Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Starch Phosphorylase: An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.beta-Amylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides so as to remove successive beta-maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains. EC 3.2.1.2.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.DextrinsAvena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Phosphotransferases (Paired Acceptors): A group of enzymes that transfers two phosphate groups from a donor such as ATP to two different acceptors. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.9.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
  • My major emphases will be to discuss recent research: 1) relating starch digestibility in corn silages differing in processing methods and nutritional qualities and 2) describing how processing of corn grain affects site of digestion. (extension.org)
  • If high-oil hybrids increased in frequency of planting, further work would be needed because increasing amylose/amylopectin ratio of corn could decrease starch digestibility in part because of increased chemical interactions with lipid (Svihus et al. (extension.org)
  • Contrary to common belief, corn is a grain, not a vegetable, and contains high amounts of sugar. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • WESTCHESTER, ILLINOIS, U.S. - Corn Products International, Inc. on Aug. 18 announced that the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has granted early termination of the Hart-Scott-Rodino waiting period with respect to the company's planned acquisition of National Starch, a wholly owned subsidiary of Akzo Nobel. (world-grain.com)
  • Starches are present in plant-based foods such as potatoes, peas, corn, beans, rice and other grain products. (eatright.org)
  • The main staple food in diets worldwide is some high-starch food, such as wheat, rice, or corn. (issuu.com)
  • Because by subsidizing the farming of corn and soy, the US government is also actively supporting a diet that consists of these grains in their processed form , namely high fructose corn syrup, soybean oil, and grain-fed cattle - all of which are known contributors to obesity and chronic diseases. (mercola.com)
  • Thus, according to Ayurveda, one should eat according to one's constitution and take fruits, starches, proteins and fats separately at different times of the day. (healthy.net)
  • Seed starch is the major storage compound in cereals providing as much as 80% of the calories consumed by mankind. (hindawi.com)
  • Starch is deposited as discrete, water-insoluble semicrystalline granules in the plastid. (hindawi.com)
  • In wheat, starch granules exhibit a bimodal size distribution-a characteristic unique to members of the grass Triticeae family. (hindawi.com)
  • The starch granules, designated A-, and B-starch granules [ 4 ], can be distinguished based on size, shape, relative proportion, and the timing of their initiation in the endosperm-a process which, presumably, is under a defined genetic program. (hindawi.com)
  • A-granules are lens-shaped, 10-50 m in diameter, and make up to 70% of the volume and 10% of the total number of starch granules [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Different morphological starch granules were detected in the endosperm and had similar spatial distribution pattern among the non-, slightly, and moderately shrunken seeds. (mdpi.com)
  • In the U.K., millers and bakers nearly always measure starch damage by the increased susceptibility of starch granules to degradation by amylolytic enzymes. (world-grain.com)
  • The Farrand method is normally employed for this measurement.1 Caution must be exercised in converting Farrand units to other units of measurement based on the increased extractability of amylase from damaged starch granules. (world-grain.com)
  • Interestingly, a decreased proportion of A chains in rsr1 results in abnormal starch granules but reduced gelatinization temperature, whereas an increased proportion of A chains in RSR1 -overexpressing plants leads to higher gelatinization temperatures, which is novel and different from previous reports, further indicating the complicated regulation of starch synthesis and determination of the physicochemical properties of starch. (plantphysiol.org)
  • There are two basic methods for identifying starch: Diagnostic tests of chemical and physical properties Optical properties of the granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • These microscopes can provide a magnification of up to x1000: good enough to provide clear images of starch granules as small as a few micrometres in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starch granules show different sizes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archaeologists and researchers can consider four issues in classification of the plant(s) and its use(s): Determination of whether evidence for the utilization of plants is present Study of the assemblage variation Determination of the presence of particular plant species Assign percentages of starch granules within a sample to a particular taxon, and present quantitative data regarding relative abundance within the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of ancient starch is fairly easily for the first three levels of classification, whilst the fourth level requires continued improvement in the description, classification, and identification of individual starch granules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Starch granules retrieved from sediments are used to reconstruct the habitats associated with human land use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers manually fractionate the components of the starch kernel and measure the proportion of starch in the endosperm that is floury versus vitreous. (extension.org)
  • Sorghum is a staple food grain in many semi-arid and tropic areas of the world, notably in Sub-Saharan Africa because of its good adaptation to hard environments and its good yield of production. (wur.nl)
  • Gilbert, Robert G., Besnard, David J. Y., Reeve, Ashton J., Lambrides, Christopher J. and Hasjim, Jovin (2013) Molecular structure of starch in grains is not affected by common dwarfing genes in rice (sd1) and sorghum (dw3). (edu.au)
  • Starch molecular structures of the grains from a semi-dwarf sd1 rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant (Calrose 76) and its near-isogenic wild-type (Calrose) counterpart as well as of those from three dwarf sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) mutants and their near-isogenic tall revertants (due to the spontaneous reverse mutation of dw3 gene) were analyzed to understand the pleiotropic effects of dwarfing genes on starch biosynthesis in the grains. (edu.au)
  • Hence plant height reduction in rice and sorghum, controlled by the sd1 and dw3 genes, respectively, does not affect the biosynthesis of starch molecules in grains and is expected to have no significant impacts on starch crystalline and granular structures as well as starch functional properties, including its nutritional values. (edu.au)
  • Starch is an important food resource for humans and is cultivated as a crop. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Nourish your four-legged friend with a diet designed to optimize his wellness, not just meet minimum nutrition standards, when you fill his bowl with Wysong Epigen Starch-Free Chicken Formula Grain-Free Dry Dog & Cat Food. (chewy.com)
  • Things like "Restitant Starch" are just another way to make more money by food companies, because you want to eat carbs since they are broken down to sugar in your body and at the end of the day most Americans are addicted to them. (blogspot.com)
  • Learning about healthy starches can arm you with the knowledge you need to make healthy food choices. (sfgate.com)
  • The plant is grown for its edible tubers, which serve as a staple food in many tropical countries and are also the source of an important starch. (fao.org)
  • Starch: Fallback Food or Essential Nutrient? (marksdailyapple.com)
  • A guideline is suggested for how to read food labels for grain products such as. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The food industry often extracts starches from high-yield sources to use as additives in other foods. (reference.com)
  • Starch grains have been removed and identified from stone tools, ceramic sherds, organic materials, dental calculus, and sediments and animal remains to determine diet and when humans began to exploit wild food varieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of the grain currently grown is sold in health food shops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grain amaranth is also grown as a food crop in limited amounts in Mexico, where it is used to make a candy called alegría (Spanish for joy) at festival times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although we know much more in general about these topics, there remains a major limitation in improving our feeding strategies on dairy farms: how do we reliably predict the amount of rumen-degraded starch (RDS) reliably and use that information to make rations work more consistently with diverse forages and bunk management capabilities? (extension.org)
  • Brands struggling with plant-based snacks becoming excessively dry, chewy or crumbly over time or beverages designed to mimic dairy falling short of a desired creamy mouthfeel could improve the functional benefits of their products with the addition of maltodextrins or modified starches, according to the Grain Processing Corporation. (foodnavigator-usa.com)
  • The differently shrunken seeds had significantly different seed weight and starch content. (mdpi.com)
  • The above results indicated that the differently shrunken seeds in transgenic rice line had the same SBE dosage, and the starch morphology and structure had no relationship with seed plumpness. (mdpi.com)
  • Sow at 42000 seeds on good seedbeds, in good conditions and for maximum starch yield. (rwn.org.uk)
  • These days, moist feeds are linked to the vicinity of industrial production of foodstuffs and ingredients from grain, potatoes, beets and seeds. (pigprogress.net)
  • The enhanced levels of starch damage produced can be tolerated because of the short time available for enzymicaction, as already explained. (world-grain.com)
  • The benefit of KP was more pronounced with a conventional hybrid than with a high-oil hybrid, which already maintained higher starch digestibility. (extension.org)
  • Increased vigilant behavior was correlated with intestinal microbial disturbances induced by a high-starch diet. (thehorse.com)
  • Parameters such as "weather damage" (amylase content), starch and β-glucan contents, total dietary fibre, and starch damage are important. (megazyme.com)
  • expression of some members of these gene families coincided with a period of high accumulation of starch while others did not. (hindawi.com)
  • Metabolic and regulatory genes that show a pattern of expression similar to starch accumulation and granule size distribution were identified, suggesting their coinvolvement in these biological processes. (hindawi.com)