that stimulates the formation of granulocyte and macrophage colonies from human ... These results demonstrate that identification of full-length cDNAs for many colony-stimulating factors may be achieved entirely ...
Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis. J.P. Scott, Yindou Ji ... Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis ... Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis ... Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for Mycobacterium Abscessus in Cystic Fibrosis ...
Phase I Trial of mBACOD and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in AIDS-Associated Large Cell, ... Phase I Trial of mBACOD and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in AIDS-Associated Large Cell, ... Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor. Administration, Oral. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Antineoplastic ... recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; GM-CSF) to a standard chemotherapy drug combination (methotrexate ...
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was administered at a dose of 125 μg/m²/day subcutaneously for 14 ... Efficacy and Safety Study of Talimogene Laherparepvec Compared to Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) in ...
... and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered intravenously to rats, and their effects on neutrophils and ... Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) Neutrophil Monocyte Peroxidase ... Ultrastructural effects of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) on ... Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered ...
Savara Reports Publication of Case Reports of Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of ... Savara Reports Publication of Case Reports of Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of ... Savara Reports Publication of Case Reports of Inhaled Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor for the Treatment of ... Savaras pipeline comprises: Molgradex, an inhaled granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, or GM-CSF, in Phase 3 ...
Human Anti Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor antibody GM CSF Ab ELISA Kit - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Gene targetGranulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor GM-CSF Short name Anti-Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating ... Gene Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a ... Human Anti Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor antibody GM CSF Ab ELISA Kit. Human Anti Granulocyte Macrophage ...
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound ... colony_stimulating_factor. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. ... colony_stimulating_factor. Granulocyte-macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Tabers Medical ... colony_stimulating_factor. Accessed June 7, 2020.. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed ...
Influence of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor or Influenza Vaccination on HLA-DR, Infection and Delirium Days ... Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor delays neutrophil apoptosis and primes its function through Ia-type ... Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to reverse sepsis-associated immunosuppression: a double-blind, randomized, ... Burgess AW, Metcalf D. The nature and action of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors. Blood. 1980;56:947-58 ...
  • The receptor is primarily located on neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes/macrophages, it is also on CD34+ progenitor cells (myeloblasts) and precursors for erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages, but only in the beginning of their development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Harvesting and enrichment of hematopoietic progenitor cells mobilized into the peripheral blood of normal donors by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or G-CSF: potential role in allogeneic marrow transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a 22 kDa glycoprotein, was first described as an in vitro inducer of differentiation and proliferation of bone marrow progenitor cells into distinct colonies, including granulocytes and macrophages. (dovepress.com)
  • 4 GM-CSF can also act on relatively early progenitor cells and interacts with erythropoietin to stimulate eosinophil and megakaryocyte colony formation in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • By assaying the cell supernatants, we identified clones encoding a factor that stimulates the formation of granulocyte and macrophage colonies from human progenitor cells. (uniprot.org)
  • 10 The normal tissue distribution showed the presence of receptor on committed myeloid progenitor cells 11 and alveolar macrophages, 12 but not on primitive hematopoietic stem cells or other vital normal tissues. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Upon deprivation of survival factor from TF-1 myeloid progenitor cells, Mcl-1 levels quickly dropped prior to visible detection of apoptosis of these cells. (asm.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces the proliferation and maturation of immature myeloid progenitor cells and primes mature cell function in phagocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage CSF, a member of the hematopoietic growth factor family, is produced and released by monocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, and ECs and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF), a glycosylated cytokine, plays a vital role in proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes and macrophages from bone marrow progenitor cells [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. (rush.edu)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) was first characterized as a growth factor that supports the in-vitro colony formation of granulocytes-macrophages progenitor cells (1, 2). (sydlabs.com)
  • Unlike granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which specifically promotes neutrophil proliferation and maturation, GM-CSF affects more cell types, especially macrophages and eosinophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • GM-CSF stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined whether interferon (IFN)-gamma, a representative Th1 cytokine, modifies the effector functions of human eosinophils stimulated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-5. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 7 It is released by a range of structural and inflammatory cells, including airway epithelium, airway smooth muscle (ASM), fibroblasts, T lymphocytes, mast cells, eosinophils and macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • On mature hematopoietic cells, GM-CSF is a survival factor for and activates the effector functions of granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils. (cellsciences.com)
  • On mature hematopoietic, monocytes/ macrophages and eosinophils. (creativebiomart.net)
  • GM-CSF stimulates the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cells from various lineages, including granulocytes, macrophages, eosinophils and erythrocytes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rHu GM-CSF) enhances bone marrow production of and stimulates granulocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils. (elsevier.com)
  • GM-CSF is a growth factor for granulocyte-macrophage, erythroid, megakaryocyte and eosinophil progenitors. (cellsciences.com)
  • Increases of granulocyte, neutrophil and eosinophil counts had a similar pattern with a weaker response at 1000 mu-g/m-2 (two patients who completed the cycle). (eurekamag.com)
  • Granulocyte/Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates the development of neutrophils and macrophages and induces the proliferation and development of erythroid, megakaryocyte and eosinophil progenitors. (cosmobio.com)
  • The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor also known as CD116 (Cluster of Differentiation 116), is a receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which stimulates the production of white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • 8 GM-CSF is a pleiotrophic and proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates myelopoiesis, promotes leucocyte survival and activation, and regulates mucosal immunity and inflammation in part via modulation of Toll-like receptor-4 9 and neutrophil function. (bmj.com)
  • It has previously been shown that human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can be fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin (DT) to produce a recombinant fusion toxin that kills GM-CSF receptor-bearing cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We now report that DT388-GM-CSF induces apoptosis and inhibition of colony formation in semisolid medium in receptor positive cells, and that the induction of apoptosis correlates with GM-CSF-receptor occupancy at low ligand concentrations. (bloodjournal.org)
  • DT388-GM-CSF at 4 × 10 −9 mol/L inhibited colony formation 1.5 to 3.0 logs for receptor positive cell lines. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Global Markets Directs, Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2016, provides in depth analysis on Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) targeted pipeline therapeutics. (researchmoz.us)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA), targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchmoz.us)
  • Additionally, the report provides an overview of key players involved in Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) targeted therapeutics development and features dormant and discontinued projects. (researchmoz.us)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) pipeline Target constitutes close to 11 molecules. (aarkstore.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor Subunit Alpha (CDw116 or CD116 or CSF2RA) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (aarkstore.com)
  • TIS1 is a member of the nuclear receptor supergene family that codes for ligand-dependent transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Expression and selective cellular localization of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and GM-CSF alpha and beta receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in human ovarian tissue. (umassmed.edu)
  • Zhao Y, Rong H, Chegini N. Expression and selective cellular localization of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and GM-CSF alpha and beta receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein in human ovarian tissue. (umassmed.edu)
  • GM-CSF induces differentiation, proliferation and activation of macrophages and dendritic cells which are necessary for the subsequent T helper cell type 1 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation. (springer.com)
  • Thus a human lymphokine (NIF-T) that modulates the activities of mature neutrophilic granulocytes is also a colony-stimulating factor acting on precursors to induce growth and differentiation of new effector cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • 8 , 9 Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a glycoprotein which supports proliferation and differentiation of a broad range of hematologic, especially myeloid, precursor cells. (nature.com)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells under the influence of estrogens, in the human uterus and oviducts, which promotes hematopoiesis through monocyte and granulocyte proliferation and differentiation [ 3 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Freeze thaw will destroy a percentage in every cycle and should be avoided.Colonies can be formed by stimulating factors or recombinant GM-CSF and CSFs activity expressed in Units compared to a standard.Aplha, transcription related growth factors and stimulating factors or repressing nuclear factors are complex subunits of proteins involved in cell differentiation. (gentaur.com)
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. (cellsciences.com)
  • It plays an important role in controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. (aarkstore.com)
  • Cytokines belong to a family of growth factors that play an important role in regulating the viability, differentiation, proliferation, and function of various hematopoietic cells ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • GMCSF is a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. (creativebiomart.net)
  • It plays an important role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation, survival and activation of hematopoietic cells such as granulocytes and monocytes ,neutrophiles, basophiles and eosonophoiles, erythroid cells, megakaryocytes and T cells (3,4). (sydlabs.com)
  • Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered intravenously to rats, and their effects on neutrophils and monocytes were examined by electron microscopy. (springer.com)
  • Released as a paracrine hormone principally by activated T cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells ( 1 , 2 , 3 ), GM-CSF also enhances the functionality of mature cells, such as neutrophils. (jimmunol.org)
  • R.W. Lim, B.C. Varnum, and H.R. Herschman, Oncogene 1:263-270, 1987) by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and TPA was examined both in a factor-dependent murine cell line, 32D clone 3, and in mature human neutrophils. (asm.org)
  • We therefore tested the hypothesis that synovial fibroblasts bridge the biological responses that connect TH17 cells to neutrophils by producing neutrophil survival factors following their activation with IL-17. (ox.ac.uk)
  • GM-CSF stimulates monocytes and macrophages to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, including CCL17. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remaining extracellular domain acts as a soluble GM-CSFRα and have been identified in bone marrow, monocytes and macrophages, placenta and chorio-carcinoma cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), is a monomeric glycoprotein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, natural killer cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts that functions as a cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A cytokine protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. (wordnik.com)
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is produced by a number of different cell types (including activated T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts) in response to cytokine or immune and inflammatory stimuli. (cellsciences.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, often abbreviated to GM-CSF, is a protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • GM-CSF is produced by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, activated T cells, NK cells and macrophages. (cosmobio.com)
  • GM-CSF is produced as a response to immune or inflammatory stimuli by activated cells of the hematopoietic system such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells and also fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. (sydlabs.com)
  • This was entirely due to soluble factors secreted from the fibroblasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Neutrophil migration inhibition factor from T lymphocytes (NIF-T) is a lymphokine that acts to localize granulocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this setting, time to neutrophil recovery is shortened by growth factor administration. (nature.com)
  • This study investigates the potential for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to effect a clinically relevant increase in neutrophil number when used prophylactically in high-risk preterm neonates, and assesses its safety in this population. (aappublications.org)
  • The hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), have become standard treatment for preventing chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and accelerating neutrophil recovery after marrow transplantation. (aappublications.org)
  • Effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on neutrophil function in normal rats. (springer.com)
  • Both concentrations are similar to the effective concentrations of IL-8 and less than the effective concentrations of other neutrophil chemoattractants such as neutrophil-activating peptide-78, granulocyte chemotactic protein-2, leukotriene B 4 , and FMLP. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study is attempting to define the role of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhu GM-CSF) as an immunomodulator of neonatal one marrow myeloid progenitor activity, its influence on circulating peripheral neutrophil counts and their functional activity, and whether this results in the prevention of neonatal nosocomial infection. (grantome.com)
  • Prolonged, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent, neutrophil survival following rheumatoid synovial fibroblast activation by IL-17 and TNFalpha. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Specific depletion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor from RASFIL-17/TNF-conditioned medium demonstrated that this cytokine accounted for approximately one-half of the neutrophil survival activity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Amongst these, we validate calpain 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and a RhoGTPase Rac1 as well as Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) as transcriptional targets of G-/GMCSF and demonstrate the importance of MMP9 and Rac1 in GMCSF-induced nociceptor sensitization. (nih.gov)
  • Synergistic stimulation of macrophage proliferation by the monokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and colony stimulating factor-1. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, monocytic and T cell function such as mHLA-DR, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after LPS stimulation, T cell counts, Th1/Th2 specific cytokine production and the ratio of the number of Th17 cells to the number of Treg cells were studied after postoperative GM-CSF application. (medsci.org)
  • Efficient presentation of soluble antigen by cultured human dendritic cells is maintained by granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin 4 and downregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha. (rupress.org)
  • Emerging applications of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (springer.com)
  • Kinetics and mechanism of recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-induced neutropenia. (springer.com)
  • In vitro hematologic effects of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (springer.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human non-glycosylated bacterially-synthesized (E. coli) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were studied following single intravenous (i.v.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) bolus injection, and compared to equivalent doses of glycosylated mammalian-derived CHO-GM-CSF. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (sargramostim) as an alternative therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Fourteen patients with advanced solid tumors were included in a phase I trial of recombinant human E. coli derived granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) given daily subcutaneously for 10 consecutive days. (eurekamag.com)
  • Recombinant Human Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor produced in Yeast is a single, glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 127 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 26-32 kDa. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) is a glycoprotein that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of neutropenia and leukemia in combination with chemotherapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gambertoglio, John G. / Pharmacokinetics of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor : The effects of zidovudine . (elsevier.com)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/758890/all/granulocyte_macrophage_colony_stimulating_factor. (tabers.com)
  • Growth factors which have been studied both in the laboratory and in clinical trials include GM-CSF, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and interleukin-3 (IL-3). (nature.com)
  • The granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin 3 locus is regulated by an inducible cyclosporin A-sensitive enhancer. (pnas.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) are pleiotropic hemopoietic growth factors whose genes are closely linked and induced in T lymphocytes in a cyclosporin A (CsA)-sensitive fashion. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that systemic administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4, which promote monocytes to differentiate into dendritic cells in vitro , might enhance the number and antigen-presenting activity of CD14 + cells in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 4 we have established dendritic cell (DC) lines from blood mononuclear cells that maintain the antigen capturing and processing capacity characteristic of immature dendritic cells in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • The purpose of our study was to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) and DLT of combined administration of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), low-dose interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IFN-α in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma (RCC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) are two hematopoietic cytokines produced by activated T cells and mast cells that are potent growth factors for multipotential hematopoietic progenitors as well as various other hematopoietic cells ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • To evaluate the serum levels of interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the moment of diagnosis and in early second-trimester serum from women with preeclampsia and from gestational age-matched controls. (ovid.com)
  • The present study investigated the distribution of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-8 in tissues and luminal secretions from different sites in the reproductive tract of the ewe following oestrus and after natural mating. (edu.au)
  • Sheridan JW, Metcalf D. A low molecular weight factor in lung-conditioned medium stimulating granulocyte and monocyte colony formation in vitro. (springer.com)
  • In vitro studies have generally confirmed the impact of growth factors on leukemic cell proliferation and sensitivity to chemotherapy. (nature.com)
  • Synergistic interactions between hematopoietic growth factors as detected by in vitro mouse bone marrow colony formation. (springer.com)
  • GM-CSF was initially characterized as a growth factor that can support the in vitro colony formation of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Five-day prophylactic GM-CSF completely abolishes postnatal neutropenia and sepsis-induced neutropenia in preterm neonates at high risk of sepsis, and so removes an important risk factor for sepsis and sepsis-related mortality.GM-CSF, preterm neonates, neutropenia, sepsis. (aappublications.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor may be used concomitantly with zidovudine in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients to minimize zidovudine-associated neutropenia. (elsevier.com)
  • Abstract -To investigate whether the production of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) by vascular endothelial cells is regulated by hemodynamic force, we exposed cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to controlled levels of shear stress in a flow-loading apparatus and examined changes in the production of CSFs at both the protein and mRNA level. (ahajournals.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor increases tumor growth and angiogenesis directly by promoting endothelial cell function and indirectly by enhancing the mobilization and recruitment of proangiogenic granulocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A protein that stimulates white blood cells, especially granulocytes, macrophages, and cells that become platelets, to multiply and mature. (nih.gov)
  • A naturally occurring protein that stimulates the production of granulocytes and macrophages by stem cells and is used as a drug by some immunosuppressed individuals. (wordnik.com)
  • Serum levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the moment of diagnosis were detected less frequently (21 compared with 71%, P (ovid.com)
  • In second-trimester serum, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor detection rates (20 and 70% respectively, P = .06) and concentrations (0 pg/mL [range 0-32] and 2.5 pg/mL [range 0-37], respectively, P = .08) were lower in the group of preeclampsia, but the differences do not reach statistical significance. (ovid.com)
  • These deficient mice were significantly protected from the development of severe crescentic injury, with significant reductions in glomerular crescent formation, T cell and macrophage glomerular influx, and preservation of renal function indicated by serum creatinine and proteinuria ( 7 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The total WBC count, the absolute granulocyte count and the serum GM-CSF concentration of peripheral blood before use of GM-CSF, and those of 2nd, 5th and 7th day after use were compared. (kjp.or.kr)
  • In 3μg/kg/day group, WBC count and the absolute granulocyte count and the serum GM-CSF concentration reached a peak after the 2nd injection of GM-CSF. (kjp.or.kr)
  • There was tendency for the total WBC counts, the absolute granulocyte count and the serum GM-CSF concentration of peripheral blood in 10μg/kg group to increase more than those of 3μg/kg group, after exogenous GM-CSF treatment. (kjp.or.kr)
  • In neonates, we propose the exogenous GM-CSF treatment 10μg/kg/day as being more effective than 3μg/kg/day protocol, which is one of the safest and most effective methods to increase the total WBC count, the absolute granulocyte count and the serum GM-CSF concentration of peripheral blood. (kjp.or.kr)
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Methodology: Dendritic cells and macrophages were differentiated from mouse bone marrow and treated or depleted from GM-CSF prior to analyze their response to IL-10. (wur.nl)
  • Brain dendritic cells and macrophages/microglia in central nervous system inflammation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor: presence in human follicular fluid, protein secretion and mRNA expression by ovarian cells," Molecular Human Reproduction , vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 555-562, 1996. (hindawi.com)
  • Although the details of how this molecular mechanism works remain largely unknown, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), 3 NF-IL-6, and activator protein-1 (AP-1) have been previously shown to be involved in this process ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is glycosylated in its mature form. (wikipedia.org)
  • The NIF-T was found to potently stimulate the growth of granulocyte and macrophage colonies from human bone marrow and colony formation by the KG-1 myeloid leukemia cell line. (sciencemag.org)
  • The supplementation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in culture medium improves the pregnancy rate in human ART programs," Fertility Sterility , vol. 76, no. 3, supplement 1, p. (hindawi.com)
  • C. Sjöblom, M. Wikland, and S. A. Robertson, "Granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes inner cell mass blastomer viability in human pre-implantation embryos," Fertility Sterility , vol. 76, no. 3, supplement 1, p. (hindawi.com)
  • B. S. Shapiro, K. S. Richter, S. T. Daneshmand, P. Quinn, and B. Bechr, "Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances human embryo development to the blastocyst stage: a randomized study," Fertility Sterility , vol. 79, supplement 2, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Culture of human oocytes with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has no effect on embryonic chromosomal constitution," Reproductive BioMedicine Online , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 477-484, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Isolation of cDNA for a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by functional expression in mammalian cells. (uniprot.org)
  • A cDNA sequence coding for a human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor has been isolated from cDNA libraries prepared from mRNA derived from concanavalin A-activated human T-cell clones. (uniprot.org)
  • Molgradex offers a novel treatment approach for NTM infection by stimulating the human immune system in the lungs with localized delivery of GM-CSF, directly into the site of infection. (benzinga.com)
  • Instead, it stimulates the human immune response without targeting the bacteria directly, thus avoiding the problem of inducing antibiotic resistance. (benzinga.com)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can be used as a potent stimulator for immune suppressed patients as defined by a decrease of human leukocyte antigen-D related expression on monocytes (mHLA-DR) after surgery. (medsci.org)
  • In this study we examined whether some known STAT molecule is stimulated by LPS, based on the finding that a GAS motif sequence is conserved in the promoter regions of human, mouse, and rat cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Consequently, LPS induced activation of STAT5 in human monocytes, and this STAT5 activation occurred in an indirect way via granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) secreted by LPS-stimulated monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • To date, it has been supposed that LPS does not induce activation of known STAT molecules in monocytes, but it has been noted that a STAT-like molecule, LPS-induced and IL-1-induced (LIL) STAT, is stimulated by LPS and binds to LPS and IL-1-responsive element (LILRE) of the human pro-IL-1β gene ( 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We chose to use diphtheria toxin as the toxophore and human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as the haptophore or ligand. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Objectives To determine the safety, tolerability and signs of efficacy of MOR103, a human monoclonal antibody to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bmj.com)
  • Metabolism of platelet-activating factor in human haematopoietic cell lines. (portlandpress.com)
  • Evidence that granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor regulates the distribution and differentiated state of dendritic cells/Langerhans cells in human lung and lung cancers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Induction of chemokine secretion and enhancement of contact-dependent macrophage cytotoxicity by engineered expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in human colon cancer cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human antibody storage GENTAUR recommends for long therm storage to freeze at -24 C. For short time storage up to 30 days we suggest fridge storage at 1 to 10 C. Prevent multiple freeze taw cycles of Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human mus musculus murine Granulocyte Macrophage_Colony Stimulating Factor, Mouse anti_Human detects proteins from variouse species most likely human. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Monocytes exit the circulation and migrate into tissue, whereupon they mature into macrophages and dendritic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) can stimulate proliferation of leukemic blasts and sensitize these cells to the cytotoxic effects of S-phase-specific drugs. (nature.com)
  • 10 By stimulating proliferation of leukemic blasts, GM-CSF can sensitize these cells to the cytotoxic effects of S-phase-specific drugs, such as cytarabine. (nature.com)
  • The use of growth factors to drive malignant cells into cell cycle and increase sensitivity to chemotherapy has been attempted in a variety of settings. (nature.com)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine/growth factor produced by epithelial cells that exerts embryotrophic effects during the early stages of embryo development. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, EC cells stimulated with GM-CSF were more likely to have suppressed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), accompanied by increased E-cadherin and decreased vimentin expression. (dovepress.com)
  • These results demonstrate that identification of full-length cDNAs for many colony-stimulating factors may be achieved entirely on the basis of detecting the functional polypeptide produced in mammalian cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a major regulator of inflammatory cells of the myeloid lineage and has been implicated in asthma and COPD. (bmj.com)
  • Cells were incubated with varying concentrations of recombinant fusion toxin for 48 hours and incorporation of 3 H-leucine (protein synthesis), segmentation of nuclei after DAPI staining (apoptosis), and colony formation in 0.2% agarose (clonogenicity) were measured. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are essential for stimulating antigen-specific immunity, including immunity against tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, combination therapy with GM-CSF and IL-4 stimulated CD14 + cells to acquire several APC characteristics including increased expression of HLA-DR and CD11c, decreased CD14, increased endocytotic activity, and the ability to stimulate T cells in a mixed leukocyte reaction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Macrophages respond to a variety of extracellular stimuli which can modulate the proliferation, development, activation and functional activity of these cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate induce a distinct, restricted subset of primary-response TIS genes in both proliferating and terminally differentiated myeloid cells. (asm.org)
  • GM-CSF stimulated MAP kinase activation in both the undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells. (ovid.com)
  • GM-CSF is made by T cells and macrophages and participates in enhancing phagocytosis and inducing MHC II, CD1a, CD80, and CD86 on the surface of dendritic cells, which augments their antigen presentation ( 10 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Antitumor effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor production by melanoma cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Functional maturation of adult mouse resting microglia into an APC is promoted by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interaction with Th1 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor is essential for the viability and function of cultured murine epidermal Langerhans cells. (rupress.org)
  • The conditioned media of stimulated macrophages and T cells also support the viability and maturation of cultured LC. (rupress.org)
  • Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor treatment of a patient in myasthenic crisis: effects on regulatory T cells. (rush.edu)
  • Surfactant metabolism in transgenic mice after granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor ablation. (nih.gov)
  • In a more direct approach, murine bone marrow-derived DCs have been loaded with tumor antigen peptides (3 , 4) , antigenic proteins (5) , tumor lysates (6) , or tumor antigen genes (7) and have been shown in each case to stimulate antitumor activity when used to vaccinate naive mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • NTM lung infection is a considerable therapeutic challenge due to the unique ability of these bacteria to evade the normal killing mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, a type of immune cell responsible for killing bacteria in the lungs. (benzinga.com)
  • GM-CSF stimulates proliferation of myeloid precursors in bone marrow and primes mature leukocytes for enhanced functionality. (jimmunol.org)
  • reference 10), necessary for T cell activation by foreign proteins, induction of monocyte/macrophage MHC class II expression ( 11 ), enhancement of the phagocytic activity and antigen presenting function of macrophages and/or microglia ( 12 )( 13 ), priming of monocytes for cytokine production ( 14 )( 15 ), and enhancement of macrophage and granulocyte adherence ( 16 )( 17 ). (rupress.org)
  • They function by binding to their cognate receptors and triggering a cascade of tyrosine phosphorylation of both various known intracellular signaling proteins and the STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) family of transcription factors (references 12 and 28 and references therein). (asm.org)
  • Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal immunoglobulin antibody (igGl) against tumor necrosis factor, a product of macrophages (3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Local transgenic expression of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor initiates autoimmunity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent studies indicate that some hematopoietic growth factors, namely granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), are abundantly released in the tumor microenvironment and play a key role in regulating tumor-nerve interactions and tumor-associated pain by activating receptors on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Lyophilized Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor although stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18 °C . Upon reconstitution GMCSF should be stored at 4 °C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18 °C . For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA). (creativebiomart.net)
  • We have now developed rLS expressing chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and IBV Ark Se in an attempt to enhance vaccine effectiveness. (allenpress.com)
  • Mice made granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-deficient by homologous recombination maintain normal steady-state hematopoiesis but have an alveolar accumulation of surfactant lipids and protein that is similar to pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor is a hemopoietic cytokine capable of supporting the proliferation and survival of granulocytic precursors in the bone marrow. (jimmunol.org)
  • Originally recognized for the important role that it has in the generation of granulocytes and monocytes from hemopoietic precursors, GM-CSF is now regarded to act at several levels in the generation and propagation of immune responses ( 8 , 9 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The hematopoietic growth factor, GM-CSF, was first considered to be proinflammatory because of its ability to stimulate macrophage plasminogen activator activity ( 8 ). (rupress.org)
  • 1 Attempts to prevent sepsis or reduce sepsis-related mortality using intravenous immunoglobulin have failed to make a major impact 2 and attention has recently turned to the potential enhancement of phagocyte immunity using the hemopoietic colony-stimulating factors. (aappublications.org)
  • Furthermore, IFN-gamma upregulated GM-CSF- or IL-5-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activating transcription factor (ATF)-2. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It has been previously shown that IL-10 and Dex inhibited cytokine production in LPS-stimulated monocytes at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels ( 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhance granulocyte and macrophage number and function, their use in the management of neonatal sepsis may be beneficial. (nih.gov)
  • Colony-stimulating factors in inflammation and autoimmunity. (springer.com)
  • Synthes Award for Resident Research on Spinal Cord and Spinal Column Injury: granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) prevents apoptosis and improves functional outcome in experimental spinal cord contusion injury. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, it is part of the immune/inflammatory cascade, by which activation of a small number of macrophages can rapidly lead to an increase in their numbers, a process crucial for fighting infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is increasing consensus that the mucosa of CD is dominated by CD4+ lymphocytes with T-cell Helper 1 (Th1) phenotype characterized by the production of INF-[gamma], IL-2, TNF-[alpha], and macrophage activation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that in addition to other transcription factors, STAT5 plays an important role in activation of monocytes by LPS, and that STAT5 is another target for IL-10 and Dex to inhibit COX-2 expression in activated monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
  • These results may indicate that other transcription factors are involved in the LPS-induced activation of monocytes, and that they may coordinate this process. (jimmunol.org)
  • Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor can stimulate macrophage proliferation via persistent activation of Na+/H+ antiport. (portlandpress.com)
  • Along the gene are several transcription regulatory binding sites with common binding motifs for such transcription factors as GATA, C/EBP or NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surrounding sequences provide binding sites for several regulatory transcription factors similar to those for α chain (GATA, C/EBP, NF-κB). (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding studies employing Jurkat cell nuclear extracts indicated that four sites within the enhancer associate with the inducible transcription factor AP1. (pnas.org)
  • Three of these AP1 elements lie within sequences that also associate with factors resembling the CsA-sensitive, T cell-specific transcription factor NFAT. (pnas.org)
  • Although the details of how LPS exerts such functions remain largely unknown, transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB, nuclear factor-IL-6, and activator protein-1 have been shown to be involved in this process. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, production of monokines was not significantly impaired, although the promoter regions of their genes have binding elements to these transcription factors ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Latent cytoplasmic transcription factors, STATs, which were initially identified as activated transcriptional factors by IFN-α and IFN-γ, are now believed to be involved in the signal pathways of many cytokines along with some growth factors ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell-type restriction of inducible transcription factors may contribute to developmental specification. (asm.org)
  • In addition, we and others have recently demonstrated that both IL-10 and Dex suppressed the expression of the inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2), which is believed to provide substantial amounts of prostanoids at inflamed sites, in LPS-stimulated monocytes ( 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • mRNA expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in nasal and spleen tissues ( a ) and antigen-specific production of GM-CSF in splenocytes from mice administered intranasally with OVA plus the liposomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The cytokine activates macrophages to inhibit fungal survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mRNA levels of genes related to ECM components and ECM production-related growth factors, such as HGF and TGF-ß1, were examined by real time RT-PCR. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • LPS stimulates the production of many cellular substances. (peppipillow.ru)