Bacteria, AerobicBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria: A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in peptidoglycan and thus have low affinity for violet stain and high affinity for the pink dye safranine.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicAerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci: A group of gram-negative bacteria consisting of rod- and coccus-shaped cells. They are both aerobic (able to grow under an air atmosphere) and microaerophilic (grow better in low concentrations of oxygen) under nitrogen-fixing conditions but, when supplied with a source of fixed nitrogen, they grow as aerobes.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Gangrene: Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Limulus Test: Sensitive method for detection of bacterial endotoxins and endotoxin-like substances that depends on the in vitro gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), prepared from the circulating blood (amebocytes) of the horseshoe crab, by the endotoxin or related compound. Used for detection of endotoxin in body fluids and parenteral pharmaceuticals.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.PhenazinesNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.IndiaDrug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Toll-Like Receptor 4: A pattern recognition receptor that interacts with LYMPHOCYTE ANTIGEN 96 and LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES. It mediates cellular responses to GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Sulfur-Reducing Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.

RFLP of rRNA genes and sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: a phylogenetic approach. (1/555)

It has been established that 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny gives a low resolution between members of the chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) belonging to the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. In this study, 12 isolates of AOB were ribotyped, and the sequences of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region (ISR) were determined and used in a phylogenetic study. 16S and 23S rDNA ribotyping revealed that the AOB studied contain only one rrn operon per genome, in contrast to most bacteria, which have 5-10 copies of the rRNA genes per genome. It is likely that the presence of only one set of rRNA genes is related to the slow growth of the AOB. The 16S and 23S rRNA genes of the AOB were shown to be arranged in the classical way: a 16S rRNA gene, an ISR and a 23S rRNA gene. Despite the close phylogenetic relationship among the AOB, the relative location of the rRNA genes in the genome appears to vary considerably. The size of the ISR was approximately 400 bp in the Nitrosomonas isolates and 645-694 bp in the Nitrosospira isolates, suggesting a species-specific size difference in the ISR. The ISR contained two potential tRNA genes in the 5' end in all isolates studied. The similarity values between the ISR sequences of the AOB are low (42.9-96.2%) compared with the 16S rDNA sequence similarity values, and therefore the ISR sequences are valuable as a complementary phylogenetic tool in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequences. The phylogenetic analysis of the AOB based on ISR sequences confirms the 16S rRNA gene-based phylogeny but has the benefit of giving a higher resolution.  (+info)

Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov., a budding bacterium with variable bacteriochlorophyll a production from hypersaline Ekho Lake. (2/555)

Eight Gram-negative, aerobic, pointed and budding bacteria were isolated from various depths of the hypersaline, heliothermal and meromictic Ekho Lake (Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica). The cells contained storage granules and daughter cells could be motile. Bacteriochlorophyll a was sometimes produced, but production was repressed by constant dim light. The strains tolerated a wide range of temperature, pH, concentrations of artificial seawater and NaCl, but had an absolute requirement for sodium ions. Glutamate was metabolized with and without an additional source of combined nitrogen. The dominant fatty acid was C18:1; other characteristic fatty acids were C18:2, C12:0 2-OH, C12:1 3-OH, C16:1, C16:0 and C18:0. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine. The DNA G+C base composition was 62-64 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed that the isolates were phylogenetically close to the genera Antarctobacter, 'Marinosulfonomonas', Octadecabacter, Sagittula, Sulfitobacter and Roseobacter. Morphological, physiological and genotypic differences to these previously described and distinct genera support the description of a new genus and a new species, Roseovarius tolerans gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is EL-172T (= DSM 11457T).  (+info)

Complete sequence of a 184-kilobase catabolic plasmid from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199. (3/555)

The complete 184,457-bp sequence of the aromatic catabolic plasmid, pNL1, from Sphingomonas aromaticivorans F199 has been determined. A total of 186 open reading frames (ORFs) are predicted to encode proteins, of which 79 are likely directly associated with catabolism or transport of aromatic compounds. Genes that encode enzymes associated with the degradation of biphenyl, naphthalene, m-xylene, and p-cresol are predicted to be distributed among 15 gene clusters. The unusual coclustering of genes associated with different pathways appears to have evolved in response to similarities in biochemical mechanisms required for the degradation of intermediates in different pathways. A putative efflux pump and several hypothetical membrane-associated proteins were identified and predicted to be involved in the transport of aromatic compounds and/or intermediates in catabolism across the cell wall. Several genes associated with integration and recombination, including two group II intron-associated maturases, were identified in the replication region, suggesting that pNL1 is able to undergo integration and excision events with the chromosome and/or other portions of the plasmid. Conjugative transfer of pNL1 to another Sphingomonas sp. was demonstrated, and genes associated with this function were found in two large clusters. Approximately one-third of the ORFs (59 of them) have no obvious homology to known genes.  (+info)

Overexpression of the alanine carrier protein gene from thermophilic bacterium PS3 in Escherichia coli. (4/555)

The alanine transporter (alanine carrier protein, ACP) gene of thermophilic bacterium PS3 was previously cloned and expressed in a functionally active form in Escherichia coli cells. To achieve controlled overproduction of the ACP protein, we designed a plasmid encoding a fusion protein comprising ACP joined to the carboxyl terminus of the maltose binding protein (MBP-ACP). Upon transduction of the plasmid into E. coli RM1 cells defective in alanine/glycine transport, the transport activity was expressed even before induction with 1-thio-beta-D-galacto-pyranoside (IPTG), and increased slightly on induction with IPTG at low concentrations. However, overexpression of the MBP-ACP gene, induced by higher concentrations of IPTG, resulted in death of the host cells. Hence we screened other host cells and found that the MBP-ACP fusion protein was produced in a large quantity in E. coli TB1 cells 3 h after IPTG induction. The MBP-ACP fusion protein was accumulated in cytoplasmic membranes in an amount reaching more than 20% of the total membrane protein. The affinity-purified MBP-ACP exhibited very low transport activity when reconstituted into proteoliposomes.  (+info)

Procedure for expediting determinations of antibiotic susceptibility of gram-negative, urinary tract pathogens. (5/555)

Standardized direct disk diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing on monomicrobial urine specimens is compared with the Food and Drug Administration method. The direct procedure yields acceptable data and may conserve 24 h in reporting results.  (+info)

Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) and poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) without subsequent degradation by Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava. (6/555)

A Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain was able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] having a high level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid monomer unit (4HB) from gamma-butyrolactone. In a two-step process in which the first step involved production of cells containing a minimum amount of poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(3HB)] and the second step involved polyester accumulation from the lactone, approximately 5 to 10 mol% of the 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3HB) derived from the first-step culture was unavoidably reincorporated into the polymer in the second cultivation step. Reincorporation of the 3HB units produced from degradation of the first-step residual P(3HB) was confirmed by high-resolution 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In order to synthesize 3HB-free poly(4-hydroxybutyric acid) [P(4HB)] homopolymer, a three-stage cultivation technique was developed by adding a nitrogen addition step, which completely removed the residual P(3HB). The resulting polymer was free of 3HB. However, when the strain was grown on gamma-butyrolactone as the sole carbon source in a synthesis medium, a copolyester of P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 45 mol% 3HB was produced. One-step cultivation on gamma-butyrolactone required a rather long induction time (3 to 4 days). On the basis of the results of an enzymatic study performed with crude extracts, we suggest that the inability of cells to produce 3HB in the multistep culture was due to a low level of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (4HBA) dehydrogenase activity, which resulted in a low level of acetyl coenzyme A. Thus, 3HB formation from gamma-butyrolactone is driven by a high level of 4HBA dehydrogenase activity induced by long exposure to gamma-butyrolactone, as is the case for a one-step culture. In addition, intracellular degradation kinetics studies showed that P(3HB) in cells was completely degraded within 30 h of cultivation after being transferred to a carbon-free mineral medium containing additional ammonium sulfate, while P(3HB-co-4HB) containing 5 mol% 3HB and 95 mol% 4HB was totally inert in interactions with the intracellular depolymerases. Intracellular inertness could be a useful factor for efficient synthesis of the P(4HB) homopolymer and of 4HB-rich P(3HB-co-4HB) by the strain used in this study.  (+info)

Amino acid composition of peptidoglycan in Caulobacter crescentus. (7/555)

Peptidoglycan of a gram-negative stalked bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus CB13, contained alanine, diaminopimelic acid, and glutamic acid, in molar ratios of 2 : 1 : 1. The amino acid compositions of peptidoglycans isolated from cultures enriched in swarmer and stalked cells, and from a stalk-less mutant were similar. This finding conflicts with a previous observation that swarmer peptidoglycan does not contain diaminopimelic acid (Goodwin and Shedlarski (1975) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 170, 23-36). It appears that, despite the morphological differences, the Caulobacter cells all contain a similar peptidoglycan in the cell wall.  (+info)

A corrinoid-dependent catabolic pathway for growth of a Methylobacterium strain with chloromethane. (8/555)

Methylobacterium sp. strain CM4, an aerobic methylotrophic alpha-proteobacterium, is able to grow with chloromethane as a carbon and energy source. Mutants of this strain that still grew with methanol, methylamine, or formate, but were unable to grow with chloromethane, were previously obtained by miniTn5 mutagenesis. The transposon insertion sites in six of these mutants mapped to two distinct DNA fragments. The sequences of these fragments, which extended over more than 17 kb, were determined. Sequence analysis, mutant properties, and measurements of enzyme activity in cell-free extracts allowed the definition of a multistep pathway for the conversion of chloromethane to formate. The methyl group of chloromethane is first transferred by the protein CmuA (cmu: chloromethane utilization) to a corrinoid protein, from where it is transferred to H4folate by CmuB. Both CmuA and CmuB display sequence similarity to methyltransferases of methanogenic archaea. In its C-terminal part, CmuA is also very similar to corrinoid-binding proteins, indicating that it is a bifunctional protein consisting of two domains that are expressed as separate polypeptides in methyl transfer systems of methanogens. The methyl group derived from chloromethane is then processed by means of pterine-linked intermediates to formate by a pathway that appears to be distinct from those already described in Methylobacterium. Remarkable features of this pathway for the catabolism of chloromethane thus include the involvement of a corrinoid-dependent methyltransferase system for dehalogenation in an aerobe and a set of enzymes specifically involved in funneling the C1 moiety derived from chloromethane into central metabolism.  (+info)

Resistance of gram-negative aerobic bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics differs by region and country. Resistance to aminoglycosides was higher in Southern Europe than in Central and Northern Europe. Reports of the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to gentamicin and tobramycin have ranged from as low as 49.8% and 77.7%, in Greece, to as high as 96.6% and 99.2%, respectively, in the United Kingdom [3]. It was reported that 54% of gram-negative bacilli in Turkey are resistant to gentamicin, 35% to tobramycin, and only 0.9% to amikacin in 1988 [4]. Consistent to this finding, resistance to amikacin (25.4%) of P. aeruginosa was still lower than to gentamicin (57.5%) or tobramycin (58.4%). However, this data suggests that resistance to amikacin increases progressively in Turkey.. Isolates in tracheal aspirates were highly resistant whereas isolates obtained from bronchial lavage fluids were relatively quite susceptible. In our hospital, tracheal aspiration is generally a procedure performed in ...
Stereoselective desymmetrizations by recombinant whole cells expressing the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Xanthobacter sp ZL5: A new biocatalyst accepting structurally demanding ...
The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (<10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (<36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active
The extraction, fractionation and HIV-1 inhibition potential of polysaccharides extracted from three species of marine sponges, Erylus discophorus, Cliona celata and Stelletta sp., collected in the Northeastern Atlantic, is presented in this work. The anti-HIV activity of 23 polysaccharide pellets and three crude extracts was tested. Crude extracts prepared from Erylus discophorus specimens were all highly active against HIV-1 (90 to 95% inhibition). Cliona celata pellets showed low polysaccharide content (bellow 38.5%) and almost no anti-HIV activity (,10% inhibition). Stelletta sp. pellets, although quite rich in polysaccharide (up to 97.3%), showed only modest bioactivity (,36% HIV-1 inhibition). Erylus discophorus pellets were among the richest in terms of polysaccharide content (up to 98%) and the most active against HIV-1 (up to 95% inhibition). Chromatographic fractionation of the polysaccharide pellet obtained from a specimen of Erylus discophorus (B161) yielded only modestly active ...
Gentamicine is a bactericide antibiotic of the aminoglycosides family and acts in an excellent way on aerobic Gram-negative bacteria.
The Brotherhood of the Castigars The Osiris Legion is the section of the Whitevale based paramilitary organization that declared loyalty to Shinsou alone. Below is a breakdown of the divisions that comprises the Brotherhoods main forces. The 95th Foot 2000 units strong, the 95th foot are Shinsous handpicked infantry battallion. They are armed with dangerous steel poleaxes, are furnished with steel tower shields and keep steel daggers on their person for close combat. Though not the
Novartis bolstered its leading position in stem-cell technology by forging a research collaboration with Osiris Therapeutics, a fledgling U.S. biotechnology company.
Annotated image indicating the approximate locations of some of Rosettas final images. Note that due to differences in timing and viewing geometry between consecutive images in this graphic, the illumination and shadows vary. Top left: a global view of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko shows the area in which Rosetta touched down in the Maat region on the smaller of the two comet lobes. This image was taken by the OSIRIS narrow-angle camera on 5 August 2014 from a distance of 123 km. Top right: an image taken by the OSIRIS narrow-angle camera from an altitude of 5.7 km, during Rosettas descent on 30 September 2016. The image scale is about 11 cm/pixel and the image measures about 225 m across. The final touchdown point, named Sais, is seen in the bottom right of the image and is located within a shallow, ancient pit. Exposed, dust-free terrain is seen in the pit walls and cliff edges. Note the image is rotated 180º with respect to the global context image at top right. Middle: an OSIRIS ...
Read "Complete genome sequence of marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas phenolica bacteriophage TW1, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum, plasma) to measure levels of tobramycin, an aminoglycoside bactericidal agent. Tobramycin is used in the treatment of a wide range of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and also for some gram-positive bacteria. Reagents for tobramycin level measurement are used to monitor the drug levels in patients undergoing treatment, either to determine the adequacy of drug treatment or to diagnose a drug overdose or drug-related toxicity. Typical reference levels in blood, in micrograms per milliliter, are peak 5 to 8, predose (trough) 1 to 2, and toxic more than 10.. Entry Terms : "Tobramycin Drug Level Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Therapeutic Drug, Antibiotic, Tobramycin". UMDC code : 19155 ...
Definition : Immunoassay reagents intended to perform quantitative analyses on a body fluid sample (e.g., serum, plasma) to measure levels of kanamycin, an aminoglycoside bactericidal agent. Kanamycin is used in the treatment of a wide variety of aerobic gram-negative bacteria and also for some gram-positive bacteria including mycobacteria. Reagents for kanamycin drug level measurement are used to monitor the therapeutic drug level in patients undergoing treatment, either to determine the adequacy of drug treatment or to diagnose a drug overdose or drug-related toxicity. Typical reference levels in blood, in microgram per milliliter, are: peak 20 to 25, predose (trough) 5 to 10, and toxic more than 35.. Entry Terms : "Kanamycin Drug Level Determination Reagents" , "Reagents, Immunoassay, Therapeutic Drug, Antibiotic, Kanamycin". UMDC code : 20040 ...
The human small intestine plays a central role in the processes of digestion and nutrient absorption. However, characterizations of the human gut microbiome have largely relied on stool samples, and the associated methodologies are ill-suited for the viscosity and low microbial biomass of small intestine samples. As part of the REIMAGINE study to examine the specific roles of the small bowel microbiome in human health and disease, this study aimed to develop and validate methodologies to optimize microbial analysis of the small intestine. Subjects undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy without colon preparation for standard of care were prospectively recruited, and ~ 2 ml samples of luminal fluid were obtained from the duodenum using a custom sterile aspiration catheter. Samples of duodenal aspirates were either untreated (DA-U, N = 127) or pretreated with dithiothreitol (DA-DTT, N = 101), then cultured on MacConkey agar for quantitation of aerobic gram-negative bacteria, typically from the class
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2014/12/04 ,, Mila ,, [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25225269 Nyak DD & Marx CJ. Methylamine Utilization via the N-Methylglutamate Pathway in Methylobacterium extorquens PA1 Involves a Novel Flow of Carbon through C1 Assimilation and Dissimilation Pathways. J Bacteriol (2014).] ,, ...
... A review of using Pap smears to diagnose a number of microorganisms including Leptothrix vaginalis was carried out by F..
Osiris is the original baad sheep - and provides much fodder for discussion on the controversy surrounding Sheep Intelligence. Case rested here!
Osiris Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: OSIR), the leading stem cell company developing and marketing products to treat medical conditions in inflammatory, cardiovascular, orthopedic and wound healing markets, ......OSIR
Egyptský bůh Usir, též Osiris, nejčastěji zpodobňován s korunou, žezlem a důtkami. Symbolizoval nevyčerpatelnost přírody. V pozdní... Blog.cz - Stačí otevřít a budeš v obraze.
Registration for a minor is mandatory for UT students and is only possible during the period described on this website through OSIRIS-student. Application for minors will be on a First Come First Serve base. When a minor is full, you can no longer register yourself for that minor. An UT student can register for a maximum of 30 ECTS in OSIRIS, this is equivalent to 2 minors of 15 ECTS each. After the registration period, your Bureau of Educational Affairs will check if you meet the (if applicable) ECTS requirement set by your study programme. If you meet the requirement, your minor will be approved. The result of the check will be visible on your study progress overview in Osiris. If you dont meet the requirements, you will receive an e-mail from the Bureau of Educational Affairs. For questions, contact your study adviser.. Theres no need to register for the corresponding module. You will automatically be registered for the module a few weeks before the minor starts. This does not apply for the ...
Da Ubi Soft arriva un convincente action/adventure ispirato alle avventure della serie La Mummia. Il gioco, per , non tratto dalla versione cinematografica, quanto piuttosto dalla omonima serie a ca... [continua]
Osiris Therapeutics Inc. Stock - OSIR news, historical stock charts, analyst ratings, financials, and todays Osiris Therapeutics Inc. stock price.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for gi|154246770|ref|YP_001417728.1| from Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
The gene encoding a thermostable cellulase of family 12 was previously isolated from a Rhodothermus marinus through functional screening. CelA is a protein of 260 aminoacyl residues with a 28-residue amino-terminal signal peptide. Mature CelA was poorly synthesized in some Escherichia coli strains and not at all in others. Here we present an alternative approach for its heterologous production as a secreted polypeptide in Streptomyces. CelA was successfully over-expressed as a secreted polypeptide in Streptomyces lividans TK24. To this end, CelA was fused C-terminally to the secretory signal peptide of the subtilisin inhibitor protein (Sianidis et al. in J Biotechnol. 121: 498-507, 2006) from Streptomyces venezuelae and a new cloning strategy developed. Optimal growth media and conditions that stall biomass production promote excessive CelA secretion. Under optimal growth conditions in nutrient broth medium, significant amounts of mature CelA (50-90 mg/L or 100-120 mg/g of dry cell weight) are secreted
Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 has been considered as a potential platform strain for industrial production of valuable chemicals such as mevalonate, 1-butanol and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate [30, 32, 33, 41]. In this work, we first optimized a 3-HP synthetic pathway in M. extorquens AM1, and then focused on the demonstration of the mechanism of 3-HP reassimilation.. It has been reported that tuning of gene expression levels was critical for proper functioning of a heterologous synthetic pathway in M. extorquens AM1. For instance, Hu et al. found that the strain expressing the adhE2 and ter from a promoter of intermediate strength produced the highest 1-butanol [32]. In our case, four different promoter strengths were tested and the strongest promoter mxaF was shown to generate the highest 3-HP, comparable with the preliminary titer of other engineered microorganisms [5]. The pool size of precursor acetyl-CoA was similar between the YHP5 strains and the other three recombinant strains, implying that ...
Comamonas testosteroni ATCC ® 700441D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Comamonas testosteroni strain JS42 TypeStrain=False Application:
Abstract: A binary metallic catalyst (PtSn/C) and a ternary metallic catalyst (PtSnCo/C) with a metal mass fraction of 20% were prepared by borohydride reduction and subsequent hydrothermal treatment in a glycol liquid phase. The structure and composition of the as-prepared electrocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Their activity and stability for the catalysis of methanol oxidation were evaluated by anodic linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and the anodic stripping of a pre-adsorbed CO monolayer. We found that the PtSnCo/C catalyst gave the best catalytic activity for the methanol oxidation of all the catalysts including the commercial JM-PtRu/C catalyst. After 100 cycles, the peak current of methanol oxidation for the PtSn/C catalyst rapidly decreased to 11% of its initial peak current but PtSnCo/C decreased to only 50%. This result suggests that the PtSnCo/C catalyst has better chemical stability for the ...
Other nucleotides outside the MmeI recognition sequence were also methylated for other studies/ but since MmeI does not have any sequence specifity for these nucleotides this does affect MmeI activity and these other methylations are omitted here for clarity.) Duplex DNA was formed by mixing 100µl top strand oligo (14µM stock) with 100µl bottom strand oligo (14µM stock), heating to 85°C and cooling slowly to 30°C over a time of 20 minutes. MmeI was then used to cleave the oligo pairs in a 30 µl reaction of 1X NEBuffer4, 2.5 µM oligo, 100 µM SAM and 2.5 units MmeI. As a control, restriction endonuclease Hpyl88I was also used to cleave the oligo DNA. The Hpyl88I recognition sequence overlaps the first 5 nucleotides of the MmeI recognition sequence in this DNA, 5-TCNGA-3 and is blocked by methylation at the adenine in either strand of the DNA. MmeI was found to cleave unmethylated DNA as expected. In contrast to previous teaching (Tucholski, Gene 223:293-302 (1998)) MmeI did not cleave ...
ID A7IFX9_XANP2 Unreviewed; 396 AA. AC A7IFX9; DT 11-SEP-2007, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-SEP-2007, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 82. DE RecName: Full=Elongation factor Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU004061}; DE Short=EF-Tu {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN Name=tuf {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00118}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Xaut_1677 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1}, Xaut_3356 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS68585.1}; OS Xanthobacter autotrophicus (strain ATCC BAA-1158 / Py2). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Xanthobacteraceae; Xanthobacter. OX NCBI_TaxID=78245 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002417}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002417} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC BAA-1158 / Py2 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002417}, and RC Py2 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ABS66922.1}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Copeland A., Lucas S., ...
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Comamonas testosteroni strain CNB-1 was isolated from activated sludge and has been investigated for its ability to degrade 4-chloronitrobenzene. Results from this study showed that strain CNB-1 grew on phenol, gentisate, vanillate, 3-hydroxybenzoate (3HB), and 4-hydroxybenzoate (4HB) as carbon and …
Amazon.com: The Osiris Child [Blu-ray]: Kellan Lutz, Daniel MacPherson, Luke Ford, Isabel Lucas, Temuera Morrison, Rachel Griffiths, Teagan Croft, Shane Abbess: Movies & TV
Bacteria of the genus Azospirillum, including the most comprehensively studied Azospirillum brasilense, are non‐pathogenic soil bacteria that promote the growth of diverse plants, making them an attractive model to understand non‐symbiotic, beneficial plant‐bacteria associations
While open Osiris Craps you appear in Egypt where a bright and sunny day surrounds you. Straight in front you see one of the grandest rivers of the world. It is Nile. And near the horizon line you see the pyramids which are the most enigmatical constructions on the Earth. The boat is floating slowly down the river and lengthways the banks many delicate water lilies are in blossom. This tranquil and at the same time majestic picture inspired the designers to create Osiris Craps. So they combined the beauty of nature, the tenderness of music, the splendor of ancient architecture and the achievements of modern graphics in one game!Osiris Craps is not a simple game on a classical table with marking this is an enjoyment from beauty and victory! Throw the dice and commit yourself to Fortunes care.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
A simulation study involves a number of steps: first a problem description and modelling, then implementation, after that experiments have to be conducted and finally the results have to be analysed. In the course, we study discrete-event simulation which means that the state of the system changes at discrete moments in time (step by step). Uncertainties are included in the model by means of stochastic variables. We focus on applications in transportation and logistics. These are modelled as discrete systems. In applications like robotica and aerodynamics, discrete-event simulation models are also important, however, they occur in combination with continuous simulation models (differential equations ...
Healthy eating and exercise can help you lose weight and maintain weight, too. Being healthy requires a two-prong approach, and when you leave healthy food or exercise off of the schedule, youre simply not going to be as healthy as you "think you are.". When trying to lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you consume.. Its pure mathematics, and if you eat more calories than you consume, you can be sure that youll gain weight.. Lets take a look at a few exercise and eating tips that can help you lose or maintain your weight while being the healthiest you possible ...
The Hapi region on the neck of Rosettas comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko reflects red light less effectively than most other regions on the comet. It thus appears slightly blueish. The Hapi region is located between the comets ...
They say that the Sun, when he became aware of Rheas intercourse with Cronus, invoked a curse upon her that she should not give birth to a child in any month or year; but Hermes, being enamoured of the goddess, consorted with her. Later, playing at draughts with the moon, he won from her the seventieth part of each of her periods of illumination, and from all the winnings he composed five days, and intercalated them as an addition to the three hundred and sixty days. The Egyptians even now call these five days intercalated and celebrate them as the birthdays of the gods. They relate that on the first of these days Osiris was born, and at the hour of his birth a voice issued forth saying, "The Lord of All advances to the light." But some relate that a certain Pamyles, while he was drawing water in Thebes, heard a voice issuing from the shrine of Zeus, which bade him proclaim with a loud voice that a mighty and beneficent king, Osiris, had been born; and for this Cronus entrusted to him the child ...
ov1<-findOverlaps(t1,t2,minoverlap=overlap) print("ovdone") genes_pvalues<-read.table(gene_expr_file,header=TRUE, sep="\t") idx<-match(genes$entrezgene[as.matrix(ov1)[,1]],genes_pvalues$gene_id ) overlapping_genes<-genes$entrezgene[as.matrix(ov1)[,1]] non_overlapping_genes<-genes$entrezgene[-(as.matrix(ov1)[,1])] list_non_overlapping<-unique(non_overlapping_genes) list_overlapping<-unique(overlapping_genes) idx_com<-match(list_non_overlapping,list_overlapping) idx_non_overlapping_without_overlapping_idx<-which(is.na(idx_com)==TRUE) list_non_overlapping_new<-list_non_overlapping[idx_non_overlapping_without_overlapping_idx] idx_overlapping<- match(list_overlapping, genes_pvalues$gene_id) overlapping_genes_pvals<-genes_pvalues[idx_overlapping,] overlapping_genes_pvals_out<- paste("overlapping_genes",Sys.time(),".txt",sep="") idx_non_overlapping<- match(list_non_overlapping_new, genes_pvalues$gene_id) non_overlapping_genes_pvals<-genes_pvalues[idx_non_overlapping,] ...
Alteromonas Ferment Extract, from deep sea algae, is a polysaccharide containing hydration, repair and restorative, and anti-inflammatory properties.
The Genomic tRNA Database is curated by Todd Lowe and Patricia Chan. Please email [email protected] with any questions and comments. To submit corrections, please use our Bug and Request Tracking System ...
Cargo Cult - Who is John Frum? He is known to us by many names, this Visitor from Elsewhere, dispenser of endless abundance and wielder of mysterious technologies: John Frum, Quetzalcoatl, Osiris, Bob. His cargo is splendid, his generosity boundless, his motives beyond our understanding. But across the ages and around the world, the stories all agree: one day he will return, bearing great gifts. Our theme this year asks three related questions; who is John Frum, where is he really from, and where, on spaceship Earth, are we all going ...
Written by Chris Rah Osiris This movie had a great soundtrack. We were spoiled back in July. Thats all I can say. This week has a few titles that you may
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Catalytic Role of XoxF1 as La3+-Dependent Methanol Dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens Strain AM1. AU - Nakagawa, Tomoyuki. AU - Mitsui, Ryoji. AU - Tani, Akio. AU - Sasa, Kentaro. AU - Tashiro, Shinya. AU - Iwama, Tomonori. AU - Hayakawa, Takashi. AU - Kawai, Keiichi. PY - 2012/11/27. Y1 - 2012/11/27. N2 - In the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1, MxaF, a Ca2+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), is the main enzyme catalyzing methanol oxidation during growth on methanol. The genome of strain AM1 contains another MDH gene homologue, xoxF1, whose function in methanol metabolism has remained unclear. In this work, we show that XoxF1 also functions as an MDH and is La3+-dependent. Despite the absence of Ca2+ in the medium strain AM1 was able to grow on methanol in the presence of La3+. Addition of La3+ increased MDH activity but the addition had no effect on mxaF or xoxF1 expression level. We purified MDH from strain AM1 grown on methanol ...
K01601 rbcL; ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain [EC:4.1.1.39] K01601 rbcL; ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain [EC:4.1.1.39] K01602 rbcS; ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase small chain [EC:4.1.1.39 ...
Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 is capable of growth on one-carbon compounds such as methanol. Methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde which is then used metabolically to generate either energy or biomass. These bacteria are commonly found in the environment, especially associated with plants which produce methanol when metabolizing pectin during cell wall synthesis. The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids. [Vuilleumier 2009]. ...
Methanol oxidation catalysts comprising an outer Pt-shell with an inner Ni-core supported on carbon, (Pt-Ni/C), were prepared with either crystalline or amorphous Ni core structures. Structural comparisons of the two forms of catalyst were made using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and methanol oxidation activity compared using CV and chronoamperometry (CA). While both the amorphous Ni core and crystalline Ni core structures were covered by similar Pt shell thickness and structure, the Pt-Ni(amorphous)/C catalyst had higher methanol oxidation activity. The amorphous Ni core thus offers improved Pt usage efficiency in direct methanol fuel cells.
am1a04d AJ229366 409 3.0 E-41 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1-) C. albicans 3.4 E-41 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1-) C. tropicalis 5.8 E-41 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1-) P. stipitis am2f05d AJ229451 261 6.0 E-18 Putative agmatinase precursor (EC 3.5.3.11) S. pombe 2.0 E-08 Possible agmatinase (EC 3.5.3.11) S. clavuligerus 4.9 E-06 Hypothetical agmatase (EC 3.5.3.11) M. fervidus okam5d07r AJ229891 230 0.1 E-10 Beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100) C. lanceolata 0.2 E-10 Hypothetical protein 5 Xanthobacter sp 6.3 E-10 Hypothetical oxidoreductase B. subtilis am2d01d AJ229435 151 2.9 E-07 YOL5_CAEEL hypothetical 45.3 KD protein C. elegans okam1d10r AJ229574 268 0.2 E-06 Acetamidase (EC 3.5.1.4) A. nidulans ...
Looking for online definition of Alteromonas in the Medical Dictionary? Alteromonas explanation free. What is Alteromonas? Meaning of Alteromonas medical term. What does Alteromonas mean?
I am a young researcher in the field of Plant Biotechnology. I belong to University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. I did my Masters degree in Microbiology from Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics (MMG), University of the Punjab, Lahore in 2011. I commenced one-year research and submitted a comprehensive thesis entitled "Isolation and characterization of Azospirillum spp. from rhizosphere of some grasses". Here, I conducted lab experiments on soil microbiology and plant-microbe interactions. I proceeded to the Centre of excellence in Molecular Biology (CEMB) where I obtained her MPhil degree in 2015 and did research work in "Risk assessment of Bt-cotton in non-target Soil microbes". I also worked as a Research Officer at Plant Biotechnology lab (CEMB) in a project entitled "Biosafety of Genetically modified crops", 2015. I further advanced my studies in Plant Biotechnology as a PhD researcher at CEMB, University of the Punjab, Lahore where I conducted research work in cotton ...
Aerobic Gram-negative bacteria *Bordetella pertussis. *Legionella pneumophila. *Pasteurella multocida. Anaerobic Gram-positive ... Clarithromycin prevents bacteria from multiplying by acting as a protein synthesis inhibitor. It binds to 23S rRNA, a component ... Safety and effectiveness of clarithromycin in treating clinical infections due to the following bacteria have not been ... It is in the macrolide class and works by decreasing protein production of some bacteria.[1] ...
nov., a Gram-negative, aerobic, chemoheterotrophic bacterium of a novel bacterial phylum, Armatimonadetes phyl. nov., formally ... The Chlamydiae (diderms, weakly Gram negative) is a phylum of the PVC superphylum. It is composed of only 6 genera of obligate ... Purple Bacteria and their relatives (later renamed Proteobacteria[15]) *alpha subdivision (purple non-sulfur bacteria, ... In that system, bacteria are members of the domain Bacteria[3] and "phylum" is the rank below domain, since the rank "kingdom" ...
... is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. Parte, A.C. "Aquamicrobium". www.bacterio.net. Lipski, A.; Kampfer ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic bacteria. A.C. Parte (1998-01-01). "Brachymonas". Bacterio.cict.fr. Retrieved ...
... is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. It is a soil-dwelling bacterium endemic in tropical and ... On Gram staining, the organism is a Gram-negative rod with a characteristic "safety pin" appearance (bipolar staining). On ... The classic textbook description of B. pseudomallei in clinical samples is of an intracellular, bipolar-staining, Gram-negative ... The Δasd bacterium (bacterium with the asd gene removed) protects against inhalational melioidosis in mice. Yabuuchi, E; Kosako ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate aerobic bacteria. One of the more notable characteristics of this genus is ... Bdellovibrio attacks other Gram-negative bacteria by attaching itself to the prey cell's outer membrane and peptidoglycan layer ... that members parasitize other Gram-negative bacteria by entering into their periplasmic space and feeding on the biopolymers, e ... ISBN 978-3-540-38577-6. Chen, H; Williams, HN (2012). "Sharing of prey: coinfection of a bacterium by a virus and a prokaryotic ...
Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Gram-Negative Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria. 2nd ed. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins, ... was an internationally known American microbiologist who discovered and described bacteria of medical importance at the United ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. The species are motile with one or more peritrichous ... Gram-negative aerobe of the family Alcaligenaceae. This species is most commonly found in the alimentary tract as a harmless ... They are obligately aerobic, but some can undergo anaerobic respiration if nitrate is present. They tend to be colorless. They ... Samples from blood, urine, feces, discharge from ears, spinal fluid, and wounds have produced this type of bacteria. Zoonotic ...
They are effective only against aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Neisseria, Pseudomonas). Currently the only commercially ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming bacteria. Lentilitoribacter donghaensis is the only ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile bacteria. Parte, A.C. "Chelativorans". www.bacterio.net ... nov., aerobic EDTA-degrading bacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 60 (5): 1044-51. doi ...
... is a strictly aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. It is the sole species of the genus Vogesella. V. ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative aerobic bacterium. The bacterial haemoglobin (VHb) was first discovered from ... 1986 Vitreoscilla stercoraria Pringsheim 1951 Members of Vitreoscilla are obligate aerobic bacteria, which are morphologically ... Thus Vitreoscilla is used to describe the bacterium as the transparent swing or oscillator, the way it exhibits locomotion. ... Vitreoscilla bacteria have a unique property in that they produces a type of haemoglobin, VHb. This molecule unlike classic ...
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram negative, aerobic, coccobacillus bacterium. This type of skin lesion was first described in ... 1) Gram stain of the fluid from pustules or bullae, and tissue swab. (2) Blood culture (3) Urine culture (4) Skin biopsy (5) ... Perivascular involvement is achieved by direct entry of bacteria through the skin or hematogenous spreading in case of sepsis. ... In case of septicemia, the bacteria reaches the skin via the bloodstream. Defective humoral or cellular immune system increases ...
... is an aerobic, nonfermentative, Gram-negative bacterium. It is an uncommon bacterium and human ... McGowan J (2006). "Resistance in nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria: multidrug resistance to the maximum". Am J Med. 119 (6 ... Initially classified as Bacterium bookeri, then renamed Pseudomonas maltophilia, S. maltophilia was also grouped in the genus ... It was first found in a pleural effusion in 1943 and given the name Bacterium bookeri. It was then renamed to Pseudomonas ...
... is a genus of Gram-negative, oxidase- and catalase-positive, aerobic bacteria. LPSN bacterio.net UniProt ...
... a synthetic monobactam specifically active against aerobic gram-negative bacteria". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 21 ( ... Richmond, M. H.; Sykes, R. B. (1973). "The β-Lactamases of Gram-Negative Bacteria and their Possible Physiological Role". ... "Interaction of azthreonam and related monobactams with beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria". Antimicrobial Agents and ... "Monocyclic β-lactam antibiotics produced by bacteria". Nature. 291 (5815): 489-91. doi:10.1038/291489a0. PMID 7015152. Datta, N ...
... is an aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria of the monophyletic genus Xylella. X. fastidiosa. It is a plant ... nov.: Gram-negative, xylem-limited, fastidious plant bacteria related to Xanthomonas spp". International Journal of Systematic ... The bacterium has a two-part life cycle: inside an insect vector, and inside a susceptible plant. While the bacterium has been ... Many plants are asymptomatic carriers of the bacteria, which can contribute to its spread. Pathogenicity of the bacterium only ...
It is an aerobic, oval rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium. It is motile by means a single polar flagellum. A. aquaeolei is ... nov., an Aerobic, Halophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Subterranean Brine Arhodomonas aquaeolei Adkins, Jon P; Madigan, Michael ... nov., an Aerobic, Halophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Subterranean Brine" (PDF). International Journal of Systematic ... The temperature range for the growth of this bacteria is between 20 °C and 45 °C, with optimal growth at 37 °C and it requires ...
... is yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic bacterium. Its type strain is G3(T) (= KACC 14929(T ...
... is a Gram-negative, aerobic genus of bacteria from the family of Beijerinckiaceae. LPSN bacterio.net UniProt ... nov., an obligately acidophilic, facultatively methylotrophic bacterium with a highly divergent mxaF gene". International ...
... is a Gram-negative strictly aerobic bacteria genus from the family of Planococcaceae. Up to now there iso only one ...
... is a species of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic dimethylsulfoniopropionate-demethylating bacteria. ... nov., dimethylsulfoniopropionate-demethylating bacteria from marine environments". International Journal of Systematic and ...
... is an obligately methylotrophic, Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacteria. Its type ...
... is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic bacteria from the genus of Bradyrhizobiaceae. LPSN bacterio.net ...
Gram-positive bacteria only: Teichoic acid. *Lipoteichoic acid. *Endospore. *Gram-negative bacteria only: Bacterial outer ... and usually occurs in gram-positive bacteria. In endospore formation, the bacterium divides within its cell wall, and one side ... 1967). "The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis". Nature. 390 (6657): 249-56. doi:10.1038 ... Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus and ...
Comparative evaluation of three chromogenic agars for detection and rapid identification of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria in ... Comparative evaluation of three chromogenic agars for detection and rapid identification of aerobic Gram-negative bacteria in ... Chromogenic media, Detection, Escherichia coli, Gram-negative bacteria, Identification, Normal intestinal microflora, Stool ...
... negative) when treated by the gram-staining method. This is because the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria are low in ... A large group of aerobic bacteria which show up as pink ( ... Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria. Known as: Gram Negative Aerobic ... Evaluation of Cathra system for identifying gram negative aerobic bacteria.. *Julia Ling, Lefan Zhang, Yim W Hui, Gary Lawrence ... Eleven gram-negative aerobic bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Neisseriaceae) out of 122 soil isolates were selected for their… ( ...
... aerobic, orangepigmented, rod-shaped, motile by peritrichous flagella and astaxanthin-producing. This organism produced ... nov., a new aerobic Gram-negative astaxanthin-producing bacterium MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and ... nov., a new aerobic Gram-negative astaxanthin-producing bacterium, Page 1 of 1 ... The strain E-396T, isolated from soil, was Gram-negative, aerobic, orangepigmented, rod-shaped, motile by peritrichous flagella ...
Aerobic gram-negative bacteria. *13 distinct polysaccharide capsules have been described. *Almost all invasive disease caused ... N. meningitidis, or meningococcus, is an aerobic, gram-negative diplococcus, closely related to N. gonorrhoeae, and to several ... A Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showing gram-negative diplococci strongly suggests meningococcal meningitis. Real- ... The bacteria attach to and multiply on the mucosal cells of the nasopharynx. In a small proportion (less than 1%) of colonized ...
Pneumonia due to other aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. *Pneumonia due to Mycoplasm pneumoniae ...
Aerobic gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae Aerobic gram-negative bacteria Haemophilus influenzae ... 5.19 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience 6.2 Postmarketing Experience 7 ... Trimethoprim alone was negative in in vitro reverse mutation bacterial assays and in in vitro chromosomal aberration assays ... At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to ...
Aerobic gram-negative bacteria:. Haemophilus influenzae *Efficacy for these organisms were studied in fewer than ten infections ... Aerobic gram-negative bacteria:. Haemophilus influenzae *Efficacy for these organisms were studied in fewer than ten infections ... Aerobic gram-positive bacteria:. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus mitis group* Streptococcus ... Aerobic gram-positive bacteria:. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus mitis group* Streptococcus ...
Co-infection with other aerobic Gram-negative bacteria.. * Severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance ,30 milliliters (mL)/ ... Randomized-controlled Trial (RCT) on Combination Antibiotic for Infections Caused by Gram-negative Bacteria (XDR-GNB). The ... An increasing number of Gram-negative bacteria isolates worldwide are resistant to virtually all antibiotics including ... resistant Gram-negative bacteria (XDR-GNB - defined in Appendix I) infections, resistance development on therapy and treatment ...
effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria as well as other micro organisms ... What enzyme does gram positive bacteria product to break down the cell wall? ...
Clinical features and specific aspects of treatment were evaluated in 612 patients with gram-negative bacteremia observed over ... Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria* * Humans * Male * Massachusetts * Middle Aged * Pseudomonas Infections / diagnosis ... Gram-negative bacteremia. IV. Re-evaluation of clinical features and treatment in 612 patients Am J Med. 1980 Mar;68(3):344-55. ... Clinical features and specific aspects of treatment were evaluated in 612 patients with gram-negative bacteremia observed over ...
... , Pseudomonadaceae, Legionellaceae, Brucella, Flavobacterium, Alcaligenes, Acetobacteraceae, ... Gram Negative Bacteria Gram negative HACEK Bacilli Gram Positive Bacteria Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus Intracellular ... Aerobic Gram Negative Rod. Aerobic Gram Negative Rod Aka: Aerobic Gram Negative Rod, Pseudomonadaceae, Legionellaceae, Brucella ... rod-shaped bacteria in the family Alcaligenaceae. Definition (MSH) A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, motile bacteria that ...
Aerobic Gram-negative bacteria *Bordetella pertussis. *Legionella pneumophila. *Pasteurella multocida. Anaerobic Gram-positive ... Clarithromycin prevents bacteria from multiplying by acting as a protein synthesis inhibitor. It binds to 23S rRNA, a component ... Safety and effectiveness of clarithromycin in treating clinical infections due to the following bacteria have not been ... It is in the macrolide class and works by decreasing protein production of some bacteria.[1] ...
Aerobic gram negative bacteria (beta-lactamase negative strains only): Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria ... Aerobic gram positive bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus species (beta-lactamase negative strains only), certain ... Not active against beta-lactamase producing strains of bacteria.. *Staphylococci bacteria that are resistant to methicillin/ ... Active against bacteria that commonly cause ear, nose, or throat infections. *May also be used to treat infections of the ...
Aminoglycosides are primarily used to combat infections due to aerobic, Gram-negative bacteria. These bacteria can be ... Gram-positive bacteria retain the violet purple stain. Gram-negative bacteria accept the red stain. Bacteria that can ... Gram-positive bacteria retain the violet purple stain. Gram-negative bacteria accept the red stain. Bacteria that can ... Gram-negative bacteria. These bacteria can be identified by their reaction to Grams stain. In Grams staining, a film of ...
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried ... Among them, 25 cases were positive for bacteria, being Streptococcus pneumonia the most frequent (48 %). Among positive cases ... PCR multiplex for simultaneous and rapid identification of 14 pathogens, including 6 bacteria, 7 viruses, and Cryptococcus. We ... It is usually caused by an pneumococcal infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae. However,... ...
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried ...
The Physiology and Biochemistry of Aerobic Methanol-Utilizing Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria ...
Leptospira spp., the causative agents of leptospirosis, are obligate aerobic, gram-negative spirochete bacteria. ...
Spectrum of activity of polymyxin B includes many aerobic gram-negative bacteria.e f k l Inactive against gram-positive ... Gram-negative aerobes: Active against Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, ... for treatment of superficial infections of the eye caused by susceptible bacteria.b e k l ... for treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible bacteria.c f g ...
Ertapenem has in vitro activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The bactericidal ... Each vial contains 1.046 grams ertapenem sodium, equivalent to 1 gram ertapenem. The sodium content is approximately 137 mg ( ... Coagulase negative staphylococci can be considered susceptible to ertapenem if the oxacillin MIC is (less than=)0.25 (mu)g/mL ... For anaerobic bacteria, the susceptibility to ertapenem as MICs can be determined by standardized test methods(4). The MIC ...
This micrograph depicts the presence of aerobic Gram-negative Neisseria meningitidis diplococcal bacteria (CDC.gov) ...
Characterisation of aerobic gram-negative bacteria from subgingival sites of dogs--potential bite wound pathogens. ... Microbiology terminology update: clinically significant anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (excluding ... Recent taxonomic changes and terminology update of clinically significant anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (excluding ... Beta-lactamase production by oral anaerobic gram-negative species in infants in relation to previous antimicrobial therapy. ...
Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria / drug effects * Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria / growth & development ... Attachment of bacteria to model solid surfaces: oligo(ethylene glycol) surfaces inhibit bacterial attachment FEMS Microbiol ... are good candidates for surfaces that interact minimally with bacteria. ...
Gram-Negative Bacteria [B03.440]. *Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria [B03.440.400]. *Gram-Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci [B03.440 ... Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water, mud, or thermally polluted lakes or streams. It is pathogenic for man ... gram stain usefulness. Med Mal Infect. 2011 Dec; 41(12):669-70. ...
  • the organism was later confirmed by Gram stain and biochemical tests as S. moniliformis at the New Mexico Department of Health's Scientific Laboratory Division. (cdc.gov)
  • On Gram staining, the organism is a Gram-negative rod with a characteristic "safety pin" appearance (bipolar staining). (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic textbook description of B. pseudomallei in clinical samples is of an intracellular, bipolar-staining, Gram-negative rod, but this is of little value in identifying the organism from clinical samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organism grows more slowly than other bacteria that may be present in clinical specimens, and in specimens from nonsterile sites, is easily overgrown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Routine biochemical methods for identification of bacteria vary widely in their identification of this organism: the API 20NE system accurately identifies B. pseudomallei in 99% of cases, as does the automated Vitek 1 system, but the automated Vitek 2 system only identifies 19% of isolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • When more nutritive culture media were tried, McCoy and Chapin 2 successfully isolated a novel organism, which was named Bacterium tularense after Tulare county in central California, the site of the original discovery. (ersjournals.com)
  • What enzyme does gram positive bacteria product to break down the cell wall? (brainscape.com)
  • Here, we report a bioinformatics analysis of Xsc-containing gene clusters in Gram-positive bacteria, which revealed the presence of an alternative isethionate dissimilation pathway involving the NAD + -dependent oxidation of isethionate by a cytosolic metal-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (IseD). (asm.org)
  • Editorial Note: RBF refers to two similar diseases caused by different gram-negative facultative anaerobes: streptobacillary RBF caused by infection with S. moniliformis and spirillary RBF by Spirillum minus (2,3). (cdc.gov)
  • therefore, adolescents and adults who have not received a booster vaccination are at risk of infection and its consequent transmission of the bacteria to others. (canada.ca)
  • As would be expected, antacid usage or the use of any medication that blocks acid production in the stomach would allow more bacteria to survive and cause infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dozens of microbes may cause soft tissue infections, and although specific bacteria may cause a particular type of infection, considerable overlaps in clinical presentation exist. (aafp.org)
  • however, certain bacteria, some of which normally inhabit the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, have the potential to cause sickness and disease in humans. (usgs.gov)
  • From a number of supplemental references, we recognize that the "beasts of the earth" are not necessarily visible to the naked eye: they can include microbes, bacteria and viruses. (khouse.org)
  • Chemical agents are inanimate, but bacteria, viruses and other live agents may be contagious and reproductive. (khouse.org)
  • The main concern is not with the presence of your own fecal matter on your toothbrush, but rather when a toothbrush is contaminated with fecal matter from someone else, which contains bacteria, viruses or parasites that are not part of your normal flora," said Lauren Aber, MHS (Graduate Student, Quinnipiac University). (asm.org)
  • Eight CSS, the highest number in bacteria, have been reported in Myxococcus xanthus DK1622 and are involved in coordinating diverse functions. (asm.org)
  • CSS are present as a single system in most of the bacteria except in some groups, including Myxococcus xanthus , which has 8 CSS, the highest number reported to date. (asm.org)