The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
General dysfunction of an organ occurring immediately following its transplantation. The term most frequently refers to renal dysfunction following KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
Creatinine is a waste product that's generated from muscle metabolism, typically filtered through the kidneys and released in urine, with increased levels in blood indicating impaired kidney function.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A surgical procedure or KERATOPLASTY involving selective stripping and replacement of diseased host DESCEMET MEMBRANE and CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM with a suitable and healthy donor posterior lamella. The advantage to this procedure is that the normal corneal surface of the recipient is retained, thereby avoiding corneal surface incisions and sutures.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Loss of CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM usually following intraocular surgery (e.g., cataract surgery) or due to FUCHS' ENDOTHELIAL DYSTROPHY; ANGLE-CLOSURE GLAUCOMA; IRITIS; or aging.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The period following a surgical operation.
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
"WF (Wistar Furth) rats are an inbred strain of albino rats that were developed through brother-sister mating for over 80 generations, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and predictability, making them widely used in biomedical research."
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Diseases of the cornea.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The shell-like structure projects like a little wing (pinna) from the side of the head. Ear auricles collect sound from the environment.
Excision of kidney.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Disorder caused by loss of endothelium of the central cornea. It is characterized by hyaline endothelial outgrowths on Descemet's membrane, epithelial blisters, reduced vision, and pain.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A noninflammatory, usually bilateral protrusion of the cornea, the apex being displaced downward and nasally. It occurs most commonly in females at about puberty. The cause is unknown but hereditary factors may play a role. The -conus refers to the cone shape of the corneal protrusion. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Progressive destruction or the absence of all or part of the extrahepatic BILE DUCTS, resulting in the complete obstruction of BILE flow. Usually, biliary atresia is found in infants and accounts for one third of the neonatal cholestatic JAUNDICE.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Inbreed BN (Brown Norway) rats are a strain of laboratory rats that are specifically bred for research purposes, characterized by their uniform genetic makeup and susceptibility to various diseases, which makes them ideal models for studying human physiology and pathophysiology.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
'Rats, Inbred ACI' are an inbred strain of albino rats that originated from the Wistar rat strain, characterized by their uniform genetic makeup, high susceptibility to certain diseases, and use as models for biomedical research, particularly in studies related to diabetes, obesity, and cancer.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

Autografting with philadelphia chromosome-negative mobilized hematopoietic progenitor cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia. (1/5787)

Intensive chemotherapy given in early chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has resulted in high numbers of circulating Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-negative hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). We have autografted 30 consecutive patients with CML in chronic phase with HPC collected in this way to facilitate restoration of Ph-negative hematopoiesis in bone marrow after high-dose therapy. Hematopoietic recovery to greater than 0.5 x10(9)/L neutrophils and to greater than 25 x 10(9)/L platelets occurred in all patients, a median of 13 (range, 9 to 32) days and 16 (range, 6 to 106) days postautograft, respectively. Regenerating marrow cells were Ph-negative in 16 (53%) patients and greater than 66% Ph-negative in 10 (33%) patients. Twenty-eight patients are alive 6 to 76 months (median, 24 months) after autografting. Three patients have developed blast crisis from which 2 have died. Eight patients are in complete cytogenetic remission at a median of 20 (range, 6 to 44) months with a median ratio BCR-ABL/ABL of 0.002 (range, <0.001 to 0.01). Eight patients are in major cytogenetic remission at a median of 22 (range, 6 to 48) months. No patient died as a consequence of the treatment. All patients had some degree of stomatitis that was severe in 15 (50%) patients. Gastrointestinal and hepatic toxicities were observed in about one fourth of patients. Thus, autografting with Ph-negative mobilized HPC can result in prolonged restoration of Ph-negative hematopoiesis for some patients with CML; moreover, most autograft recipients report normal or near normal activity levels, suggesting that this procedure need not to be associated either with prolonged convalescence or with chronic debility.  (+info)

Organ-selective homing defines engraftment kinetics of murine hematopoietic stem cells and is compromised by Ex vivo expansion. (2/5787)

Hematopoietic reconstitution of ablated recipients requires that intravenously (IV) transplanted stem and progenitor cells "home" to organs that support their proliferation and differentiation. To examine the possible relationship between homing properties and subsequent engraftment potential, murine bone marrow (BM) cells were labeled with fluorescent PKH26 dye and injected into lethally irradiated hosts. PKH26(+) cells homing to marrow or spleen were then isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and assayed for in vitro colony-forming cells (CFCs). Progenitors accumulated rapidly in the spleen, but declined to only 6% of input numbers after 24 hours. Although egress from this organ was accompanied by a simultaneous accumulation of CFCs in the BM (plateauing at 6% to 8% of input after 3 hours), spleen cells remained enriched in donor CFCs compared with marrow during this time. To determine whether this differential homing of clonogenic cells to the marrow and spleen influenced their contribution to short-term or long-term hematopoiesis in vivo, PKH26(+) cells were sorted from each organ 3 hours after transplantation and injected into lethally irradiated Ly-5 congenic mice. Cells that had homed initially to the spleen regenerated circulating leukocytes (20% of normal counts) approximately 2 weeks faster than cells that had homed to the marrow, or PKH26-labeled cells that had not been selected by a prior homing step. Both primary (17 weeks) and secondary (10 weeks) recipients of "spleen-homed" cells also contained approximately 50% higher numbers of CFCs per femur than recipients of "BM-homed" cells. To examine whether progenitor homing was altered upon ex vivo expansion, highly enriched Sca-1(+)c-kit+Lin- cells were cultured for 9 days in serum-free medium containing interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, flk-2/flt3 ligand, and thrombopoietin. Expanded cells were then stained with PKH26 and assayed as above. Strikingly, CFCs generated in vitro exhibited a 10-fold reduction in homing capacity compared with fresh progenitors. These studies demonstrate that clonogenic cells with differential homing properties contribute variably to early and late hematopoiesis in vivo. The dramatic decline in the homing capacity of progenitors generated in vitro underscores critical qualitative changes that may compromise their biologic function and potential clinical utility, despite their efficient numerical expansion.  (+info)

A prospective, randomized trial of tacrolimus/prednisone versus tacrolimus/prednisone/mycophenolate mofetil in renal transplant recipients. (3/5787)

BACKGROUND: Between September 20, 1995 and September 20, 1997, 208 adult patients undergoing renal transplantation were randomized to receive tacrolimus/prednisone (n=106) or tacrolimus/prednisone/mycophenolate mofetil (n=102), with the goal of reducing the incidence of rejection. METHODS: The mean recipient age was 50.7+/-13.7 years. Sixty-three (30.3%) patients were 60 years of age or older at the time of transplantation. The mean donor age was 34.5+/-21.7 years. The mean cold ischemia time was 30.5+/-9.2 hr. The mean follow-up is 15+/-7 months. RESULTS: The overall 1-year actuarial patient survival was 94%; the overall 1-year actuarial graft survival was 87%. When the patient and graft survival data were stratified to recipients under the age of 60 who did not have delayed graft function, the overall 1-year actuarial patient survival was 97%, and the corresponding 1-year actuarial graft survival was 93%. There were no differences between the two groups. The overall incidence of rejection was 36%; in the double-therapy group, it was 44%, whereas in the triple therapy group, it was 27% (P=0.014). The mean serum creatinine was 1.6+/-0.8 mg/dl. A total of 36% of the successfully transplanted patients were taken off prednisone; 32% of the patients were taken off antihypertensive medications. The incidence of delayed graft function was 21%, the incidence of cytomegalovirus was 12.5%, and the initial and final incidences of posttransplant insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were 7.0% and 2.9%; again, there was no difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This trial suggests that the combination of tacrolimus, steroids, and mycophenolate mofetil is associated with excellent patient and graft survival and a lower incidence of rejection than the combination of tacrolimus and steroids.  (+info)

Bone marrow transplantation in pediatric patients with therapy-related myelodysplasia and leukemia. (4/5787)

Eleven children underwent BMT for therapy-related MDS or leukemia, four from HLA-identical siblings and seven from unrelated donors. Ten of the 11 were conditioned with busulfan and cyclophosphamide as the majority had received prior irradiation to the chest and/or abdomen. All patients engrafted. Regimen-related toxicity was more common when compared to historical controls. Eight patients developed acute GVHD and four of eight who survived 100 days post transplant developed extensive chronic GVHD. Non-relapse related mortality occurred in three patients. Five patients developed recurrent malignancy: one died from recurrence of osteosarcoma, three died of recurrent leukemia or MDS and another developed two subsequent malignancies (duodenal carcinoma and anaplastic astrocytoma). Three survive disease-free at 14+, 22+ and 43+ months for a 2 year actuarial cancer-free survival of 24% (95% confidence interval = 5-53%). Although allogeneic BMT can be curative, regimen-related toxicity is frequent and recurrent malignancy remains the major obstacle.  (+info)

Infrainguinal revascularisation in the era of vein-graft surveillance--do clinical factors influence long-term outcome? (5/5787)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the variables affecting the long-term outcome of infrainguinal vein bypass grafts that have undergone postoperative surveillance. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Details of 299 consecutive infrainguinal vein grafts performed in 275 patients from a single university hospital were collected and analysed. All grafts underwent postoperative duplex surveillance. Factors affecting patency, limb salvage and survival rates were examined. These factors were gender, diabetes, hypertension, aspirin, warfarin, ischaemic heart disease, run-off, graft type, early thrombectomy, level of anastomoses and indication for surgery. RESULTS: The 6-year primary, primary assisted and secondary patency rates were 23, 47, and 57%, respectively. Six-year limb salvage and patient survival were 68 and 45%, respectively. Primary patency was adversely influenced by the use of composite vein grafts. Early thrombectomy was the only factor that significantly influenced secondary patency. Limb salvage was worse in diabetic limbs, limbs with poor run-off and in grafts that required early thrombectomy. Postoperative survival was better in males, claudicants and in patients who took aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Although co-morbid factors did not influence graft patency rates, diabetes did adversely effect limb salvage. This study, like others before it, confirms that aspirin significantly reduces long-term mortality in patients undergoing infrainguinal revascularisation.  (+info)

A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-secreting clone of the Schwann cell line SCTM41 enhances survival and fiber outgrowth from embryonic nigral neurons grafted to the striatum and to the lesioned substantia nigra. (6/5787)

We have developed a novel Schwann cell line, SCTM41, derived from postnatal sciatic nerve cultures and have stably transfected a clone with a rat glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) construct. Coculture with this GDNF-secreting clone enhances in vitro survival and fiber growth of embryonic dopaminergic neurons. In the rat unilateral 6-OHDA lesion model of Parkinson's disease, we have therefore made cografts of these cells with embryonic day 14 ventral mesencephalic grafts and assayed for effects on dopaminergic cell survival and process outgrowth. We show that cografts of GDNF-secreting Schwann cell lines improve the survival of intrastriatal embryonic dopaminergic neuronal grafts and improve neurite outgrowth into the host neuropil but have no additional effect on amphetamine-induced rotation. We next looked to see whether bridge grafts of GDNF-secreting SCTM41 cells would promote the growth of axons to their striatal targets from dopaminergic neurons implanted orthotopically into the 6-OHDA-lesioned substantia nigra. We show that such bridge grafts increase the survival of implanted embryonic dopaminergic neurons and promote the growth of axons through the grafts to the striatum.  (+info)

Reduced kidney transplant rejection rate and pharmacoeconomic advantage of mycophenolate mofetil. (7/5787)

BACKGROUND: Several multinational controlled clinical trials have shown that triple therapy immunosuppressive regimens which include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin A (CSA) and steroids (S) are superior compared with conventional regimens which include azathioprine (AZA), CSA and S, mainly because MMF reduces the rate of acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months after kidney transplantation. Post-marketing studies are useful to evaluate the general applicability and costs of MMF-based immunosuppressive regimens. METHODS: Based on the excellent results of the published controlled clinical trials, we have changed the standard triple therapy immunosuppressive protocol (AZA+CSA+S) to an MMF-based regimen (MMF+CSA+S) at our centre. To analyse the impact of this change in regimen, we have monitored 6-month patient and graft survival, rejection rate, serum creatinine and CSA levels, as well as the costs of the immunosuppressive and anti-rejection treatments, in 40 consecutive renal transplant recipients (MMF group) and have compared the data with 40 consecutive patients transplanted immediately prior to the change in regimen (AZA group). RESULTS: Recipient and donor characteristics were similar in the AZA and MMF groups. Patient survival (37/40; 92.5% in the AZA group vs 38/40; 95% in the MMF group), graft survival (36/40 vs 36/40; both 90%) and serum creatinine (137+/-56 vs 139+/-44 micromol/l) after 6 months were not significantly different. However, the rate of acute rejection episodes (defined as a rise in creatinine without other obvious cause and treated at least with pulse steroids) was significantly reduced with MMF from 60 to 20% (P=0.0005). The resulting cost for rejection treatment was lowered 8-fold (from sFr. 2113 to 259 averaged per patient) and the number of transplant biopsies was lowered > 3-fold in the MMF group. The cost for the immunosuppressive therapy was increased 1.5-fold with MMF (from sFr. 5906 to 9231 per patient for the first 6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The change from AZA to MMF resulted in a significant reduction in early rejection episodes, resulting in fewer diagnostic procedures and rehospitalizations. The optimal long-term regimen in terms of patient and pharmacoeconomic benefits remains to be defined.  (+info)

Right atrial bypass grafting for central venous obstruction associated with dialysis access: another treatment option. (8/5787)

PURPOSE: Central venous obstruction is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo maintenance hemodialysis. We studied the use of right atrial bypass grafting in nine cases of central venous obstruction associated with upper extremity venous hypertension. To better understand the options for managing this condition, we discuss the roles of surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement. METHODS: All patients had previously undergone placement of bilateral temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. Severe arm swelling, graft thrombosis, or graft malfunction developed because of central venous stenosis or obstruction in the absence of alternative access sites. A large-diameter (10 to 16 mm) externally reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex) graft was used to bypass the obstructed vein and was anastomosed to the right atrial appendage. This technique was used to bypass six lesions in the subclavian vein, two lesions at the innominate vein/superior vena caval junction, and one lesion in the distal axillary vein. RESULTS: All patients except one had significant resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. Bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous grafts to provide functional access for 1.5 to 52 months (mean, 15.4 months) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Because no mortality directly resulted from the procedure and the morbidity rate was acceptable, this bypass grafting technique was adequate in maintaining the dialysis access needed by these patients. Because of the magnitude of the procedure, we recommend it only for the occasional patient in whom all other access sites are exhausted and in whom percutaneous dilation and/or stenting has failed.  (+info)

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Pancreas transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves implanting a healthy pancreas from a deceased donor into a recipient with diabetes. The primary goal of this procedure is to restore the recipient's insulin production and eliminate the need for insulin injections, thereby improving their quality of life and reducing the risk of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

There are three main types of pancreas transplantation:

1. Simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplantation: This is the most common type of pancreas transplant, performed simultaneously with a kidney transplant in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The new pancreas not only restores insulin production but also helps prevent further kidney damage.
2. Pancreas after kidney (PAK) transplantation: In this procedure, a patient receives a kidney transplant first, followed by a pancreas transplant at a later time. This is typically performed in patients who have already undergone a successful kidney transplant and wish to improve their diabetes management.
3. Pancreas transplantation alone (PTA): In rare cases, a pancreas transplant may be performed without a concurrent kidney transplant. This is usually considered for patients with brittle diabetes who experience severe hypoglycemic episodes despite optimal medical management and lifestyle modifications.

The success of pancreas transplantation has significantly improved over the years, thanks to advancements in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it is essential to weigh the benefits against the risks, such as potential complications related to surgery, infection, rejection, and long-term use of immunosuppressive drugs. Ultimately, the decision to undergo pancreas transplantation should be made in consultation with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, considering each patient's unique medical history and personal circumstances.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

Corneal transplantation, also known as keratoplasty, is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced with healthy corneal tissue from a deceased donor. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye that plays an important role in focusing vision. When it becomes cloudy or misshapen due to injury, infection, or inherited conditions, vision can become significantly impaired.

During the procedure, the surgeon carefully removes a circular section of the damaged cornea and replaces it with a similarly sized piece of donor tissue. The new cornea is then stitched into place using very fine sutures that are typically removed several months after surgery.

Corneal transplantation has a high success rate, with more than 90% of procedures resulting in improved vision. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, rejection of the donor tissue, and bleeding. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for any signs of complications and ensure proper healing.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a type of corneal transplant surgery where the entire thickness of the host's damaged or diseased cornea is removed and replaced with a similar full-thickness portion of a healthy donor's cornea. The procedure aims to restore visual function, alleviate pain, and improve the structural integrity of the eye. It is typically performed for conditions such as severe keratoconus, corneal scarring, or corneal ulcers that cannot be treated with other, less invasive methods. Following the surgery, patients may require extended recovery time and rigorous postoperative care to minimize the risk of complications and ensure optimal visual outcomes.

Tissue and organ procurement is the process of obtaining viable tissues and organs from deceased or living donors for the purpose of transplantation, research, or education. This procedure is performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines. The tissues and organs that can be procured include hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, pancreases, intestines, corneas, skin, bones, tendons, and heart valves. The process involves a thorough medical evaluation of the donor, as well as consent from the donor or their next of kin. After procurement, the tissues and organs are preserved and transported to recipients in need.

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressant drug that is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. It works by inhibiting the activity of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the body's immune response. By suppressing the activity of these cells, tacrolimus helps to reduce the risk of an immune response being mounted against the transplanted organ.

Tacrolimus is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil, to provide a comprehensive approach to preventing organ rejection. It is available in various forms, including capsules, oral solution, and intravenous injection.

The drug was first approved for use in the United States in 1994 and has since become a widely used immunosuppressant in transplant medicine. Tacrolimus is also being studied as a potential treatment for a variety of other conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

Skin transplantation, also known as skin grafting, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of healthy skin from one part of the body (donor site) and its transfer to another site (recipient site) that has been damaged or lost due to various reasons such as burns, injuries, infections, or diseases. The transplanted skin can help in healing wounds, restoring functionality, and improving the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. There are different types of skin grafts, including split-thickness grafts, full-thickness grafts, and composite grafts, which vary in the depth and size of the skin removed and transplanted. The success of skin transplantation depends on various factors, including the size and location of the wound, the patient's overall health, and the availability of suitable donor sites.

Cyclosporine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. Cyclosporine works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce the risk of the body attacking the transplanted organ.

In addition to its use in organ transplantation, cyclosporine may also be used to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. It does this by suppressing the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

Cyclosporine is available in capsule, oral solution, and injectable forms. Common side effects of the medication include kidney problems, high blood pressure, tremors, headache, and nausea. Long-term use of cyclosporine can also increase the risk of certain types of cancer and infections.

It is important to note that cyclosporine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it requires regular monitoring of blood levels and kidney function.

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a term used in the medical field, particularly in transplant medicine. It refers to a situation where a transplanted organ, most commonly a kidney, fails to function normally immediately after the transplantation procedure. This failure to function occurs within the first week after the transplant and is usually associated with poor urine output and elevated levels of creatinine in the blood.

DGF can be caused by several factors, including pre-existing conditions in the recipient, such as diabetes or hypertension, poor quality of the donor organ, or complications during the surgery. It may also result from the immune system's reaction to the transplanted organ, known as rejection.

In many cases, DGF can be managed with medical interventions, such as administering medications to help reduce inflammation and improve blood flow to the organ. However, in some instances, it may lead to more severe complications, including acute or chronic rejection of the transplanted organ, which could require additional treatments or even another transplant.

It's important to note that not all cases of DGF lead to long-term complications, and many patients with DGF can still go on to have successful transplants with proper management and care.

Cold ischemia is a medical term that refers to the loss of blood flow and subsequent lack of oxygen delivery to an organ or tissue, which is then cooled and stored in a solution at temperatures between 0-4°C (32-39°F) for the purpose of transplantation. The term "cold" indicates the temperature range, while "ischemia" refers to the lack of blood flow and oxygen delivery to the tissue.

During cold ischemia, the metabolic activity of the organ or tissue slows down significantly, which helps to reduce the rate of cellular damage that would otherwise occur due to the absence of oxygen and nutrients. However, even with cold storage, there is still some degree of injury to the organ or tissue, and this can affect its function after transplantation.

The duration of cold ischemia time is an important factor in determining the success of a transplant procedure. Prolonged cold ischemia times are associated with increased risk of poor organ function and rejection, as well as decreased graft survival rates. Therefore, it is essential to minimize the cold ischemia time as much as possible during organ transplantation to ensure optimal outcomes for the recipient.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Islets of Langerhans transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves the transplantation of isolated islets from a deceased donor's pancreas into another person with type 1 diabetes. The islets of Langerhans are clusters of cells within the pancreas that produce hormones, including insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels.

In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys these insulin-producing cells, leading to high blood sugar levels. Islet transplantation aims to replace the damaged islets with healthy ones from a donor, allowing the recipient's body to produce and regulate its own insulin again.

The procedure involves extracting the islets from the donor pancreas and infusing them into the recipient's liver through a small incision in the abdomen. Once inside the liver, the islets can sense glucose levels in the bloodstream and release insulin as needed to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Islet transplantation has shown promising results in improving blood sugar control and reducing the risk of severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in people with type 1 diabetes. However, it requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted islets, which can have side effects and increase the risk of infections.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Organ preservation is a medical technique used to maintain the viability and functionality of an organ outside the body for a certain period, typically for transplantation purposes. This process involves cooling the organ to slow down its metabolic activity and prevent tissue damage, while using specialized solutions that help preserve the organ's structure and function. Commonly preserved organs include hearts, livers, kidneys, lungs, and pancreases. The goal of organ preservation is to ensure that the transplanted organ remains in optimal condition until it can be successfully implanted into a recipient.

In a medical context, "survival" generally refers to the continuation of life following a serious illness, injury, or dangerous event. It is often used in research and clinical settings to describe the length and quality of life after a specific treatment or diagnosis. For example, survival rate might refer to the percentage of patients who are still alive after a certain period of time following a cancer diagnosis or surgery. Survival can also be used more broadly to describe an individual's ability to adapt and persist in the face of adversity or challenge, whether that's due to medical conditions or other life circumstances.

Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive drug that is primarily used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation. It works by inhibiting the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase, which is a key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides, an essential component for the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes. By doing this, MPA reduces the activity of the immune system, thereby preventing it from attacking the transplanted organ.

Mycophenolic Acid is available in two forms: as the sodium salt (Mycophenolate Sodium) and as the morpholinoethyl ester (Mycophenolate Mofetil), which is rapidly hydrolyzed to Mycophenolic Acid after oral administration. Common side effects of MPA include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as an increased risk of infections due to its immunosuppressive effects.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Brain death is a legal and medical determination that an individual has died because their brain has irreversibly lost all functions necessary for life. It is characterized by the absence of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness to stimuli, and the inability to breathe without mechanical support. Brain death is different from a vegetative state or coma, where there may still be some brain activity.

The determination of brain death involves a series of tests and examinations to confirm the absence of brain function. These tests are typically performed by trained medical professionals and may include clinical assessments, imaging studies, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) to confirm the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

Brain death is an important concept in medicine because it allows for the organ donation process to proceed, potentially saving the lives of others. In many jurisdictions, brain death is legally equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, which means that once a person has been declared brain dead, they are considered deceased and their organs can be removed for transplantation.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

Transplantation tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or transplant tolerance, is a state in which the immune system of a transplant recipient does not mount an immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is an important goal in transplantation medicine to prevent graft rejection and reduce the need for long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which can have significant side effects.

Transplantation tolerance can be achieved through various mechanisms, including the deletion or regulation of donor-reactive T cells, the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress immune responses against the graft, and the modulation of innate immune responses. The development of strategies to induce transplantation tolerance is an active area of research in transplantation medicine.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Heterotopic transplantation is a type of organ or tissue transplant where the graft is placed in a different location from where it normally resides while still maintaining its original site. This is often done to supplement the function of the existing organ rather than replacing it. A common example of heterotopic transplantation is a heart transplant, where the donor's heart is placed in a new location in the recipient's body, while the recipient's own heart remains in place but is typically nonfunctional. This allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's heart if the transplanted organ fails.

In heterotopic kidney transplantation, the donor kidney is placed in a different location, usually in the lower abdomen, while the recipient's own kidneys are left in place. This approach can be beneficial for recipients with poor renal function or other medical conditions that make traditional kidney transplantation too risky.

Heterotopic transplantation is also used in liver transplantation, where a portion of the donor liver is placed in a different location, typically in the recipient's abdomen, while the recipient's own liver remains in place. This approach can be useful for recipients with acute liver failure or other conditions that make traditional liver transplantation too risky.

One advantage of heterotopic transplantation is that it allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's organ if the transplanted organ fails, as well as reducing the risk of rejection and improving overall outcomes for the recipient. However, this approach also has some disadvantages, such as increased complexity of the surgical procedure, potential for complications related to the placement of the graft, and the need for ongoing immunosuppression therapy to prevent rejection.

Immunologic graft enhancement refers to the manipulation of the immune system to increase the acceptance and survival of a transplanted tissue or organ (graft) in the recipient's body. This is achieved by suppressing the immune response that recognizes and attacks the graft as foreign, thereby reducing the risk of rejection.

Various strategies can be used for immunologic graft enhancement, including:

1. Immunosuppressive therapy: The use of medications to inhibit the activity of the immune system and prevent it from attacking the graft. Commonly used drugs include corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, antiproliferative agents, and monoclonal antibodies.
2. Induction therapy: The administration of high doses of immunosuppressive drugs before or immediately after transplantation to suppress the initial immune response and reduce the risk of early rejection.
3. Tolerance induction: The manipulation of the recipient's immune system to promote tolerance to the graft, allowing for long-term acceptance without the need for ongoing immunosuppression. This can be achieved through various methods, such as costimulatory blockade, regulatory T cell therapy, or mixed chimerism.
4. Desensitization: The reduction of antibodies against the graft in sensitized recipients, who have previously been exposed to foreign antigens and developed an immune response. This can be achieved through various methods, such as plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, or protein A immunoabsorption.

It is important to note that while these strategies can enhance graft survival and reduce the risk of rejection, they also increase the risk of infection and malignancy due to the suppression of the immune system. Therefore, careful monitoring and management of the recipient's immune status is essential for successful transplantation outcomes.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

Liver failure is a serious condition in which the liver is no longer able to perform its normal functions, such as removing toxins and waste products from the blood, producing bile to help digest food, and regulating blood clotting. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, and an increased risk of bleeding. Liver failure can be acute (sudden) or chronic (developing over time). Acute liver failure is often caused by medication toxicity, viral hepatitis, or other sudden illnesses. Chronic liver failure is most commonly caused by long-term damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

It's important to note that Liver Failure is a life threatening condition and need immediate medical attention.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a severe complication that can occur after an organ transplant, such as a lung or heart transplant. It refers to the early functional impairment of the grafted organ that is not due to surgical complications, rejection, or recurrence of the original disease.

In the case of lung transplants, PGD is defined as the evidence of poor oxygenation and stiffness in the lungs within the first 72 hours after the transplant. It is typically caused by inflammation, injury to the blood vessels, or other damage to the lung tissue during the transplant procedure or due to pre-existing conditions in the donor organ.

PGD can lead to serious complications, including respiratory failure, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after transplantation. Treatment may include supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation and medications to support lung function, as well as strategies to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the grafted organ.

Antilymphocyte serum (ALS) is a type of immune serum that contains antibodies against human lymphocytes. It is produced by immunizing animals, such as horses or rabbits, with human lymphocytes to stimulate an immune response and the production of anti-lymphocyte antibodies. The resulting serum is then collected and can be used as a therapeutic agent to suppress the activity of the immune system in certain medical conditions.

ALS is primarily used in the treatment of transplant rejection, particularly in organ transplantation, where it helps to prevent the recipient's immune system from attacking and rejecting the transplanted organ. It can also be used in the management of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus, to suppress the overactive immune response that contributes to these conditions.

It is important to note that the use of ALS carries a risk of side effects, including allergic reactions, fever, and decreased white blood cell counts. Close monitoring and appropriate management of these potential adverse events are essential during treatment with ALS.

Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. It is characterized by the loss of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness, and apnea (no breathing). In medical terms, death can be defined as:

1. Cardiopulmonary Death: The irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions.
2. Brain Death: The irreversible loss of all brain function, including the brainstem. This is often used as a definition of death when performing organ donation.

It's important to note that the exact definition of death can vary somewhat based on cultural, religious, and legal perspectives.

Transplantation Immunology is a branch of medicine that deals with the immune responses occurring between a transplanted organ or tissue and the recipient's body. It involves understanding and managing the immune system's reaction to foreign tissue, which can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. This field also studies the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection and the potential risks and side effects associated with their use. The main goal of transplantation immunology is to find ways to promote the acceptance of transplanted tissue while minimizing the risk of infection and other complications.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Azathioprine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce inflammation and prevent the body from attacking its own tissues.

Azathioprine is a prodrug that is converted into its active form, 6-mercaptopurine, in the body. This medication can have significant side effects, including decreased white blood cell count, increased risk of infection, and liver damage. It may also increase the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly skin cancer and lymphoma.

Healthcare professionals must carefully monitor patients taking azathioprine for these potential side effects. They may need to adjust the dosage or stop the medication altogether if serious side effects occur. Patients should also take steps to reduce their risk of infection and skin cancer, such as practicing good hygiene, avoiding sun exposure, and using sunscreen.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

Isoantibodies are antibodies produced by the immune system that recognize and react to antigens (markers) found on the cells or tissues of another individual of the same species. These antigens are typically proteins or carbohydrates present on the surface of red blood cells, but they can also be found on other cell types.

Isoantibodies are formed when an individual is exposed to foreign antigens, usually through blood transfusions, pregnancy, or tissue transplantation. The exposure triggers the immune system to produce specific antibodies against these antigens, which can cause a harmful immune response if the individual receives another transfusion or transplant from the same donor in the future.

There are two main types of isoantibodies:

1. Agglutinins: These are IgM antibodies that cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) when mixed with the corresponding antigen. They develop rapidly after exposure and can cause immediate transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.
2. Hemolysins: These are IgG antibodies that destroy red blood cells by causing their membranes to become more permeable, leading to lysis (bursting) of the cells and release of hemoglobin into the plasma. They take longer to develop but can cause delayed transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.

Isoantibodies are detected through blood tests, such as the crossmatch test, which determines compatibility between a donor's and recipient's blood before transfusions or transplants.

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in our body. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are three types of HLA antigens: HLA class I, HLA class II, and HLA class III. HLA class I antigens are found on the surface of almost all cells in the body and help the immune system recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells. They consist of three components: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C.

HLA class II antigens are primarily found on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. They assist in the presentation of foreign particles (like bacteria and viruses) to CD4+ T cells, which then activate other parts of the immune system. HLA class II antigens include HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

HLA class III antigens consist of various molecules involved in immune responses, such as cytokines and complement components. They are not directly related to antigen presentation.

The genetic diversity of HLA antigens is extensive, with thousands of variations or alleles. This diversity allows for a better ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. However, this variation can also lead to compatibility issues in organ transplantation, as the recipient's immune system may recognize the donor's HLA antigens as foreign and attack the transplanted organ.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Organ preservation solutions are specialized fluids used to maintain the viability and functionality of organs ex vivo (outside the body) during the process of transplantation. These solutions are designed to provide optimal conditions for the organ by preventing tissue damage, reducing metabolic activity, and minimizing ischemic injuries that may occur during the time between organ removal from the donor and implantation into the recipient.

The composition of organ preservation solutions typically includes various ingredients such as:

1. Cryoprotectants: These help prevent ice crystal formation and damage to cell membranes during freezing and thawing processes, especially for organs like the heart and lungs that require deep hypothermia for preservation.
2. Buffers: They maintain physiological pH levels and counteract acidosis caused by anaerobic metabolism in the absence of oxygen supply.
3. Colloids: These substances, such as hydroxyethyl starch or dextran, help preserve oncotic pressure and prevent cellular edema.
4. Electrolytes: Balanced concentrations of ions like sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, and bicarbonate are essential for maintaining physiological osmolarity and membrane potentials.
5. Energy substrates: Glucose, lactate, or other energy-rich compounds can serve as fuel sources to support the metabolic needs of the organ during preservation.
6. Antioxidants: These agents protect against oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by ischemia-reperfusion injuries.
7. Anti-inflammatory agents and immunosuppressants: Some solutions may contain substances that mitigate the inflammatory response and reduce immune activation in the transplanted organ.

Examples of commonly used organ preservation solutions include University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate (HTK) solution, Custodiol HTK solution, and Euro-Collins solution. The choice of preservation solution depends on the specific organ being transplanted and the duration of preservation required.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Donor selection is the process of evaluating and choosing potential organ, tissue, or stem cell donors based on various medical and non-medical criteria to ensure the safety and efficacy of the transplantation. The goal of donor selection is to identify a compatible donor with minimal risk of rejection and transmission of infectious diseases while also considering ethical and legal considerations.

Medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Age: Donors are typically required to be within a certain age range, depending on the type of organ or tissue being donated.
2. Blood type and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing: Compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood types and HLA markers is crucial to reduce the risk of rejection.
3. Medical history: Donors must undergo a thorough medical evaluation, including a review of their medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests to assess their overall health and identify any potential risks or contraindications for donation.
4. Infectious disease screening: Donors are tested for various infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), among others, to ensure they do not transmit infections to the recipient.
5. Tissue typing: For organ transplants, tissue typing is performed to assess the compatibility of the donor's and recipient's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, which play a significant role in the immune response and rejection risk.

Non-medical criteria for donor selection may include:

1. Consent: Donors must provide informed consent for organ or tissue donation, and their next of kin or legal representative may be involved in the decision-making process for deceased donors.
2. Legal considerations: There are specific laws and regulations governing organ and tissue donation that must be followed, such as age restrictions, geographical proximity between the donor and recipient, and cultural or religious beliefs.
3. Ethical considerations: Donor selection should adhere to ethical principles, such as fairness, respect for autonomy, and non-maleficence, to ensure that the process is transparent, equitable, and free from coercion or exploitation.

Transplantation is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a functioning one. The goal of transplantation is to restore normal function, improve quality of life, and extend lifespan in individuals with organ failure or severe tissue damage. Common types of transplants include kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, small intestine, and bone marrow transplantations. The success of a transplant depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the health of both individuals, and the effectiveness of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Histocompatibility is the compatibility between tissues or organs from different individuals in terms of their histological (tissue) structure and antigenic properties. The term is most often used in the context of transplantation, where it refers to the degree of match between the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and other proteins on the surface of donor and recipient cells.

A high level of histocompatibility reduces the risk of rejection of a transplanted organ or tissue by the recipient's immune system, as their immune cells are less likely to recognize the donated tissue as foreign and mount an attack against it. Conversely, a low level of histocompatibility increases the likelihood of rejection, as the recipient's immune system recognizes the donated tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Histocompatibility testing is therefore an essential part of organ and tissue transplantation, as it helps to identify the best possible match between donor and recipient and reduces the risk of rejection.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Tissue and organ harvesting is the surgical removal of healthy tissues or organs from a living or deceased donor for the purpose of transplantation into another person in need of a transplant. This procedure is performed with great care, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines, to ensure the safety and well-being of both the donor and the recipient.

In the case of living donors, the harvested tissue or organ is typically removed from a site that can be safely spared, such as a kidney, a portion of the liver, or a segment of the lung. The donor must undergo extensive medical evaluation to ensure they are physically and psychologically suitable for the procedure.

For deceased donors, tissue and organ harvesting is performed in a manner that respects their wishes and those of their family, as well as adheres to legal and ethical requirements. Organs and tissues must be recovered promptly after death to maintain their viability for transplantation.

Tissue and organ harvesting is an essential component of the transplant process, allowing individuals with terminal illnesses or severe injuries to receive life-saving or life-enhancing treatments. It is a complex and highly regulated medical practice that requires specialized training, expertise, and coordination among healthcare professionals, donor families, and recipients.

Isogeneic transplantation is a type of transplant where the donor and recipient are genetically identical, meaning they are identical twins or have the same genetic makeup. In this case, the immune system recognizes the transplanted organ or tissue as its own and does not mount an immune response to reject it. This reduces the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are typically required in other types of transplantation to prevent rejection.

In medical terms, isogeneic transplantation is defined as the transfer of genetic identical tissues or organs between genetically identical individuals, resulting in minimal risk of rejection and no need for immunosuppressive therapy.

Corneal neovascularization is a medical condition that refers to the growth of new, abnormal blood vessels in the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea typically receives its nutrients from tears and oxygen in the air, so it does not have its own blood vessels. However, when the cornea is damaged or inflamed, it may trigger the growth of new blood vessels from the surrounding tissue into the cornea to promote healing.

Corneal neovascularization can occur due to various eye conditions such as infection, injury, inflammation, degenerative diseases, or contact lens wear. Excessive growth of blood vessels in the cornea can interfere with vision, cause scarring, and increase the risk of corneal transplant rejection. Treatment for corneal neovascularization depends on the underlying cause and may include topical medications, surgery, or other therapies to reduce inflammation, prevent further growth of blood vessels, and preserve vision.

Creatinine is a waste product that's produced by your muscles and removed from your body by your kidneys. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine, a compound found in meat and fish, as well as in the muscles of vertebrates, including humans.

In healthy individuals, the kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and eliminate it through urine. However, when the kidneys are not functioning properly, creatinine levels in the blood can rise. Therefore, measuring the amount of creatinine in the blood or urine is a common way to test how well the kidneys are working. High creatinine levels in the blood may indicate kidney damage or kidney disease.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Complement C4b is a protein fragment that is formed during the activation of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system. The complement system helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body by tagging them for destruction and attracting immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

C4b is generated when the C4 protein is cleaved into two smaller fragments, C4a and C4b, during the activation of the classical or lectin pathways of the complement system. C4b then binds covalently to the surface of the target cell or pathogen, forming a complex with other complement proteins that can create a membrane attack complex (MAC) and cause cell lysis.

C4b can also act as an opsonin, coating the surface of the target cell or pathogen and making it easier for immune cells to recognize and phagocytose them. Additionally, C4b can activate the alternative pathway of the complement system, leading to further amplification of the complement response.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, specifically an oligosaccharide, that is composed of three sugars: galactose, fructose, and glucose. It is a non-reducing sugar, which means it does not undergo oxidation reactions like reducing sugars do.

Raffinose is found in various plants, including beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, broccoli, and whole grains. It is a member of the class of carbohydrates known as alpha-galactosides.

In humans, raffinose cannot be digested because we lack the enzyme alpha-galactosidase, which is necessary to break down the bond between galactose and glucose in raffinose. As a result, it passes through the small intestine intact and enters the large intestine, where it is fermented by gut bacteria. This fermentation process can lead to the production of gases such as methane and hydrogen, which can cause digestive discomfort, bloating, and flatulence in some individuals.

It's worth noting that raffinose has been studied for its potential prebiotic properties, as it can promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. However, excessive consumption may lead to digestive issues in sensitive individuals.

Isoantigens are antigens that are present on the cells or tissues of one individual of a species, but are absent or different in another individual of the same species. They are also known as "alloantigens." Isoantigens are most commonly found on the surface of red blood cells and other tissues, and they can stimulate an immune response when transplanted into a different individual. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the isoantigens as foreign and mounts a defense against them. Isoantigens are important in the field of transplantation medicine, as they must be carefully matched between donor and recipient to reduce the risk of rejection.

Immunoconjugates are biomolecules created by the conjugation (coupling) of an antibody or antibody fragment with a cytotoxic agent, such as a drug, radionuclide, or toxin. This coupling is designed to direct the cytotoxic agent specifically to target cells, usually cancer cells, against which the antibody is directed, thereby increasing the effectiveness and reducing the side effects of the therapy.

The antibody part of the immunoconjugate recognizes and binds to specific antigens (proteins or other molecules) on the surface of the target cells, while the cytotoxic agent part enters the cell and disrupts its function, leading to cell death. The linker between the two parts is designed to be stable in circulation but can release the cytotoxic agent once inside the target cell.

Immunoconjugates are a promising area of research in targeted cancer therapy, as they offer the potential for more precise and less toxic treatments compared to traditional chemotherapy. However, their development and use also pose challenges, such as ensuring that the immunoconjugate binds specifically to the target cells and not to normal cells, optimizing the dose and schedule of treatment, and minimizing the risk of resistance to the therapy.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Fetal tissue transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the surgical implantation of tissue from developing fetuses into patients for therapeutic purposes. The tissue used in these procedures typically comes from elective abortions, and can include tissues such as neural cells, liver cells, pancreatic islets, and heart valves.

The rationale behind fetal tissue transplantation is that the developing fetus has a high capacity for cell growth and regeneration, making its tissues an attractive source of cells for transplantation. Additionally, because fetal tissue is often less mature than adult tissue, it may be less likely to trigger an immune response in the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection.

Fetal tissue transplantation has been explored as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and heart disease. However, the use of fetal tissue in medical research and therapy remains controversial due to ethical concerns surrounding the sourcing of the tissue.

Actuarial analysis is a process used in the field of actuarial science to evaluate and manage risk, typically for financial or insurance purposes. It involves the use of statistical modeling, mathematical calculations, and data analysis to estimate the probability and potential financial impact of various events or outcomes.

In a medical context, actuarial analysis may be used to assess the risks and costs associated with different health conditions, treatments, or patient populations. For example, an actuary might use data on morbidity rates, mortality rates, and healthcare utilization patterns to estimate the expected costs of providing coverage to a group of patients with a particular medical condition.

Actuarial analysis can help healthcare organizations, insurers, and policymakers make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing, and risk management. It can also be used to develop predictive models that identify high-risk populations or forecast future trends in healthcare utilization and costs.

An allograft is a type of transplant in which tissue or an organ is transferred from one individual to another, within the same species. The donor and recipient are genetically different, so the recipient's immune system may recognize the donated tissue or organ as foreign and mount an immune response against it. To minimize the risk of rejection, recipients typically receive immunosuppressive drugs to dampen their immune response.

Allografts can be used in a variety of medical contexts, including reconstructive surgery, orthopedic surgery, and organ transplantation. Examples of allografts include heart valves, tendons, ligaments, corneas, skin, and whole organs such as kidneys, livers, and hearts.

It's worth noting that allografts are distinguished from autografts, which involve transplanting tissue or an organ from one part of the body to another in the same individual, and xenografts, which involve transplanting tissue or organs between different species.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

A waiting list, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to a list of patients who are awaiting a particular medical service or procedure, such as surgery, consultation with a specialist, or therapy. These lists are often established when the demand for certain services exceeds the immediate supply of resources, including physician time, hospital beds, or specialized equipment.

Patients on waiting lists are typically ranked based on factors like the severity of their condition, the urgency of their need for treatment, and the date they were placed on the list. The goal is to ensure that those with the most pressing medical needs receive care as soon as possible, while also providing a fair and transparent system for allocating limited resources.

However, it's important to note that extended waiting times can have negative consequences for patients, including worsening of symptoms, decreased quality of life, and potential complications. As such, healthcare systems strive to minimize wait times through various strategies, such as increasing resource allocation, improving efficiency, and implementing alternative service delivery models.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Organ transplantation is a surgical procedure where an organ or tissue from one person (donor) is removed and placed into another person (recipient) whose organ or tissue is not functioning properly or has been damaged beyond repair. The goal of this complex procedure is to replace the non-functioning organ with a healthy one, thereby improving the recipient's quality of life and overall survival.

Organs that can be transplanted include the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, pancreas, and intestines. Tissues such as corneas, skin, heart valves, and bones can also be transplanted. The donor may be deceased or living, depending on the type of organ and the medical circumstances.

Organ transplantation is a significant and life-changing event for both the recipient and their families. It requires careful evaluation, matching, and coordination between the donor and recipient, as well as rigorous post-transplant care to ensure the success of the procedure and minimize the risk of rejection.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is also known as rapamycin. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is a protein that plays a key role in cell growth and division.

Sirolimus is primarily used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, livers, and hearts. It works by suppressing the activity of the immune system, which can help to reduce the risk of the body rejecting the transplanted organ. Sirolimus is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors.

Sirolimus is also being studied for its potential therapeutic benefits in a variety of other conditions, including cancer, tuberous sclerosis complex, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the safety and efficacy of sirolimus in these contexts.

It's important to note that sirolimus can have significant side effects, including increased risk of infections, mouth sores, high blood pressure, and kidney damage. Therefore, it should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK) is a type of corneal transplant surgery that involves replacing the damaged endothelium (inner layer) of the cornea with healthy endothelial cells from a donor. In this procedure, the surgeon removes the patient's Descemet's membrane (a thin, clear tissue beneath the endothelium) along with the damaged endothelium. Then, a thin disc of donor tissue, which includes both the endothelium and a small portion of the adjacent corneal stroma, is inserted into the eye and positioned using an air bubble. The new endothelial cells help to pump excess fluid out of the cornea, allowing it to become clear again. DSEK typically results in faster visual recovery and lower rejection rates compared to traditional full-thickness corneal transplantation.

Brain tissue transplantation is a medical procedure that involves the surgical implantation of healthy brain tissue into a damaged or diseased brain. The goal of this procedure is to replace the non-functioning brain cells with healthy ones, in order to restore lost function or improve neurological symptoms.

The brain tissue used for transplantation can come from various sources, including fetal brain tissue, embryonic stem cells, or autologous cells (the patient's own cells). The most common type of brain tissue transplantation is fetal brain tissue transplantation, where tissue from aborted fetuses is used.

Brain tissue transplantation has been explored as a potential treatment for various neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and stroke. However, the procedure remains highly experimental and is not widely available outside of clinical trials. There are also ethical concerns surrounding the use of fetal brain tissue, which has limited its widespread adoption.

It is important to note that while brain tissue transplantation holds promise as a potential treatment for neurological disorders, it is still an area of active research and much more needs to be learned about its safety and efficacy before it becomes a standard treatment option.

Corneal edema is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. This buildup of fluid causes the cornea to swell and thicken, resulting in blurry or distorted vision. Corneal edema can be caused by various factors, including eye injuries, certain medications, eye surgeries, and diseases that affect the eye's ability to pump fluids out of the cornea. In some cases, corneal edema may resolve on its own or with treatment, but in severe cases, it may require a corneal transplant.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

The endothelium of the cornea is the thin, innermost layer of cells that lines the inner surface of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped structure at the front of the eye. This single layer of specialized cells is essential for maintaining the transparency and proper hydration of the cornea, allowing light to pass through it and focus on the retina.

The endothelial cells are hexagonal in shape and have tight junctions between them, creating a semi-permeable barrier that controls the movement of water and solutes between the corneal stroma (the middle layer of the cornea) and the anterior chamber (the space between the cornea and the iris). The endothelial cells actively pump excess fluid out of the cornea, maintaining a delicate balance of hydration that is critical for corneal clarity.

Damage to or dysfunction of the corneal endothelium can result in corneal edema (swelling), cloudiness, and loss of vision. Factors contributing to endothelial damage include aging, eye trauma, intraocular surgery, and certain diseases such as Fuchs' dystrophy and glaucoma.

Calcineurin is a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in signal transduction pathways involved in immune response and neuronal development. It consists of two subunits: the catalytic A subunit (calcineurin A) and the regulatory B subunit (calcineurin B). Calcineurin is responsible for dephosphorylating various substrates, including transcription factors, which leads to changes in their activity and ultimately affects gene expression. In the immune system, calcineurin plays a critical role in T-cell activation by dephosphorylating the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT), allowing it to translocate into the nucleus and induce the expression of cytokines and other genes involved in the immune response. Inhibitors of calcineurin, such as cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, are commonly used as immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ rejection after transplantation.

Kidney disease, also known as nephropathy or renal disease, refers to any functional or structural damage to the kidneys that impairs their ability to filter blood, regulate electrolytes, produce hormones, and maintain fluid balance. This damage can result from a wide range of causes, including diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, infections, drugs, toxins, and congenital or inherited disorders.

Depending on the severity and progression of the kidney damage, kidney diseases can be classified into two main categories: acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). AKI is a sudden and often reversible loss of kidney function that occurs over hours to days, while CKD is a progressive and irreversible decline in kidney function that develops over months or years.

Symptoms of kidney diseases may include edema, proteinuria, hematuria, hypertension, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic acidosis, anemia, and decreased urine output. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the disease and may include medications, dietary modifications, dialysis, or kidney transplantation.

Blood group incompatibility refers to a situation where the blood type of a donor and a recipient are not compatible, leading to an immune response and destruction of the donated red blood cells. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the donor's red blood cells as foreign due to the presence of incompatible antigens on their surface.

The most common type of blood group incompatibility occurs between individuals with different ABO blood types, such as when a person with type O blood receives type A, B, or AB blood. This can lead to agglutination and hemolysis of the donated red blood cells, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as hemolytic transfusion reaction.

Another type of blood group incompatibility occurs between Rh-negative mothers and their Rh-positive fetuses. If a mother's immune system is exposed to her fetus's Rh-positive red blood cells during pregnancy or childbirth, she may develop antibodies against them. This can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn if the mother becomes pregnant with another Rh-positive fetus in the future.

To prevent these complications, it is essential to ensure that donated blood is compatible with the recipient's blood type before transfusion and that appropriate measures are taken during pregnancy and childbirth to prevent sensitization of Rh-negative mothers to Rh-positive red blood cells.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

A Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed (LCTM) is not a standardized medical test with a universally accepted definition. However, in some contexts, it may refer to a laboratory procedure where both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are cultured together from a sample of peripheral blood or other tissues. This test is sometimes used in research or specialized diagnostic settings to evaluate the immune function or to study the interactions between T-cells and B-cells in response to various stimuli, such as antigens or mitogens.

The test typically involves isolating lymphocytes from a sample, adding them to a culture medium along with appropriate stimulants, and then incubating the mixture for a period of time. The resulting responses, such as proliferation, differentiation, or production of cytokines, can be measured and analyzed to gain insights into the immune function or dysfunction.

It's important to note that LCTM is not a routine diagnostic test and its use and interpretation may vary depending on the specific laboratory or research setting.

Cyclosporins are a group of cyclic undecapeptides that have immunosuppressive properties. The most well-known and widely used cyclosporin is cyclosporine A, which is commonly used in organ transplantation to prevent rejection. It works by inhibiting the activation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. By suppressing the activity of T-cells, cyclosporine A reduces the risk of an immune response against the transplanted organ.

Cyclosporins are also used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, where they help to reduce inflammation and prevent damage to tissues. Like all immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporins can increase the risk of infection and cancer, so they must be used with caution and under close medical supervision.

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

Corneal endothelial cell loss refers to the decrease in the number of corneal endothelial cells, which is a layer of cells that line the inner surface of the cornea. These cells are essential for maintaining the clarity and health of the cornea, as they help to pump fluids out of the cornea and maintain its transparency.

Corneal endothelial cell loss can occur due to various reasons such as aging, eye trauma, surgery (such as cataract surgery), diseases (such as Fuchs' dystrophy), or inherited conditions. When the number of endothelial cells decreases below a certain threshold, it can lead to corneal swelling, cloudiness, and vision loss.

The rate of corneal endothelial cell loss varies from person to person, but on average, people lose about 0.6% of their endothelial cells per year. Factors such as age, certain medical conditions, and previous eye surgery can increase the rate of cell loss. In some cases, corneal transplantation may be necessary to replace damaged or lost endothelial cells and restore vision.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the normal functioning of the liver. The liver is a vital organ responsible for various critical functions such as detoxification, protein synthesis, and production of biochemicals necessary for digestion.

Liver diseases can be categorized into acute and chronic forms. Acute liver disease comes on rapidly and can be caused by factors like viral infections (hepatitis A, B, C, D, E), drug-induced liver injury, or exposure to toxic substances. Chronic liver disease develops slowly over time, often due to long-term exposure to harmful agents or inherent disorders of the liver.

Common examples of liver diseases include hepatitis, cirrhosis (scarring of the liver tissue), fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver diseases, genetic/hereditary liver disorders (like Wilson's disease and hemochromatosis), and liver cancers. Symptoms may vary widely depending on the type and stage of the disease but could include jaundice, abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, and weight loss.

Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression and potential complications associated with liver diseases.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Biliary tract diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the biliary system, which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver. Bile is a digestive juice produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine through the bile ducts to help digest fats.

Biliary tract diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, nausea, vomiting, and changes in stool color. Some of the common biliary tract diseases include:

1. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts made up of cholesterol or bilirubin.
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by gallstones.
3. Cholangitis: Infection or inflammation of the bile ducts.
4. Biliary dyskinesia: A motility disorder that affects the contraction and relaxation of the muscles in the biliary system.
5. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: A chronic autoimmune disease that causes scarring and narrowing of the bile ducts.
6. Biliary tract cancer: Rare cancers that affect the gallbladder, bile ducts, or liver.

Treatment for biliary tract diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Warm ischemia, also known as warm injury or warm hypoxia, refers to the damage that occurs to tissues when there is an inadequate blood supply at body temperature. This can happen during surgical procedures, trauma, or other medical conditions that restrict blood flow to a specific area of the body. The lack of oxygen and nutrients, combined with the buildup of waste products, can cause cells to become damaged or die, leading to tissue dysfunction or failure.

The term "warm" is used to distinguish this type of ischemia from cold ischemia, which occurs when tissues are cooled and blood flow is restricted. Cold ischemia is often used in organ transplantation to preserve the organ until it can be transplanted. Warm ischemia is generally more damaging to tissues than cold ischemia because the metabolic demands of the cells are not being met, leading to a more rapid onset of cellular damage.

The severity and duration of warm ischemia can affect the extent of tissue damage and the likelihood of recovery. In some cases, warm ischemia may be reversible if blood flow is restored quickly enough, but in other cases it may lead to permanent tissue damage or loss of function. Treatment for warm ischemia typically involves restoring blood flow to the affected area as soon as possible, along with supportive care to manage any complications that may arise.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

The ABO blood-group system is a classification system used in blood transfusion medicine to determine the compatibility of donated blood with a recipient's blood. It is based on the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs), as well as the corresponding antibodies present in the plasma.

There are four main blood types in the ABO system:

1. Type A: These individuals have A antigens on their RBCs and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.
2. Type B: They have B antigens on their RBCs and anti-A antibodies in their plasma.
3. Type AB: They have both A and B antigens on their RBCs but no natural antibodies against either A or B antigens.
4. Type O: They do not have any A or B antigens on their RBCs, but they have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies in their plasma.

Transfusing blood from a donor with incompatible ABO antigens can lead to an immune response, causing the destruction of donated RBCs and potentially life-threatening complications such as acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Therefore, it is crucial to match the ABO blood type between donors and recipients before performing a blood transfusion.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

The hepatic artery is a branch of the celiac trunk or abdominal aorta that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver. It typically divides into two main branches, the right and left hepatic arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply different regions of the liver. The hepatic artery also gives off branches to supply other organs such as the gallbladder, pancreas, and duodenum.

It's worth noting that there is significant variability in the anatomy of the hepatic artery, with some individuals having additional branches or variations in the origin of the vessel. This variability can have implications for surgical procedures involving the liver and surrounding organs.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where the donated immune cells (graft) recognize the recipient's tissues (host) as foreign and attack them. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs, particularly the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver.

Acute GVHD typically occurs within 100 days of transplantation and is characterized by symptoms such as rash, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. Chronic GVHD, on the other hand, can occur after 100 days or even years post-transplant and may present with a wider range of symptoms, including dry eyes and mouth, skin changes, lung involvement, and issues with mobility and flexibility in joints.

GVHD is a significant complication following allogeneic HSCT and can have a substantial impact on the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis. Preventative measures, such as immunosuppressive therapy, are often taken to reduce the risk of GVHD, but its management remains a challenge in transplant medicine.

I'm happy to help! However, I believe there may be a slight error in your question. "WF" is not a recognized strain identifier for inbred rats used in scientific research. Instead, "WI" or "Wistar-Imamichi" is sometimes used to refer to an inbred strain of rat developed in Japan.

Assuming you meant to ask about "Rats, Inbred WI," here's a definition:

Inbred WI rats are a strain of laboratory rats that have been selectively bred for research purposes. "Inbred" means that the rats have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 generations, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This uniformity makes it easier to control variables and repeat experiments.

WI rats were developed in Japan by crossing outbred Wistar rats with an inbred strain called F344. They have since been maintained as an independent inbred strain.

These rats are often used in biomedical research due to their well-characterized genetic background and consistent phenotypic traits, such as their size, behavior, and susceptibility to certain diseases. However, like all animal models, they have limitations and may not always accurately reflect human physiology or disease processes.

An animal model in medicine refers to the use of non-human animals in experiments to understand, predict, and test responses and effects of various biological and chemical interactions that may also occur in humans. These models are used when studying complex systems or processes that cannot be easily replicated or studied in human subjects, such as genetic manipulation or exposure to harmful substances. The choice of animal model depends on the specific research question being asked and the similarities between the animal's and human's biological and physiological responses. Examples of commonly used animal models include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and non-human primates.

Corneal diseases are a group of disorders that affect the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays an important role in focusing vision, and any damage or disease can cause significant visual impairment or loss. Some common types of corneal diseases include:

1. Keratoconus: A progressive disorder in which the cornea thins and bulges outward into a cone shape, causing distorted vision.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: A genetic disorder that affects the inner layer of the cornea called the endothelium, leading to swelling, cloudiness, and decreased vision.
3. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears or the tears evaporate too quickly, causing discomfort, redness, and blurred vision.
4. Corneal ulcers: Open sores on the cornea that can be caused by infection, trauma, or other factors.
5. Herpes simplex keratitis: A viral infection of the cornea that can cause recurrent episodes of inflammation, scarring, and vision loss.
6. Corneal dystrophies: Inherited disorders that affect the structure and clarity of the cornea, leading to visual impairment or blindness.
7. Bullous keratopathy: A condition in which the endothelium fails to pump fluid out of the cornea, causing it to swell and form blisters.
8. Corneal trauma: Injury to the cornea caused by foreign objects, chemicals, or other factors that can lead to scarring, infection, and vision loss.

Treatment for corneal diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity of the disease. Options may include eyedrops, medications, laser surgery, corneal transplantation, or other treatments.

Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It's primarily spread through contact with contaminated blood, often through sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. For some people, hepatitis C is a short-term illness but for most — about 75-85% — it becomes a long-term, chronic infection that can lead to serious health problems like liver damage, liver failure, and even liver cancer. The virus can infect and inflame the liver, causing symptoms like jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, fatigue, and dark urine. Many people with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms, so they might not know they have the infection until they experience complications. There are effective treatments available for hepatitis C, including antiviral medications that can cure the infection in most people. Regular testing is important to diagnose and treat hepatitis C early, before it causes serious health problems.

Kidney function tests (KFTs) are a group of diagnostic tests that evaluate how well your kidneys are functioning by measuring the levels of various substances in the blood and urine. The tests typically assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is an indicator of how efficiently the kidneys filter waste from the blood, as well as the levels of electrolytes, waste products, and proteins in the body.

Some common KFTs include:

1. Serum creatinine: A waste product that's produced by normal muscle breakdown and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels may indicate reduced kidney function.
2. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): Another waste product that's produced when protein is broken down and excreted by the kidneys. Increased BUN levels can suggest impaired kidney function.
3. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): A calculation based on serum creatinine, age, sex, and race that estimates the GFR and provides a more precise assessment of kidney function than creatinine alone.
4. Urinalysis: An examination of a urine sample to detect abnormalities such as protein, blood, or bacteria that may indicate kidney disease.
5. Electrolyte levels: Measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood to ensure they're properly balanced, which is essential for normal kidney function.

KFTs are often ordered as part of a routine check-up or when kidney disease is suspected based on symptoms or other diagnostic tests. Regular monitoring of kidney function can help detect and manage kidney disease early, potentially preventing or slowing down its progression.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

CD40 ligand (CD40L or CD154) is a type II transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. It is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T cells, but can also be found on other immune cells such as activated B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells.

CD40 ligand binds to its receptor, CD40, which is mainly expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. The interaction between CD40L and CD40 plays a crucial role in the activation and regulation of the immune response.

CD40L-CD40 signaling is essential for T cell-dependent B cell activation, antibody production, and class switching. It also contributes to the activation and maturation of dendritic cells, promoting their ability to stimulate T cell responses. Dysregulation of CD40L-CD40 signaling has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection, and cancer.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

Immune tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or specific immune tolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness or non-reactivity of the immune system towards a particular substance (antigen) that has the potential to elicit an immune response. This occurs when the immune system learns to distinguish "self" from "non-self" and does not attack the body's own cells, tissues, and organs.

In the context of transplantation, immune tolerance refers to the absence of a destructive immune response towards the transplanted organ or tissue, allowing for long-term graft survival without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. Immune tolerance can be achieved through various strategies, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, costimulation blockade, and regulatory T cell induction.

In summary, immune tolerance is a critical mechanism that prevents the immune system from attacking the body's own structures while maintaining the ability to respond appropriately to foreign pathogens and antigens.

Lung transplantation is a surgical procedure where one or both diseased lungs are removed and replaced with healthy lungs from a deceased donor. It is typically considered as a treatment option for patients with end-stage lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, who have exhausted all other medical treatments and continue to suffer from severe respiratory failure.

The procedure involves several steps, including evaluating the patient's eligibility for transplantation, matching the donor's lung size and blood type with the recipient, and performing the surgery under general anesthesia. After the surgery, patients require close monitoring and lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the new lungs.

Lung transplantation can significantly improve the quality of life and survival rates for some patients with end-stage lung disease, but it is not without risks, including infection, bleeding, and rejection. Therefore, careful consideration and thorough evaluation are necessary before pursuing this treatment option.

Plasmapheresis is a medical procedure where the liquid portion of the blood (plasma) is separated from the blood cells. The plasma, which may contain harmful substances such as antibodies or toxins, is then removed and replaced with fresh plasma or a plasma substitute. The remaining blood cells are mixed with the new plasma and returned to the body. This process is also known as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). It's used to treat various medical conditions including certain autoimmune diseases, poisonings, and neurological disorders.

Procaine is a local anesthetic drug that is used to reduce the feeling of pain in a specific area of the body. It works by blocking the nerves from transmitting painful sensations to the brain. Procaine is often used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or when a patient needs to have a wound cleaned or stitched up. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help determine the source of pain.

Procaine is administered via injection directly into the area that requires anesthesia. The effects of procaine are relatively short-lived, typically lasting between 30 minutes and two hours, depending on the dose and the individual's metabolism. Procaine may also cause a brief period of heightened sensory perception or euphoria following injection, known as "procaine rush."

It is important to note that procaine should only be administered by trained medical professionals, as improper use can lead to serious complications such as allergic reactions, respiratory depression, and even death.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, 'probability' does not have a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of numerical quantities called probabilities, which are assigned to events or sets of events. Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. It is usually expressed as a number between 0 and 1, where 0 indicates that the event is impossible and 1 indicates that the event is certain to occur.

In medical research and statistics, probability is often used to quantify the uncertainty associated with statistical estimates or hypotheses. For example, a p-value is a probability that measures the strength of evidence against a hypothesis. A small p-value (typically less than 0.05) suggests that the observed data are unlikely under the assumption of the null hypothesis, and therefore provides evidence in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

Probability theory is also used to model complex systems and processes in medicine, such as disease transmission dynamics or the effectiveness of medical interventions. By quantifying the uncertainty associated with these models, researchers can make more informed decisions about healthcare policies and practices.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Ophthalmic administration refers to the application or delivery of medications directly into the eye or on the surface of the eye. This route is commonly used for treating various eye conditions such as infections, inflammation, or glaucoma. The medication can be administered in several ways, including:

1. Eye drops: A liquid solution that is instilled into the lower conjunctival sac (the space between the eyeball and the lower eyelid) using a dropper. The patient should be advised to tilt their head back, look up, and pull down the lower eyelid to create a pocket for the drop.
2. Eye ointment: A semi-solid preparation that is applied to the lower conjunctival sac or the edge of the eyelid using a small tube or applicator. Ointments provide a longer contact time with the eye surface compared to eye drops, making them suitable for nighttime use or treating conditions that require prolonged medication exposure.
3. Eye inserts or pellets: Slow-release devices that contain medications and are placed either in the conjunctival sac or on the surface of the eye. These inserts gradually dissolve, releasing the active ingredient over an extended period.
4. Eye patches or bandages: In some cases, medication may be applied to an eye patch or bandage, which is then placed over the affected eye. This method is less common and typically used when other forms of administration are not feasible.

When administering ophthalmic medications, it's essential to follow proper techniques to ensure the correct dosage reaches the target area and minimize systemic absorption. Patients should also be advised about potential side effects, precautions, and storage requirements for their specific medication.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This results in an inability to regulate blood glucose levels, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. It is usually managed with regular insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, along with monitoring of blood glucose levels and adjustments to diet and physical activity. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The ear auricle, also known as the pinna or outer ear, is the visible external structure of the ear that serves to collect and direct sound waves into the ear canal. It is composed of cartilage and skin and is shaped like a curved funnel. The ear auricle consists of several parts including the helix (the outer rim), antihelix (the inner curved prominence), tragus and antitragus (the small pointed eminences in front of and behind the ear canal opening), concha (the bowl-shaped area that directs sound into the ear canal), and lobule (the fleshy lower part hanging from the ear).

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a test used to check how well the kidneys are working. Specifically, it estimates how much blood passes through the glomeruli each minute. The glomeruli are the tiny fibers in the kidneys that filter waste from the blood. A lower GFR number means that the kidneys aren't working properly and may indicate kidney disease.

The GFR is typically calculated using a formula that takes into account the patient's serum creatinine level, age, sex, and race. The most commonly used formula is the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation. A normal GFR is usually above 90 mL/min/1.73m2, but this can vary depending on the individual's age and other factors.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

A database, in the context of medical informatics, is a structured set of data organized in a way that allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and analysis. Databases are used extensively in healthcare to store and manage various types of information, including patient records, clinical trials data, research findings, and genetic data.

As a topic, "Databases" in medicine can refer to the design, implementation, management, and use of these databases. It may also encompass issues related to data security, privacy, and interoperability between different healthcare systems and databases. Additionally, it can involve the development and application of database technologies for specific medical purposes, such as clinical decision support, outcomes research, and personalized medicine.

Overall, databases play a critical role in modern healthcare by enabling evidence-based practice, improving patient care, advancing medical research, and informing health policy decisions.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

A lymphocyte transfusion is not a standard medical practice. However, the term "lymphocyte transfusion" generally refers to the infusion of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, from a donor to a recipient. This procedure is rarely performed and primarily used in research or experimental settings, such as in the context of adoptive immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

In adoptive immunotherapy, T lymphocytes (a subtype of lymphocytes) are collected from the patient or a donor, activated, expanded in the laboratory, and then reinfused into the patient to enhance their immune response against cancer cells. This is not a common procedure and should only be performed under the guidance of experienced medical professionals in specialized centers.

It's important to note that lymphocyte transfusions are different from stem cell or bone marrow transplants, which involve the infusion of hematopoietic stem cells to reconstitute the recipient's entire blood and immune system.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Cell transplantation is the process of transferring living cells from one part of the body to another or from one individual to another. In medicine, cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for various diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. The goal of cell transplantation is to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells with healthy ones, thereby restoring normal function to the affected area.

In the context of medical research, cell transplantation may involve the use of stem cells, which are immature cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of specialized cells. Stem cell transplantation has shown promise in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injuries, stroke, and heart disease.

It is important to note that cell transplantation carries certain risks, such as immune rejection and infection. As such, it is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have failed or are unlikely to be effective.

Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy is a medical condition that affects the eye's cornea. It is a slowly progressing disorder that causes the endothelium, a thin layer of cells lining the inner surface of the cornea, to deteriorate and eventually fail to function properly. This results in swelling of the cornea, leading to cloudy vision, distorted vision, and sensitivity to light.

The condition is typically inherited and tends to affect both eyes. It is more common in women than in men and usually becomes apparent after the age of 50. There is no cure for Fuchs' Endothelial Dystrophy, but treatments such as corneal transplantation can help improve vision and alleviate symptoms.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is the process of determining a person's ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood type. The ABO blood group system includes four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The Rh blood group system is another important classification system that determines whether the Rh factor (a protein also found on the surface of red blood cells) is present or absent.

Knowing a person's blood type is crucial in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood. If a patient receives an incompatible blood type, it can trigger an immune response leading to serious complications such as hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), kidney failure, or even death.

Crossmatching is a laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to determine the compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood. It involves mixing a small sample of the donor's red blood cells with the recipient's serum (the liquid portion of the blood containing antibodies) and observing for any agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis. If there is no reaction, the blood is considered compatible, and the transfusion can proceed.

In summary, blood grouping and crossmatching are essential tests in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood and prevent adverse reactions that could harm the patient's health.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Propylene glycol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. Medically, it is classified as a humectant, which means it helps retain moisture. It is used in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products as a solvent, preservative, and moisturizer. In medical settings, it can be found in topical creams, oral and injectable medications, and intravenous (IV) fluids.

The chemical definition of propylene glycol is:

Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propan-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CH2OH. It is a viscous, colorless, and nearly odorless liquid that is miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. Propylene glycol is used as an antifreeze when mixed with water, as a solvent in the production of polymers, and as a moisturizer in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. It has a sweet taste and is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a food additive.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Keratoconus is a degenerative non-inflammatory disorder of the eye, primarily affecting the cornea. It is characterized by a progressive thinning and steepening of the central or paracentral cornea, causing it to assume a conical shape. This results in irregular astigmatism, myopia, and scattering of light leading to blurred vision, visual distortions, and sensitivity to glare. The exact cause of keratoconus is unknown, but it may be associated with genetics, eye rubbing, and certain medical conditions. It typically starts in the teenage years and progresses into the third or fourth decade of life. Treatment options include glasses, contact lenses, cross-linking, and corneal transplantation in advanced cases.

Lymphangiogenesis is the formation of new lymphatic vessels from pre-existing ones. It is a complex biological process that involves the growth, differentiation, and remodeling of lymphatic endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of lymphatic vessels. Lymphangiogenesis plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, including tissue drainage, immune surveillance, and lipid absorption. However, it can also contribute to pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis, inflammation, and fibrosis when it is dysregulated.

The process of lymphangiogenesis is regulated by a variety of growth factors, receptors, and signaling molecules, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, and their receptor VEGFR-3, as well as other factors such as angiopoietins, integrins, and matrix metalloproteinases. Understanding the mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis has important implications for developing novel therapies for a range of diseases associated with abnormal lymphatic vessel growth and function.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Biliary atresia is a rare, progressive liver disease in infants and children, characterized by the inflammation, fibrosis, and obstruction of the bile ducts. This results in the impaired flow of bile from the liver to the intestine, leading to cholestasis (accumulation of bile in the liver), jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and eventually liver cirrhosis and failure if left untreated.

The exact cause of biliary atresia is not known, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It can occur as an isolated condition or in association with other congenital anomalies. The diagnosis of biliary atresia is typically made through imaging studies, such as ultrasound and cholangiography, and confirmed by liver biopsy.

The standard treatment for biliary atresia is a surgical procedure called the Kasai portoenterostomy, which aims to restore bile flow from the liver to the intestine. In this procedure, the damaged bile ducts are removed and replaced with a loop of intestine that is connected directly to the liver. The success of the Kasai procedure depends on several factors, including the age at diagnosis and surgery, the extent of liver damage, and the skill and experience of the surgeon.

Despite successful Kasai surgery, many children with biliary atresia will eventually develop cirrhosis and require liver transplantation. The prognosis for children with biliary atresia has improved significantly over the past few decades due to earlier diagnosis, advances in surgical techniques, and better postoperative care. However, it remains a challenging condition that requires close monitoring and multidisciplinary management by pediatric hepatologists, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals.

Allopurinol is a medication used to treat chronic gout and certain types of kidney stones. It works by reducing the production of uric acid in the body, which is the substance that can cause these conditions when it builds up in high levels. Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, meaning it blocks an enzyme called xanthine oxidase from converting purines into uric acid. By doing this, allopurinol helps to lower the levels of uric acid in the body and prevent the formation of new kidney stones or gout attacks.

It is important to note that allopurinol can have side effects, including rash, stomach upset, and liver or kidney problems. It may also interact with other medications, so it is essential to inform your healthcare provider of any other drugs you are taking before starting allopurinol. Your healthcare provider will determine the appropriate dosage and monitoring schedule based on your individual needs and medical history.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Life tables are statistical tools used in actuarial science, demography, and public health to estimate the mortality rate and survival rates of a population. They provide a data-driven representation of the probability that individuals of a certain age will die before their next birthday (the death rate) or live to a particular age (the survival rate).

Life tables are constructed using data on the number of deaths and the size of the population in specific age groups over a given period. These tables typically include several columns representing different variables, such as:

1. Age group or interval: The age range for which the data is being presented (e.g., 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, etc.).
2. Number of people in the population: The size of the population within each age group.
3. Number of deaths: The number of individuals who died during the study period within each age group.
4. Death rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will die before their next birthday. It is calculated as the number of deaths divided by the size of the population for that age group.
5. Survival rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will survive to a specific age or older. It is calculated using the death rates from earlier age groups.
6. Life expectancy: The average number of years a person is expected to live, based on their current age and mortality rates for each subsequent age group.

Life tables are essential in various fields, including insurance, pension planning, social security administration, and healthcare policy development. They help researchers and policymakers understand the health status and demographic trends of populations, allowing them to make informed decisions about resource allocation, program development, and public health interventions.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

"Rats, Inbred BN" are a strain of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been inbred for many generations to maintain a high level of genetic consistency and uniformity within the strain. The "BN" designation refers to the place where they were first developed, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

These rats are often used in biomedical research because their genetic homogeneity makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on health and disease. They have been widely used as a model organism to study various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including hypertension, kidney function, immunology, and neuroscience.

Inbred BN rats are known for their low renin-angiotensin system activity, which makes them a useful model for studying hypertension and related disorders. They also have a unique sensitivity to dietary protein, making them a valuable tool for studying the relationship between diet and kidney function.

Overall, Inbred BN rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing researchers with a consistent and well-characterized model organism for studying various aspects of human health and disease.

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of hormones that naturally occur in the body and are produced by the adrenal gland. It is often used to treat various medical conditions such as inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Methylprednisolone works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and redness.

Methylprednisolone is available in several forms, including tablets, oral suspension, and injectable solutions. It may be used for short-term or long-term treatment, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite, weight gain, insomnia, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of methylprednisolone can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, cataracts, and adrenal suppression.

It is important to note that methylprednisolone should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, medical history, and the condition being treated.

Regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs), also known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T-cells that play a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases. They function to suppress the activation and proliferation of other immune cells, thereby regulating the immune response and preventing it from attacking the body's own tissues.

Tregs constitutively express the surface markers CD4 and CD25, as well as the transcription factor Foxp3, which is essential for their development and function. They can be further divided into subsets based on their expression of other markers, such as CD127 and CD45RA.

Tregs are critical for maintaining self-tolerance by suppressing the activation of self-reactive T cells that have escaped negative selection in the thymus. They also play a role in regulating immune responses to foreign antigens, such as those encountered during infection or cancer, and can contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in tumors.

Dysregulation of Tregs has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, as well as in cancer and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate Treg function is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

The Islets of Langerhans are clusters of specialized cells within the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach. These islets are named after Paul Langerhans, who first identified them in 1869. They constitute around 1-2% of the total mass of the pancreas and are distributed throughout its substance.

The Islets of Langerhans contain several types of cells, including:

1. Alpha (α) cells: These produce and release glucagon, a hormone that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by promoting the conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver when blood sugar levels are low.
2. Beta (β) cells: These produce and release insulin, a hormone that promotes the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells throughout the body, thereby lowering blood sugar levels.
3. Delta (δ) cells: These produce and release somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of both insulin and glucagon and helps regulate their secretion in response to changing blood sugar levels.
4. PP cells (gamma or γ cells): These produce and release pancreatic polypeptide, which plays a role in regulating digestive enzyme secretion and gastrointestinal motility.

Dysfunction of the Islets of Langerhans can lead to various endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, where insulin-producing beta cells are damaged or destroyed, leading to impaired blood sugar regulation.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol (a sugar substitute) used primarily as a diuretic to reduce brain swelling caused by traumatic brain injury or other causes that induce increased pressure in the brain. It works by drawing water out of the body through the urine. It's also used before surgeries in the heart, lungs, and kidneys to prevent fluid buildup.

In addition, mannitol is used in medical laboratories as a medium for growing bacteria and other microorganisms, and in some types of chemical research. In the clinic, it is also used as an osmotic agent in eye drops to reduce the pressure inside the eye in conditions such as glaucoma.

It's important to note that mannitol should be used with caution in patients with heart or kidney disease, as well as those who are dehydrated, because it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other complications.

Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that occurs when blood flow is restored to previously ischemic tissues, leading to further tissue damage. This phenomenon can occur in various clinical settings such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, or peripheral artery disease after an intervention aimed at restoring perfusion.

The restoration of blood flow leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediators, which can cause oxidative stress, cellular damage, and activation of the immune system. This results in a cascade of events that may lead to microvascular dysfunction, capillary leakage, and tissue edema, further exacerbating the injury.

Reperfusion injury is an important consideration in the management of ischemic events, as interventions aimed at restoring blood flow must be carefully balanced with potential harm from reperfusion injury. Strategies to mitigate reperfusion injury include ischemic preconditioning (exposing the tissue to short periods of ischemia before a prolonged ischemic event), ischemic postconditioning (applying brief periods of ischemia and reperfusion after restoring blood flow), remote ischemic preconditioning (ischemia applied to a distant organ or tissue to protect the target organ), and pharmacological interventions that scavenge ROS, reduce inflammation, or improve microvascular function.

Infection is defined medically as the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites within the body, which can lead to tissue damage, illness, and disease. This process often triggers an immune response from the host's body in an attempt to eliminate the infectious agents and restore homeostasis. Infections can be transmitted through various routes, including airborne particles, direct contact with contaminated surfaces or bodily fluids, sexual contact, or vector-borne transmission. The severity of an infection may range from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening, depending on factors such as the type and quantity of pathogen, the host's immune status, and any underlying health conditions.

I'm having a bit of difficulty understanding the specific term you're asking about, as "Rats, Inbred ACI" doesn't seem to be a standardized nomenclature in the field of medical or biological sciences. However, I can provide some information that might help you understand this term better.

"Inbred" refers to a strain of animals that have been produced by mating individuals that are closely related over many generations. This results in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci, meaning that the same allele (version of a gene) is present on both copies of the chromosome.

"ACI" is an abbreviation for August Copenhagen Irish, which is a strain of laboratory rats that were developed in the 1920s by crossing several different rat stocks. The ACI rat strain is known for its low incidence of spontaneous tumors and other diseases, making it a popular choice for biomedical research.

Therefore, "Inbred ACI" likely refers to a specific strain of laboratory rats that are genetically identical to each other due to inbreeding, and which belong to the ACI rat strain. However, I would recommend consulting the original source or contacting an expert in the field to confirm this interpretation.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

Prosthesis-related infections, also known as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are infections that occur around or within a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prosthesis-related infections can occur soon after the implantation of the prosthetic device (early infection) or months or even years later (late infection). Early infections are often caused by bacteria that enter the surgical site during the procedure, while late infections may be caused by hematogenous seeding (i.e., when bacteria from another source spread through the bloodstream and settle in the prosthetic device) or by contamination during a subsequent medical procedure.

Symptoms of prosthesis-related infections can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and drainage around the affected area. In some cases, patients may also experience fever, chills, or fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures, joint fluid analysis, and tissue biopsy), and imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI).

Treatment of prosthesis-related infections usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove or replace the affected prosthetic device.

HLA-B antigens are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the body's immune system. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present pieces of proteins from inside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell involved in immune responses.

HLA-B antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or alleles of this gene in the human population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential HLA-B proteins to be expressed, which can help recognize and respond to a variety of foreign substances, such as viruses and cancer cells.

The HLA-B antigens are inherited from both parents, and an individual may express one or two different HLA-B antigens depending on their genetic makeup. The specific combination of HLA-B antigens that a person expresses can have implications for their susceptibility to certain diseases, as well as their compatibility with organ transplants.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Proteinuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of excess proteins, particularly albumin, in the urine. Under normal circumstances, only small amounts of proteins should be found in the urine because the majority of proteins are too large to pass through the glomeruli, which are the filtering units of the kidneys.

However, when the glomeruli become damaged or diseased, they may allow larger molecules such as proteins to leak into the urine. Persistent proteinuria is often a sign of kidney disease and can indicate damage to the glomeruli. It is usually detected through a routine urinalysis and may be confirmed with further testing.

The severity of proteinuria can vary, and it can be a symptom of various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and other kidney diseases. Treatment for proteinuria depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to control blood pressure, manage diabetes, or reduce protein loss in the urine.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

The adrenal cortex hormones are a group of steroid hormones produced and released by the outer portion (cortex) of the adrenal glands, which are located on top of each kidney. These hormones play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes, including:

1. Glucose metabolism: Cortisol helps control blood sugar levels by increasing glucose production in the liver and reducing its uptake in peripheral tissues.
2. Protein and fat metabolism: Cortisol promotes protein breakdown and fatty acid mobilization, providing essential building blocks for energy production during stressful situations.
3. Immune response regulation: Cortisol suppresses immune function to prevent overactivation and potential damage to the body during stress.
4. Cardiovascular function: Aldosterone regulates electrolyte balance and blood pressure by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.
5. Sex hormone production: The adrenal cortex produces small amounts of sex hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, which contribute to sexual development and function.
6. Growth and development: Cortisol plays a role in normal growth and development by influencing the activity of growth-promoting hormones like insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1).

The main adrenal cortex hormones include:

1. Glucocorticoids: Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid, responsible for regulating metabolism and stress response.
2. Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone is the primary mineralocorticoid, involved in electrolyte balance and blood pressure regulation.
3. Androgens: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEAS) are the most abundant adrenal androgens, contributing to sexual development and function.
4. Estrogens: Small amounts of estrogens are produced by the adrenal cortex, mainly in women.

Disorders related to impaired adrenal cortex hormone production or regulation can lead to various clinical manifestations, such as Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), Cushing's syndrome (hypercortisolism), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

A transplantation chimera is a rare medical condition that occurs after an organ or tissue transplant, where the recipient's body accepts and integrates the donor's cells or tissues to such an extent that the two sets of DNA coexist and function together. This phenomenon can lead to the presence of two different genetic profiles in one individual.

In some cases, this may result in the development of donor-derived cells or organs within the recipient's body, which can express the donor's unique genetic traits. Transplantation chimerism is more commonly observed in bone marrow transplants, where the donor's immune cells can repopulate and establish themselves within the recipient's bone marrow and bloodstream.

It is important to note that while transplantation chimerism can be beneficial for the success of the transplant, it may also pose some risks, such as an increased likelihood of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "Continental Population Groups." However, in the context of genetics and population health, continental population groups often refer to the major population divisions based on genetic ancestry and geographical origin. These groups typically include:

1. African: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa.
2. European: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Europe.
3. Asian: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Asia, including East Asia, South Asia, and Central Asia.
4. Native American: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from the indigenous populations of North, Central, and South America.
5. Oceanian: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Australia, New Guinea, and neighboring islands in the Pacific region.

It is important to note that these categories are not exhaustive or mutually exclusive, as human migration and admixture have led to a complex web of genetic ancestries. Furthermore, using continental population labels can oversimplify the rich diversity within each group and may perpetuate harmful stereotypes or misunderstandings about racial and ethnic identities.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

"Papio" is a term used in the field of primatology, specifically for a genus of Old World monkeys known as baboons. It's not typically used in human or medical contexts. Baboons are large monkeys with robust bodies and distinctive dog-like faces. They are native to various parts of Africa and are known for their complex social structures and behaviors.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

"Cell count" is a medical term that refers to the process of determining the number of cells present in a given volume or sample of fluid or tissue. This can be done through various laboratory methods, such as counting individual cells under a microscope using a specialized grid called a hemocytometer, or using automated cell counters that use light scattering and electrical impedance techniques to count and classify different types of cells.

Cell counts are used in a variety of medical contexts, including hematology (the study of blood and blood-forming tissues), microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms), and pathology (the study of diseases and their causes). For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a routine laboratory test that includes a white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value, and platelet count. Abnormal cell counts can indicate the presence of various medical conditions, such as infections, anemia, or leukemia.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The term "African Continental Ancestry Group" is a racial category used in the field of genetics and population health to describe individuals who have ancestral origins in the African continent. This group includes people from diverse ethnic backgrounds, cultures, and languages across the African continent. It's important to note that this term is used for genetic and epidemiological research purposes and should not be used to make assumptions about an individual's personal identity, culture, or experiences.

It's also worth noting that there is significant genetic diversity within Africa, and using a single category to describe all individuals with African ancestry can oversimplify this diversity. Therefore, it's more accurate and informative to specify the particular population or region of African ancestry when discussing genetic research or health outcomes.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Adoptive transfer is a medical procedure in which immune cells are transferred from a donor to a recipient with the aim of providing immunity or treating a disease, such as cancer. This technique is often used in the field of immunotherapy and involves isolating specific immune cells (like T-cells) from the donor, expanding their numbers in the laboratory, and then infusing them into the patient. The transferred cells are expected to recognize and attack the target cells, such as malignant or infected cells, leading to a therapeutic effect. This process requires careful matching of donor and recipient to minimize the risk of rejection and graft-versus-host disease.

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are caused by the human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5), a type of herpesvirus. The infection can affect people of all ages, but it is more common in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation.

CMV can be spread through close contact with an infected person's saliva, urine, blood, tears, semen, or breast milk. It can also be spread through sexual contact or by sharing contaminated objects, such as toys, eating utensils, or drinking glasses. Once a person is infected with CMV, the virus remains in their body for life and can reactivate later, causing symptoms to recur.

Most people who are infected with CMV do not experience any symptoms, but some may develop a mononucleosis-like illness, characterized by fever, fatigue, swollen glands, and sore throat. In people with weakened immune systems, CMV infections can cause more severe symptoms, including pneumonia, gastrointestinal disease, retinitis, and encephalitis.

Congenital CMV infection occurs when a pregnant woman passes the virus to her fetus through the placenta. This can lead to serious complications, such as hearing loss, vision loss, developmental delays, and mental disability.

Diagnosis of CMV infections is typically made through blood tests or by detecting the virus in bodily fluids, such as urine or saliva. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's overall health. Antiviral medications may be prescribed to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Inbred NOD (Nonobese Diabetic) mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically predisposed to develop autoimmune diabetes. This strain was originally developed in Japan and has been widely used as an animal model for studying type 1 diabetes and its complications.

NOD mice typically develop diabetes spontaneously at around 12-14 weeks of age, although the onset and severity of the disease can vary between individual mice. The disease is caused by a breakdown in immune tolerance, leading to an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Inbred NOD mice are highly valuable for research purposes because they exhibit many of the same genetic and immunological features as human patients with type 1 diabetes. By studying these mice, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the disease and develop new treatments and therapies.

Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of steroid hormones. It is commonly used in the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions due to its potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Prednisolone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, leading to changes in gene expression that reduce the production of substances involved in inflammation, such as cytokines and prostaglandins.

Prednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, syrups, and injectable solutions. It can be used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies, skin conditions, and certain types of cancer.

Like other steroid medications, prednisolone can have significant side effects if used in high doses or for long periods of time. These may include weight gain, mood changes, increased risk of infections, osteoporosis, diabetes, and adrenal suppression. As a result, the use of prednisolone should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that its benefits outweigh its risks.

Transplantation conditioning, also known as preparative regimen or immunoablative therapy, refers to the use of various treatments prior to transplantation of cells, tissues or organs. The main goal of transplantation conditioning is to suppress the recipient's immune system, allowing for successful engraftment and minimizing the risk of rejection of the donor tissue.

There are two primary types of transplantation conditioning: myeloablative and non-myeloablative.

1. Myeloablative conditioning is a more intensive regimen that involves the use of high-dose chemotherapy, radiation therapy or both. This approach eliminates not only immune cells but also stem cells in the bone marrow, requiring the recipient to receive a hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from the donor to reconstitute their blood and immune system.
2. Non-myeloablative conditioning is a less intensive regimen that primarily targets immune cells while sparing the stem cells in the bone marrow. This approach allows for mixed chimerism, where both recipient and donor immune cells coexist, reducing the risk of severe complications associated with myeloablative conditioning.

The choice between these two types of transplantation conditioning depends on various factors, including the type of transplant, patient's age, overall health, and comorbidities. Both approaches carry risks and benefits, and the decision should be made carefully by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals in consultation with the patient.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival ... This is a rather indirect GvHD because it is not directly cells in the graft itself that causes it but cells in the graft that ... Hale G, Waldmann H (May 1994). "Control of graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection by T cell depletion of donor and ... "Effect of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis on 3-year disease-free survival in recipients of unrelated donor bone marrow (T ...
Leitão, Cristiane (March 2010). "Lipotoxicity and Decreased Islet Graft Survival". Diabetes Care. 33 (3): 658-660. doi:10.2337/ ...
"Corneal graft survival research and registry". Flinders University. Retrieved 7 April 2022. "Australian Corneal Graft Registry ... Coster, D J; Williams, K A (2003-11). "Management of high-risk corneal grafts". Eye. 17 (8): 996-1002. doi:10.1038/sj.eye. ... She founded the Australian Corneal Graft Registry (ACGR) in 1985 and is currently the scientific director of the registry. The ... The ACGR has collated information from more than 35,000 corneal graft procedures since its inception. The registry has been ...
Thompson, RW Jr; Price, MO; Bowers, PJ; Price, FW Jr (2003-06-01). "Long-term graft survival after penetrating keratoplasty". ... PDEK graft is thicker than isolated DM graft and hence there is less intraoperative graft handling challenges like torn graft, ... Postoperative graft detachment can happen in eyes with insufficient air or loss of air after surgery.1,6 If the graft is ... The injector along with the graft is inserted via the corneal wound and the graft is injected in the anterior chamber (Fig 3C ...
Although short-term immunosuppression concerning patient and graft survival is found to be similar between the two drugs, ... McCauley J (19 May 2004). "Long-Term Graft Survival In Kidney Transplant Recipients". Slide Set Series on Analyses of ... and this may have important long-term implications given the prognostic influence of rejection on graft survival. Oral ... In people receiving immunosuppressants to reduce transplant graft rejection, an increased risk of malignancy (cancer) is a ...
Leto described This Is War as a record about survival: "It was a two-year creative battle that was ferocious and tough but ... Gary, Graff (December 17, 2009). "30 Seconds To Mars Plans To 'Extend The Interactivity' On Tour". Billboard. Retrieved August ... Harris, Chris (December 8, 2009). "30 Seconds To Mars Sing About Survival on "This Is War"". Rolling Stone. Retrieved August 29 ...
... graft survival, and visual outcome". The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 90 (3): 324-7. doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.079624. PMC ... The corneal epithelium is removed and a lenticule of donor cornea is grafted on top of it. The procedure requires a greater ... Research from two trials in Iran provide low to moderate evidence that graft rejection is more likely to occur in penetrating ... The corneal transplant surgeon trephines a lenticule of corneal tissue and then grafts the donor cornea to the existing eye ...
"Infighting threatens Jubilee Party's survival - Daily Nation". www.nation.co.ke. Retrieved 1 April 2019. Ombok, Eric; Herbling ... David (17 March 2019). "Kenya Graft Probe of Treasury Head Highlights Power Struggle". Bloomberg. Herbling, David (8 January ...
Alcohol and smoking can contribute to poor graft survival. Post operative antibiotics are commonly prescribed to prevent wound ... Hair transplantation differs from skin grafting in that grafts contain almost all of the epidermis and dermis surrounding the ... Modern transplant techniques began in Japan in the 1930s, where surgeons used small grafts, and even "follicular unit grafts" ... The average price per graft ranges between US$1.07 in Turkey up to US$7.00 in Canada. Some clinics also offer all-inclusive ...
Graff 2015, p. 174. Peteet 1996, pp. 139-159. Ala Alazzeh, 'Abu Ahmad and His Handalas,' in Mark LeVine, Gershon Shafir (eds ... Struggle and Survival in Palestine/Israel, University of California Press 2012 pp.413-427 pp.424-5. Marouf Hasian and Lisa A. ... James A. Graff, in Tomis Kapitan (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, M.E. Sharpe, 1997 pp. ... James A. Graff, 'Targeting Children,' in Tomis Kapitan (ed) Philosophical Perspectives on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, M.E ...
Patients who received successful bone marrow transplants had a 2-year survival rate of 68% and a 10-year survival rate of 64%. ... Patients can develop graft versus host disease; this is more likely in non-sibling donors. In a 1998 study, children with HLA- ... identical sibling donors had a five-year survival of 75%; children with non-sibling donors had a five-year survival of 53%. ... In these cases, UCBT from unrelated donors can increase survival, decrease physical signs of the disease, and improve cognition ...
Ptak W, Festenstein H, Asherson GL, Denman AM (1969). "Improved graft survival after treatment with Bordetella and anti- ...
An Isograft is a graft of tissue between two individuals who are genetically identical (i.e. monozygotic twins). Transplant ... Effect of STZ Administration on Islet Isograft and Allograft Survival in NOD Mice. Diabetes Vol 42, February 1993. Retrieved 25 ... Furthermore, there is virtually no incidence of graft-versus-host disease. In 1993 a research article demonstrated that islet ...
Post-transplant hypertension at one year: Impact on long-term graft survival. Raju DSB, Agarwal SK, Gupta S, Dash SC, Bhowmick ...
"Causes of limited survival of microencapsulated pancreatic islet grafts". J. Surg. Res. 121 (1): 141-50. doi:10.1016/j.jss. ... grafted a solid, but permeable, shell around the cells to provide increased mechanical strength. Sodium Citrate is used for ... Approximately a doubling of survival time compared to historic controls was demonstrated. Questions could arise as to why the ... doi:10.1016/S0958-6946(96)00046-5. Kailasapathy K, Supriadi D (1996). "Effect of whey protein concentrate on the survival of ...
The grafted stock were given long-day and natural-day treatments. Survival was 70% to 100% and showed effects of rootstock and ... grafting Nut crops (walnut, pecan) - grafting Peach - grafting Pear - grafting Rubber Plant - bud grafting Rose - grafting ... grafting Grapes - stem cuttings, grafting, aerial layering Kumquat - stem cutting, grafting Mango- grafting, budding Maple - ... Proper care of graft site: After grafting, it is important to nurse the grafted plant back to health for a period of time. ...
T Davis and Joseph Pagkalos, published a paper on the effects of bearing surfaces on the survival of cementless and hybrid ... "Additional FDA Approval for Cerapedics i-FACTOR Bone Graft , Orthopedics This Week". Davis, Edward T.; Pagkalos, Joseph; Kopjar ... Peptide Enhanced Bone Graft. Since 2020, Dr. Kopjar has served as a consultant to the FDA's Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation ... "Predictive factors of survival in a surgical series of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression and complete external ...
King, K. B., & Reis, H. T. (2012). Marriage and long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Health Psychology, 31 ...
... long-term graft survival is similar to recipients who receive ABOc kidneys. West, L. J., Karamlou, T., Dipchand, A. I., Pollock ... Graft survival and patient mortality is approximately the same between ABOi and ABOc recipients. This was found to not only ... Furthermore, should the recipient (for example, type B-positive with a type AB-positive graft) require eventual ... Does ABO-incompatible and ABO-compatible neonatal heart transplant have equivalent survival? Interactive cardiovascular and ...
Within the last few years, 1-year graft and patient survival at more experienced centers have reached 60% to 70% and 65% to 80 ... Surgical removal (excision or debridement) of the damaged skin is followed by skin grafting. The grafting serves two purposes: ... Higher graft and patient survival rates are seen at the more experienced transplant programs. ... Bone grafting is used to repair bone fractures that are extremely complex, pose a significant health risk to the patient, or ...
"Comparative Graft Survival Study of Follicular Unit Excision Grafts With or Without Minor Injury". Dermatologic Surgery. 47 (5 ... The hair follicle grouping or follicular unit is a full thickness skin graft containing epidermis, dermis and fat. The graft is ... transect grafts, rendering them useless in a transplant. FUE harvesting is a surgical technique of grafts and may cause "pit" ... The survival of follicular units upon cutting around the hair follicle and then extracting from the scalp is one of the key ...
"VEGF-trap Aflibercept Significantly Improves Long-term Graft Survival in High-risk Corneal Transplantation". Transplantation. ... Fuchsluger, T. A.; Jurkunas, U.; Kazlauskas, A.; Dana, R. (2011). "Anti-apoptotic gene therapy prolongs survival of corneal ... Class II-positive Dendritic Cells Derived from MHC Class II-negative Grafts". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 195 (2): ... "Relevance of the Direct Pathway of Sensitization in Corneal Transplantation Is Dictated by the Graft Bed Microenvironment". The ...
Mehta V, Hong M, Spears J, Mendez I (June 1998). "Enhancement of graft survival and sensorimotor behavioral recovery in rats ... derived neurotrophic factor improves intrastriatal graft survival of stored dopaminergic cells". Neuroscience. 83 (2): 363-372 ... was translated into clinical trials in patients with Parkinson's disease and showed long-term survival of those grafts. He also ... He pioneered the technique of multiple grafts to restore dopamine input to the parkinsonian mammalian brain. This technique ...
However, there have been cases of survival. As of 2004, there were only two reported living cases. Of these two, one was ... Proceeding with a bone graft when the child reaches school age is also recommended. Usually babies with this malformation do ...
1983) Grafting of burn patients with allografts of cultured epidermal cells. Lancet 2(8347): 428-430 (PMID 6135914) Halebian PH ... Corder VJ, Madden MR et al.. (1986) Improved burn center survival of patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis managed without ... 1983) Grafting of burn patients with allografts of cultured epidermal cells. Lancet 2(8347): 428-430 (PMID 6135914) Halebian PH ...
Yet, the fat cell retention rate was varied from 30% to 95%. The first theory that explains graft survival is the Cell Survival ... Stem cell fat grafting is autotransplantation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) extracted from fat-abundant donor sites (i. ... Further research on the effectiveness of ADSCs grafting proposed that the aftermath of the therapy can be affected by the ... The recent theory is the Host replacement theory that retention rate after fat grafting is determined by the ADSCs replacing ...
Graft survival and people's mortality are approximately the same between ABOi and ABO-compatible (ABOc) recipients. While focus ... Renal transplantation is more successful, with similar long-term graft survival rates to ABOc transplants. Until recently, ... Among his advances was the tubed pedicle graft, which maintained a flesh connection from the donor site until the graft ... Organ Transplant survival rates from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients The short film A Science of Miracles ( ...
January 1986). "Influence of the internal-mammary-artery graft on 10-year survival and other cardiac events". The New England ... with graft patency of 92% for all grafts and 100% for left internal thoracic artery grafts. Coronary artery bypass graft ... August 1989). "Internal mammary artery bypass grafting: influence on recurrent angina and survival in 2,100 patients". The ... Assessing survival and adverse cardiac events up to 8.0 years (average 2.9±2.0 years), MICS CABG is a safe, reproducible ...
At one-year, graft survival rates for isolated intestine currently waver around 80%, and 70% for intestine-liver and ... In a multivisceral graft, the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and/or colon may be included in the graft. Multivisceral grafts are ... In the most basic and common graft, an isolated intestinal graft, only sections of the jejunum and ileum are transplanted. ... There are three major types of intestine transplants: an isolated intestinal graft, a combined intestinal-liver graft, and a ...
1084 Bone grafting is necessary when there is a lack of bone. Also, it helps to stabilize the implant by increasing survival of ... onlay bone grafting using the iliac crest or another large source of bone and microvascular bone graft where the blood supply ... various bone grafting techniques have been developed. The most frequently used is called guided bone graft augmentation where a ... Simonis P, Dufour T, Tenenbaum H (July 2010). "Long-term implant survival and success: a 10-16-year follow-up of non-submerged ...
... necklace graft'). AV fistulas have a much better access patency and survival than do venous catheters or grafts. They also ... More options for sites to place a graft are available, because the graft can be made quite long. Thus a graft can be placed in ... AV grafts are at high risk to develop narrowing, especially in the vein just downstream from where the graft has been sewn to ... or a synthetic graft. In the latter two, needles are used to puncture the graft or fistula each time dialysis is performed. The ...
Graft Survival and Healing. The ultimate success of a skin graft, or its "take," depends on nutrient uptake and vascular ... Smaller grafts can be taken using a "pinch graft" technique using a scalpel blade; slightly larger freehand grafts can be ... Cadaveric grafts and porcine grafts are skin substitutes that have been used clinically for several decades. Cadaveric grafts ... a well vascularized recipient bed is of utmost importance in survival of the skin graft. With some exceptions, skin grafts ...
... J Clin Invest. 2015 Dec;125(12): ... Methods: We analyzed data from a cohort of 889 first kidney graft recipients with ATG induction (86 with SSD [SSD(+)] and 803 ... Conclusion: In conclusion, our data indicate that SSD is a major contributing factor of late graft loss following ATG induction ... Results: SSD was significantly associated with long-term graft loss (,10 years, P = 0.02). Moreover, SSD(+) patients exhibited ...
... there has been a substantial increase in short-term and long-term survival of kidney grafts from both living and cadaveric ... delayed graft function, and therapy with mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus) on graft survival for all 93,934 renal ... the one-year survival rate for grafts from living donors increased from 88.8 to 93.9 percent, and the rate for cadaveric grafts ... Improved graft survival after renal transplantation in the United States, 1988 to 1996 N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 2;342(9):605-12. ...
Transient postoperative vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralisation improves graft survival in corneas with partly ... Transient postoperative vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralisation improves graft survival in corneas with partly ... improves graft survival.. Methods: Three interrupted stromal sutures (11-0) in corneas of Balb/c mice (6-8 weeks old) were ... Pathological haemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis prior to as well as 3 days or 8 weeks after keratoplasty and graft survival ...
Alternate-day steroid dosing improves growth without adversely affecting graft survival or long-term graft function,. Go back ...
... suggesting that high RH is not essential for tomato graft survival. Eggplant graft survival decreased from 90% to 60% when RH ... All plants were self-grafted using the splice grafting technique, placed in the healing chamber for 7 days after grafting and ... The very low survival rate of watermelon was most likely due to the grafting technique used in this study, which is not optimal ... Mean graft survival rates in the industry (69%) and research (66%) healing chambers were similar, and both were higher than ...
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during ... "Graft Survival" by people in this website by year, and whether "Graft Survival" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Graft Survival" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Bryan CF, Wakefield M, Reese JC, Shield CF, Warady BA, Winklhofer FT, Murillo D. Renal graft survival is not influenced by a ...
Check out How To Improve Graft Survival Rate In Hair Transplantation? Get premium hair transplant services at Medispa clinic at ... Lets check out the ways to maximize the survival of hair grafts which include:. *Minimize the hair graft damage: The hair ... How to improve graft survival rate in hair transplantation It is mandatory for the hair transplant procedure to be performed ... Choosing the right hair transplant surgeon is imperative for higher survival rate of the hair grafts as the procedure need to ...
In my grafting demonstration (which you can get for a donation of any amount) I encourage people to lose their fear. ... Seriously… you can graft with a pocketknife and electrical tape. Nature is amazing and resilient. ...
Graft Survival and Healing. The ultimate success of a skin graft, or its "take," depends on nutrient uptake and vascular ... Smaller grafts can be taken using a "pinch graft" technique using a scalpel blade; slightly larger freehand grafts can be ... Cadaveric grafts and porcine grafts are skin substitutes that have been used clinically for several decades. Cadaveric grafts ... Grafts in dermatologic surgery: review and update on full- and split-thickness skin grafts, free cartilage grafts, and ...
We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the RI and the graft survival (GS) and the overall survival (OS) after ... We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the RI and the graft survival (GS) and the overall survival (OS) after ... Predictive value of resistive index in graft survival after kidney transplant.. FORTE, SAVERIO;Martino P;Palazzo S;MATERA, ... CONCLUSIONS: The RI proved to be a good prognostic factor on survival organ when it was evaluated in the first months of follow ...
Furthermore, the patient and graft survival as well as the serum creatinine levels upon discharge and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 ... the occurrence of delayed graft function and the rate and type of surgical complications at 1 year. ... Furthermore, the patient and graft survival as well as the serum creatinine levels upon discharge and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 ... Induction Therapy in Half-Haplotype Low Risk Kidney Transplant Patients: Impact on Acute Rejection, Graft Survival, Infection ...
... with one-year graft survival. The primary outcome of the analysis was graft survival beyond 10 years. We explored the long- ... This study aims to demonstrate that HLA matching may still play an important role in long-term graft survival. Methods: We ... On multivariate analysis, more HLA mismatches were associated with worse graft survival beyond 10 years for both living and ... Conclusions: A greater number of HLA mismatches was associated with progressively worse long-term graft survival for patients. ...
A recent study by Stuart Head and colleagues analyzed data from clinical trials to compare the survival rates of a coronary ... HomeSurgery & Regenerative MedicineSurvival rates: Coronary artery bypass graft vs. Percutaneous coronary intervention ... Coronary artery bypass grafting was associated with lower death rates than PCI. In conclusion, the study found that CABG was ... Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a surgical method that re-establishes blood flow by allowing blood to bypass the ...
Graft Survival. Debate exists as to the rate of survival regarding FUE versus strip grafts. There is some concern that because ... better graft survival.. Placing of Grafts. When manual placement of grafts is utilized there is no difference in regard to the ... Such grafts are more prone to dehydration, which has been shown to be a major cause of diminished graft survival. The lack of ... Trauma and graft drying are well known factors that may occur in inexperienced hands and will effect graft survival. Regardless ...
... long-term survival exceeded expected survival. The severity of left ventricular dysfunction was associated with poor survival. ... When we compared long-term survival and expected survival, we found a relatively poorer outcome in all subjects with an ... Compared with the survival of the matched general population, our coronary bypass patients had a worse outcome only if their ... Expected survival was estimated by comparison with a general Dutch population group described in the database of the Dutch ...
Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival ... This is a rather indirect GvHD because it is not directly cells in the graft itself that causes it but cells in the graft that ... Hale G, Waldmann H (May 1994). "Control of graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection by T cell depletion of donor and ... "Effect of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis on 3-year disease-free survival in recipients of unrelated donor bone marrow (T ...
The primary outcome was graft survival, defined as freedom from all-cause death and graft failure, within 6 months ... Conclusions: Short-term graft survival after heart transplantation has improved significantly leading up to the 2018 heart ... Thirty-Year Trends in Graft Survival After Heart Transplant: Modeled Analyses of a Transplant Registry. Marlena E. Sabatino, ... We describe multidecade trends in posttransplant graft survival, adjusted for concurrent changes in the population, over the 30 ...
Parsley WM, Perez-Meza D. Review of Factors Affecting the Growth and Survival of Follicular Grafts. (2010). J Cutan Aesthet ...
Y graft. 6 mo. Survival at 4 y. 3. 67/M. Infrarenal aorta. 12.6/12.6. Enterobacter cloacae. AEF. Y graft. 6 mo. Survival at 3 y ... Y graft. 3 mo. Survival at 3 y. 5. 86/F. Thoracoabdominal aorta. Negative. MSSA. None. Medical treatment only. 3 mo. Survival ... Y graft (negative). 6 mo. Survival at 3 y. 3. 83/M. Infrarenal aorta. 86.5/160.8. ST18. Malignant lymphoma. EVAR (NA). 6 mo. ... Y graft. 6 mo. Survival at 4 y. 2. 74/M. Infrarenal aorta. Negative. Listeria monocytogenes. None. ...
This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis on published studies about the Global Survival Rate of Graft and Patients ... The global survival rate of graft and patient in kidney transplantation of children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... The findings suggest differences in graft and patient survival among children with kidney transplants. Although differences in ... In this study 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10-year survival rates of graft were estimated to be 92, 83, 74.40, 67.10, and 63.50%, ...
Humanity: Chances of survival 6 srpna, 2023 RAELS COMMENT: Good news: we are now at 5% chances of survival, up from 0.5% last ... Its not a graft, its a symbiosis. In Okinawa we always attach the orchids that are being offered to us on trees when they no ... Comment below the image published on Facebook: „In Vietnam, somebody had the idea of grafting the orchid to a tree. Thats the ...
This retrospective study shows that prolonged ischemia is not associated with primary graft failure or survival following lung ... Association Between Prolonged Graft Ischemia and Primary Graft Failure or Survival Following Lung Transplantation. JAMA Surg. ... Association Between Prolonged Graft Ischemia and Primary Graft Failure or Survival Following Lung Transplantation. ... To evaluate the effect of prolonged total graft ischemia times on long-term survival rates and the development of primary graft ...
We describe a case when systemic valganciclovir therapy is directed by aqueous CMV-DNA levels, leading to good graft survival. ... Clear grafts in the right (c) and left (d) eyes after successful DSAEK surgery. Clear graft in the right eye (e) and latest ... Optimising graft survival in endothelial keratoplasty for endothelial failure secondary to cytomegalovirus endotheliitis. * ... We describe a case when systemic valganciclovir therapy is directed by aqueous CMV-DNA levels, leading to good graft survival. ...
Factors Affecting Graft Survival Within 1-year Post-Transplantation in Heart and Lung Transplant: An Analysis of the OPTN/UNOS ... Factors Affecting Graft Survival Within 1-year Post-Transplantation in Heart and Lung Transplant: An Analysis of the OPTN/UNOS ... Factors Affecting Graft Survival Within 1-year Post-Transplantation in Heart and Lung Transplant: An Analysis of the OPTN/UNOS ... However, even early post-transplant survival (within the first post-transplant year) needs improvement, as early graft failure ...
Hansa Biopharma announces long term follow-up data demonstrating 3-year graft survival of 84% after imlifidase treatment and ... graft survival was 92% and kidney function improved over time with a mean eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at three years. As expected ... After 3 years, patient survival rate was 90%, three deaths occurred between 6 months and 1 year and no deaths occurred between ... All AMRs were treated with standard therapies and no graft losses were attributed to AMRs. ...
T1 - In search of signaling pathways critical for ovarian graft reception. T2 - Akt1 is essential for long-term survival of ... In search of signaling pathways critical for ovarian graft reception: Akt1 is essential for long-term survival of ovarian ... In search of signaling pathways critical for ovarian graft reception: Akt1 is essential for long-term survival of ovarian ... In search of signaling pathways critical for ovarian graft reception : Akt1 is essential for long-term survival of ovarian ...
... was tested for its ability to inhibit both processes after keratoplasty and to promote long-term graft survival ( ... and lymphangiogenesis and significantly improved long-term graft survival (78% vs. 40%; P , 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is ... after normal-risk corneal transplantation improves long-term graft survival, establishing early postoperative hem- and ... in the mouse model and to test whether pharmacologic strategies inhibiting both processes improve long-term graft survival. ...
Graft Rejection, Graft Survival, Humans, Immunosuppressive Agents, Kidney Transplantation, Lymphocyte Count, Lymphocytes, Male ... Effect of alemtuzumab or basiliximab induction therapy on graft function and survival of kidneys from donors after cardiac ... Effect of alemtuzumab or basiliximab induction therapy on graft function and survival of kidneys from donors after cardiac ...
Adoptive Allogeneic T-cell therapy (ATCT) might be curative for MM, however current ATCT protocols often lead to graft versus ... The results highlight the need to develop similar ATCT strategies for MM patients that result in enhanced survival without ... host disease (GvHD). Transplanting only tumor reactive donor T cells that mediate a graft-versus-myeloma (GvM) but not GvHD may ... isolation and infusion into MM-bearing mice resulted in a vigorous GvM response without induction GvHD and long-term survival. ...
  • If the overharvesting is pursued then the safe zones are violated which could affect the survival of the hair grafts negatively and questions the permanency of outcomes. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • Therefore, induction therapy is widely used in KT to improve both short- and long-term graft outcomes. (sciepub.com)
  • While such practices may yield shorter wait times and adequate short-term outcomes, graft longevity in HLA mismatched patients remains unclear. (aku.edu)
  • In this study of patients who underwent CABG, we correlated risk factors and outcomes with preoperative EF and compared the long-term survival of our subjects with that of matched cohorts from the general population of The Netherlands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modeling 2 additional outcomes of 6-month mortality and 6-month graft failure produced similar results. (rutgers.edu)
  • Influence of graft ischemia time on outcomes following lung transplantation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Low ATP contents in the graft have been associated with poor transplant outcomes. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that adding an oxygen carrier - perfluorocarbon (PFC) to the preservation solution may reduce graft damage and improve outcomes of DCD grafts. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe and present the outcomes of a specific treatment protocol for aortic vascular graft and endograft infections (VGEIs) without explantation of the infected graft. (lu.se)
  • We analyzed data from a cohort of 889 first kidney graft recipients with ATG induction (86 with SSD [SSD(+)] and 803 without SSD [SSD(-)]) from the Données Informatisées et Validées en Transplantation data bank. (nih.gov)
  • The introduction of cyclosporine has resulted in improvement in the short-term outcome of renal transplantation, but its effect on the long-term survival of kidney transplants is not known. (nih.gov)
  • A regression analysis adjusted for these variables was used to estimate the risk of graft failure within the first year and more than one year after transplantation. (nih.gov)
  • How To Improve Graft Survival Rate In Hair Transplantation? (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • For negating the hair grafts damage while transplantation it is mandatory to be performed by expert hair transplant surgeon. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • No root touch technique is an advanced technique which provides the transplantation of the hair grafts without touching them using a keep implanter. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the correlation between the RI and the graft survival (GS) and the overall survival (OS) after transplantation. (uniba.it)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The RI proved to be a good prognostic factor on survival organ when it was evaluated in the first months of follow- up after transplantation. (uniba.it)
  • Secondary endpoints contain: the frequency and the type of infections and the surgical complications at 1 year as well as the amount of malignancy and the patient survival at 1, 6, 12 and 36 months after kidney transplantation. (sciepub.com)
  • Since its first successful attempt in 1954, kidney transplantation (KT) has witnessed tremendous progression in graft survival (GS), as well as acute rejection (AR) rate and severity. (sciepub.com)
  • Conclusions: Short-term graft survival after heart transplantation has improved significantly leading up to the 2018 heart allocation policy change, despite concurrent increase in prevalence of higher risk population characteristics. (rutgers.edu)
  • Effect of ischemic time on survival in clinical lung transplantation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Effect of donor age and ischemic time on intermediate survival and morbidity after lung transplantation. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Graft ischemic time and outcome of lung transplantation: a multicenter analysis. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The global survival rate of graft and patient in kidney transplantation of children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis on published studies about the Global Survival Rate of Graft and Patients in the Kidney Transplantation of children . (bvsalud.org)
  • CT12 Chapter 5: Factors Affecting Graft Survival Within 1-year Post-Transplantation in Heart and Lung Transplant: An Analysis of the OPTN/UNOS Registry. (terasaki.org)
  • Factors Affecting Graft Survival Within 1-year Post-Transplantation in Heart and Lung Transplant: An Analysis of the OPTN/UNOS Registry. (terasaki.org)
  • Result(s) The Akt1 -/- ovarian grafts showed a gradual decrease in angiogenic response with time after transplantation, ultimately leading to complete or near-complete graft destruction coinciding with massive follicular loss. (huji.ac.il)
  • These data demonstrate that a transplantation protocol involving only selective tumor-reactive donor T cell families is an effective immunotherapy and results in long-term survival in a mouse model of human MM. The results highlight the need to develop similar ATCT strategies for MM patients that result in enhanced survival without symptoms of GvHD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Survival of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) beyond 7 years remains rare even after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and treatment with novel agents [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The program will transform the field of transplantation by addressing the barriers to donation therefore increasing the number of available organs, improving the quality and viability of donated organs and grafts, and enhancing long-term survival and quality of life of transplant patients. (ohri.ca)
  • End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the last stage of a chronic kidney disease, which if not addressed leads to premature death and, although it can be addressed by dialysis, kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment due to better survival rates, improved quality of life and cost efficiency. (europa.eu)
  • Efforts to improve calcium-phosphate-PTH homeostasis in patients on the waiting list for renal transplantation should be encouraged also to improve graft survival. (eur.nl)
  • The most important issues related to fat survival after transplantation may also vary across different clinical situations. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • While fat grafting-sometimes called fat transfer or transplantation-is not a new procedure, its development has not been straightforward. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • Lung transplantation in adults is an accepted therapeutic option, whereas there is ongoing debate on its positive impact on survival in children. (ersjournals.com)
  • Analysing different eras of transplantation suggests an improvement over the years with a 5-yr survival rate of 70.6% in the second decade. (ersjournals.com)
  • A high rate of successful re-transplantation prolonged total patient survival. (ersjournals.com)
  • Survival after lung transplantation is still well below that of transplantation of other solid organs but has increased over the past decades [ 2 , 5 - 7 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • The subgroup of children and adolescents has been repeatedly reported to have poorer results [ 3 , 6 - 8 ], leading to ongoing discussion on the beneficial effect of lung transplantation on survival in these patients [ 2 , 3 , 6 ]. (ersjournals.com)
  • Determine optimal islet transplant conditions and systemic treatments that promote graft survival upon transplantation into immune-competent diabetic subjects. (ca.gov)
  • For example, in developing and developed countries alike, kidney transplantation not only yields survival rates and quality-of-life that are far superior to those obtained with other treatments for end-stage renal disease, such as haemodialysis, but is also less costly in the long run. (who.int)
  • Access to transplantation entails more than the surgery itself, because success is measured by longer survival of the patient and a long-term improvement in the quality of life. (who.int)
  • The brains from four of the grafted patients in the Lund program, who died 13-24 years after transplantation, have come to autopsy. (lu.se)
  • Graft Cryopreservation Does Not Impact Overall Survival after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • We did not find any significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the length of hospital stay, the rate and severity of acute rejection, the rate of CMV infection, the occurrence of delayed graft function and the rate and type of surgical complications at 1 year. (sciepub.com)
  • Their use in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) was aiming mainly to avoid early AR historically known to predict graft loss 3 , in patients suffering from delayed graft function (DGF) 4 and in many immunosuppression protocols used to avoid or to minimize calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) 5 based immunosuppression therapy. (sciepub.com)
  • The risk for delayed graft function was not influenced by PTH level. (eur.nl)
  • A recent study by Stuart Head and colleagues analyzed data from clinical trials to compare the survival rates of a coronary artery bypass graft and percutaneous coronary intervention. (medicalnewsbulletin.com)
  • Two of the most effective treatment strategies for coronary artery disease include coronary artery bypass grafting and percutaneous coronary intervention with balloon angioplasty, bare-metal stents, or drug-eluting stents. (medicalnewsbulletin.com)
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a surgical method that re-establishes blood flow by allowing blood to bypass the narrowed or blocked portion of the vessel, whereas percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involves physically opening the narrowed or blocked vessel using a balloon or stent. (medicalnewsbulletin.com)
  • Background: Whether the survival benefit from coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), compared with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), for multivessel disease extends to the older segment of the population remains unclear. (unich.it)
  • Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) offers a better survival rate than percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and is therefore the treatment of choice in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD). (frontiersin.org)
  • We aimed to investigate whether the effect on survival of PCI compared with CABG is related to the age of the patient.Methods: Propensity score-matching analysis was conducted on 6723 patients (PCI = 1097, CABG = 5626) with multivessel coronary artery disease. (unich.it)
  • This study aimed to assess the effect of SSD on long-term kidney allograft outcome and to compare the immunization status of grafted patients presenting with SSD following ATG induction treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The primary outcome of the analysis was graft survival beyond 10 years. (aku.edu)
  • The primary outcome was graft survival, defined as freedom from all-cause death and graft failure, within 6 months posttransplant. (rutgers.edu)
  • Main Outcome Measure(s) Vascular density and permeability of newly formed graft blood vessels quantified by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI 7, 14, 30, and 60 days after grafting as indicators for angiogenesis and reestablishment of blood perfusion. (huji.ac.il)
  • The primary outcome was survival at the last available follow. (lu.se)
  • Claesson M, Armitage WJ, Stenevi U. Corneal oedema after cataract surgery: predisposing factors and corneal graft outcome. (medscape.com)
  • Although the clinical outcome so far has been highly variable, the trials have provided evidence that grafted dopamine neurons can restore regulated dopamine release and movement-related frontal cortical activation in the transplanted patients, and - at least in some cases - give rise to significant symptomatic relief ( publications 5 below ). (lu.se)
  • The primary endpoints comprised the rate and the severity of acute rejection episodes as well as the 3-year graft function and survival. (sciepub.com)
  • The survival span of C57bl/6 skin grafts was significantly prolonged in immunized Balb/c recipients with a donor-specific pattern. (newswise.com)
  • Because elderly patients have a shorter life expectancy, CABG may not necessarily prolong survival. (medscape.com)
  • However, even early post-transplant survival (within the first post-transplant year) needs improvement, as early graft failure still accounts for many allograft losses. (terasaki.org)
  • Three-year overall allograft survival was 84% in crossmatch positive patients treated with imlifidase. (hansabiopharma.com)
  • The most important challenge is to achieve the long-term survival of the transplanted organ (also known as graft or allograft). (europa.eu)
  • Since 1988, there has been a substantial increase in short-term and long-term survival of kidney grafts from both living and cadaveric donors. (nih.gov)
  • Bryan CF, Nelson PW, Shield CF, Warady BA, Winklhofer FT, Murillo D, Wakefield MR. Long-term survival of kidneys transplanted from live A2 donors to O and B recipients. (childrensmercy.org)
  • This study aims to demonstrate that HLA matching may still play an important role in long-term graft survival. (aku.edu)
  • A greater number of HLA mismatches was associated with progressively worse long-term graft survival for patients. (aku.edu)
  • This retrospective analysis demonstrates the effects of preoperative ejection fraction on the short-term and long-term survival of patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 50%, long-term survival exceeded expected survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chronic graft-versus-host disease also attacks the above organs, but over its long-term course can also cause damage to the connective tissue and exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appearance of moderate to severe cases of cGVHD adversely influences long-term survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, surprisingly the impact of Akt1 deficiency was most profound not in the early stages of angiogenesis but rather in long-term survival of the graft. (huji.ac.il)
  • Their isolation and infusion into MM-bearing mice resulted in a vigorous GvM response without induction GvHD and long-term survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By then infusing the animals with B10.D2 T cells from only the TCR Vβ 2, 3 and 8.3 families appropriately pre-activated in vitro, we saw a vigorous GvM response without any clinical or histological signs of GvHD or disease relapse, which translated into long-term, disease-free survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data highlight the possibility that tumor-specific ATCT may lead to long-term disease-free survival without GvHD in patients with MM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, PFC improved survival of rat DCD liver grafts (p=0.025), even leading to long-term survival while control animals died within 24h (fig.2). (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Risk factors and long-term survival. (thieme-connect.de)
  • We analysed whether the inhibition of post-keratoplasty revascularisation in mice with partly regressed corneal vessels ("intermediate-risk") improves graft survival. (bmj.com)
  • Factors predictive of corneal graft survival. (aao.org)
  • In the clinical setting, graft-versus-host disease is divided into acute and chronic forms, and scored or graded on the basis of the tissue affected and the severity of the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • That may sound fairly simple, but in recent years, fat grafting has "exploded into a complex menu of clinical choices. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • To clarify this situation, the authors propose a classification of clinical fat grafting techniques. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • More recently, several studies in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery have reported good results with various fat grafting procedures in a wide range of clinical situations. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • Drs. Del Vecchio and Rohrich hope their classification system will provide a useful starting point to maximize the "vast reconstructive and cosmetic potential" of clinical fat grafting. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • They conclude, "As the true physiology of un-manipulated and stem cell-enriched fat grafts become better delineated, our choices for technical solutions will better fit the clinical problems we face. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • Hydroxyurea has proven clinical efficacy for SCA - treatment significantly reduces disease manifestations and prolongs survival. (cdc.gov)
  • Factors affecting the survival of implants placed in grafted maxillary sinuses: A clinical report. (bvsalud.org)
  • A recent study by Head and colleagues, published in The Lancet , pooled an analysis of data collected from 11 randomized trials that investigated patient survival rates after CABG or PCI intervention. (medicalnewsbulletin.com)
  • The findings suggest that CABG may be associated with higher survival rates in comparison to PCI for certain population of patients, including patients with coronary artery disease and multivessel disease and diabetes. (medicalnewsbulletin.com)
  • 001). PCI did not confer any significant benefit compared with CABG during the early hazard phase (within 12 months), but the survival-probability loss from PCI compared with CABG during the late hazard phase was present across all age groups. (unich.it)
  • There is a paucity of direct data on the incidence and predictors of intracranial bleeding (ICB) after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). (frontiersin.org)
  • Again, the nonphysiologic setting of conventional CABG has hampered the real-time evaluation of the physiologic consequences of grafting, both at a TVECA and global level. (medscape.com)
  • During CABG, this technology quantifies the real-time impact on perfusion of a widely patent graft for each of the TVECAs addressed at surgery, to document the global change in perfusion (Figure 4). (medscape.com)
  • Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to improve quality of life and reduce cardiac-related mortality. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 , 10 ] By the 1970s, CABG was found to increase survival rates in patients with multivessel disease and left main disease when compared with medical therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Despite these initial positive results, the European Coronary Surgery Study conducted in the 1970s indicated that the significant improvement in 5-year survival rates with CABG was not apparent in the subsequent 5 years. (medscape.com)
  • Intervention(s) Ovaries from Akt1 -/- and Akt1 +/+ mice transplanted in the biceps femoris muscle of immunocompromised CD-1 mice, and ovarian graft viability, perfusion, and revascularization explored in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (huji.ac.il)
  • Using a specific data acquisition protocol, this imaging technology and software compares regional myocardial perfusion before and after grafting, and quantifies the difference, if any, that results from the bypass graft (Figure 3). (medscape.com)
  • To improve the quality of liver grafts from extended-criteria donors donated after circulatory death (DCD), this study explored whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) combined with normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) have protective effects on DCD donor livers and the effects of ferroptosis in this procedure. (medscimonit.com)
  • Bryan CF, Wakefield M, Reese JC, Shield CF, Warady BA, Winklhofer FT, Murillo D. Renal graft survival is not influenced by a positive flow B-cell crossmatch. (childrensmercy.org)
  • We studied the influence of long-standing Ca-P disregulation on renal transplant survival. (eur.nl)
  • Regression modeling identified multiple predictors of graft survival. (rutgers.edu)
  • Moreover, SSD(+) patients exhibited significantly elevated titers of anti-ATG (P = 0.043) and anti-Neu5Gc (P = 0.007) IgGs in late post-graft samples compared with SSD(-) recipients. (nih.gov)
  • In the classical sense, acute graft-versus-host disease is characterized by selective damage to the liver, skin (rash), mucosa, and the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adding oxygen carriers is a promising approach to improve results of static cold preservation of DCD liver grafts. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Martins P, Berendsen T, Yeh H, Bruinsma B, Izamis M, Uygun K, McDaid J, Yarmush M, Markmann J. Perfluorocarbon Added to the University of Winsconsin Solution Reduces Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Prolongs Survival of DCD Liver Grafts [abstract]. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Effect of alemtuzumab or basiliximab induction therapy on graft function and survival of kidneys from donors after cardiac death. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Callender CO, Cherikh WS, Traverso P, Hernandez A, Oyetunji T, Chang D. Effect of donor ethnicity on kidney survival in different recipient pairs: an analysis of the OPTN/UNOS database. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Hair transplant is an outpatient surgical procedure which involves taking out the hair grafts from the donor area which are then transplanted to the desired bald area. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • The donor area should be specifically that region of the body which possesses permanent hair roots or DHT resistant hair grafts. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • The hair follicles are harvested from your own body so it is crucial to have sufficient number of hair grafts at the donor area for the procedure to be feasible. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • FUE hair transplant technique involves individual extraction of the hair grafts from the donor area. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • On multivariate analysis, more HLA mismatches were associated with worse graft survival beyond 10 years for both living and deceased donor allografts. (aku.edu)
  • Transplanting only tumor reactive donor T cells that mediate a graft-versus-myeloma (GvM) but not GvHD may overcome this problem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inclusion criteria: Patients with advanced kidney failure who have undergone kidney transplant surgery from a deceased minor donor by en-bloc method. (who.int)
  • Results: Among 56,488 primary adult heart recipients, we observed 5529 (9.8%) all-cause deaths and 1933 (3.4%) graft failure events within 6 months posttransplant. (rutgers.edu)
  • Title : Survival after cancer diagnosis among solid organ transplant recipients in the United States Personal Author(s) : D'Arcy, Monica E.;Coghill, Anna E.;Lynch, Charles F.;Koch, Lori;Li, Jie;Pawlish, Karen S.;Morris, Cyllene R.;Rao, Chandrika;Engels, Eric A. (cdc.gov)
  • Successful grafting of vegetables requires high relative humidity (RH) and optimal temperatures for ≈1 week following grafting to reduce transpiration of the scion until rootstock and scion vascular tissue are healed together and water transport is restored. (ashs.org)
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the 30 day survival rate to be 98% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96 - 100), the one year survival rate to be 88% (95% CI 83.4 - 92.6), and the three year survival rate to be 79% (95% CI 72.7 - 84.7). (lu.se)
  • Statistical evaluation of graft survival was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves. (newswise.com)
  • Patient survival, organ survival and freedom from bronchiolitis obliterans were estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves. (ersjournals.com)
  • There was no observed difference in survival rates when grafts were exposed to 6 or more hours of ischemia ( P = .41, log-rank test). (jamanetwork.com)
  • DCD grafts are particularly vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion injury because of additional warm ischemia. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Much of the curative potential of allografts is attributed to the graft-versus-tumor (GvT) response that aims to destroy residual tumor cells that persist after induction therapy and ASCT [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Skin allografts or amnion grafts are effective burn-wound dressings and are within the reach of low- or medium-income countries. (who.int)
  • A) Classical response (~40% patients): graft is not rejected but requiring immunosuppressive therapy for the whole patient´s life. (europa.eu)
  • C) Operational Tolerance (~10% patients): patients who develop immunological unresponsiveness (tolerance) towards graft, so for whom the immunosuppressive therapy can be reduced or withdrawn. (europa.eu)
  • For the 10% of patients showing an operational tolerance, immunosuppressive drugs could be gradually reduced or withdrawn without compromising graft survival. (europa.eu)
  • Furthermore, the patient and graft survival as well as the serum creatinine levels upon discharge and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months were also comparable. (sciepub.com)
  • The findings suggest differences in graft and patient survival among children with kidney transplants . (bvsalud.org)
  • After 3 years, patient survival rate was 90%, three deaths occurred between 6 months and 1 year and no deaths occurred between 1 year and 3 years. (hansabiopharma.com)
  • Pre- and post-transplant parameters were assessed and their influence on patient and organ survival evaluated by univariate tests and stepwise multivariate analyses. (ersjournals.com)
  • 1- and 5-yr patient survival rates were 72.1% and 60.6%, respectively, and 52.6% of patients were found to be free from bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome at 5 yrs post-transplant. (ersjournals.com)
  • All plants were self-grafted using the splice grafting technique, placed in the healing chamber for 7 days after grafting and evaluated for signs of wilting and graft failure from day 6 to day 14 after grafting. (ashs.org)
  • Serum PTH levels have an independent influence on the risk for graft failure censored for death. (eur.nl)
  • From 1988 to 1996, the one-year survival rate for grafts from living donors increased from 88.8 to 93.9 percent, and the rate for cadaveric grafts increased from 75.7 to 87.7 percent. (nih.gov)
  • The half-life for grafts from living donors increased steadily from 12.7 to 21.6 years, and that for cadaveric grafts increased from 7.9 to 13.8 years. (nih.gov)
  • After censoring of data for patients who died with functioning grafts, the half-life for grafts from living donors increased from 16.9 years to 35.9 years, and that for cadaveric grafts increased from 11.0 years to 19.5 years. (nih.gov)
  • Studies that investigated the survival rate of kidney transplants published until the 30th of December 2020 were selected using a systematic search strategy in the following databases Medline , Embase, Scopus, ProQuest, ISI Web of Science , and Cochrane. (bvsalud.org)
  • Given that sicker/riskier patients are now receiving more heart and lung transplants, future studies need to take place to better understand these patients so that they can have the same survival as patients entering transplant with less severe illnesses. (terasaki.org)
  • This program will provide important information to guide the development of policies and programs that increase tissue and organ donation in Canada and enhance the survival and quality of life of Canadians who receive transplants. (ohri.ca)
  • The Canadian National Transplant Research Program is a new national initiative designed to increase organ and tissue donation in Canada and enhance the survival and quality of life of Canadians who receive transplants. (ohri.ca)
  • Predictive value of resistive index in graft survival after kidney transplant. (uniba.it)
  • We identified patients undergoing an index kidney transplant in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data from 1990 to 1999, with one-year graft survival. (aku.edu)
  • Treatment with anti-CMV therapy during recurrence optimised graft survival. (springeropen.com)
  • Epidermal appendages are important sources of epithelial cells that re-epithelialize when the overlying epithelium is removed or destroyed in patients with partial thickness burns , abrasions, or split-thickness skin graft harvesting. (medscape.com)
  • In conclusion, our data indicate that SSD is a major contributing factor of late graft loss following ATG induction and that anti-Neu5Gc antibodies increase over time in SSD(+) patients. (nih.gov)
  • Trends indicate that sicker patients are increasingly being transplanted, thereby limiting improvements in early post-transplant survival. (terasaki.org)
  • In the subset of patients deemed most highly sensitized and unlikely to be transplanted (n=13) with a calculated panel reactivity ("CPRA") of ≥99.9%, graft survival was 92% and kidney function improved over time with a mean eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73m2 at three years. (hansabiopharma.com)
  • This single centre retrospective analysis of patients with VGEIs without fistula selected for conservative treatment suggests that conservative management of aortic VGEIs with targeted antibiotic therapy without graft excision is potentially effective, and that antimicrobial treatment will not necessarily be needed indefinitely. (lu.se)
  • Among the indications for skin grafting are promotion of accelerated healing of burns and other wounds, reduction of scar contracture, enhancement of cosmesis, reduction of insensible fluid loss, and protection from bacterial invasion. (medscape.com)
  • Graft Survival" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Including, the hair grafts should be handled very precisely by the technicians while transplanting at the recipient site. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • White blood cells of the donor's immune system which remain within the donated tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as foreign (non-self). (wikipedia.org)
  • The induced immunotolerance of SN-iPSCs-DCs was evaluated by treating recipient Balb/c skin graft mice. (newswise.com)
  • Pathological haemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis prior to as well as 3 days or 8 weeks after keratoplasty and graft survival were analysed. (bmj.com)
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a syndrome, characterized by inflammation in different organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • GvHD can also occur after a blood transfusion, known as Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease or TA-GvHD if the blood products used have not been gamma irradiated or treated with an approved leukocyte reduction system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newer research indicates that other graft-versus-host disease target organs include the immune system (the hematopoietic system, e.g., the bone marrow and the thymus) itself, and the lungs in the form of immune-mediated pneumonitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chronic form of graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) normally begins 90 to 600 days post-transplant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adoptive Allogeneic T-cell therapy (ATCT) might be curative for MM, however current ATCT protocols often lead to graft versus host disease (GvHD). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The fluorescent technique illuminates in the arterial phase both the native TVECA and the graft to visualize flow down both vessels, competitive flow interactions, whether grafting has compromised the native coronary flow and the anastomosis integrity (Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • We describe multidecade trends in posttransplant graft survival, adjusted for concurrent changes in the population, over the 30 years antecedent to the most recent heart allocation policy change. (rutgers.edu)
  • The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Review of Factors Affecting the Growth and Survival of Follicular Grafts. (biolifesolutions.com)
  • The hair transplant procedures offers permanent results which stay for life time and the permanency of results would be ensured if the hair grafts survive. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • It is mandatory for the hair transplant procedure to be performed with extreme care for the hair grafts to survive and provide permanent results and high density hair transplant. (hairgrowcenter.com)
  • Fat grafting, once thought to be a simple technique with variable results, is a much more complex procedure with at least four definable subtypes. (plasticsurgery.org)
  • We describe a case when systemic valganciclovir therapy is directed by aqueous CMV-DNA levels, leading to good graft survival. (springeropen.com)
  • The severity of left ventricular dysfunction was associated with poor survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The splice grafting technique, also known as top grafting or tube grafting, is widely used among vegetable grafting operations as it is efficient and easy to learn. (ashs.org)