Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Rats, Inbred LewTacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred C57BLIsoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Mice, Inbred BALB CGraft Enhancement, Immunologic: The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Heart-Lung Transplantation: The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Rats, Inbred WFLymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Host vs Graft Reaction: The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Primary Graft Dysfunction: A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Rats, Inbred BNReoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Mice, Inbred C3HVascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Rats, Inbred ACIAzathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Minor Histocompatibility Loci: Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Mice, Inbred CBAKidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Blood Group Incompatibility: An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).CreatinineChimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Facial Transplantation: The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA Probes, HLA: DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).Allografts: Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Leukocyte Transfusion: The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The use of autologous grafts prevents transplantation rejection reactions. Grafts used for oral reconstruction are preferably ... However, skin grafts differ from oral mucosa in: consistency, color and keratinization pattern. The transplanted skin graft ... there is a risk of the graft not being able to lose its original donor tissue characteristics. For example, skin grafts are ... Autologous grafts are used to transfer tissue from one site to another on the same body. ...
When a wound is not healing properly, an autologous skin graft is the best option, to prevent rejection of the tissue. Since ... Other uses of suction blisters are to provide transplantation donor tissue for vitiigo research. Suction blisters are often ... "Autologous suction blister grafting for chronic leg ulcers". J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 22 (1): 7-10. doi:10.1111/j.1468- ... The acceptor-site is treated with non-adherent bandages, to prevent the skin graft from sticking to the bandages. No ...
"He made numerous fundamental contributions to our modern knowledge of the mechanisms of graft rejection and how to prevent it, ... During his PhD he worked on skin grafts in guinea pigs, demonstrating that when black skin was grafted onto white skin, the ... He continued to work on transplantation with Medawar, and in 1951 they both accepted positions at the University College London ... They also worked on graft-versus-host disease. In 1951 Billingham married and had 3 children with his wife Jean Billingham. ...
To prevent rejection after transplantation to the patient of the allogenic organ or tissue, grown from the pluripotent stem ... For further development of this method animal in which is grown the human cell graft, for example mouse, must have so modified ... 2012). "Long-term safety and efficacy of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) grafts in a preclinical model of retinitis ... "An Effective Approach to Prevent Immune Rejection of Human ESC-Derived Allografts". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (1): 121-30. doi:10.1016 ...
Kidney transplantation is more successful, with similar long-term graft survival rates to ABOc transplants. Rejection is an ... Transplanting only ABO-compatible grafts (matching blood groups between donor and recipient) helps prevent rejection mediated ... once used to prevent rejection, and still occasionally used to treat severe acute rejection, has fallen into disfavor, as it ... Current research tends to focus on Th1 and Th17 which mediate allograft rejection via the CD4 and CD8 T cells Graft-versus-host ...
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... This treatment also has an immunosuppressive effect that prevents rejection of the HSC by the recipient's immune system. The ... This is due to a therapeutic immune reaction of the grafted donor T lymphocytes against the diseased bone marrow of the ... Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus leukemia" effect is the beneficial aspect of the Graft-versus-Host phenomenon ...
Immunosuppression is the primary determinant of outcome in small bowel transplantation; the risk for graft rejection is ... In a multivisceral graft, the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and/or colon may be included in the graft. Multivisceral grafts are ... While suppression of the immune system may prevent immune attack on the new allograft, it may also prevent the immune system's ... Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small ...
Transplanting only ABO-compatible grafts (matching blood groups between donor and recipient) helps prevent rejection mediated ... This is known as ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation. Graft survival and patient mortality is approximately the same ... once used to prevent rejection, and still occasionally used to treat severe acute rejection, has fallen into disfavor, as it ... Acute rejection[edit]. Developing with formation of cellular immunity, acute rejection occurs to some degree in all transplants ...
Two of the most important limitations are the currently inadequate means for preventing islet rejection, and the limited supply ... Investigators as early as the English surgeon Charles Pybus (1882-1975) attempted to graft pancreatic tissue to cure diabetes. ... New drug regimens capable of inducing tolerance to the transplanted islets would allow recipients to maintain their grafts ... To prevent this immunosuppressant drugs are used. Recent studies have shown that islet transplantation has progressed to the ...
... but additionally include graft rejection (lifelong), detachment or displacement of lamellar transplants and primary graft ... Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced ... An eyelid speculum is placed to keep the lids open, and some lubrication is placed on the eye to prevent drying. In children, a ... Rejection rates are lower (1%) and visual recovery is faster than any other form of corneal transplantation. In the UK (2013) ...
In organ transplant the goal was to explain graft rejection for recipients, and of course, to prevent future rejection. From ... did not evolve to be transplantation antigens, nor to interfere with transplantation, organ transplantation being unknown until ... The pilot suffered severe burns requiring skin grafts. However, at the time skin grafts were a risky business, often being ... This is called allograft [allo = different, graft(medical) = transplant] rejection. To explain rejection in a nutshell, certain ...
... allowing chronic infection instead of rejection and elimination, and preventing attack of fetuses by the maternal immune system ... One is when cells or tissue are grafted to an immune-privileged site that is sequestered from immune surveillance (like in the ... Braza, F; Soulillou JP; Brouard S. (Sep 2012). "Gene expression signature in transplantation tolerance". Clin Chim Acta. 413 ( ... resulting in graft reaction. However, there are two general cases in which an allograft may be accepted. ...
Organ rejection is a serious condition and ought to be treated immediately. In order to prevent it, patients must take a ... Simultaneous deceased donor pancreas and live donor kidney (SPLK) has the benefit of lower rate of delayed graft function than ... between the mid 70's to mid 80's where only segmental pancreatic grafts were used... In the late 70's-early 80's, three major ... Complications immediately after surgery include thrombosis, pancreatitis, infection, bleeding and rejection. Rejection may ...
... but additionally include graft rejection (lifelong), detachment or displacement of lamellar transplants and primary graft ... Corneal transplantation, also known as corneal grafting, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced ... An eyelid speculum is placed to keep the lids open, and some lubrication is placed on the eye to prevent drying. In children, a ... There is a risk of cornea rejection, which occurs in about 20% of cases.[1] Graft failure can occur at any time after the ...
Until the routine use of medications to prevent and treat acute rejection, introduced in 1964, deceased donor transplantation ... Live donor kidney grafts have higher long-term success rates than those from deceased donors. Since the increase in the use of ... His first patient died two days later, as the graft was incompatible with the recipient's blood group and was rejected. It was ... Since medication to prevent rejection is so effective, donors do not need to be similar to their recipient. Most donated ...
They are also administered as posttransplantory immunosuppressants to prevent the acute transplant rejection and graft-versus- ... They are used in the prophylaxis of the acute organ rejection after bilateral kidney transplantation, both being similarly ... including graft rejection, delayed hypersensitivity (i.e., tuberculin skin reaction), and the graft-versus-host disease (GVHD ... Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow, heart, kidney, liver) ...
Bone grafts are used in hopes that the defective bone will be healed or will regrow with little to no graft rejection. As with ... Besides the main use of bone grafting - dental implants - this procedure is used to fuse joints to prevent movement, repair ... tumor transplantation cosmetic defects (chiefly caused by not preserving the superior pelvic brim) chronic pain Bone grafts ... Some authors believe this method is inferior to autogenous bone grafting however infection and rejection of the graft is much ...
Photopheresis for the prevention of rejection in cardiac transplantation (1998) New England Journal of Medicine, 339 (24), pp. ... Endoscopic Association between endoscopic vs open vein-graft harvesting and mortality, wound complications, and cardiovascular ... Change in left ventricular size after coronary artery bypass grafting with and without surgical ventricular reconstruction. J ... "Preventing Heart Attacks". ABCNews. September 29, 2011. ... and Chief of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Transplantation at the ...
More importantly, use of an ovarian transplant from a genetically identical donor prevents rejection of the donated organ. This ... Kidney transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Kidney transplantation is ... Surgical removal (excision or debridement) of the damaged skin is followed by skin grafting. The grafting serves two purposes: ... Within the last few years, 1-year graft and patient survival at more experienced centers have reached 60% to 70% and 65% to 80 ...
However, in immune privileged sites, tissue grafts can survive for extended periods of time without rejection occurring. ... Taylor, Andrew W. (2016-01-01). "Ocular Immune Privilege and Transplantation". Alloimmunity and Transplantation. 7: 37. doi: ... Sertoli Cells Coculture and Infusion Improves Vascularization and Rejection Protection of Islet Graft". PLoS ONE. 8 (2): e56696 ... Anergy is induced in T cells which bind to self-antigens, deactivating them and preventing an autoimmune response in the future ...
"Immunology of Transplant Rejection: Overview, History, Types of Grafts". 2017-03-09. Charles A Janeway, Jr; Travers, Paul; ... pancreas transplantation, and heart transplantation. After an organ transplantation, the body will nearly always reject the new ... immunosuppressants are given as an attempt to prevent this rejection; the side-effect is that the body becomes more vulnerable ... Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto- ...
Until the routine use of medications to prevent and treat acute rejection, introduced in 1964, deceased donor transplantation ... Presence of lymphocytes within the tubular epithelium, attesting to acute cellular rejection of a renal graft. Biopsy sample. ... Live donor kidney grafts have higher long-term success rates than those from deceased donors.[26] Since the increase in the use ... Acute rejection occurs in 10-25% of people after transplant during the first 60 days.[citation needed] Rejection does not ...
Done Graft interposition for preventing Frey's syndrome in patients undergoing parotidectomy PMID 31578708 https://doi.org/ ... Done Oral antivirals for preventing recurrent herpes simplex keratitis in people with corneal grafts PMID 27902849 https://doi. ... Done Immunosuppressants for the prophylaxis of corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty PMID 26313245 https://doi ... Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns PMID 22972141 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009379.pub2 ...
Experiments in the rat have shown that Sertoli cells can help protect from graft rejection. These cells were isolated from the ... Both the suppression of immune responses and the increased survival of grafts in the testis have led to its recognition as an ... Therefore, mechanisms for their protection must exist in this organ to prevent any autoimmune reaction. The blood-testis ... ISBN 978-0-12-515401-7. Setchel BP (1990). "The testis and tissue transplantation: historical aspects". J Reprod Immunol. 18 (1 ...
... graft versus host reaction, GVHR); rejection of H2-incompatible grafts (skin, heart, bone marrow, etc.) by the recipients; and ... The cells with receptors for self-molecules must be eliminated to prevent an immune reaction against the individual's own ... Transplantation, Member, Editorial Board 1974-1975, Journal of Immunology, Member, Editorial Board 1982, European Molecular ... were also responsible for the rejection of incompatible grafts. Klein, with his coworker Vera Hauptfeld and his wife Dagmar ...
The Banff Classification is a schema for nomenclature and classification of renal allograft pathology, established in 1991 by Kim Solez and Lorraine C. Racusen in Banff, Canada. The initiative was "inspired by the then recent development of a consensus grading system for diagnosis of rejection in cardiac allografts led by Dr Margaret Billingham, a key participant at the first Banff meeting". Prior the Banff Classification there was no standardized, international classification for renal allograft biopsies, which resulted in considerable heterogeneity among pathologists in characterization of renal allograft biopsies. The first Banff schema was published in 1993, and has since undergone updates at regular intervals. The classification is expanded and updated every two years in meetings organized by the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology. An evaluation of the Banff ...
... (born 1946) is an American pathologist and co-founder of the Banff Classification, the first standardized international classification for renal allograft biopsies. He is also the founder of the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology. Kim Solez obtained his M.D. with AOA honours from the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, and trained in pathology at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore, Maryland where he was mentored in renal pathology by Robert H. Heptinstall. He joined the faculty at Johns Hopkins and in 1987 became chairman of the Department of Pathology at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. In 1991, he established the Banff Classification, the first standardized, international classification for renal allograft biopsies, with Johns Hopkins pathologist Lorraine Racusen. The Banff Classification, updated in regular intervals, continues to "set standards worldwide for how biopsies from kidney and other ...
Heterologous polyclonal antibodies are obtained from the serum of animals (e.g., rabbit, horse), and injected with the patient's thymocytes or lymphocytes. The antilymphocyte (ALG) and antithymocyte antigens (ATG) are being used. They are part of the steroid-resistant acute rejection reaction and grave aplastic anemia treatment. However, they are added primarily to other immunosuppressives to diminish their dosage and toxicity. They also allow transition to cyclosporin therapy. Polyclonal antibodies inhibit T lymphocytes and cause their lysis, which is both complement-mediated cytolysis and cell-mediated opsonization followed by removal of reticuloendothelial cells from the circulation in the spleen and liver. In this way, polyclonal antibodies inhibit cell-mediated immune reactions, including graft rejection, delayed hypersensitivity (i.e., tuberculin skin reaction), and the graft-versus-host disease ...
Because very young children (generally under 12 months, but often as old as 24 months[2]) do not have a well-developed immune system,[3] it is possible for them to receive organs from otherwise incompatible donors. This is known as ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation. Graft survival and patient mortality is approximately the same between ABOi and ABO-compatible (ABOc) recipients.[4] While focus has been on infant heart transplants, the principles generally apply to other forms of solid organ transplantation.[2] The most important factors are that the recipient not have produced isohemagglutinins, and that they have low levels of T cell-independent antigens.[3][5] UNOS regulations allow for ABOi transplantation in children under two years of age if isohemagglutinin titers are 1:4 or below,[6][7] and if there is no matching ABOc recipient.[6][7][8] Studies have shown that the period under which a recipient may undergo ABOi ...
... (trade name Simulect) is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody to the α chain (CD25) of the IL-2 receptor of T cells. It is used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants. It is a Novartis product and was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1998. Basiliximab is an immunosuppressant agent used to prevent immediate transplant rejection in people who are receiving kidney transplants, in combination with other agents. It has been reported that some cases of lichen planus have been successfully treated with basiliximab as an alternative therapy to ciclosporin. No short-term side effects have been reported. Basiliximab competes with IL-2 to bind to the alpha chain subunit of the IL2 receptor on the surface of the activated T lymphocytes and thus prevents the receptor from signaling. This prevents T cells from replicating and also ...
... , less accurately called mycophenolate, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It was initially marketed as the prodrug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to improve oral bioavailability. More recently, the salt mycophenolate sodium has also been introduced. Mycophenolate mofetil is marketed under the trade name CellCept and mycophenolate sodium as Myfortic. Discovered by an Italian medical scientist Bartolomeo Gosio in 1893, mycophenolic acid was the first antibiotic to be synthesised in pure and crystalline form. But its medical application was forgotten until two American scientists C.L. Alsberg and O.M. Black resynthesised it in 1912, and gave its chemical name. It was eventually found to be a broad-spectrum acting drug having antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, anticancer, and antipsoriasis properties. The clinically usable drug Cellcept was developed by South African geneticist Anthony Allison and his wife Elsie ...
... (sometimes called isoimmunity) is an immune response to nonself antigens from members of the same species, which are called alloantigens or isoantigens. Two major types of alloantigens are blood group antigens and histocompatibility antigens. In alloimmunity, the body creates antibodies against the alloantigens, attacking transfused blood, allotransplanted tissue, and even the fetus in some cases. Alloimmune (isoimmune) response results in graft rejection, which is manifested as deterioration or complete loss of graft function. In contrast, autoimmunity is an immune response to the self's own antigens. (The allo- prefix means "other", whereas the auto- prefix means "self".) Alloimmunization (isoimmunization) is the process of becoming alloimmune, that is, developing the relevant antibodies for the first time. Alloimmunity is caused by the difference between products of highly polymorphic genes, primarily genes of the major ...
Paul Ichiro Terasaki (Japanese: 寺崎一郎, September 10, 1929 - January 25, 2016) was an American scientist in the field of human organ transplant technology, and professor emeritus of surgery at UCLA School of Medicine. He spent three high school years during World War II interned with his family and other Japanese Americans in the Gila River War Relocation Center. Later he earned his bachelor's, master's, and doctorate in zoology all from UCLA and was appointed to the medical school faculty. In 1964, Terasaki developed the microcytotoxicity test, a tissue-typing test for organ transplant donors and recipients that required only 1 microliter each of antisera used to identify human leukocyte antigens (HLA). The test was adopted as the international standard for tissue typing. He has focused on study of the humoral theory of transplant rejection, which states that antibodies cause allograft rejection. He and his corporation, One ...
Allotransplant (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, to a recipient from a genetically non-identical donor of the same species. The transplant is called an allograft, allogeneic transplant, or homograft. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts. It is contrasted with autotransplantation (from one part of the body to another in the same person), syngeneic transplantation (grafts transplanted between two genetically identical individuals of the same species) and xenotransplantation (from other species). Allografts can be referred to as "homostatic" if they are biologically inert when transplanted, such as bone and cartilage. An immune response against an allograft or xenograft is termed ...
... (KPD) or Paired Exchange, is an approach to living donor kidney transplantation where patients with incompatible donors swap kidneys to receive a compatible kidney. KPD is used in situations where a potential donor is incompatible. Because better donor HLA and age matching are correlated with lower lifetime mortality and longer lasting kidney transplants, many compatible pairs are also participating in swaps to find better matched kidneys. In the United States, the National Kidney Registry organizes the majority of U.S. KPD transplants, including the largest swaps. The first large swap was a 60 participant chain in 2012 that appeared on the front page of the New York Times and the second, even larger swap, included 70 participants and was completed in 2014. Other KPD programs in the U.S. include the UNOS program which was launched in 2010 and completed its 100th KPD transplant in 2014 and the Alliance for Paired Donation. More than one-third of potential living kidney ...
... or SCIIT, is a therapeutic strategy employing rapid, specific, short term-modulation of the immune system using a therapeutic agent to induce T-cell non-responsiveness, also known as operational tolerance. As an alternative strategy to immunosuppression and antigen-specific tolerance inducing therapies, the primary goal of SCIIT is to re-establish or induce peripheral immune tolerance in the context of autoimmune disease and transplant rejection through the use of biological agents (compare also tolerogenic therapy). In recent years, SCIIT has received increasing attention in clinical and research settings as an alternative to immunosuppressive drugs currently used in the clinic, drugs which put the patients at risk of developing infection, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Immune tolerance can be defined as the ability of the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self, or harmless and harmful. T-cells are able to distinguish between self and ...
Definition of consumption in its classical economical context can be summed up in the saying "supply creates its own demand".[5] In other words, consumption is created by and equates itself to production of market goods. This definition, however, is not adequate to accommodate any theory that tries to describe the link between taste and consumption. A more complex economic model for taste and consumption was proposed by economist Thorstein Veblen. He challenged the simple conception of man as plain consumer of his utmost necessities, and suggested that the study of the formation of tastes and consumption patterns was essential for economics. Veblen did not disregard the importance of the demand for an economic system, but rather insisted on rejection of the principle of utility-maximization.[6] The classical economics conception of supply and demand must be therefore extended to accommodate a type of social interaction that is not immanent in the economics paradigm. Veblen ...
ବାତରକ୍ତ ପ୍ରାୟତଃ ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ ଚିକିତ୍ସୀୟ ବିକୃତି ସହିତ ଆକ୍ରାନ୍ତ ହୋଇଥାଏ । ଚୟାପଚୟ ବିକୃତି ଯଥା ଚର୍ବିଳ ଉଦର , ଇଂସୁଲିନ ଅସମ୍ବେଦନତା ,ଉଚ୍ଚ ରକ୍ତଚାପ ,ଅସ୍ବାଭାବିକ ରକ୍ତ ବସା ଇତ୍ୟାଦି କାରଣ ୭୫% ଦାୟି ଅଟେ । ଅନ୍ୟାନ୍ୟ କାରଣ ଗୁଡିକ ହେଲା ; ହେମୋ ଲାଇଟିକ ଆନେମିଆ ,ପୋଲିଶିଥେମିଆ , ଲେଡ ପୋଇଜୋନିଙ୍ଗ (ସୀସକ ଧାତୁ ବିଷମୟତା ) ,ସୋରାଇସିସ(Psoriasis) , ବୃକକ ଅକ୍ଷମତା (Renal failure) ,ଅଙ୍ଗ ପ୍ରତିରୋପଣ (Organ transplantation) । ଶରୀର ଭାର ଉଚ୍ଚତା ସୂଚକାଙ୍କ (body mass index) ୩୫ରୁ ଅଧିକ ...
Treating donor corneas with a cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, ... Eight weeks post-transplantation, they noted a significant increase in graft survival (68.7 percent of treated grafts had ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients Treating donor tissue with a special ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ...
The use of autologous grafts prevents transplantation rejection reactions. Grafts used for oral reconstruction are preferably ... However, skin grafts differ from oral mucosa in: consistency, color and keratinization pattern. The transplanted skin graft ... there is a risk of the graft not being able to lose its original donor tissue characteristics. For example, skin grafts are ... Autologous grafts are used to transfer tissue from one site to another on the same body. ...
Incidences of Graft Rejection [ Time Frame: Day 180 post-transplantation ]. *Overall Survival [ Time Frame: At 1 year after ... for HLA-matched Related Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies With Post Grafting ... This phase II trial studies how well tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil works in preventing graft-versus-host disease in ... Tacrolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients Who Have Undergone Total-Body ...
When a wound is not healing properly, an autologous skin graft is the best option, to prevent rejection of the tissue. Since ... Other uses of suction blisters are to provide transplantation donor tissue for vitiigo research. Suction blisters are often ... "Autologous suction blister grafting for chronic leg ulcers". J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 22 (1): 7-10. doi:10.1111/j.1468- ... The acceptor-site is treated with non-adherent bandages, to prevent the skin graft from sticking to the bandages. No ...
The purpose of the preparative regimen is twofold:To provide adequate immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the ... To provide adequate immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the transplanted graft. ●To eradicate the disease for which the ... Allogeneic marrow grafts in man using cyclophosphamide. Transplant Proc 1974; 6:345. ... Graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor effects after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2013 ...
New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients. May 1, 2017 Treating donor corneas with a ... Corneal transplantation may improve outcomes in people with a degenerative eye disease. October 18, 2016 An innovative ... cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, outcomes in high-risk corneal ...
Treating corneal grafts with a cocktail of cytokines prior to implantation may free transplant patients from the burden of ... during which the authors observed a significant increase in graft survival: 67% of cytokine-treated grafts survived compared ... The mouse corneas were examined in vivo for 8 weeks post-transplantation, ... investigated outcomes of corneal transplants in mouse eyes with a high-risk for graft rejection (inflamed and vascularized ...
Transplanting only ABO-compatible grafts (matching blood groups between donor and recipient) helps prevent rejection mediated ... This is known as ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation. Graft survival and patient mortality is approximately the same ... once used to prevent rejection, and still occasionally used to treat severe acute rejection, has fallen into disfavor, as it ... Acute rejection[edit]. Developing with formation of cellular immunity, acute rejection occurs to some degree in all transplants ...
A role for CD95 ligand in preventing graft rejection. [Published Erratum appears in 1998 Nature 394:133.]. Nature 377: 630-632. ... recent studies have shown that transgenic expression of FasL on islet cells causes a rapid rejection of islet grafts, instead ... Primary graft function was defined as blood glucose under 200 mg/dl for 24 h after transplantation. Graft rejection was defined ... CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells prevent graft rejection: CTLA-4- and IL-10-dependent immunoregulation of alloresponses. J. Immunol ...
... for transplantation. Many of those issues are overcome by organ registries, in which individuals choose to become organ donors ... organ transplantation is highly regulated. Of particular concern is organ donation, with legal, medical, and social issues ... It commonly is used to induce immune suppression for kidney transplantation, helping prevent graft rejection. ... The serum from the rabbits blood can be injected into mice and will often prevent them from rejecting grafts, both from other ...
Strategies for blocking T cell costimulation may help prevent chronic rejection in clinical transplantation. ... shown to prevent the development of accelerated graft arteriosclerosis in a rat model of chronic cardiac allograft rejection. ... of grafts from rats treated with a single, high dose of cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg, 2 d after transplantation) survived longer ... The effectiveness of T-cell costimulatory blockade at preventing chronic allograft rejection in a clinically relevant model in ...
Strategies for blocking T cell costimulation may help prevent chronic rejection in clinical transplantation. ... shown to prevent the development of accelerated graft arteriosclerosis in a rat model of chronic cardiac allograft rejection. ... of grafts from rats treated with a single, high dose of cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg, 2 d after transplantation) survived longer ... The effectiveness of T-cell costimulatory blockade at preventing chronic allograft rejection in a clinically relevant model in ...
Graft-versus-host disease is still the major complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite ... Graft-versus-host disease is still the major complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Despite ... Donor CD8 cells prevent allogeneic marrow graft rejection in mice: potential implications for marrow transplantation in humans ... in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation some residual host T cells or natural killer cells can reject incoming grafts (110) ...
corneal transplantation. *cyclosporin A. Special precautions need to be taken to prevent or minimise rejection ... The allograft rejection reaction: the leading cause of late graft failure of clinical corneal grafts. In: Porter R, Knight J, ... 2 Likewise it has been shown that graft rejection in a previously grafted eye relates more to the number of blood vessels in ... These corneas have been referred to as "high risk" and special precautions need to be taken to prevent or minimise rejection. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Corneal transplantation easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Corneal transplantation at Encyclopedia.com. ... to reduce inflammation and prevent graft rejection.. For the ... "New Type of Artificial Cornea Performs Better than Donor Grafts in High-Risk Cases." Ocular Surgery News, June 1, 2002 [cited ... Graft rejection occurs in 5-30% of patients, a complication possible with any procedure involving tissue transplantation from ...
... where he started to work on the technique of kidney grafting and the obstacle of rejection. Preventing organ graft rejection ... He was the first to develop and use Azathioprine, Cyclosporine, Rapamycin and Campath in organ transplantation. In 1965 as ... was the first to use drugs to control the rejection of donated organs and this led to an enormous expansion of organ grafting ... might have a kidney graft to save his life, but he was told that this could not be done. Nevertheless in 1959 after qualifying ...
Treatment was successful in reversing the graft rejection in 32/34 (94%) eyes. Irreversible graft failure occurred in one eye ... During a mean follow-up period of 19.2 ± 16.7 months (range 1-55 months), further episodes of graft rejection were seen in 1/32 ... Conclusion Our 5-year experience with the use of oral CSA in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection has shown this ... Treatment of corneal graft rejection included 1% prednisolone eye drops, intravenous infusion of 500 mg methyl prednisolone, ...
Perform frequent outpatient surveillance to identify rejection early and prevent lasting damage to the transplanted heart. ... infants require multiple medications for modulation of the immune system and prevention of graft rejection. ... Heart transplantation is another surgical option. [5, 6] The infant must remain on prostaglandin E1 infusion to keep the ductus ... To address the growth issue related to extracardiac Fontan, some surgeons use autologous pericardial roll grafts. At the ...
... combined with the treatment regimen tested here consistently prevent humoral rejection and systemic coagulation pathway ... Median (298 days) and longest (945 days) graft survival in five consecutive recipients using this regimen is significantly ... Tweaking immune characteristics of donors and recipients could allow for successful cross-species organ transplantation. Here, ... the reduction of αCD40 antibody dose on day 100 or after 1 year resulted in recrudescence of anti-pig antibody and graft ...
However, this regimen has some inherent toxicities and does not prevent graft coronary artery disease. Thus there has been a ... rejection and hemodynamics early after cardiac transplantation. Transplantation1998;65:1255-6. ... A small series of donor hearts treated with bypass grafting for obstructive coronary lesions at the time of transplantation ... Transplantation 2000;70:541-3 *Caves P, Stinson E, Billingham M, Rider A, Shumway N. Diagnosis of human cardiac rejection by ...
For example, a conjugate comprising an apyrase can be used for treating and preventing thrombosis, atherosclerotic plaque ... Transplantation 62:1739 (1996)). It has also been shown that cardiac xenografts of CD39 null mice undergo rejection with more ... Accordingly, modified apyrases can be used to prolong graft survival, at least in part by preventing platelet thrombi and ... For example, infusion of soluble potato apyrase has been shown to abrogate platelet sequestration in cardiac grafts where ...
Cell transplantation, myelin repair, and multiple sclerosis Christopher Halfpenny , Tracey Benn , and Neil Scolding a, b, c ... immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection; and adequate control of disease activity to reduce graft loss. These issues ... Xenogeneic transplantation. An almost limitless source of glial cells for transplantation could potentially be available by ... Little information is available for the first issue-continuing exogenous trophic support of grafted cells-though some animal ...
Buy a discounted Paperback of Transplant International : Proceedings of the European Society for Organ Transplantation, ... Proceedings of the European Society for Organ Transplantation, Maastricht, October 7-10, 1991 - Supplement 1 to Volume 5, 1992 ... Early kidney transplantation may prevent aluminium-related bone disease.- Effect of prostaglandin E1 on graft function of ... The use of FK506 and RS61443 for reversal of small-bowel rejection.- Graft Monitoring.- Monitoring of cardiac graft recipients ...
Immunosuppression is the primary determinant of outcome in small bowel transplantation; the risk for graft rejection is ... In a multivisceral graft, the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and/or colon may be included in the graft. Multivisceral grafts are ... While suppression of the immune system may prevent immune attack on the new allograft, it may also prevent the immune systems ... Intestine transplantation, intestinal transplantation, or small bowel transplantation is the surgical replacement of the small ...
New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients. May 1, 2017 Treating donor corneas with a ... Corneal grafting, or keratoplasty, involves the replacement of the front clear window section of the eye with a cornea from a ... University School of Medicine has found that corneal donor tissue can be safely stored for 11 days before transplantation ... "It requires fewer stitches and is often commended for potentially reduced rates of graft rejection and enabling final vision ...
  • For example, skin grafts are often taken from the radial forearm or lateral upper arm when covering more extensive defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A positive aspect of using skin grafts is the large availability of skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, skin grafts differ from oral mucosa in: consistency, color and keratinization pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight weeks post-transplantation, they noted a significant increase in graft survival (68.7 percent of treated grafts had survived, while none of the control grafts had survived). (eurekalert.org)
  • Six (21.4%) of 28 grafts on CSA rejected while on treatment and another three (10.7%) failed after treatment was stopped: this compared with five (42%) of 12 control grafts that did not receive CSA. (bmj.com)
  • Data from the early years of the epidemic are limited to case reports and small case series, but in general, mortality was high, particularly in those with unrecognized HIV infection at the time of transplantation, and HIV-infected patients experienced significantly higher 5-year mortality and rates of graft loss relative to HIV-uninfected individuals. (ucsf.edu)
  • I. To estimate the incidence of grade III/IV graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after conditioning with 200 centigray (cGy) TBI alone or Fludarabine (fludarabine phosphate)/200 cGy TBI followed by tacrolimus (Tac)/mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) immunosuppression in patients with hematologic malignancies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In other solid organ transplantations systemic immunosuppression, using agents such as cyclosporin A (CSA), is routine with often more than one agent being used. (bmj.com)
  • Previously, the longest survival for heterotopic cardiac xenografts using alpha 1-3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout ( GTKO ) or GTKO.hCD46 Tg pigs and immunosuppression (IS) that included αCD154 antibody was 179-236 days, however, the xenografts ultimately succumbed to the characteristic properties of delayed rejection 4 , 5 . (nature.com)
  • Cyclosporin A immunosuppression was protective only during the first weeks and failed to protect the grafts in a long-term perspective. (lu.se)
  • The initial phase, induction therapy, consists of intense immunosuppression during the first few days following transplantation. (hindawi.com)
  • Initial efforts to offer transplantation to HIV-infected patients raised concerns about the potential impact of immunosuppression on accelerating HIV disease progression or reactivating AIDS-related opportunistic infections (OIs) and neoplasms. (ucsf.edu)
  • Prior to 1995, treatment for HIV infection largely failed to extend life expectancy, and very few centers attempted solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected individuals. (ucsf.edu)
  • The aim is to improve the success of transplantation and of newer, less invasive treatments for diabetes and other autoimmune diseases, allergies and asthma. (ucsf.edu)
  • The rationale for using GTKO ) pigs to avoid anti-Gal antibody-mediated rejection, with additional human complement regulatory protein (hCD46) expression to suppress complement activation, has been previously reported 5 . (nature.com)
  • The authors report on a workshop held in April 2017 regarding all current aspects of antibody-mediated rejection, mainly diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic options. (lww.com)