One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.

RFLP of rRNA genes and sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a phylogenetic approach. (1/555)

It has been established that 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny gives a low resolution between members of the chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) belonging to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. In this study, 12 isolates of AOB were ribotyped, and the sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were determined and used in a phylogenetic study. 16S and 23S rDNA ribotyping revealed that the AOB studied contain only one rrn operon per genome, in contrast to most bacteria, which have 5-10 copies of the rRNA genes per genome. It is likely that the presence of only one set of rRNA genes is related to the slow growth of the AOB. The 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the AOB were shown to be arranged in the classical way: a 16S rRNA gene, an ISR and a 23S rRNA gene. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship among the AOB, the relative location of the rRNA genes in the genome appears to vary considerably. The size of the ISR was approximately 400 bp in the Nitrosomonas isolates and 645-694 bp in the Nitrosospira isolates, suggesting a species-specific size difference in the ISR. The ISR contained two potential tRNA genes in the 5' end in all isolates studied. The similarity values between the ISR sequences of the AOB are low (42.9-96.2%) compared with the 16S rDNA sequence similarity values, and therefore the ISR sequences are valuable as a complementary phylogenetic tool in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the AOB based on ISR sequences confirms the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny but has the benefit of giving a higher resolution.  (+info)

Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production from hypersaline Ekho Lake. (2/555)

Eight Gram-negative, aerobic, pointed and budding bacteria were isolated from various depths of the hypersaline, heliothermal and meromictic Ekho Lake (Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica). The cells contained storage granules and daughter cells could be motile. Bacteriochlorophyll a was sometimes produced, but production was repressed by constant dim light. The strains tolerated a wide range of temperature, pH, concentrations of artificial seawater and NaCl, but had an absolute requirement for sodium ions. Glutamate was metabolized with and without an additional source of combined nitrogen. The dominant fatty acid was C18:1; other characteristic fatty acids were C18:2, C12:0 2-OH, C12:1 3-OH, C16:1, C16:0 and C18:0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C base composition was 62-64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolates were phylogenetically close to the genera Antarctobacter, 'Marinosulfonomonas', Octadecabacter, Sagittula, Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences to these previously described and distinct genera support the description of a new genus and a new species, Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is EL-172T (= DSM 11457T).  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (3/555)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Overexpression of the alanine carrier protein gene from thermophilic bacterium PS3 in Escherichia coli. (4/555)

The alanine transporter (alanine carrier protein, ACP) gene of thermophilic bacterium PS3 was previously cloned and expressed in a functionally active form in Escherichia coli cells. To achieve controlled overproduction of the ACP protein, we designed a plasmid encoding a fusion protein comprising ACP joined to the carboxyl terminus of the maltose binding protein (MBP-ACP). Upon transduction of the plasmid into E. coli RM1 cells defective in alanine/glycine transport, the transport activity was expressed even before induction with 1-thio-beta-D-galacto-pyranoside (IPTG), and increased slightly on induction with IPTG at low concentrations. However, overexpression of the MBP-ACP gene, induced by higher concentrations of IPTG, resulted in death of the host cells. Hence we screened other host cells and found that the MBP-ACP fusion protein was produced in a large quantity in E. coli TB1 cells 3 h after IPTG induction. The MBP-ACP fusion protein was accumulated in cytoplasmic membranes in an amount reaching more than 20% of the total membrane protein. The affinity-purified MBP-ACP exhibited very low transport activity when reconstituted into proteoliposomes.  (+info)

Procedure for expediting determinations of antibiotic susceptibility of gram-negative, urinary tract pathogens. (5/555)

Standardized direct disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing on monomicrobial urine specimens is compared with the Food and Drug Administration method. The direct procedure yields acceptable data and may conserve 24 h in reporting results.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (6/555)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Amino acid composition of peptidoglycan in Caulobacter crescentus. (7/555)

Peptidoglycan of a gram-negative stalked bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus CB13, contained alanine, diaminopimelic acid, and glutamic acid, in molar ratios of 2 : 1 : 1. The amino acid compositions of peptidoglycans isolated from cultures enriched in swarmer and stalked cells, and from a stalk-less mutant were similar. This finding conflicts with a previous observation that swarmer peptidoglycan does not contain diaminopimelic acid (Goodwin and Shedlarski (1975) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 170, 23-36). It appears that, despite the morphological differences, the Caulobacter cells all contain a similar peptidoglycan in the cell wall.  (+info)

A corrinoid-dependent catabolic pathway for growth of a Methylobacterium strain with chloromethane. (8/555)

Methylobacterium sp. strain CM4, an aerobic methylotrophic alpha-proteobacterium, is able to grow with chloromethane as a carbon and energy source. Mutants of this strain that still grew with methanol, methylamine, or formate, but were unable to grow with chloromethane, were previously obtained by miniTn5 mutagenesis. The transposon insertion sites in six of these mutants mapped to two distinct DNA fragments. The sequences of these fragments, which extended over more than 17 kb, were determined. Sequence analysis, mutant properties, and measurements of enzyme activity in cell-free extracts allowed the definition of a multistep pathway for the conversion of chloromethane to formate. The methyl group of chloromethane is first transferred by the protein CmuA (cmu: chloromethane utilization) to a corrinoid protein, from where it is transferred to H4folate by CmuB. Both CmuA and CmuB display sequence similarity to methyltransferases of methanogenic archaea. In its C-terminal part, CmuA is also very similar to corrinoid-binding proteins, indicating that it is a bifunctional protein consisting of two domains that are expressed as separate polypeptides in methyl transfer systems of methanogens. The methyl group derived from chloromethane is then processed by means of pterine-linked intermediates to formate by a pathway that appears to be distinct from those already described in Methylobacterium. Remarkable features of this pathway for the catabolism of chloromethane thus include the involvement of a corrinoid-dependent methyltransferase system for dehalogenation in an aerobe and a set of enzymes specifically involved in funneling the C1 moiety derived from chloromethane into central metabolism.  (+info)

Resistance of gram-negative aerobic bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics differs by region and country. Resistance to aminoglycosides was higher in Southern Europe than in Central and Northern Europe. Reports of the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to gentamicin and tobramycin have ranged from as low as 49.8% and 77.7%, in Greece, to as high as 96.6% and 99.2%, respectively, in the United Kingdom [3]. It was reported that 54% of gram-negative bacilli in Turkey are resistant to gentamicin, 35% to tobramycin, and only 0.9% to amikacin in 1988 [4]. Consistent to this finding, resistance to amikacin (25.4%) of P. aeruginosa was still lower than to gentamicin (57.5%) or tobramycin (58.4%). However, this data suggests that resistance to amikacin increases progressively in Turkey.. Isolates in tracheal aspirates were highly resistant whereas isolates obtained from bronchial lavage fluids were relatively quite susceptible. In our hospital, tracheal aspiration is generally a procedure performed in ...
Stereoselective desymmetrizations by recombinant whole cells expressing the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Xanthobacter sp ZL5: A new biocatalyst accepting structurally demanding ...
The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active
The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (,10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (,36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active ...
Gentamicine is a bactericide antibiotic of the aminoglycosides family and acts in an excellent way on aerobic Gram-negative bacteria.
The Brotherhood of the Castigars The Osiris Legion is the section of the Whitevale based paramilitary organization that declared loyalty to Shinsou alone. Below is a breakdown of the divisions that comprises the Brotherhoods main forces. The 95th Foot 2000 units strong, the 95th foot are Shinsous handpicked infantry battallion. They are armed with dangerous steel poleaxes, are furnished with steel tower shields and keep steel daggers on their person for close combat. Though not the
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Osiris Therapeutics Inc said on Thursday that Canadian health regulators have approved its treatment for acute graft-versus host disease in children, making it the first stem cell drug to be approved for a systemic disease anywhere in the world.
Novartis bolstered its leading position in stem-cell technology by forging a research collaboration with Osiris Therapeutics, a fledgling U.S. biotechnology company.
Annotated image indicating the approximate locations of some of Rosettas final images. Note that due to differences in timing and viewing geometry between consecutive images in this graphic, the illumination and shadows vary. Top left: a global view of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko shows the area in which Rosetta touched down in the Maat region on the smaller of the two comet lobes. This image was taken by the OSIRIS narrow-angle camera on 5 August 2014 from a distance of 123 km. Top right: an image taken by the OSIRIS narrow-angle camera from an altitude of 5.7 km, during Rosettas descent on 30 September 2016. The image scale is about 11 cm/pixel and the image measures about 225 m across. The final touchdown point, named Sais, is seen in the bottom right of the image and is located within a shallow, ancient pit. Exposed, dust-free terrain is seen in the pit walls and cliff edges. Note the image is rotated 180º with respect to the global context image at top right. Middle: an OSIRIS ...
Burkholderia cenocepacia is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium that belongs to a group of opportunistic pathogens displaying diverse environmental and pathogenic lifestyles. B. cenocepacia is known for its ability to cause lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis and it possesses a large 8 Mb multireplicon genome encoding a wide array of pathogenicity and fitness genes. Transcriptomic profiling across nine growth conditions was performed to identify the global gene expression changes made when B. cenocepacia changes niches from an environmental lifestyle to infection. In comparison to exponential growth, the results demonstrated that B. cenocepacia changes expression of over one-quarter of its genome during conditions of growth arrest, stationary phase and surprisingly, under reduced oxygen concentrations (6% instead of 20.9% normal atmospheric conditions). Multiple virulence factors are upregulated during these growth arrest conditions. A unique discovery from the comparative expression ...
Read Complete genome sequence of marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas phenolica bacteriophage TW1, Archives of Virology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Medical definition of Enterobacter: a genus of aerobic gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae that produce acid and gas from many sugars (as dextrose and lactose), form acetoin, are widely distributed in nature (as in feces, soil, water, and the contents of human and animal intestines), and include some that may be pathogenic.
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum, plasma) to measure levels of tobramycin, an aminoglycoside bactericidal agent. Tobramycin is used in the treatment of a wide range of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and also for some gram-positive bacteria. Reagents for tobramycin level measurement are used to monitor the drug levels in patients undergoing treatment, either to determine the adequacy of drug treatment or to diagnose a drug overdose or drug-related toxicity. Typical reference levels in blood, in micrograms per milliliter, are peak 5 to 8, predose (trough) 1 to 2, and toxic more than 10.. Entry Terms : Tobramycin Drug Level Determination Reagents , Reagents, Immunoassay, Therapeutic Drug, Antibiotic, Tobramycin. UMDC code : 19155 ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum, plasma) to measure levels of kanamycin, an aminoglycoside bactericidal agent. Kanamycin is used in the treatment of a wide variety of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and also for some gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria. Reagents for kanamycin drug level measurement are used to monitor the therapeutic drug level in patients undergoing treatment, either to determine the adequacy of drug treatment or to diagnose a drug overdose or drug-related toxicity. Typical reference levels in blood, in microgram per milliliter, are: peak 20 to 25, predose (trough) 5 to 10, and toxic more than 35.. Entry Terms : Kanamycin Drug Level Determination Reagents , Reagents, Immunoassay, Therapeutic Drug, Antibiotic, Kanamycin. UMDC code : 20040 ...
The human small intestine plays a central role in the processes of digestion and nutrient absorption. However, characterizations of the human gut microbiome have largely relied on stool samples, and the associated methodologies are ill-suited for the viscosity and low microbial biomass of small intestine samples. As part of the REIMAGINE study to examine the specific roles of the small bowel microbiome in human health and disease, this study aimed to develop and validate methodologies to optimize microbial analysis of the small intestine. Subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy without colon preparation for standard of care were prospectively recruited, and ~ 2 ml samples of luminal fluid were obtained from the duodenum using a custom sterile aspiration catheter. Samples of duodenal aspirates were either untreated (DA-U, N = 127) or pretreated with dithiothreitol (DA-DTT, N = 101), then cultured on MacConkey agar for quantitation of aerobic gram-negative bacteria, typically from the class
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2014/12/04 ,, Mila ,, [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225269 Nyak DD & Marx CJ. Methylamine Utilization via the N-Methylglutamate Pathway in Methylobacterium extorquens PA1 Involves a Novel Flow of Carbon through C1 Assimilation and Dissimilation Pathways. J Bacteriol (2014).] ,, ...
Vaginal Leptothrix: From Fungi to Lactobacillosis A review of using Pap smears to diagnose a number of microorganisms including Leptothrix vaginalis was carried out by F..
Osiris is the original baad sheep - and provides much fodder for discussion on the controversy surrounding Sheep Intelligence. Case rested here!
Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: OSIR), the leading stem cell company developing and marketing products to treat medical conditions in inflammatory, cardiovascular, orthopedic and wound healing markets, ......OSIR
Egyptský bůh Usir, též Osiris, nejčastěji zpodobňován s korunou, žezlem a důtkami. Symbolizoval nevyčerpatelnost přírody. V pozdní... Blog.cz - Stačí otevřít a budeš v obraze.
Glycocongugates-carbohydrates that are chemically linked to another compound-constitute biologically important molecules. The two parts of the glycocongugate are joined by what is known as a glycosidic linkage of which there are several types. Each type of linkage results in a different spatial arrangement of the two components but it is the selection of the linkage and the resulting spatial configuration that is critical for a glycoconguates biological activity within a larger molecule.. Yukishige Ito, Yong Joo Lee and Akihiro Ishiwata from the RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (formerly the Discovery Research Institute), in Wako, have now developed a method to selectively synthesize a glycocongugate, β-L-rhamnopyranoside, an important constituent of polysaccharides in bacteria, such as Sphaerotilus natans, that stimulate an immune response1.. Although a number of new methods for glycosidic linkages exist, they are often unselective or able only to link a limited range of compounds, aglycons, ...
Registration for a minor is mandatory for UT students and is only possible during the period described on this website through OSIRIS-student. Application for minors will be on a First Come First Serve base. When a minor is full, you can no longer register yourself for that minor. An UT student can register for a maximum of 30 ECTS in OSIRIS, this is equivalent to 2 minors of 15 ECTS each. After the registration period, your Bureau of Educational Affairs will check if you meet the (if applicable) ECTS requirement set by your study programme. If you meet the requirement, your minor will be approved. The result of the check will be visible on your study progress overview in Osiris. If you dont meet the requirements, you will receive an e-mail from the Bureau of Educational Affairs. For questions, contact your study adviser.. Theres no need to register for the corresponding module. You will automatically be registered for the module a few weeks before the minor starts. This does not apply for the ...
Da Ubi Soft arriva un convincente action/adventure ispirato alle avventure della serie La Mummia. Il gioco, per , non tratto dalla versione cinematografica, quanto piuttosto dalla omonima serie a ca... [continua]
Osiris Therapeutics Inc. Stock - OSIR news, historical stock charts, analyst ratings, financials, and todays Osiris Therapeutics Inc. stock price.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|154246770|ref|YP_001417728.1| from Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
The gene encoding a thermostable cellulase of family 12 was previously isolated from a Rhodothermus marinus through functional screening. CelA is a protein of 260 aminoacyl residues with a 28-residue amino-terminal signal peptide. Mature CelA was poorly synthesized in some Escherichia coli strains and not at all in others. Here we present an alternative approach for its heterologous production as a secreted polypeptide in Streptomyces. CelA was successfully over-expressed as a secreted polypeptide in Streptomyces lividans TK24. To this end, CelA was fused C-terminally to the secretory signal peptide of the subtilisin inhibitor protein (Sianidis et al. in J Biotechnol. 121: 498-507, 2006) from Streptomyces venezuelae and a new cloning strategy developed. Optimal growth media and conditions that stall biomass production promote excessive CelA secretion. Under optimal growth conditions in nutrient broth medium, significant amounts of mature CelA (50-90 mg/L or 100-120 mg/g of dry cell weight) are secreted
Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 has been considered as a potential platform strain for industrial production of valuable chemicals such as mevalonate, 1-butanol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate [30, 32, 33, 41]. In this work, we first optimized a 3-HP synthetic pathway in M. extorquens AM1, and then focused on the demonstration of the mechanism of 3-HP reassimilation.. It has been reported that tuning of gene expression levels was critical for proper functioning of a heterologous synthetic pathway in M. extorquens AM1. For instance, Hu et al. found that the strain expressing the adhE2 and ter from a promoter of intermediate strength produced the highest 1-butanol [32]. In our case, four different promoter strengths were tested and the strongest promoter mxaF was shown to generate the highest 3-HP, comparable with the preliminary titer of other engineered microorganisms [5]. The pool size of precursor acetyl-CoA was similar between the YHP5 strains and the other three recombinant strains, implying that ...
Cloning of a gene encoding cold-adapted alpha-Amylase from the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanctis strain 505
Comamonas testosteroni ATCC ® 700441D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Comamonas testosteroni strain JS42 TypeStrain=False Application:
The DNA sequences for the genes encoding the heavy and light subunits of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylophilus methylotrophus W3A1 have been determined. The deduced amino acid sequence has enabled the structure of the enzyme to be refined at 2.4 angstrom resolution against X-ray data collected on a Hamlin area detector. The structure was refined using the programs PROFFT and X-PLOR with several model building step interspersed. The final model contains two heavy chains (571 amino acids), two light chains (69 amino acids), two molecules of pyrroloquinoline quinone, two Ca2+ and 521 solvent molecules. Each half molecule contains four disulfide linkages and four cis peptides. One of the disulfides is formed from two adjacent cysteine residues linked by a trans peptide which creates a novel eight-membered ring. The heavy subunit is an 8-fold beta-propeller, each blade of which is a four-stranded antiparallel twisted beta-sheet. The light chain is an elongated subunit stretching across the ...
Abstract: A binary metallic catalyst (PtSn/C) and a ternary metallic catalyst (PtSnCo/C) with a metal mass fraction of 20% were prepared by borohydride reduction and subsequent hydrothermal treatment in a glycol liquid phase. The structure and composition of the as-prepared electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Their activity and stability for the catalysis of methanol oxidation were evaluated by anodic linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the anodic stripping of a pre-adsorbed CO monolayer. We found that the PtSnCo/C catalyst gave the best catalytic activity for the methanol oxidation of all the catalysts including the commercial JM-PtRu/C catalyst. After 100 cycles, the peak current of methanol oxidation for the PtSn/C catalyst rapidly decreased to 11% of its initial peak current but PtSnCo/C decreased to only 50%. This result suggests that the PtSnCo/C catalyst has better chemical stability for the ...
Other nucleotides outside the MmeI recognition sequence were also methylated for other studies/ but since MmeI does not have any sequence specifity for these nucleotides this does affect MmeI activity and these other methylations are omitted here for clarity.) Duplex DNA was formed by mixing 100µl top strand oligo (14µM stock) with 100µl bottom strand oligo (14µM stock), heating to 85°C and cooling slowly to 30°C over a time of 20 minutes. MmeI was then used to cleave the oligo pairs in a 30 µl reaction of 1X NEBuffer4, 2.5 µM oligo, 100 µM SAM and 2.5 units MmeI. As a control, restriction endonuclease Hpyl88I was also used to cleave the oligo DNA. The Hpyl88I recognition sequence overlaps the first 5 nucleotides of the MmeI recognition sequence in this DNA, 5-TCNGA-3 and is blocked by methylation at the adenine in either strand of the DNA. MmeI was found to cleave unmethylated DNA as expected. In contrast to previous teaching (Tucholski, Gene 223:293-302 (1998)) MmeI did not cleave ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purification and characterization of a novel β-agarase from an alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. E-1. AU - Kirimura, Kohtaro. AU - Masuda, Noriyoshi. AU - Iwasaki, Yousuke. AU - Nakagawa, Hiroyuki. AU - Kobayashi, Reijiro. AU - Usami, Shoji. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - A novel β-agarase (EC 3.2.1.81) was purified from an agar-degrading alkalophilic bacterium, Alteromonas sp. E-1 isolated from the soil. This enzyme was obtained from a cell-free extract after sonication and purified 40.9-fold through treatment with streptomycin, ammonium sulfate fractionation and successive chromatography on anion-exchange and gel filtration columns. The molecular weight was estimated to be 82 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 180 kDa by Superdex 200 gel filtration. The enzyme was inhibited by Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Zn2+ and Hg2+, and activated by K+, Na+ and EDTA, and its optimum pH and temperature for agarose degradation were 7.5 and 40°C, respectively. This ̄-agarase ...
ID A7IFX9_XANP2 Unreviewed; 396 AA. AC A7IFX9; DT 11-SEP-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-SEP-2007, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 82. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU004061}; DE Short=EF-Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN Name=tuf {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Xaut_1677 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1}, Xaut_3356 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS68585.1}; OS Xanthobacter autotrophicus (strain ATCC BAA-1158 / Py2). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Xanthobacteraceae; Xanthobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=78245 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002417}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002417} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC BAA-1158 / Py2 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002417}, and RC Py2 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., ...
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Comamonas testosteroni strain CNB-1 was isolated from activated sludge and has been investigated for its ability to degrade 4-chloronitrobenzene. Results from this study showed that strain CNB-1 grew on phenol, gentisate, vanillate, 3-hydroxybenzoate (3HB), and 4-hydroxybenzoate (4HB) as carbon and …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alkene monooxygenase from Mycobacterium: a multicomponent enzyme.. AU - Hartmans, S.. AU - Weber, F.J.. AU - Somhorst, D.P.M.. AU - de Bont, J.A.M.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. U2 - 10.1099/00221287-137-11-2555. DO - 10.1099/00221287-137-11-2555. M3 - Article. VL - 137. SP - 2555. EP - 2560. JO - Journal of general microbiology. JF - Journal of general microbiology. SN - 0022-1287. ER - ...
Amazon.com: The Osiris Child [Blu-ray]: Kellan Lutz, Daniel MacPherson, Luke Ford, Isabel Lucas, Temuera Morrison, Rachel Griffiths, Teagan Croft, Shane Abbess: Movies & TV
Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum, including the most comprehensively studied Azospirillum brasilense, are non‐pathogenic soil bacteria that promote the growth of diverse plants, making them an attractive model to understand non‐symbiotic, beneficial plant‐bacteria associations
While open Osiris Craps you appear in Egypt where a bright and sunny day surrounds you. Straight in front you see one of the grandest rivers of the world. It is Nile. And near the horizon line you see the pyramids which are the most enigmatical constructions on the Earth. The boat is floating slowly down the river and lengthways the banks many delicate water lilies are in blossom. This tranquil and at the same time majestic picture inspired the designers to create Osiris Craps. So they combined the beauty of nature, the tenderness of music, the splendor of ancient architecture and the achievements of modern graphics in one game!Osiris Craps is not a simple game on a classical table with marking this is an enjoyment from beauty and victory! Throw the dice and commit yourself to Fortunes care.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, J. Rossmeisl, P. Ferrin, G. A. Tritsaris, A. U. Nilekar, S. Koh, S. E. Bae, S. R. Brankovic, P. Strasser, M. Mavrikakis, Energy & Environmental Science 5, 8335 (2012). [DOI] ...
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A simulation study involves a number of steps: first a problem description and modelling, then implementation, after that experiments have to be conducted and finally the results have to be analysed. In the course, we study discrete-event simulation which means that the state of the system changes at discrete moments in time (step by step). Uncertainties are included in the model by means of stochastic variables. We focus on applications in transportation and logistics. These are modelled as discrete systems. In applications like robotica and aerodynamics, discrete-event simulation models are also important, however, they occur in combination with continuous simulation models (differential equations ...
Open Source Independent Review and Interpretation System is public-domain, free and open source software designed for clinical, forensic, and research use, and has been validated for use as an expert system for single-source samples.
Healthy eating and exercise can help you lose weight and maintain weight, too. Being healthy requires a two-prong approach, and when you leave healthy food or exercise off of the schedule, youre simply not going to be as healthy as you think you are.. When trying to lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you consume.. Its pure mathematics, and if you eat more calories than you consume, you can be sure that youll gain weight.. Lets take a look at a few exercise and eating tips that can help you lose or maintain your weight while being the healthiest you possible ...
The Hapi region on the neck of Rosettas comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko reflects red light less effectively than most other regions on the comet. It thus appears slightly blueish. The Hapi region is located between the comets ...
They say that the Sun, when he became aware of Rheas intercourse with Cronus, invoked a curse upon her that she should not give birth to a child in any month or year; but Hermes, being enamoured of the goddess, consorted with her. Later, playing at draughts with the moon, he won from her the seventieth part of each of her periods of illumination, and from all the winnings he composed five days, and intercalated them as an addition to the three hundred and sixty days. The Egyptians even now call these five days intercalated and celebrate them as the birthdays of the gods. They relate that on the first of these days Osiris was born, and at the hour of his birth a voice issued forth saying, The Lord of All advances to the light. But some relate that a certain Pamyles, while he was drawing water in Thebes, heard a voice issuing from the shrine of Zeus, which bade him proclaim with a loud voice that a mighty and beneficent king, Osiris, had been born; and for this Cronus entrusted to him the child ...
Alteromonas Ferment Extract, from deep sea algae, is a polysaccharide containing hydration, repair and restorative, and anti-inflammatory properties.
The Genomic tRNA Database is curated by Todd Lowe and Patricia Chan. Please email [email protected] with any questions and comments. To submit corrections, please use our Bug and Request Tracking System ...
Cargo Cult - Who is John Frum? He is known to us by many names, this Visitor from Elsewhere, dispenser of endless abundance and wielder of mysterious technologies: John Frum, Quetzalcoatl, Osiris, Bob. His cargo is splendid, his generosity boundless, his motives beyond our understanding. But across the ages and around the world, the stories all agree: one day he will return, bearing great gifts. Our theme this year asks three related questions; who is John Frum, where is he really from, and where, on spaceship Earth, are we all going ...
Written by Chris Rah Osiris This movie had a great soundtrack. We were spoiled back in July. Thats all I can say. This week has a few titles that you may
... is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. Parte, A.C. "Aquamicrobium". LPSN. Lipski, A.; Kampfer, P. (2011 ...
... is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. A.C. Parte (1 January 1998). "Brachymonas". LPSN. Retrieved 15 ...
B. ceti is a gram negative, non motile, aerobic bacteria. The cells are cocci, coccobacilli (short rods) with a diameter of 0.5 ... Brucella ceti is a gram negative bacterial pathogen of the Brucellaceae family that causes brucellosis in cetaceans. Brucella ... The bacteria was isolated from both the fetus and the placentas. Guzmán-Verri C, González-Barrientos R, Hernández-Mora G, ... B. ceti is a non-mobile bacteria, unable to withstand harsh conditions outside of a host. It is shown to be transmitted both ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate aerobic bacteria. One of the more notable characteristics of this genus is ... Bdellovibrio attacks other Gram-negative bacteria by attaching itself to the prey cell's outer membrane and peptidoglycan layer ... the general requirements are that there needs to be oxygen and some other Gram-negative bacteria present in its environment. ... that members can prey upon other Gram-negative bacteria and feed on the biopolymers, e.g. proteins and nucleic acids, of their ...
Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Gram-Negative Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, ... Elizabeth Osborne King (October 12, 1912 - April 8, 1966) was an American microbiologist who discovered and described bacteria ...
Aerobic denitrifiers are mainly Gram-negative bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria. Enzymes NapAB, NirS, NirK and NosZ are ... a wide space bordered by the cytoplasmic and the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. Denitrification can lead to a ... Chen, K.-C.; Lin, Y.-F. (1993). "The relationship between denitrifying bacteria and methanogenic bacteria in a mixed culture ... Aerobic denitrification, conducted by aerobic denitrifiers, may offer the potential to eliminate the need for separate tanks ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. The species are motile with amphitrichous flagella and ... Gram-negative aerobe of the family Alcaligenaceae. This species is most commonly found in the alimentary tract as a harmless ... They are obligately aerobic, but some can undergo anaerobic respiration if nitrate is present. They tend to be colorless. They ... It is a genus of non-fermenting bacteria (in the family Alcaligenaceae). Additionally, some strains of Alcaligenes are capable ...
... s are effective only against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Neisseria, Pseudomonas). Siderophore-conjugated ...
Members belonging to this genus are Gram-negative, aerobic and halotolerant bacteria . Cobetia amphilecti AMI6 isolated from ...
... are an aerobic, Gram-negative, and diazotrophic species of bacteria. S. meliloti are motile and possess ... Through the infection thread, the bacteria move toward the main root. The bacteria develop into bacteroids within newly formed ... A S. meliloti bacterium does not perform nitrogen fixation until it differentiates into a endosymbiotic bacteroid. A bacteroid ... These compounds attract S. meliloti to the surface of the root hairs of the plant where the bacteria begin secreting nod ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming bacteria. Lentilitoribacter donghaensis is the only ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacteria. Parte, A.C. "Chelativorans". LPSN. UniProt ... nov., aerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (5): 1044-51. doi ...
... is a strictly aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. It is the sole species of the genus Vogesella. V. ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative aerobic bacterium. The bacterial haemoglobin (VHb) was first discovered from ... 1986 Vitreoscilla stercoraria Pringsheim 1951 Members of Vitreoscilla are obligate aerobic bacteria, which are morphologically ... Thus Vitreoscilla is used to describe the bacterium as the transparent swing or oscillator, the way it exhibits locomotion. ... Vitreoscilla bacteria have a unique property in that they produces a type of haemoglobin, VHb. This molecule unlike classic ...
... is an obligate aerobic gram negative bacterium. Although it has been isolated from a range of bodily ...
... is an aerobic, nonfermentative, Gram-negative bacterium. It is an uncommon bacterium and human ... McGowan JE (June 2006). "Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum". The American ... Initially classified as Bacterium bookeri, then renamed Pseudomonas maltophilia, S. maltophilia was also grouped in the genus ... It was first found in a pleural effusion in 1943 and given the name Bacterium bookeri. It was then renamed to Pseudomonas ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic bacteria. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de UniProt ...
... a synthetic monobactam specifically active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 21 ( ... "The β-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Bacteria and their Possible Physiological Role". Advances in Microbial Physiology Volume 9. ... "Interaction of azthreonam and related monobactams with beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria". Antimicrobial Agents and ... Aztreonam proved to be a major advance in the treatment of gram-negative infections. In 1986 Sykes rejoined Glaxo where he is ...
... is a small, aerobic, obligate intracellular, rod shaped gram negative bacteria. It belongs to the typhus group ... Rickettsia typhi is a small, aerobic, obligate intracellular, rod shaped, gram negative bacteria. R. typhi is a zoonotic ... Rickettsia typhi is a small, gram-negative intracellular bacterium that establishes the murine typhus infection in mammals and ... The bacterium transmits from an infected rat (or other mammalian host) to a susceptible rat flea (or other arthropod vector) ...
It is an aerobic, oval rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is motile by means a single polar flagellum. A. aquaeolei is ... nov., an Aerobic, Halophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Subterranean Brine Arhodomonas aquaeolei Adkins, Jon P; Madigan, Michael ... nov., an Aerobic, Halophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Subterranean Brine" (PDF). International Journal of Systematic ... The temperature range for the growth of this bacteria is between 20 °C and 45 °C, with optimal growth at 37 °C and it requires ...
... is yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium. Its type strain is G3(T) (= KACC 14929(T ...
... is a Gram-negative, aerobic genus of bacteria from the family of Beijerinckiaceae. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de UniProt ... nov., an obligately acidophilic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium with a highly divergent mxaF gene". International ...
... is a Gram-negative strictly aerobic bacteria genus from the family of Planococcaceae. Up to now there iso only one ...
... is a Gram-negative, nitrogen-fixing, strictly aerobic and motile genus of bacteria. Hartmannibacter is named ...
... is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic dimethylsulfoniopropionate-demethylating bacteria. ... nov., dimethylsulfoniopropionate-demethylating bacteria from marine environments". International Journal of Systematic and ...
... is an obligately methylotrophic, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria. Its type ...
... is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic bacteria from the genus of Bradyrhizobiaceae. LPSN lpsn.dsmz.de ...
... is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium that performs denitrification. It was first isolated from garden ... Scientists at Rhône-Poulenc Rorer took a genetically-engineered strain of the bacteria, in which eight of the cob genes ... R. Caspi (2013-09-25). "Pathway: adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis II (aerobic)". MetaCyc Metabolic Pathway Database. Retrieved ... a vitamin B12-producing bacterium". J Bacteriol. 99 (1): 347-9. PMC 250011. PMID 5802615. Fang, H; Kang, J; Zhang, D (30 ...
... is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium. R. leguminosarum biovar trifolii, and R. ... Rhizobium leguminosarum is a bacterium which lives in a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with legumes, and has the ability to ...
They should not be confused with acetic acid bacteria which are aerobic, Gram-negative Alphaproteobacteria. Other acetogens use ... Acetobacterium is a genus of anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria that belong to the Eubacteriaceae family. The type species of ... By using the ethanol that is produced by the bacterium researchers aim to create a sustainable way to create energy. Balch, W. ... To use caffeate as an electron acceptor the bacterium couples hydrogen dependent caffeate reduction with electrons from ...
Gram-positive bacteria only: Teichoic acid. *Lipoteichoic acid. *Endospore. *Gram-negative bacteria only: Bacterial outer ... and usually occurs in gram-positive bacteria. In endospore formation, the bacterium divides within its cell wall, and one side ... 1967). "The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 390 (6657): 249-56. doi:10.1038 ... Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ...
... of Gram-negative and Gram-positive aerobic bacteria such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus ... "Comparison of Etest with agar-dilution for testing the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa and other MDR bacteria to Colistin." JAC ... and whether or not a specific strain of bacterium or fungus is susceptible to the action of a specific antimicrobial. This type ... species and fastidious bacteria, such as anaerobes, N. gonorrhoeae, S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus and Haemophilius species. ...
The reaction for aerobic respiration is essentially the reverse of photosynthesis and is simplified as: C. 6H. 12O. 6 + 6 O. 2 ... Iron in primeval seas rusted by bacteria, ScienceDaily, April 23, 2013 *^ Campbell, Neil A.; Reece, Jane B. (2005). Biology ( ... An adult human at rest inhales 1.8 to 2.4 grams of oxygen per minute.[74] This amounts to more than 6 billion tonnes of oxygen ... and the negative exchange energy between neighboring O. 2 molecules.[21] Liquid oxygen is so magnetic that, in laboratory ...
The bacteria is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe that can utilize some oxygen for aerobic respiration but usually produces ... When the bacteria move this anion from the wine into higher pH level of its cellular plasma membrane, it causes a net-negative ... All Pediococcus species are Gram-positive with some species being micro-aerophilic while others utilizing mostly aerobic ... Lactic acid bacteria convert malic acid into lactic acid as an indirect means of creating energy for the bacteria by ...
... gram-negative bacteria became the predominant cause of sepsis from the 1960s to the 1980s.[22] After the 1980s, gram-positive ... Two sets of blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) are recommended without delaying the initiation of antibiotics. Cultures ... These mice were also found to be hypersusceptible to infection by gram-negative bacteria.[111] These observations were finally ... It was soon realised that endotoxins were expressed by most and perhaps all gram-negative bacteria. The lipopolysaccharide ...
nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new ... "Metal-Mining Bacteria Are Green Chemists". Science Daily. 2. september 2010. *↑ Ishige T, Honda K, Shimizu S (2005). "Whole ... DeLong E, Pace N (2001). "Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea". Syst Biol 50 (4): 470-8. PMID 12116647. doi:10.1080 ... Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, ...
Most bacteria, in terms of diversity, are diderms and stain Gram negative, notable exceptions being Firmicutes (low G+C Gram ... including members that are aerobic thermophiles, which use oxygen and grow well in high temperatures; anoxygenic phototrophs, ... Gram-Positive Bacteria from Soil". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72 (6): 4360-4369. doi:10.1128/AEM.00132-06. PMC ... The Chloroflexi or Chlorobacteria are a phylum of bacteria containing isolates with a diversity of phenotypes, ...
The peptidoglycan layer is substantially thicker in Gram-positive bacteria (20 to 80 nanometers) than in Gram-negative bacteria ... Peptidoglycan forms around 90% of the dry weight of Gram-positive bacteria but only 10% of Gram-negative strains. Thus, ... For both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, particles of approximately 2 nm can pass through the peptidoglycan.[4] ... a Gram-negative bacterium) or L-alanine, D-glutamine, L-lysine, and D-alanine with a 5-glycine interbridge between ...
nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, chemoheterotrophic bacterium of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally ... The Chlamydiae (diderms, weakly Gram negative) is a phylum of the PVC superphylum. It is composed of only 6 genera of obligate ... Purple Bacteria and their relatives (later renamed Proteobacteria[15]) *alpha subdivision (purple non-sulfur bacteria, ... In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria[3] and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" ...
... both Gram-positive and Gram-negative, with a few exceptions, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus spp., which display ... Bacteria usually acquire resistance to tetracycline from horizontal transfer of a gene that either encodes an efflux pump or a ... Originally, they possessed some level of bacteriostatic activity against almost all medically relevant aerobic and anaerobic ... The mechanism of action for the antibacterial effect of tetracyclines relies on disrupting protein translation in bacteria, ...
... is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria in the family Staphylococcaceae in the order Bacillales. Under the ... Staphylococcus species can be differentiated from other aerobic and facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci by several ... A new coagulase negative species - Staphylococcus edaphicus - has been isolated from Antarctica.[10] This species is probably a ... When these bacteria divide, they do so along two axes, so form clumps of bacteria. This is as opposed to streptococci, which ...
... stem from Gram positive bacteria (Posibacteria), which in turn derive from gram negative bacteria (Negibacteria) based on ... gram stain, aerobic conditions and motility. This system changed with the study of metabolic phenotypes, where metabolic ... He has also discovered evidence that Gram-negative bacteria arose from a symbiosis between 2 Gram-positive bacteria.[72] ... Mollicutes (gram variable, e.g. Mycoplasma). *Mendocutes (uneven gram stain, "methanogenic bacteria", now known as the Archaea) ...
"Efflux-mediated multiresistance in Gram-negative bacteria". Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 10 (1): 12-26. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ... Gram-negative. *Flagellum one or more, providing motility. *Aerobic. *Non-spore forming ... indole negative, methyl red negative, Voges-Proskauer test negative, and citrate positive. ... Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 ...
... neomycin has excellent activity against Gram-negative bacteria, and is partially effective against Gram-positive bacteria. It ... Synthesis requires specific nutrient conditions in either stationary or submerged aerobic conditions. The compound is then ... Neomycin has good activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but is very ototoxic. Its use is thus restricted ... The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant Gram-negative bacteria.[6] ...
... is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. It is a soil-dwelling bacterium endemic in tropical and ... On Gram staining, the organism is a Gram-negative rod with a characteristic "safety pin" appearance (bipolar staining). On ... The classic textbook description of B. pseudomallei in clinical samples is of an intracellular, bipolar-staining, Gram-negative ... The Δasd bacterium (bacterium with the asd gene removed) protects against inhalational melioidosis in mice. Yabuuchi, E; Kosako ...
... is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. The two species of ... Salmonella uses oxygen to make ATP in aerobic environment (i.e., when oxygen is available). However, in anaerobic environment ( ... This article is about the bacteria. For the disease caused by such bacteria, see Salmonellosis. ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ...
... a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe. *Xanthomonas campestris,[13] a Gram negative bacterium which uses this pathway as main ... anaerobic bacteria seem to mainly use glycolysis while aerobic and facultative anaerobes are more likely to have the ED pathway ... is a metabolic pathway that is most notably in Gram-negative bacteria, certain Gram-positive bacteria and archaea.[1] Glucose ... Genera in which the pathway is prominent include Gram-negative,[citation needed] as listed below, Gram-positive bacteria such ...
Gram stain[edit]. An alternative is to use a Gram-stained vaginal smear, with the Hay/Ison[35] criteria or the Nugent[23] ... There is a change in the most common type of bacteria and a hundred to thousandfold increase in total numbers of bacteria ... Aerobic vaginitis[32]. The Center For Disease Control (CDC) defines STIs as "a variety of clinical syndromes and infections ... and reproductive and obstetric disorders or negative outcomes. It is possible for sexually inactive persons to develop ...
Gram-positive bacteria only: Teichoic acid. *Lipoteichoic acid. *Endospore. *Gram-negative bacteria only: Bacterial outer ...
The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is one of the most radioresistant organisms known. This bacterium can also survive cold, ... Research indicates that extremophiles inhabit the asphalt lake in populations ranging between 106 to 107 cells/gram.[32][33] ... A facultative anaerobe can tolerate anaerobic and aerobic conditions; however, an obligate anaerobe would die in the presence ... They also have more charged amino acids, both positive and negative, that interact with each other to increase how rigid the ...
... gram-negative bacteria became the predominant cause of sepsis from the 1960s to the 1980s.[18] After the 1980s, gram-positive ... Two sets of blood cultures (aerobic and anaerobic) should be taken without delaying the initiation of antibiotics. Cultures ... These mice were also found to be hypersusceptible to infection by gram-negative bacteria.[103] These observations were finally ... Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial toxins in sepsis: a brief review»։ Virulence 5 (1): 213-8։ January 2014։ PMC 3916377 ...
... are the acylated glucosamine precursors of the Lipid A component of the lipopolysaccharides in Gram-negative bacteria. Typical ... Aerobic respiration. *Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport ... In animals and archaea, the mevalonate pathway produces these compounds from acetyl-CoA,[93] while in plants and bacteria the ... Hölzl G, Dörmann P (September 2007). "Structure and function of glycoglycerolipids in plants and bacteria". Progress in Lipid ...
Certain Gram-negative bacilli (ex: Prevotella, Fusobacteria, and Porphyromonas) are exhibiting an increased resistance based on ... anaerobic and aerobic) bacteria. Clindamycin, or a combination of metronidazole and a macrolide, or a penicillin combined with ... Other aerobic organisms are Klebsiella sp, Haemophilus influenza, Streptococcus viridans, Eikenella corrodens, ... Despite the thyroid gland being extremely resistant to infection, it is still susceptible to infection by various bacteria.[6] ...
... they produce ethanol even during aerobic fermentation; in contrast, Crabtree-negative yeasts produce only biomass and carbon ... An important component in cider-making is the addition of sulphur dioxide to inhibit the growth of many spoilage bacteria or ... and typically between 4.5 and 7.5 grams of malic acid per liter of cider is preferred.[41] Malic acid is also used to determine ... At this point, it becomes important to exclude airborne acetic bacteria, so vats are filled completely to exclude air. The ...
The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of Gram-negative, nonsporeforming, anaerobic or aerobic, and rod- ... For a long time, it was thought that the majority of Gram-negative gastrointestinal tract bacteria belonged to the genus ... Bacteria. Eukaryota. (Supergroup. Plant. Hacrobia. Heterokont. Alveolata. Rhizaria. Excavata. Amoebozoa. Opisthokonta Animal. ... Bacteroidetes species that belong to classes Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacteriales are typical soil bacteria and can only ...
... the Neisseriaceae are strictly aerobic and Gram-negative, occur mainly in pairs (diplococci), and typically do not have ... Bacteria of Medical Importance in Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology.. *. Madigan, Michael; Martinko, John (editors) (2005 ...
... in the 1940s and exhibited activity against a wide range of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, ... Anaerobic bacteria are not as susceptible to tetracyclines as are aerobic bacteria.[9]Doxycycline is also used as a ... Bacteria have a system that allows tetracyclines to be transported into the cell, whereas human cells do not. Human cells ... It can also be attributed to the nature of ribosomal protein synthesis pathways among bacteria.[23] Incyclinide was announced ...
It is typically measured in terms of mass in picograms (trillionths (10−12) of a gram, abbreviated pg) or less frequently in ... Thanks to the similarity among the gene content of Buchnera aphidicola and the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, 89% identity ... where the gene that have been lost are in fact not randomly dispersed in the ancestor gene but aggregated and the negative ... an anaerobic intracellular parasite of arthropods evolved from aerobic fungi. ...
Because GSH is also essential to aerobic muscular contraction, an undesirable competition for GSH precursors between the immune ... one of the pancreas and one of the liver were fed 30 grams of this whey protein concentrate daily for six months. In six ... and some bacteria and archaea, preventing damage to important cellular components caused by reactive oxygen species such as ... may have a positive or negative effect on the clinical outcome if compared with casein, a widely used protein supplement low in ...
... s are useful primarily in infections involving aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, ... "most gram-negative aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacilli" but not against gram-negative anaerobes and most gram-positive ... bacilli where resistance has not yet arisen but generally not against Gram-positive and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria.[3] ... lipopolysaccharide in gram-negative bacteria-and cell membranes, where they are actively transported.[8]) While specific steps ...
In Vitro Activities of Membrane-Active Peptides against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria A. Giacometti, O. ... Molecular β-Lactamase Characterization of Aerobic Gram-Negative Pathogens Recovered from Patients Enrolled in the Ceftazidime- ... Comparative In Vitro Activity Profiles of Novel Bis-Indole Antibacterials against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Clinical ... In Vitro Susceptibility Tests for Cationic Peptides: Comparison of Broth Microdilution Methods for Bacteria That Grow ...
Comparative evaluation of three chromogenic agars for detection and rapid identification of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria in ... Comparative evaluation of three chromogenic agars for detection and rapid identification of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria in ... Chromogenic media, Detection, Escherichia coli, Gram-negative bacteria, Identification, Normal intestinal microflora, Stool ...
Shionogi launches Fetcroja in the UK for aerobic Gram-negative bacteria infections. ... Gram-negative bacteria are often associated with a high mortality rate, and if no action is taken to discover more new ... has announced the launch of its new antibiotic in the UK for the treatment of infections due to aerobic Gram-negative bacteria ... Cefiderocol has a novel mechanism of entry through the cells outer membrane of Gram-negative pathogens by using the bacterias ...
... aerobic, orangepigmented, rod-shaped, motile by peritrichous flagella and astaxanthin-producing. This organism produced ... nov., a new aerobic Gram-negative astaxanthin-producing bacterium MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and ... nov., a new aerobic Gram-negative astaxanthin-producing bacterium, Page 1 of 1 ... The strain E-396T, isolated from soil, was Gram-negative, aerobic, orangepigmented, rod-shaped, motile by peritrichous flagella ...
... negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in ... A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink ( ... Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria. Known as: Gram Negative Aerobic ... Evaluation of Cathra system for identifying gram negative aerobic bacteria.. *Julia Ling, Lefan Zhang, Yim W Hui, Gary Lawrence ... Eleven gram-negative aerobic bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Neisseriaceae) out of 122 soil isolates were selected for their… ( ...
Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae. *Efficacy for this organism was studied in fewer than 10 infections. ... Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus epidermidis. Streptococcus mitis group*. Streptococcus ... Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus epidermidis. Streptococcus mitis group*. Streptococcus ... Gatifloxacin is an 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone with in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive ...
Recovery of aerobic gram-negative bacteria from the Copan Eswab transport system after long-term storage. ... Recovery of aerobic gram-negative bacteria from the Copan Eswab transport system after long-term storage. ... Feces, Humans, Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Culture Media, ...
N. meningitidis, or meningococcus, is an aerobic, gram-negative bacterium, closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and to several ... Identification of gram-negative diplococci identified in a sterile site specimen strongly suggests N. meningitidis but is not ... Bacteria attach to and multiply in nasopharynx and oropharynx. *In ,1% of persons, bacteria enter bloodstream *Can cause ... The bacteria attach to and multiply in the mucosal cells of the nasopharynx and oropharynx and, in a small proportion (much ...
... , Pseudomonadaceae, Legionellaceae, Brucella, Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Acetobacteraceae, ... Gram Negative Bacteria Gram negative HACEK Bacilli Gram Positive Bacteria Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus Intracellular ... Aerobic Gram Negative Rod. Aerobic Gram Negative Rod Aka: Aerobic Gram Negative Rod, Pseudomonadaceae, Legionellaceae, Brucella ... rod-shaped bacteria in the family Alcaligenaceae. Definition (MSH) A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that ...
Pneumonia due to other aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. *Pneumonia due to Mycoplasm pneumoniae ...
Identification of Gram-Positive Organisms; Peter M. Colaninno. Identification of Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacteria; Donna J. ... Other Gram-Negative Bacteria: Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, and Moraxella; Rebecca E. Colman and Jason W. Sahl. Selected ... Other Anaerobic Bacteria: Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Tannerella, Fusobacterium, and Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci ... Phage Identification of Bacteria; Catherine E.D. Rees, Lorrence H. Green, Emanuel Goldman, and Martin J. Loessner. Phage ...
Aerobic gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae Aerobic gram-negative bacteria Haemophilus influenzae ... 5.19 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience 6.2 Postmarketing Experience 7 ... Trimethoprim alone was negative in in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assays and in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays ... At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to ...
Aerobic gram-negative bacteria:. Haemophilus influenzae *Efficacy for these organisms were studied in fewer than ten infections ... Aerobic gram-negative bacteria:. Haemophilus influenzae *Efficacy for these organisms were studied in fewer than ten infections ... Aerobic gram-positive bacteria:. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus mitis group* Streptococcus ... Aerobic gram-positive bacteria:. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus mitis group* Streptococcus ...
Acetobacter bacteria are aerobic gram-negative rods. They are naturally present in environments where alcohol is produced and ... The bacteria form a film on the surface, called mother of vinegar, and can be used as a fermentation starter culture in liquid ... Acetic bacteria forms a thin silky film. Wine, grapes, grape fruit, malt, corn syrups, can be used as raw material. A generator ... The fermentation is usually done by acetic acid bacteria of the genus Acetobacter, alcohol in a variety of sources (eg, apple ...
... more than 4000 Gram negative bacteria were isolated by two improved isolation methods from 446 batches of 1 kg rice seed ... Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria / classification * Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria / isolation & purification* * Gram-Negative ... Diversity of Gram negative bacteria antagonistic against major pathogens of rice from rice seed in the tropic environment J ... With the use of a seed washing technique, more than 4000 Gram negative bacteria were isolated by two improved isolation methods ...
Co-infection with other aerobic Gram-negative bacteria.. * Severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ,30 milliliters (mL)/ ... Randomized-controlled Trial (RCT) on Combination Antibiotic for Infections Caused by Gram-negative Bacteria (XDR-GNB). The ... An increasing number of Gram-negative bacteria isolates worldwide are resistant to virtually all antibiotics including ... resistant Gram-negative bacteria (XDR-GNB - defined in Appendix I) infections, resistance development on therapy and treatment ...
effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria as well as other micro organisms ... What enzyme does gram positive bacteria product to break down the cell wall? ...
Clinical features and specific aspects of treatment were evaluated in 612 patients with gram-negative bacteremia observed over ... Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria* * Humans * Male * Massachusetts * Middle Aged * Pseudomonas Infections / diagnosis ... Gram-negative bacteremia. IV. Re-evaluation of clinical features and treatment in 612 patients Am J Med. 1980 Mar;68(3):344-55. ... Clinical features and specific aspects of treatment were evaluated in 612 patients with gram-negative bacteremia observed over ...
Aerobic Gram-negative bacteria *Bordetella pertussis. *Legionella pneumophila. *Pasteurella multocida. Anaerobic Gram-positive ... Clarithromycin prevents bacteria from multiplying by acting as a protein synthesis inhibitor. It binds to 23S rRNA, a component ... Safety and effectiveness of clarithromycin in treating clinical infections due to the following bacteria have not been ... It is in the macrolide class and works by decreasing protein production of some bacteria.[1] ...
Aerobic gram negative bacteria (beta-lactamase negative strains only): Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria ... Aerobic gram positive bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus species (beta-lactamase negative strains only), certain ... Not active against beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria.. *Staphylococci bacteria that are resistant to methicillin/ ... Active against bacteria that commonly cause ear, nose, or throat infections. *May also be used to treat infections of the ...
Active against these gram-negative aerobic bacteria:. *Haemophilus influenzae,. *Moraxella catarrhalis,. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae ... Bacteriostatic action against susceptible bacteria.. Spectrum: *. Active against the following gram-positive aerobic bacteria: ...
nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, chemoheterotrophic bacterium of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally ... The Chlamydiae (diderms, weakly Gram negative) is a phylum of the PVC superphylum. It is composed of only 6 genera of obligate ... Purple Bacteria and their relatives (later renamed Proteobacteria[15]) *alpha subdivision (purple non-sulfur bacteria, ... In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria[3] and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" ...
Gram negative aerobic bacterium of the legionellaceae family.. Growth Conditions. L-cysteine and iron salts.. ...
Aminoglycosides are primarily used to combat infections due to aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria. These bacteria can be ... Gram-positive bacteria retain the violet purple stain. Gram-negative bacteria accept the red stain. Bacteria that can ... Gram-positive bacteria retain the violet purple stain. Gram-negative bacteria accept the red stain. Bacteria that can ... Gram-negative bacteria. These bacteria can be identified by their reaction to Grams stain. In Grams staining, a film of ...
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried ... Among them, 25 cases were positive for bacteria, being Streptococcus pneumonia the most frequent (48 %). Among positive cases ... PCR multiplex for simultaneous and rapid identification of 14 pathogens, including 6 bacteria, 7 viruses, and Cryptococcus. We ... It is usually caused by an pneumococcal infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. However,... ...
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried ...
1982) Azthreonam (SQ 26,776), a synthetic monobactam specifically active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria. Antimicrob ... targeted export from specific domains of bacteria is a conserved feature in many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. ... pneumophila cells lacking bolA, a gene involved in cell shape in Gram-negative bacteria (Fig. S10). Thus, polar secretion of ... Inactivation of bolA, a gene required to maintain the shape of rod-like Gram-negative bacteria, results in the generation of ...
  • Bacteria that can successfully be combated with aminoglycosides include Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter , and Enterobacter species, among others. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even when the isolate is recognised to be significant, commonly used identification systems may misidentify the organism as Chromobacterium violaceum or other nonfermenting, Gram-negative bacilli such as Burkholderia cepacia or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microbial populations (Salmonella or the indigenous aerobic mesophilic bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. (usda.gov)
  • Furthermore, some biochemical identification methods for culture isolates are problematic, especially rapid biochemical assays which have been shown to misidentify B. pseudomallei as other bacteria such as Pseudomonas spp. (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens is a rod-shaped aerobic, non-lactose-fermenting, Gram-negative bacterium ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria with unipolar motility. (abcam.com)
  • In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of previously fabricated polyamino-phenolic ligands and polyamidoamine dendrimers was investigated against legionella mono-species and multi-species biofilms formed by L. pneumophila in association with other bacteria that can be found in tap water ( Aeromonas hydrophila , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Aztreonam exhibits potent and specific activity in vitro against a wide spectrum of gram-negative aerobic pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (drugbank.ca)
  • It has no useful activity against gram-positive bacteria or anaerobes, but has very broad spectrum against gram-negative aerobes, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (drugbank.ca)
  • Pseudomonas group of bacteria are gram-negative aerobic rods commonly found in soil, water, plants and animals. (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a multi-drug resistant (MDR), aerobic, gram-negative bacillus bacteria. (dovepress.com)
  • The UK is the first country to launch Fetcroja (cefiderocol), which is the first treatment to provide coverage against all Gram-negative pathogens that the World Health Organization feels are a critical priority. (pharmafile.com)
  • PCR multiplex for simultaneous and rapid identification of 14 pathogens, including 6 bacteria, 7 viruses, and Cryptococcus. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In addition to these functions, many specialized secretion systems of Gram-negative pathogens are found at the bacterial poles. (pnas.org)
  • The common use of empiric wide-range antibiotic therapy had lead to the development significant resistance of these pathogens and this group of bacteria was defined as Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms (MDRO). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The endemic spread of CRE infection at Rambam Medical Center has lead us to focus on these pathogens in our SDD program, while performing rigorous bi-weekly screening for all bacteria. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Colistimethate Sodium is indicated in adults and children including neonates for the treatment of serious infections due to selected aerobic Gram-negative pathogens in patients with limited treatment options (see sections 4.2, 4.4, 4.8 and 5.1). (medicines.org.uk)
  • The basic pathology involves the invasion and rapid spread of microbial pathogens into the subcutaneous tissue, where bacteria release enzymes and toxins that cause local tissue ischemia and necrosis. (uspharmacist.com)
  • This is especially pertinent for pathogens causing nosocomial infections, such as Acinetobacter baumannii , a gram-negative, non-fermenting aerobic bacterium. (mdpi.com)
  • are curved-to helical, Gram-negative, aerobic/microaerobic bacteria increasingly recognized as human and animal pathogens. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Aminoglycosides are ineffective against anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that cannot grow in the presence of oxygen), viruses, and fungi. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anaerobic bacteria - Bacteria which cannot grow or reproduce in the presence of oxygen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cover gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including beta-lactamase producing organisms. (medscape.com)
  • It has activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. (citizendium.org)
  • The implementation of MALDI-TOF methodologies has improved detection of resistance in aerobic, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, fungi and viruses. (amegroups.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are the Number 1 cause of hospital infections. (khouse.org)
  • Among these bacteria the most important and virulent are: Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) as well as Fluconazol resistant Candida. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Phylogenetic tree showing the diversity of bacteria , compared to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • P. aeruginosa bacteria are clinically important because they are resistant to most antibiotics and they are capable of surviving in conditions that few other organisms can tolerate. (abcam.com)
  • 6-8 NSTIs may be caused by aerobic or anaerobic organisms that differ from those that cause non-NSTIs. (uspharmacist.com)
  • It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms. (drugbank.ca)
  • A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a Gram-negative bacterium and the main aerobic commensal bacterial species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative aerobic, motile bacteria. (study.com)
  • Here we show that the Legionella export apparatus is localized to the bacterial poles, as is consistent with many T4SS substrates being retained on the phagosomal membrane adjacent to the poles of the bacterium. (pnas.org)
  • Legionella micdadei is a Gram negative bacterium that can stain weakly acid fast. (hindawi.com)
  • Legionella micdadei is a Gram negative bacterium [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Legionnaires' disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila , an aquatic bacterium often found within the biofilm niche. (frontiersin.org)
  • Legionella genus includes aerobic, motile, gram-negative bacteria that are the etiological agents of legionellosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • CHARACTERISTICS: Legionella pneumophila is a gram negative, strictly aerobic bacterium of the Legionellaceae family(3). (msdsonline.com)
  • V. cholerae is a gram-negative aerobic bacillus, or rod-shaped bacterium. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We describe the biochemical characterization of recombinant IseD from the haloalkaliphilic environmental bacterium Bacillus krulwichiae AM31D T and demonstrate the growth of this bacterium using isethionate as its sole carbon source, with the excretion of sulfite as a waste product. (asm.org)
  • Selective bowel decontamination to decrease gram-negative aerobic bacterial and Candida colonization and prevent infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gram-negative bacterial and fungal infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality following liver transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria [3] and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" is disused at present in bacterial taxonomy . (wikipedia.org)
  • For historical classifications of bacteria, see Bacterial taxonomy . (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the selection potential of chlortetracycline (CTC) on the antibiotic resistance of aerobic bacterial populations in a simulated river water ecosystem. (asm.org)
  • Pathogenic strains of these bacteria are also an important cause of bacterial infections. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Piperacillin, like other penicillin drugs, functions by binding to specific penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located inside the bacterial cell wall, thereby inhibiting the final stage of cell wall synthesis and leading to autolysis of the bacteria by autolysins . (citizendium.org)
  • 1 They are caused by "flesh-eating bacteria" and include infections such as phagedena and gangrene (e.g., hospital, progressive bacterial synergistic, Fournier's, hemolytic streptococcal). (uspharmacist.com)
  • Bacteria may also acquire resistance through genetic changes in the bacterial genome or by genetic transfer. (bsava.com)
  • Using a toothbrush cover doesn't protect a toothbrush from bacterial growth, but actually creates an environment where bacteria are better suited to grow by keeping the bristles moist and not allowing the head of the toothbrush to dry out between uses," said Aber. (asm.org)
  • E. coli cells appear red in the classic Gram stain that distinguishes major bacterial types by the structure of the cell wall. (study.com)
  • A genus of gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-spore forming rods. (fpnotebook.com)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of azithromycin and other antibacterial drugs, azithromycin should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • May also be used to treat infections of the genitourinary tract, skin, or lower respiratory tract caused by susceptible bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • Amoxicillin is a penicillin-type antibiotic that only treats infections caused by susceptible bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • Used in fixed combination with other anti-infectives (e.g., bacitracin, neomycin, gramicidin, trimethoprim) for treatment of superficial infections of the eye caused by susceptible bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • Used in fixed combination with corticosteroids (with or without other anti-infectives) for treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • For the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible gram-negative microorganisms: urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, septicemia, skin and skin-structure infections, intra-abdominal infections, and gynecologic infections. (drugbank.ca)
  • Major topics covered include almost all studied bacteria, and introductions to fungi, parasites, and viruses, as well as methods of culture collection, enumeration, and preservation of microorganisms, diagnostic medical microbiology, mechanisms of antimicrobial agents, and antibiotics and antifungal agents. (routledge.com)
  • Aerobic gram-negative bacilli (AGNB), Gram-positive bacteria and fungi are responsible for hospital acquired infections. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In published SDD protocols there was a use of wide-spectrum antibiotics that covered the range of gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi, without correlation to the results of primary screening in these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The selective procedure removed only Gram negative aerobic bacteria, yeast and fungi. (tudelft.nl)
  • This chapter focuses on details about natural lignin degradation by fungi and bacteria, which harbor potential tools for lignin degradation and modification, which might help to develop eco-efficient processes for lignin utilization. (springer.com)
  • Meningococcal disease is an acute, severe illness caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis . (cdc.gov)
  • N. meningitidis , or meningococcus, is an aerobic, gram-negative bacterium, closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and to several typically nonpathogenic Neisseria species, such as N. lactamica . (cdc.gov)
  • Neisseria (family Neisseriaceae ) A genus of Gram-negative bacteria in which the cells are typically spherical and often occur in pairs with adjacent sides flattened. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Neisseria (ny- seer -iă) n. a genus of spherical Gram-negative aerobic nonmotile bacteria characteristically grouped in pairs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gram negative aerobic bacterium of the legionellaceae family. (montana.edu)
  • Other are used to treat a specific group of bacteria (Gram positive, Gram negative, aerobic, anaerobic). (backyardchickens.com)
  • An increasing number of Gram-negative bacteria isolates worldwide are resistant to virtually all antibiotics including carbapenems. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The aminoglycosides can be used against certain Gram-positive bacteria, but are not typically employed because other antibiotics are more effective and have fewer side effects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-fermenting aerobic bacterium which is often associated with hospital-acquired infections and known for its ability to develop resistance to antibiotics, form biofilms, and survive for long periods in hospital environments. (mdpi.com)
  • It should be remembered that, because many currently used antibacterial medicines have been developed from naturally occurring antibiotics, bacteria have had a long time in which to develop these mechanisms. (bsava.com)
  • Some antibiotics kill the offending bacteria (bacteriocidal), others just prevent the bacteria from reproducing (bacteriostatic). (backyardchickens.com)
  • it is, therefore, usually active against gram-negative aerobic microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases. (drugbank.ca)
  • Not active against beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria. (drugs.com)
  • It is subject to degradation in bacteria which express beta-lactamase . (citizendium.org)
  • Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Achromobacter genus level. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A genus of aerobic, Gram negative bacterium assigned to the phylum Proteobacteria and the family Alcaligenaceae. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Alcaligenaceae. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that occur in water and soil. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The fermentation is usually done by acetic acid bacteria of the genus Acetobacter, alcohol in a variety of sources (eg, apple cider, wine, potatoes, fermented cereals). (ipl.org)
  • Aquamicrobium is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that oxidize ammonia to nitrate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A genus of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria occurring primarily in soil and water, including many pathogenic species. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Any bacterium of the genus Acinetobacter . (yourdictionary.com)
  • A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. (umassmed.edu)
  • A genus of Gram-negative, acidophilic, rod-shaped, obligate intracellular bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Gram's stain - A stain used in microbiology to classify bacteria and help identify the species to which they belong. (encyclopedia.com)
  • ESBLs are produced by Gram-negative bacteria and have been reported from many species. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The IseD-dependent pathway provides the only mechanism for isethionate dissimilation in Gram-positive species to date and suggests a role of the metabolically versatile Bacilli in the mineralization of this ubiquitous organosulfur compound. (asm.org)
  • On Gram staining, the organism is a Gram-negative rod with a characteristic "safety pin" appearance (bipolar staining). (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic textbook description of B. pseudomallei in clinical samples is of an intracellular, bipolar-staining, Gram-negative rod, but this is of little value in identifying the organism from clinical samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organism grows more slowly than other bacteria that may be present in clinical specimens, and in specimens from nonsterile sites, is easily overgrown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Routine biochemical methods for identification of bacteria vary widely in their identification of this organism: the API 20NE system accurately identifies B. pseudomallei in 99% of cases, as does the automated Vitek 1 system, but the automated Vitek 2 system only identifies 19% of isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • the organism was later confirmed by Gram stain and biochemical tests as S. moniliformis at the New Mexico Department of Health's Scientific Laboratory Division. (cdc.gov)
  • When more nutritive culture media were tried, McCoy and Chapin 2 successfully isolated a novel organism, which was named Bacterium tularense after Tulare county in central California, the site of the original discovery. (ersjournals.com)
  • Acetobacter bacteria are aerobic gram-negative rods. (ipl.org)
  • Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water, mud, or thermally polluted lakes or streams. (harvard.edu)
  • Joshua Miller 12/18/17 Fermentation Lab report Introduction The term fermentation refers to the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat (wikipedia). (ipl.org)
  • Anomalies in environmental conditions activate in cells a series of processes that allow microorganisms to minimize their negative impact. (hindawi.com)
  • It was first described in 1979 as a weakly acid-fast bacterium found in immunocompromised patients at a Pittsburgh VA, later identified as Pittsburgh Pneumonia Agent [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pneumonia hospital-acquired pneumonia include aerobic gram-negative bacteria. (yogachicago.com)
  • These bacteria can be identified by their reaction to Gram's stain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gram-positive bacteria retain the violet purple stain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gram-negative bacteria accept the red stain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gram-negative - Referring to a bacteria that take on a pink color when exposed to Gram's stain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gram-positive - Referring to a bacteria that takes on a purplish-black color when exposed to Gram's stain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Also has activity against Helicobacter pylori , a bacteria often associated with stomach ulcers. (drugs.com)
  • Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that causes peptic ulcer disease, has been suggested as one of the microbes involved in the development of atherothrombosis. (revespcardiol.org)
  • En los últimos años se ha propuesto que podría existir una asociación entre el proceso aterotrombótico y la infección por ciertos microorganismos, entre éstos Helicobacter pylori, agente etiopatogénico de enfermedad gastroduodenal. (revespcardiol.org)
  • c) la correlación entre la seroprevalencia de Helicobacter pylori y marcadores de procesos inflamatorios asociados con un mayor riesgo de cardiopatía coronaria o con un peor pronóstico de ella, como la proteína C reactiva, y d) estudios controvertidos que han utilizado PCR sobre la presencia de Helicobacter pylori en placas ateromatosas. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Gram-negative bacilli growth both-aerobic-and-anaerobic catalase-positive oxidase-negative ( Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
  • On hospital day 2, clindamycin was discontinued and cefazolin was changed to ceftriaxone (2 g every 24 h, i.v.) with the preliminary report of Gram-negative bacilli in the culture of the aspirated specimen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, pathogenic bacteria that can facilitate a leaky gut and induce autoimmune symptoms can be ameliorated with the use of antibiotic treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has been an increasing medical problem for decades [9,10]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Selection pressure for antibacterial resistance is exerted on both pathogenic and commensal bacteria whenever an antibacterial is used. (bsava.com)
  • These bacteria occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The effects manifest in many different populations and settings, including animals, plants, humans, and the environment because all antibiotic uses add to the cumulative selective pressures exerted on bacteria in complex ecosystems. (asm.org)
  • Isolation and characterization of isopimaric acid-degrading bacteria from a sequencing batch reactor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Characterization of a model green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum showed that BChl c molecules forms large aggregates by self-organization due to the unique molecular structure of the bacteriochlorophylls. (kenyon.edu)
  • Treatments like Fectcroja also help address antimicrobial resistance which causes 25,000 deaths in the EU and over 5,000 in the UK every year due to infections with multidrug-resistant bacteria. (pharmafile.com)
  • To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of TEQUIN (gatifloxacin removed from us market - may 2006) and other antibacterial drugs, TEQUIN (gatifloxacin removed from us market - may 2006) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (rxlist.com)
  • Although polymyxins are the current gold standard antibiotic for treatment of severe extensively drug- resistant Gram-negative bacteria (XDR-GNB - defined in Appendix I) infections, resistance development on therapy and treatment failures are common. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary outcome is 30-day mortality while secondary outcomes include microbiological clearance, time to defervescence, and toxicity of therapy, presence of secondary infections due to new multi- drug resistant bacteria and length of ICU stay. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Staphylococci bacteria that are resistant to methicillin/oxacillin should be considered resistant to amoxicillin as well. (drugs.com)
  • The global increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria is of major concern and thus, antibiotic use for medical and agricultural applications is a major risk factor for the increased occurence of resistant organsisms. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Resistant bacteria are also shed in faeces, where they can share extrachromosomal antibiotic resistance plasmids (R-plasmids) with native bacteria and may also be disseminated to other animals. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Some bacteria are inherently resistant to certain antibacterials because of structural or functional characteristics (e.g. the medicine cannot cross the cell wall, the bacteria lack the medicine target, or they produce enzymes that destroy the medicine). (bsava.com)
  • It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. (drugbank.ca)
  • Gram-negative bacteria are often associated with a high mortality rate, and if no action is taken to discover more new antibiotic compounds, antibiotic resistance is predicted to kill 10 million people every year globally by 2050 at a cost of $100 trillion. (pharmafile.com)
  • Held in collaboration with the Healthcare Infection Society the BSAC Spring Conference 2017 addressed the crucial topic of multi-drug resistance gram negative infections (MDRGNBI). (bsac.org.uk)
  • There will be no concomitant rise in gram-positive or fungal infection or a surgency of new resistance patterns. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Low levels of CTC in this in vitro experiment did not select for increased levels of tetracycline resistance among cultivable aerobic bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Antibiotic use is likely the major selection pressure influencing the increased rate of development of resistance in some bacteria ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Once the genes for antibacterial resistance have appeared they can be passed on to other bacteria, not only by cell division but also by genetic transfer. (bsava.com)
  • What enzyme does gram positive bacteria product to break down the cell wall? (brainscape.com)
  • Here, we report a bioinformatics analysis of Xsc-containing gene clusters in Gram-positive bacteria, which revealed the presence of an alternative isethionate dissimilation pathway involving the NAD + -dependent oxidation of isethionate by a cytosolic metal-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (IseD). (asm.org)
  • Carnol M, Kowalchuk GA, De Boer W (2002) Nitrosomonas europaea-like bacteria detected as the dominant beta-subclass Proteobacteria ammonia oxidisers in reference and limed acid forest soils. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • citrulli is an aerobic mesophillic Gram-negative bacterium phylogenetically associated with the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. (uniprot.org)
  • Antimicrobial breakpoints for gram-negative aerobic bacteria based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models with Monte Carlo simulation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pertussis (whooping cough) is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory tract caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis . (canada.ca)
  • Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative aerobic bacterium. (canada.ca)
  • Editorial Note: RBF refers to two similar diseases caused by different gram-negative facultative anaerobes: streptobacillary RBF caused by infection with S. moniliformis and spirillary RBF by Spirillum minus (2,3). (cdc.gov)
  • E. coli is a facultative aerobe , meaning that it can grow in the presence of oxygen (called aerobic) and absence of oxygen (called anaerobic). (study.com)
  • Shionogi has announced the launch of its new antibiotic in the UK for the treatment of infections due to aerobic Gram-negative bacteria in patients over 18 with limited treatment options. (pharmafile.com)
  • Aminoglycosides are primarily used to combat infections due to aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The uterine cavity has two characteristics that contribute to the possibility of infection: a large surface area on which infection can occur and, following placental delivery, large open venous channels under the placenta that are directly accessible to bacteria within the uterus. (glowm.com)
  • The outer membrane of N. meningitidis is surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule that is important for pathogenicity because it helps the bacterium resist phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis. (cdc.gov)
  • From a number of supplemental references, we recognize that the "beasts of the earth" are not necessarily visible to the naked eye: they can include microbes, bacteria and viruses. (khouse.org)
  • Chemical agents are inanimate, but bacteria, viruses and other live agents may be contagious and reproductive. (khouse.org)
  • While chemical attacks are frightening, a biological weapon poses the worst nightmare: Chemical agents are inanimate, but bacteria, viruses, and other live agents can be contagious and reproductive. (khouse.org)
  • The main concern is not with the presence of your own fecal matter on your toothbrush, but rather when a toothbrush is contaminated with fecal matter from someone else, which contains bacteria, viruses or parasites that are not part of your normal flora," said Lauren Aber, MHS (Graduate Student, Quinnipiac University). (asm.org)
  • Clinical features and specific aspects of treatment were evaluated in 612 patients with gram-negative bacteremia observed over a 10 year period. (nih.gov)
  • Pertussis is primarily a toxin-mediated disease in which toxins produced by the bacteria are responsible for the majority of its clinical features. (canada.ca)
  • Aerobic gram-negative bacteria Polysaccharide capsule Six different serotypes (a-f) of polysaccharide capsule 95% of invasive disease caused by type b. (slideserve.com)
  • The product made from these bacteria should be focused while oxidative fermentation by Acetobacter can produce up to 20% acetic acid. (ipl.org)
  • The cause is the bacterium Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
  • enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica , the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. (yahoo.com)
  • Salmonella bacteria were first discovered by an American scientist, Dr. Daniel E. Salmon in 1884. (yahoo.com)
  • Dr. Salmon isolated the bacteria from the intestines of a pig and called it Salmonella choleraesui. (yahoo.com)
  • Salmonella enterica are rod shaped Gram-negative bacteria. (yahoo.com)
  • Acabo de modificar 1 ligazóns externas en Salmonella enterica subsp . (yahoo.com)
  • Factors that affect the growth of bacteria of the acetic acid include ethanol , oxygen, temperature, nutrients, and acetic acid. (ipl.org)
  • These units, however are left unused and their powers are off during the night, which aggravates the condition of the dental water line units or facilitates the growth of bacteria in these parts [9]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bacteria that can directly convert sugars to acetic acid in an anaerobic fermentation include Clostridium and Acetobacterium but they can not tolerate the acetic acid concentrations greater than a few percent. (ipl.org)
  • This airborne germ has also been known to carry HIV, allowing it to 'piggyback' the bacteria and thus also be contagious in the air. (khouse.org)
  • Bacteria had to evolve adaptation mechanisms to counteract the damage originated from toxic contaminants and to prevent their accumulation in cell. (hindawi.com)
  • Some bacteria have developed efficient adaptation mechanisms to survive under adverse conditions [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacteria have developed various mechanisms to neutralize the action of antibacterial agents. (bsava.com)
  • It is a soil-dwelling bacterium endemic in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, particularly in Thailand and northern Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrification in soil is carried out predominantly by autotrophic ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) of the genera Nitrosomonas , Nitrosopira, and Nitrosococcus, which convert N[H. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aerobic bacteria - Bacteria which require oxygen in order to grow and survive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bacteria able to survive in toxic environment could help us to clean contaminated areas when they are used in bioremediation technologies. (hindawi.com)
  • Bacteria used for biodegradation must be able to survive and colonize the contaminated area. (hindawi.com)
  • However, when a person has ingested food or water containing large amounts of cholera bacteria, some will survive to infect the intestines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As would be expected, antacid usage or the use of any medication that blocks acid production in the stomach would allow more bacteria to survive and cause infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gram-negative bacteremia. (nih.gov)
  • Active surveillance was initiated to detect cases of febrile illness among the boys' teammates on a local youth baseball team and at area hospitals and laboratories to identify suspected cases of Gram-negative bacteremia. (cdc.gov)
  • Some are called broad-spectrum and are used to treat a wide variety of bacteria. (backyardchickens.com)
  • Xanthomonas arboricola is a aerobic, gram-negative bacterium. (metos.at)
  • The Cathra system is a commercial multipoint inoculation method for the identification of aerobic Gram negative bacteria. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We showed that the Dot/Icm (defect in organelle trafficking/intracellular multiplication) secretion system is restricted to both poles of the bacterium and its localization is a key feature of L. pneumophila 's virulence, because nonpolar export of Dot/Icm effectors is ineffectual. (pnas.org)