Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Rats, Inbred LewImmunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred C57BLTransplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Mice, Inbred BALB CHistocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Graft Enhancement, Immunologic: The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Rats, Inbred WFTissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Host vs Graft Reaction: The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Minor Histocompatibility Loci: Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.DNA Probes, HLA: DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Mice, Inbred C3HRats, Inbred BNAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Rats, Inbred ACILymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Inbred CBARadiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.HLA-DR6 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*13 and DRB1*14 alleles.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Primary Graft Dysfunction: A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Leukocyte Transfusion: The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Mice, Inbred DBAChimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Pulse Therapy, Drug: Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)CreatinineCTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Mice, Inbred ASwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Allografts: Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (1/6768)In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed. (+info)
T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (2/6768)Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney. (+info)
Reduced kidney transplant rejection rate and pharmacoeconomic advantage of mycophenolate mofetil. (3/6768)BACKGROUND: Several multinational controlled clinical trials have shown that triple therapy immunosuppressive regimens which include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin A (CSA) and steroids (S) are superior compared with conventional regimens which include azathioprine (AZA), CSA and S, mainly because MMF reduces the rate of acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months after kidney transplantation. Post-marketing studies are useful to evaluate the general applicability and costs of MMF-based immunosuppressive regimens. METHODS: Based on the excellent results of the published controlled clinical trials, we have changed the standard triple therapy immunosuppressive protocol (AZA+CSA+S) to an MMF-based regimen (MMF+CSA+S) at our centre. To analyse the impact of this change in regimen, we have monitored 6-month patient and graft survival, rejection rate, serum creatinine and CSA levels, as well as the costs of the immunosuppressive and anti-rejection treatments, in 40 consecutive renal transplant recipients (MMF group) and have compared the data with 40 consecutive patients transplanted immediately prior to the change in regimen (AZA group). RESULTS: Recipient and donor characteristics were similar in the AZA and MMF groups. Patient survival (37/40; 92.5% in the AZA group vs 38/40; 95% in the MMF group), graft survival (36/40 vs 36/40; both 90%) and serum creatinine (137+/-56 vs 139+/-44 micromol/l) after 6 months were not significantly different. However, the rate of acute rejection episodes (defined as a rise in creatinine without other obvious cause and treated at least with pulse steroids) was significantly reduced with MMF from 60 to 20% (P=0.0005). The resulting cost for rejection treatment was lowered 8-fold (from sFr. 2113 to 259 averaged per patient) and the number of transplant biopsies was lowered > 3-fold in the MMF group. The cost for the immunosuppressive therapy was increased 1.5-fold with MMF (from sFr. 5906 to 9231 per patient for the first 6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The change from AZA to MMF resulted in a significant reduction in early rejection episodes, resulting in fewer diagnostic procedures and rehospitalizations. The optimal long-term regimen in terms of patient and pharmacoeconomic benefits remains to be defined. (+info)
Primary adult liver transplantation under tacrolimus: more than 90 months actual follow-up survival and adverse events. (4/6768)The introduction of tacrolimus has shown decreased rates of acute and steroid-resistant rejection after liver transplantation (LTx). The aim of the present study is to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in primary liver transplant recipients. The first 121 consecutive adults (aged >16 years) who underwent primary LTx at a single center from August 1989 to February 1990 were followed up until August 1997. The mean follow-up was 93.2 +/- 1.2 months (range, 90.5 to 96.5 months). Patient survival, graft survival, rate of rejection, and adverse events were examined. The actual 7-year patient survival rate was 67.8%, and the graft survival rate was 63.6%. Infections, recurrence of disease, de novo malignancies, and cardiovascular events constituted the main causes of graft loss and death in the long term. Graft loss related to acute or chronic rejection was rare. The rate of acute rejection beyond 2 years was approximately 3% per year, and most rejections were steroid responsive. Approximately 70% of the patients received only tacrolimus after 1 year. Four patients developed end-stage renal disease, and 2 patients underwent kidney transplantation. Hyperkalemia and hypertension were observed in one third of the patients. New-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was observed in 9% and 13% of the patients at the 1-year and 7-year follow-up, respectively. Seven patients developed de novo malignancies, including two skin malignancies. Six patients developed posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder during the entire follow-up period. Actual patient and graft survival at 7 years was excellent, and few adverse events developed after the first year. Graft loss from acute or chronic rejection was rare under tacrolimus, and approximately 70% of the patients were steroid free on tacrolimus monotherapy after the first year after LTx. (+info)
Xenotransplantation. (5/6768)As transplantation waiting lists lengthen because of the shortage of donor organs, the death rates of patients continue to rise. Xenotransplantation offers the potential to solve the problem of organ shortage br providing an unlimited supply of healthy donor organs. However, there are several barriers to xenotransplantation, including graft rejection, potential xenozoonosis, physiologic incompatibilities and ethical concerns. Experimental xenotransplantation studies continue in several areas, ranging from tissue to whole- organ grafting. Clinical studies continue in the area of tissue xenotransplantation. Trials with extracorporeal xenografts in an acute setting to support fulminant organ failure are likely to begin in the near future. The reintroduction of whole-organ xenotransplantation must be based on sound scientific analysis with broad societal input so as to offer the maximal benefit to transplant recipients and their families. (+info)
Long-term results of pancreas transplantation under tacrolius immunosuppression. (6/6768)BACKGROUND: The long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in pancreas transplantation has not yet been demonstrated. The observation of prolonged pancreatic graft function under tacrolimus would indicate that any potential islet toxicity is short-lived and clinically insignificant. We report herein the results of pancreas transplantation in patients receiving primary tacrolimus immunosuppression for a minimum of 2 years. METHODS: From July 4, 1994 until April 18, 1996, 60 patients received either simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (n=55), pancreas transplant only (n=4), or pancreas after kidney transplantation (n=1). Baseline immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids without antilymphocyte induction. Azathioprine was used as a third agent in 51 patients and mycophenolate mofetil in 9. Rejection episodes within the first 6 months occurred in 48 (80%) patients and were treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Antilymphocyte antibody was required in eight (13%) patients with steroid-resistant rejection. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 35.1+/-5.9 months (range: 24.3-45.7 months), 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 33-year graft survival is 88%, 82%, 80%, and 80% (pancreas) and 98%, 96%, 93%, and 91% (kidney), respectively. Six-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survival is 100%, 98%, 98%, and 96.5%. Mean fasting glucose is 91.6+/-13.8 mg/dl, and mean glycosylated hemoglobin is 5.1+/-0.7% (normal range: 4.3-6.1%). Mean tacrolimus dose is 6.5+/-2.6 mg/day and mean prednisone dose 2.0+/-2.9 mg/day at follow-up. Complete steroid withdrawal was possible in 31 (65%) of the 48 patients with functioning pancreases. CONCLUSIONS: These data show for the first time that tacrolimus is a safe and effective long-term primary agent in pancreas transplantation and provides excellent long-term islet function without evidence of toxicity while permitting steroid withdrawal in the majority of patients. (+info)
Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. (7/6768)BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD. (+info)
Dual roles of sialyl Lewis X oligosaccharides in tumor metastasis and rejection by natural killer cells. (8/6768)Aberrant expression of cell surface carbohydrates such as sialyl Lewis X is associated with tumor formation and metastasis. In order to determine the roles of sialyl Lewis X in tumor metastasis, mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells were stably transfected with alpha1, 3-fucosyltransferase III to express sialyl Lewis X structures. The transfected B16-F1 cells, B16-FTIII, were separated by cell sorting into three different groups based on the expression levels of sialyl Lewis X. When these transfected cells were injected into tail veins of C57BL/6 mice, B16-FTIII.M cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis X in poly-N-acetyllactosamines produced large numbers of lung tumor nodules. Surprisingly, B16-FTIII.H cells expressing the highest amount of sialyl Lewis X in shorter N-glycans died in lung blood vessels, producing as few lung nodules as B16-FTIII.N cells which lack sialyl Lewis X. In contrast, B16-FIII.H cells formed more tumors in beige mice and NK cell-depleted C57BL/6 mice than did B16-FTIII.M cells. B16-FTIII.H cells bound to E-selectin better than did B16-FTIII.M cells, but both cells grew at the same rate. These results indicate that excessive expression of sialyl Lewis X in tumor cells leads to rejection by NK cells rather than tumor formation facilitated by attachment to endothelial cells. (+info)
Urine proteomic profiling for biomarkers of acute renal transplant rejection.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Urine proteomic profiling for biomarkers of acute renal transplant rejection.. AU - Liang, Shu Ling. AU - Clarke, William. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Acute allograft rejection is a serious impediment to long-term success in renal transplantation. Early detection of rejection is crucial for treatment of rejection, and can help avoid long-term effects such as chronic rejection or loss of the transplanted organ. The current diagnostic paradigm is a combination of clinical presentation, biochemical measurements (serum creatinine), and needle biopsy. There are significant efforts underway to find alternate biomarkers for early detection of acute rejection, including protein profiling of urine by mass spectrometry. One approach for protein profiling is to use affinity mass spectrometry - we describe a method for this using ProteinChips and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry.. AB - Acute allograft rejection is a serious impediment to long-term success in renal transplantation. Early detection ...
Acute cellular rejection following human heart transplantation is associated with increased expression of vitronectin receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute cellular rejection following human heart transplantation is associated with increased expression of vitronectin receptor (integrin αvβ3). AU - Yamani, Mohamad H.. AU - Yang, Jiacheng. AU - Masri, Carolyna S.. AU - Ratliff, Norman B.. AU - Bond, Meredith. AU - Starling, Randall C.. AU - McCarthy, Patrick. AU - Plow, Edward. AU - Young, James B.. PY - 2002/2. Y1 - 2002/2. N2 - The vitronectin receptor (integrin αvβ3), a cell-surface adhesion receptor, has been shown to play a significant role in endothelial cell migration, apoptosis, atherosclerosis, and T-lymphocyte activation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that cardiac allograft rejection is associated with increased expression of αvβ3. We also determined whether fibronectin receptor (α5β1) and tissue factor are up-regulated in the presence of acute cellular rejection. We evaluated endomyocardial biopsy specimens with histologic evidence of different degrees of acute cellular rejection (grade 0, n ...
CIN'2003. Rush. "DIAGNOSIS OF SUBCLINICAL RENAL TRANSPLANT REJECTION..."
were present in biopsies from patients with subclinical rejection and largely absent in normal protocol biopsies. Transcripts for perforin, Fas ligand, and granzyme B were also present in patients with subclinical rejection, although in reduced amounts when compared to biopsies from patients with clinical rejection episodes. There were no differences in IL-10 and IL-15 transcripts in clinical and subclinical rejection biopsies. Additional, albeit indirect, data in favor of a pathogenic role for subclinical rejection comes from the early observation of Isoniemi et al, who reported that in patients who had not experienced clinical acute rejection episodes, the development of chronic histological changes occurred in inverse relation to the amount of immunosuppression they had received.15 Similarly, Legendre et al reported a patient cohort that never experienced clinical rejection episodes, in whom the development of chronic rejection at 2 years was preceded by subclinical rejection at three ...
Sero-molecular evaluation of human cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant rejection.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sero-molecular evaluation of human cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant rejection.. AU - Kishore, Janak. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy. AU - Savitri, AU - Ayyagari, Archana. AU - Sharma, Rakesh Kumar. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral pathogen in renal transplant recipients resulting in graft rejection. The prevalence of CMV disease and renal graft rejection is not well studied in India. Sequential specimens from 32 renal allograft recipients were examined by using CMV IgM specific mu capture ELISA and DNA by PCR. Twelve of the 32 patients were CMV IgM positive and out of 12 patients, 9 had rejection and 4 experienced CMV disease. CMV IgM specific mu capture ELISA helped in diagnosis of CMV disease, though it is less sensitive in detection of rejection. PCR itself was proved not sensitive enough in detecting either CMV disease or rejection. At present, optimal laboratory detection of CMV infection in these patients can be ...
Chronic renal transplant rejection | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
Patent US6554764 - Graft vessel preparation device and methods for using the same - Google Patents
A graft vessel preparation device and a method for using the graft vessel preparation device is provided. The graft vessel preparation device establishes and maintains a critical dimension on a graft vessel which corresponds to a dimension of an anastomosis site on a target vessel. One example of a graft vessel preparation device which prepares a graft vessel for a vascular anastomosis procedure includes a parallelogram linkage, a first spreader arm and a second spreader arm. The first spreader arm and the second spreader arm mount on opposing members of the parallelogram linkage in a parallel configuration. The spreader arms are configured in order to allow the placement of an end of a graft vessel over the spreader arms. The spreader arms are also configured to separate within an interior of the graft vessel once the graft vessel is placed over the spreader arms in order to establish a critical dimension. The critical dimension is established using a critical dimension locator. The critical dimension
Prevention of Kidney Transplant Rejection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Renal graft failure due to chronic rejection, also known as chronic allograft nephropathy, is one of the leading causes for repeat renal transplantation. Chronic rejection is characterized by progressive fibrosis and scarring. Renal biopsies of patients undergoing chronic rejection show greater expression of profibrotic cytokines, including TGF-beta and PDGF, than normal kidney tissue. Moreover, the cytokine activity of chronic rejection resembles that of other fibrosing renal diseases. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEinh) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been shown to protect effectively against other types of fibrotic disease. These drugs may protect against fibrosis and preserve renal function in renal transplant patients with chronic rejection, in part by blocking activation of TGF-beta and PDGF. This study evaluates the impact of irbesartan (an AII-RB which acts similar to an ACEinh) and pravastatin on the clinical progression of chronic rejection and on the expression of ...
Phase I study of an engineered aglycosylated humanized CD3 antibody in renal transplant rejection. - Oxford Neuroscience
BACKGROUND: The potential therapeutic benefits of CD3 monoclonal antibodies, such as OKT3, have been limited by their immunogenicity and their propensity to activate a severe cytokine release syndrome. This has constrained the clinical use of OKT3 to the treatment of acute rejection episodes of organ allografts. METHODS: We have humanized a rat CD3 antibody and created a single amino acid substitution in position 297 of the IgG1 heavy chain to prevent glycosylation and, consequently, binding of the therapeutic antibody to Fc receptors and to complement. This antibody has been given as first line antirejection therapy in nine kidney transplant recipients with biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes. RESULTS: None of the patients demonstrated any antiglobulin response nor any significant cytokine release syndrome. Seven of the nine showed evidence of resolution of their rejection, although some patients experienced re-rejection. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that CD3 antibodies can be engineered to
Antibody-Mediated Rejection | Article about Antibody-Mediated Rejection by The Free Dictionary
Association of the Number of HLA-DR Mismatches With Early Post-transplant Acute Cellular Rejection Among Heart Transplantation...
BACKGROUND Although many risk factors are reported about graft rejection after heart transplantation (HTx), the effect of HLA mismatch (MM) still remains unknown, especially in the Japanese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of HLA MM on graft rejection among HTx recipients in Japan. METHODS We retrospectively investigated the association of the number of HLA MM including class I (A, B) and class II (DR) (for each locus MM: 0 to 2, total MM: 0 to 6) and the incidence of moderate to severe acute cellular rejection (ACR) confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥ 3A/2R) within 1 year after HTx. RESULTS Between 2007 and 2014, we had 49 HTx cases in our institute. After excluding those with insufficient data and positive donor-specific antigen, finally 35 patients were enrolled. Moderate to severe ACR was observed in 16 (45.7%) patients. The number of HLA-DR MM was significantly associated with the
Influence of recipient and donor IL-1α, IL-4, and TNFα genotypes on the incidence of acute renal allograft rejection | Journal...
Cytokines present in the renal graft may have originated from either the donor or the recipient. Mutations in cytokine polymorphism sequences may alter transcription factor sites, which could alter transcription itself and subsequent cytokine production. However, the exact role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in transplant outcome remains controversial, with some groups showing a correlation,1-3 but others not.4,5. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine. TNFα release has been correlated with the subsequent development of early graft failure. A G to A base change at position −308 of the TNFα promoter region has been described, resulting in two alleles TNF1 and TNF2.6 The TNF2 allele is in linkage disequilibrium with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype A1-B8-DR3. Wilson et al have provided evidence that the TNF2 allele is a much stronger transcriptional activator than the TNF1 allele.7 The molecular mechanism to explain this has not been elucidated; there ...
Regulatory T Cell Subtypes and TGF-β1 Gene Expression in Chronic Allograft Dysfunction
Background: Regulatory T cells have been suggested to have a protective role against acute rejection in allograft recipients. However, there is little information available about their contribution to chronic rejection process. The role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF- β1) as a profibrogenic and/or immunoregulatory cytokine in renal allografts is also controversial. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127- and CD3+CD8+CD28- regulatory T cells in chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) and to investigate the expression of TGF- β1 in renal allografts. Methods: Thirty biopsy-proven CAD patients were pair-matched with 30 stable graft function patients and a third group of healthy volunteers. Flowcytometry was performed on PBMCs to determine the frequency of CD3+CD8+CD28- and CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells in lymphocyt population. TGF- β1 gene expression was assessed by Real Time PCR. Results: The percentage of CD3+CD8+CD28- Tregs among renal allograft recipients was higher than
Chronic liver allograft rejection in a population treated primarily with tacrolimus as baseline immunosuppression: Long-term...
Background: Predisposing factors, long-term occurrence, and histopathological changes associated with recovery or progression to allograft failure from chronic rejection (CR) were studied in adult patients treated primarily with tacrolimus. Methods: CR cases were identified using stringent criteria applied to a retrospective review of computerized clinicopathological data and slides. Results: After 1973 days median follow- up, 35 (3.3%) of 1049 primary liver allograft recipients first developed CR between 16 and 2532 (median 242) days. The most significant risk factors for CR were the number (P,0.001) and histological severity (P,0.005) of acute rejection episodes and donor age ,40 years (P,0.03). Other demographic and matching parameters were not associated with CR in this cohort. Ten patients died with, but not of, CR. Eight required retransplantation because of CR at a median of 268 days. Ten resolved either histologically or by normalization of liver injury tests over a median of 548 days. ...
The Value of Protocol Biopsies to Identify Patients With De Novo Donor-Specific Antibody at High Risk for Allograft Loss<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Value of Protocol Biopsies to Identify Patients With De Novo Donor-Specific Antibody at High Risk for Allograft Loss. AU - Schinstock, Carrie. AU - Cosio, Fernando G. AU - Cheungpasitporn, W.. AU - Dadhania, D. M.. AU - Everly, M. J.. AU - Samaniego-Picota, M. D.. AU - Cornell, L.. AU - Stegall, Mark D. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - De novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) is associated with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and allograft loss, yet the allograft histology associated with dnDSA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the allograft histology associated with dnDSA in patients with serial surveillance biopsies. We retrospectively studied adult conventional solitary kidney transplant recipients from October 2007 to May 2014. The definition of dnDSA was new donor-specific antibody (DSA) with mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ,1000. The incidence of dnDSA was 7.0% (54 of 771) over mean follow-up of 4.2 ± 1.9 years. Patients with dnDSA had reduced ...
Kidney injury molecule-1 expression is closely associated with renal allograft damage | Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical...
The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in renal allograft biopsy samples and assess the clinical significance of its use as a biomarker for tissue damage. A total of 69 renal allograft biopsy samples from 17 patients with normal serum creatinine and 52 cases of increased serum creatinine were collected. They were divided into different groups according to the Banff 2007 diagnostic criteria. KIM-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemical methods and the association of KIM-1 and blood biochemical indexes was analyzed. KIM-1 expression increased as Banff 2007 classification grade increased and was positively correlated with tubular inflammation severity in the acute T-cell rejection group. Moreover, KIM-1 expression was strongly positive in the chronic active antibody-mediated rejection group. Interestingly, KIM-1 was weakly positive in the normal group without obvious acute rejection and injury of immunosuppressant toxicity. In this group, ...
Chronic rejection synonyms, Chronic rejection antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Intravenous immunoglobulins and rituximab therapy for severe transplant glomerulopathy in chronic antibody-mediated rejection:...
Pathophysiological changes after cardiac transplantation: the role of chronic inflammation and rejection | Heart
In their paper published in this issue of Heart, Goland et al provide novel insights into changes in function of the transplanted heart within the first year (see page 1681).1 This paper, together with a recent article also published in this journal,2 contribute greatly in illuminating a field in which physiological investigation has been largely uncharted.. After the first heart transplant was performed by Christiaan Barnard in 1967, success was variable until immunosuppressive regimens were perfected.3 With these measures, and improved understanding of the immunology of rejection, the incidence of hyperacute allograft failure, largely due to hyperacute rejection, has become rare.4 However, acute rejection is still a concern, although its incidence decreases with time after transplantation5 most probably owing to the development of immune tolerance. Chronic rejection is a more difficult problem as it follows an insidious course. The histological hallmarks of chronic rejection in the ...
Genetic predictors of acute renal transplant rejection : Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation - oi
Molecular Landscape of Antibody-Mediated Rejection: Reading Endothelial Cell Biology in the Microcirculation, The - ATC...
Because experimental models are lacking, the recent emergence of a molecular definition of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) presents opportunities to characterize the mechanisms operating in ABMR. To define molecules unique to ABMR, we selected indication biopsies diagnosed as ABMR both by conventional methods (histology, DSA) and microarrays. We identified molecules increased in ABMR by a triangulation strategy: ABMR vs. all other diseases; ABMR vs. T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR); and ABMR vs. stable transplants (Figure 1). This identified transcripts operating uniquely in ABMR and not in TCMR and other diseases.. Triangulation transcripts included endothelial molecules identified in previous studies: e.g. CDH13, DARC, GNG11. Many suggest relevant endothelial biology: TEK (angiopoeitin receptor), FIGF (VEGFD), CD59 (complement inhibitory protein), VWF (coagulation), EDN1 (endothelin 1), NOSTRIN (modulates NO release), EPHRIN (angiogenesis). By Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, the enriched ...
Case study: heart transplantation--increased incidence of acute rejection in female recipients | American Journal of Critical...
Although the precise link between the increased incidence of allograft rejection in female heart transplant recipients remains uncertain, various gender-specific characteristics may predispose women to earlier rejection episodes. Critical care practitioners must be cognizant of the underlying immunologic factors that indicate higher risk in these recipients. Until the ideal treatment for cardiac rejection is discovered, identifying pertinent immunologic factors, attending to subtle symptoms, obtaining serial endomyocardial biopsies and initiating prompt, additional aggressive immunosuppressive protocols remain paramount in rendering quality patient care. Research must continue to elicit more specific tissue-typing antigens and more selective immunosuppressive agents that will ultimately result in prolonged survival of all heart transplant recipients. ...
Prevention of acute allograft rejection by antibody targeting of TIRC7, a novel T cell membrane protein. | Harvard Catalyst...
Utku N, Heinemann T, Tullius SG, Bulwin GC, Beinke S, Blumberg RS, Beato F, Randall J, Kojima R, Busconi L, Robertson ES, Schülein R, Volk HD, Milford EL, Gullans SR. Prevention of acute allograft rejection by antibody targeting of TIRC7, a novel T cell membrane protein. Immunity. 1998 Oct; 9(4):509-18 ...
A Study of Belimumab in the Prevention of Kidney Transplant Rejection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for many patients with kidney failure. Sometimes a transplanted kidney is rejected by the patients immune system. Many types of immune system cells, including B cells, are active in rejection. B cells produce antibodies against anything the body sees as non-self, like germs or a transplanted kidney. Most medicines that help prevent transplant rejection affect cells other than B cells. Belimumab is a medication used to treat a disease called lupus. Belimumab slows development of antibody-producing B cells. This study will test whether belimumab works on parts of the immune system that cause rejection. Twenty to thirty adults getting a kidney transplant will be in this study. Like flipping a coin, a computer will randomly assign half to be given belimumab and half to be given placebo (a fake medicine). Patients and doctors will not know which medicine was assigned until the study is over. A total of 7 doses of study medicine will be given through a ...
Patent US6117644 - Predicting and detecting cardiac allograft rejection - Google Patents
A method of diagnosing cardiac transplant rejection within a patient comprising, obtaining a sample of a biological fluid from the patient, and determining the level of a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or a fragment thereof, within the sample of body fluid. The step of determining the concentration of BNP involves an assay comprising at least one antibody exhibiting affinity for the BNP or a fragment thereof, and the biological fluid comprises plasma, urine or cerebrospinal fluid. Furthermore, the antibody used within the method may comprises a polyclonal antibody, a monoclonal antibody, or a combination thereof. Preferably, the method involves obtaining at least two of the samples of body fluid from the patient over a period of time and comparing the BNP levels, with an increase in BNP being indicative of an upcoming rejection episode.
Researchers Find Faster, Less-Intrusive Way To Identify Transplant Recipients' Organ Rejection - Redorbit
A simple, inexpensive blood test could soon help doctors halt organ rejection before it impairs transplanted hearts and kidneys.. "In the past, we couldnt spot rejection episodes until they harmed the organ," said Atul Butte, MD, PhD, who is co-senior author of the new research and an associate professor of medical informatics and of pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine, in addition to director of the Center for Pediatric Bioinformatics at Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital. "Our goal is to develop blood tests that will keep transplanted organs functioning so that patients can avoid a second transplant.". Butte and his collaborators have made a big step toward that goal. The Stanford team found three easily measured proteins that rise in the blood during acute rejection, in which a patients immune system attacks his or her transplanted organ. The research, which will be published online Sept. 23 in PLoS-Computational Biology, is the first-ever report of an immune-rejection ...
A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow...
Need for anti-rejection drugs in transplant recipients - tgiHealthCareerp
For decades, immunologists have been trying to train the transplant recipients immune system to accept transplanted cells and organs without the long-term use of anti-rejection drugs. New University of Minnesota preclinical research shows that this is now possible.. In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers at the University of Minnesota Medical Schools Department of Surgery and Schulze Diabetes Institute, collaborating with colleagues at Northwestern University, have maintained long-term survival and function of pancreatic islet transplants despite complete discontinuation of all anti-rejection drugs on day 21 after the transplant. This study was performed in a stringent preclinical transplant setting in nonhuman primates, one step away from humans.. For many patients with end-stage organ failure, transplantation is the only effective and remaining treatment option. To prevent transplant rejection, recipients must take medications long-term that suppress the bodys immune ...
Inflammation in Fibrotic Areas (i-IF/TA) Identifies a T cell-mediated Rejection Component of IF/TA with Poor Kidney Allograft...
Addressing the etiological heterogeneity of interstitial fibrosis in kidney allografts represents an important challenge to improve long-term transplant outcomes. We investigated the determinants, clinical and histological phenotype, and outcome of i-IF/TA in a prospective cohort of kidney recipient
Need for anti-rejection drugs in transplant recipients | Technology Alpha
In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers at the University of Minnesota Medical Schools Department of Surgery and Schulze Diabetes Institute, collaborating with colleagues at Northwestern University, have maintained long-term survival and function of pancreatic islet transplants despite complete discontinuation of all anti-rejection drugs on day 21 after the transplant. This study was performed in a stringent preclinical transplant setting in nonhuman primates, one step away from humans.. For many patients with end-stage organ failure, transplantation is the only effective and remaining treatment option. To prevent transplant rejection, recipients must take medications long-term that suppress the bodys immune system. These immunosuppressive drugs are effective at preventing rejection over the short term; however, because anti-rejection drugs suppress all of the immune system nonspecifically, people taking these drugs face the risk of serious infections and even cancer. ...
Liver transplant rejection diagnosis: Proteomics study leads to ELISA test - Ezine - spectroscopyNOW.com
Predicting liver transplant rejection The survival rate of liver transplant patients one year after treatment has improved from about 30 in the 1970s to more than 80, with acute cellular rejection ACR the most common complication. It occurs in about 30 of cases and is generally arrested by drug treatment. However, if ACR occurs more than one year...
Drug Halves Risk of Kidney Transplant Rejection | thirdAGE | healthy living for women + their families
Exogenous Lipocalin 2 Ameliorates Acute Rejection in a Mouse Model of Renal Transplantation
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is rapidly produced by damaged nephron epithelia and is one of the most promising new markers of renal injury, delayed graft function and acute allograft rejection (AR);however, the functional importance of Lcn2 in renal transplantation is largely unknown. To understand the role of Lcn2 in renal AR, kidneys from Balb/c mice were transplanted into C57Bl/6 mice and vice versa and analyzed for morphological and physiological outcomes of AR at posttransplantation days 3, 5, and 7. The allografts showed a steady increase in intensity of interstitial infiltration, tubulitis and periarterial aggregation of lymphocytes associated with a substantial elevation in serum levels of creatinine, urea and Lcn2. Perioperative administration of recombinant Lcn2:siderophore:Fe complex (rLcn2) to recipients resulted in functional and morphological amelioration of the allograft at day 7 almost as efficiently as daily immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (CsA). No significant differences were ...
When rejection comes from within - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Rejection is a risk of transplantation. The phenomenon is usually caused by a reaction of the recipients immune system vis-à-vis the transplant, which it considers an invader. HLAs (human leucocyte antigens), which are present on the surface of all cells, are a sort of unique identifier for each person. In transplants, doctors try to avoid rejection by ensuring that the donor and recipient are compatible with regard to blood group and HLA antigens. Despite these precautions, one in ten transplants results in rejection. To solve this mystery, the researchers focused on blood vessels, an important component in transplantation. When blood vessels are damaged, rejection is more difficult to treat. "We discovered that the damaged blood vessels release specific bits of cells: small membrane vesicles that put the immune system on alert. If we then perform a transplant, the immune system immediately attacks the donor organ," said Melanie Dieudé, a researcher at the CRCHUM and first author of the ...
How to Handle Rejection Properly? - Health Care For Men
Rejection and criticism are part of being alive. We all experience it. The more we try to achieve something, impress someone, or get something, the more we will experience it. How well we accept it reflects our maturity. To accept rejection properly requires strength. For that reason, many psychologists advise us not to take it personally, even though we have invested so much. They suggest some form of emotional detachment, knowing that rejection does not necessarily imply that we are not good enough. Rejection does not also suggest that we are not worthy of someones love. We should avoid overthinking it and conclude that something is wrong with us. Rejection needs a strong personality, who will not take the sense of self from someones choice. According to experts, we should understand that our sense of self is completely independent of someones decision to accept or reject us. When we become aware that a person who rejected us has her own reasons. These reasons have usually been created by ...
Rejections financial definition of rejections
Transplant Pathology Internet Services
Failed Allografts. The reasons for liver allograft failure vary with the time since transplantation(1-6). Primary dysfunction because of ischemic/preservation injury and hepatic artery thrombosis and subsequent bile duct necrosis are the most common causes of liver within the first several weeks. Humoral and severe acute cellular rejection also occur during this time, but they are uncommon causes of early allograft failure. Frequently, a combination of the above factors ultimately contribute to deterioration of graft function(1-6). Between 2-3 weeks and 6 months after transplantation, delayed complications of early technical problems, such as the biliary sludge syndrome from ischemic cholangitis(7, 8), acute rejection and rapidly developing cases of chronic rejection(9, 10) are the major causes of graft failure. There are still graft failures that occur more than 6 months after transplantation, as a result of delayed technical complications. These usually involve the hepatic artery and ...
acute graft rejection | Transplant Now
Basiliximab is a monoclonal interleukin-2 receptor antagonist commonly used for induction immunosuppression in lung transplantation. This single centre retrospective review of 119 patients transplanted between 1994 and 2009 examined the impact of the timing of basiliximab dosing on the frequency and severity of acute rejection, the development of BOS, and overall survival. Pre-implantation administration of […]. ...
ARPKD Treatment Questions - PKD Foundation of Canada
Organ transplants are increasingly successful, and many kidney transplant recipients continue to lead long, fulfilling lives following surgery. Occasionally, a transplant recipients immune system may detect something in the system, due in large part to cytotoxic antibodies, a substance in the blood, which can cause the recipients body to reject the donated kidney. Specialists will conduct extensive tests to minimize the risk of organ rejection in advance of the transplant surgery, and will often administer medication following the surgery to reduce this risk further (you can find more information about immunosuppressants further in this section). Patients may also experience acute rejection, an episode where the body detects the foreign object only temporarily. This is common in the first year following transplant, however it can also lead to chronic rejection. Chronic rejection, which is characterized by gradual loss of organ function, is an ongoing concern for transplant recipients because ...
Safety and efficacy of thymoglobulin for steroid resistant acute cellular rejection following live rtransplantation - Research...
Innes, H. A., McDonald, S. A., Dillon, J. F., Allen, S., Hayes, P. C., Goldberg, D., Mills, P. R., Barclay, S. T., Wilks, D., Valerio, H., Fox, R., Bhattacharyya, D., Kennedy, N., Morris, J., Fraser, A., Stanley, A. J., Bramley, P. & Hutchinson, S. J. Aug 2015 In : Hepatology. 62, 2, p. 355-364 10 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
CCR5 has been implicated in the regulation of Th1 lymphocyte function (14). CCR5 is the receptor for the proinflammatory chemokines: RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β (1). It has been shown that CCR5 and RANTES may play important roles in the pathogenesis of acute lung and renal allograft rejection in humans (9). Gao et al. (8) recently demonstrated that targeting CCR5 prolongs cardiac allograft survival in the mouse model. However, given a lack of intragraft IL-4, IL-5, or IL-10 mRNA in CCR5−/− recipients, no evidence for immune deviation toward an intragraft Th2 regulatory cell population was apparent in their study (8). Studies on murine and human heart and skin models indicate that, in the process of acute rejection, the temporal expression of critical chemokines varies among different organs or tissues. For instance, CXCR3 and its ligands, IP-10 and Mig, are expressed by the T-cells infiltrating lung and heart allografts and mediate chemotaxis of T-cells at sites of rejection (15,16) (17). ...
Kidney Disease Treatment www.kidney-support.org: Is Kidney Transplant the Best Treatment for Patients with Uremia?
In addition, rejection may be a problem at any time for people who take kidney transplant. Although the effects of anti-rejection medicine has been improving, it can not treat chronic rejection, which once occurring, and it will gradually lead to lose renal function and they will have to take dialysis again. Further more, a long time application of anti-rejection medicine can decline the bodys immune capacity, which can lead to toxicity to liver and kidney, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis. Besides, infection is the main factor causing rejection or death. While their incidence of cancer may be several times as much as the healthy peoples ...
New method reduces blood vessels' transplant rejection risk - Canindia News
London, May 25 (IANS) A team of British researchers has developed a new technique to grow the blood vessels using cells from the patient to cut down significantly the risk of transplant rejection. "A major challenge in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is providing the new tissue with a network of blood vessels and linking this to the patients existing blood supply. This is vital for the tissues survival and integration with adjacent tissues," said Giordano Pula from University of Bath.. But the shortage of adequate patient-derived scaffolds that can support blood vessel growth has been a major limitation for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.. Other methods only allow limited formation of small blood vessels such as capillaries which makes tissue less likely to successfully transplant into a patient. This led the researchers from the University of Bath and Bristol Heart Institute to start the pioneering research.. "By embedding endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in a ...
stearatekuso - corneal transplant rejection treatment
GastroHep News Story
The introduction of the immunosuppressive agent, tacrolimus, has led to a significant reduction in acute rejection of liver transplants. However, little is known about the rate of chronic rejection for liver transplant patients taking tacrolimus.. Dr Ashok Jain and colleagues in Pittsburgh, USA, evaluated the development of chronic rejection in 1,048 consecutive adults receiving primary liver allografts.. After a mean follow up of 77.3 months 32 of the 1,048 patients (3.1%) developed chronic rejection.. Patients were divided into 3 groups in order to assess the risk of chronic rejection depending on primary diagnosis. ...
Modification of Renal Allograft Rejection in Man | JAMA Internal Medicine | The JAMA Network
Reduction of Recipient Cell Cross-Dressing with Donor MHC Molecules Prolongs Allograft Survival in Mice. - ATC Abstracts
Cross-dressing of recipient cells with allogeneic MHC molecules carried by donor exosomes occurs regularly after transplantation. However, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon plays a significant role in the T cell alloresponse and allograft rejection.. In this study, we tested whether GW4869, a sphingomyelase 2 inhibitor known to inhibit cell release of exosomes, could prevent allo-MHC cross-dressing and thereby impair the alloresponse and rejection process in transplanted mice. To test this hypothesis, we administered GW4869 (60ug/mouse/dose) to B6 or BALB/c donors on days -5, -3, -1 pre-transplantation. We transplanted fully mismatched recipients with skin, heart, or islet allogeneic grafts and administered GW4869 on days 1, 3, and 5 post transplantation. Imaging flow cytometry of leukocytes from recipients' draining lymphoid organs showed greater than 33% reduction of the frequency of recipient cells cross-dressed with donor MHC in GW4869 treated mice compared to control ...
Transplant Pathology Internet Services
PTLD commonly involves the graft itself in addition to affecting extranodal locations such as the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. In allograft biopsies the main differential diagnosis of PTLD includes the most severe forms of acute allograft rejection. Dense inflammatory infiltrates are common in acute rejection. These infiltrates are usually mixed and include variable proportions of activated lymphocytes (immunoblasts) that may show significant cytologic atypia. Reduction in immunosuppression is of paramount importance in the treatment of PTLD, whereas misdiagnosis of these lesions as rejection reactions will lead to the contrary. For the same reasons, delay in the correct diagnosis of PTLD may lead to potentially life-threatening progression of the disease. The mortality that may be associated with PTLD is particularly unacceptable in the situation of elective organ transplantation (i.e. kidney, pancreas). The situation is different in the case of patients with liver or heart/lung ...
Donor-specific unmodified bone marrow transfusion does not facilitate intestinal engraftment after bowel transplantation in a...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Donor-specific unmodified bone marrow transfusion does not facilitate intestinal engraftment after bowel transplantation in a porcine model. AU - Pirenne, Jacques. AU - Gruessner, Angelika C.. AU - Benedetti, Enrico. AU - Troppmann, Christoph. AU - Nakhleh, Raouf E.. AU - Uckun, Fatih M.. AU - Gruessner, Rainer W G. PY - 1997/1. Y1 - 1997/1. N2 - Background. The immunosuppression required to prevent rejection of intestinal transplants causes a high rate of infection and lymphoma. It is crucial that immunomodulatory strategies be developed to facilitate intestinal engraftment. Methods. We prospectively examined the effect of unpurified donor-specific bone marrow transfusions (DSBMTs) on rejection, infection, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and survival after intestinal transplantations in 44 Yorkshire Landrace pigs. Four groups that difference according to presence or absence of treatment with FK506 and DSBMT were analyzed. Results. In nonimmunosuppressed pigs, DSBMTs had no ...
Multiparametric Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Detect Acute Cardiac Allograft Rejection After Heart Transplantation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiparametric Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Detect Acute Cardiac Allograft Rejection After Heart Transplantation. AU - Dolan, Ryan S.. AU - Rahsepar, Amir A.. AU - Blaisdell, J.. AU - Suwa, Kenichiro. AU - Ghafourian, Kambiz. AU - Wilcox, Jane E. AU - Khan, Sadiya Sana. AU - Vorovich, Esther Elizabeth. AU - Rich, Jonathan D. AU - Anderson, Allen Sawyer. AU - Yancy, Clyde W. AU - Collins, Jeremy D.. AU - Carr, James. AU - Markl, Michael. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of multiparametric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for the detection of acute cardiac allograft rejection (ACAR). Background: ACAR is currently diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy, but CMR may be a noninvasive alternative because of its capacity for regional myocardial structure and function characterization. Methods: Fifty-eight transplant recipients (mean age 47.0 ± 14.7 years) and 14 control subjects (mean age 47.7 ± ...
The yield of surveillance endomyocardial biopsies as a screen for cellular rejection in pediatric heart transplant patients<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The yield of surveillance endomyocardial biopsies as a screen for cellular rejection in pediatric heart transplant patients. AU - Levi, Daniel S.. AU - DeConde, Adam S.. AU - Fishbein, Michael C.. AU - Burch, Caron. AU - Alejos, Juan C.. AU - Wetzel, Glenn T.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Endomyocardial biopsy is commonly used to screen for cellular rejection in pediatric heart transplant patients. The yield of EMBs when combined with newly developed immunohistochemical techniques and modern immunosuppression in pediatric heart transplant patients is unknown. After OHT, surveillance biopsies were performed on a routine basis on all pediatric patients. EMBs were also performed on symptomatic OHT patients suspected to have rejection. All positive results (greater than ISHLT grade 1B) were confirmed with immunohistochemical staining. A retrospective review of consecutive EMBs performed in this institution from January 1995 to January 2003 was performed. The echocardiographic ...
The bimodal expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in association with rat lung reimplantation and allograft rejection. |...
Lung transplantation has become a therapeutic option for a number of end-stage pulmonary disorders. Lung transplant recipients experience more complications due to acute and chronic allograft rejection as compared to recipients of other solid organs. We postulated that the generation of TNF-alpha plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute lung allograft rejection. To test our hypothesis, we used a RT1-incompatible rat lung allograft model and demonstrated the time course, cellular source(s), and major compartment(s) of TNF production during the course of lung allograft rejection. This model allowed for immunogenetic standardization and reproducibility of lung allograft rejection across disparate major histocompatibility barriers. TNF production was characterized at the whole animal, organ, cellular, and molecular levels, and was found to be compartmentalized and expressed in a bimodal fashion from the lung allograft during lung allograft reimplantation and maximal rejection. Lung ...
Renal epithelial cells retain primary cilia during human acute renal allograft rejection injury | Garvan Institute of Medical...
OBJECTIVES: Primary cilia are sensory organelles which co-ordinate several developmental/repair pathways including hedgehog signalling. Studies of human renal allografts suffering acute tubular necrosis have shown that length of primary cilia borne by epithelial cells doubles throughout the nephron and collecting duct, and then normalises as renal function returns. Conversely the loss of primary cilia has been reported in chronic allograft rejection and linked to defective hedgehog signalling. We investigated the fate of primary cilia in renal allografts suffering acute rejection. RESULTS: Here we observed that in renal allografts undergoing acute rejection, primary cilia were retained, with their length increasing 1 week after transplantation and remaining elevated. We used a mouse model of acute renal injury to demonstrate that elongated renal primary cilia in the injured renal tubule show evidence of smoothened accumulation, a biomarker for activation of hedgehog signalling. We conclude that primary
Zbtb7a induction in alveolar macrophages is implicated in anti-HLA-mediated lung allograft rejection | Science Translational...
Chronic rejection significantly limits long-term success of solid organ transplantation. De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to mismatched donor human leukocyte antigen after human lung transplantation predispose lung grafts to chronic rejection. We sought to delineate mediators and mechanisms of DSA pathogenesis and to define early inflammatory events that trigger chronic rejection in lung transplant recipients and obliterative airway disease, a correlate of human chronic rejection, in mouse. Induction of transcription factor zinc finger and BTB domain containing protein 7a (Zbtb7a) was an early response critical in the DSA-induced chronic rejection. A cohort of human lung transplant recipients who developed DSA and chronic rejection demonstrated greater Zbtb7a expression long before clinical diagnosis of chronic rejection compared to nonrejecting lung transplant recipients with stable pulmonary function. Expression of DSA-induced Zbtb7a was restricted to alveolar macrophages (AMs), and ...
Reversible down-regulation of connexin43 expression in acute cardiac allograft rejection. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard...
Current Australian practice in the prevention and management of corneal allograft rejection<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current Australian practice in the prevention and management of corneal allograft rejection. AU - Barker, Nigel H.. AU - Henderson, Timothy R.M.. AU - Ross, Carolyn A.. AU - Coster, Douglas J.. AU - Williams, Keryn A.. PY - 2000/10. Y1 - 2000/10. N2 - Purpose: To determine current practice in the prevention and management of corneal allograft rejection in Australia. Methods: A questionnaire was circulated to attendees at the 1998 Eye Bank Meeting in Adelaide. Twenty-four responses were received and analysed. Results: All respondents used topical corticosteroids for routine prophylaxis and to treat established rejection episodes. Prednisolone acetate was the most frequently prescribed topical corticosteroid. Systemic non-steroidal immunosuppression was prescribed almost exclusively for high-risk grafts. Seventy-five per cent of surgeons used systemic antiviral agents for the treatment of graft rejection in patients with Herpes simplex keratitis. Conclusion: There was a wide ...
Banff Classification - Wikipedia
The Banff Classification is a schema for nomenclature and classification of renal allograft pathology, established in 1991 by Kim Solez and Lorraine C. Racusen in Banff, Canada. The initiative was "inspired by the then recent development of a consensus grading system for diagnosis of rejection in cardiac allografts led by Dr Margaret Billingham, a key participant at the first Banff meeting". Prior the Banff Classification there was no standardized, international classification for renal allograft biopsies, which resulted in considerable heterogeneity among pathologists in characterization of renal allograft biopsies. The first Banff schema was published in 1993, and has since undergone updates at regular intervals. The classification is expanded and updated every two years in meetings organized by the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology. An evaluation of the Banff Classification in March 2000 confirmed significant association between the revised Banff 97 classification and graft outcome. ...
Cold ischaemia, innate immunity and deterioration of the glomerular filtration barrier in antibody-mediated acute rejection :...
Background. In renal transplantation, cold ischaemia (CI) determines acute rejection through innate immunity among others. Acute rejection episodes are a risk factor for late allograft dysfunction and proteinuria. This implies some alteration of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Besides its effects on acute rejection, we hypothesized that CI might somehow damage the GFB being directly responsible for late proteinuria.. Methods. On rat kidney allografts suffering from antibody-mediated acute rejection with or without CI and compared with syngeneic grafts, we quantified the gene expression of innate and adaptive immune mediators and assessed the capillary glomerular basement membranes (CapBM) by immunostaining collagen-IV (ColIV). ColIV was also assessed in equivalent groups from a previous chronic study followed up for 24 weeks.. Results. CI up-regulated enzymes critical in the stabilization of collagen chains, increasing ColIV deposition and thickening the CapBM. CI increased the C4d and ...
Combining theoretical and experimental techniques to study murine heart transplant rejection<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combining theoretical and experimental techniques to study murine heart transplant rejection. AU - Arciero, Julia C.. AU - Maturo, Andrew. AU - Arun, Anirudh. AU - Oh, Byoung Chol. AU - Brandacher, Gerald. AU - Raimondi, Giorgio. PY - 2016/11/7. Y1 - 2016/11/7. N2 - The quality of life of organ transplant recipients is compromised by complications associated with life-long immunosuppression, such as hypertension, diabetes, opportunistic infections, and cancer. Moreover, the absence of established tolerance to the transplanted tissues causes limited long-term graft survival rates. Thus, there is a great medical need to understand the complex immune system interactions that lead to transplant rejection so that novel and effective strategies of intervention that redirect the system toward transplant acceptance (while preserving overall immune competence) can be identified. This study implements a systems biology approach in which an experimentally based mathematical model is used to ...
Serological cytokine profiles of cardiac rejection and lung infection after heart transplantation in rats | Journal of...
Allograft rejection and infection are the major sources of morbidity and mortality after heart transplant. Early differential diagnosis is clinically crucial but difficult. The aim of the study was to examine serum cytokine profiles associated with each entity and whether such profiles could help to differentiate between them. Heart allografts from Wistar rats were transplanted to Lewis rats as described by Yokoyama. Cardiac rejection and pulmonary bacterial infection were induced by Cyclosporine cessation and bacteria bronchus injection, and pathologically confirmed. Ninety serological cytokines profiles of the study objects were then simultaneously measured using a biotin label-based cytokine array. The fold change (FC) was used for relative cytokine concentration comparison analysis. Four cytokines in cardiac rejection group were significantly dysregulated as compared to health controls (β -Catenin, 0.51 FC; E-Selectin, 0.62 FC; IFN-gamma, 1.87 FC; and IL-13, 0.60 FC, respectively). In pulmonary
Th2-Mediated Airway Hyperreactivity Exacerbates Corneal Allograft Rejection | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: : Previous studies have demonstrated that allergic conjunctivitis increases the incidence and tempo of corneal allograft rejection in mice. We wished to determine if Th2-based allergic inflammation in the lungs or Th1-based inflammation of the skin would exacerbate corneal graft rejection. Methods: : Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was induced in BALB/c mice using either ovalbumin (OVA) or short ragweed extract (SRW). AHR was confirmed by plethysmography and by ELISA and histological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Contact hypersensitivity was induced by skin painting with oxazalone prior to corneal transplantation. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to donor alloantigens and to skin sensitization were determined using conventional ear-swelling assays. C57BL/6 corneal allografts were transplanted orthotopically to naïve mice, mice sensitized and challenged with oxazalone, or mice with ongoing AHR. Results: : Mice with ongoing AHR that was induced with SRW ...
Donor Specific Antibody Surveillance and Graft Outcomes in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients
Introduction: The development of de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) has been associated with rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation, and DSA screening is now recommended in all kidney transplant recipients. However, the clinical significance of dnDSA in patients with a stable creatinine remains unclear. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 103 patients receiving a first, kidney alone transplant between 12/1/2007 and 12/31/2013. Inclusion criteria were age ,18 years old at the time of transplant and at least two years of DSA monitoring. All patients underwent DSA screening every 3 months post-transplant with additional testing as clinically indicated. No treatment was given for DSAs in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection. Results: 20 patients (19%) developed dnDSA in the setting of a stable creatinine and 13 patients (13%) developed dnDSA in the setting of an elevated creatinine. Median follow-up time post-transplant was 4.1 (IQR 2.9-5.7) years. In a Cox ...
Study Examines Factors In Pediatric Kidney Transplant Rejection - Redorbit
Avoiding HLA-DR mismatching appears to be beneficial in pediatric kidney transplant patients, however the likelihood of finding a matching donor must be considered against the wait time for a possible donation, according to a report in the July issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.. "Although avoiding HLA [human leukocyte antigen; cell surface antigens that regulate host cell responses to transplanted cells] antigen mismatching has been shown to benefit long-term graft survival, it has raised concerns about disadvantaging minority groups, particularly black patients, and pediatric patients, who have severe growth retardation and other problems when dialysis is prolonged before transplantation," the authors write as background information in the article. "Currently, only HLA-DR matching is considered in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) organ allocation system.". To examine the relationship between HLA-DR mismatching and rejection, graft survival and ...
Heart transplant rejection with hemodynamic compromise: A multiinstitutional study of the role of endomyocardial cellular...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heart transplant rejection with hemodynamic compromise. T2 - A multiinstitutional study of the role of endomyocardial cellular infiltrate. AU - Mills, R. M.. AU - Naftel, D. C.. AU - Kirklin, J. K.. AU - Van Bakel, A. B.. AU - Jaski, B. E.. AU - Massin, E. K.. AU - Eisen, H. J.. AU - Lee, F. A.. AU - Fishbein, D. P.. AU - Bourge, R. C.. AU - McGiffin, D. C.. AU - Weiss, T.. AU - Crosswyt, A.. AU - Austin, B.. AU - Early, L.. AU - Holmes, P.. AU - Veazey, M.. AU - Sims, P.. AU - Hubbard, K.. AU - Brush, J.. AU - Pritzker, M. R.. AU - Lake, K. D.. AU - OKane, M.. AU - Chapman, S.. AU - Hoffman, F.. AU - Seimers, N.. AU - Jorgensen, C.. AU - Pedersen, W.. AU - Joyce, L.. AU - Eales, F.. AU - Emery, R. W.. AU - Von Reuden, T.. AU - Bruhn, P.. AU - King, M.. AU - Arom, K.. AU - Hellman, K. J.. AU - Pacheco, D.. AU - Moore, C.. AU - Levin, S.. AU - Blair, P.. AU - Mudge, G. H.. AU - Jarcho, J.. AU - Johnson, P.. AU - Loh, E.. AU - Hobbs, R. E.. AU - Rincon, G.. AU - Bott-Silverman, ...
Linked suppression of skin graft rejection can operate through indirect recognition. - Oxford Neuroscience
Adult mice can be rendered immunologically tolerant of allogeneic tissues if transplanted under cover of mAbs to CD4 and CD8. Tolerance generated in this manner is characterized by the presence of regulatory CD4+ T cells that can recruit naive T cells to become tolerant also through infectious tolerance. Regulatory CD4+ T cells can also suppress rejection of third party transplant Ags provided they are expressed on the same graft as the tolerated Ags. This process of linked suppression can act across whole MHC barriers and represents a powerful mechanism with therapeutic potential. Tolerance can also be induced to reprocessed minor transplantation Ags presented through host APCs (indirect recognition). We here demonstrate that linked suppression can also be induced through the indirect pathway. This finding may be important in the development of transplantation tolerance in the clinic.
Study Suggests C1-INH May Aid in Prevention of Antibody-Mediated Rejection Following Kidney ... ( SAN FRANCISCO July 30...
... SAN FRANCISCO July 30 2014 /-...The study shows that post-transplant treatment with C1-INH results in ... Antibody-mediated rejection is a severe form of rejection that can oc...The placebo-controlled single-center study evaluated 20 highly sensit...,Study,Suggests,C1-INH,May,Aid,in,Prevention,of,Antibody-Mediated,Rejection,Following,Kidney,Transplant,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Pre-transplant donor specific antibody and its clinical significance in kidney transplantation | Read by QxMD
BACKGROUND: The traditional method for assessing HLA antibodies in recipient serum samples is the complement-dependent cytotoxicity testing (CDC). Recently, the highly sensitive microbead-based Luminex assay was introduced and can detect low levels of anti-HLA Abs.. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) detectable by Luminex, despite a negative CDC crossmatch, on the outcomes of kidney transplantation. The correlation and cut-off value of panel reactive antibody (PRA) and DSA was also evaluated.. METHODS: Pre-transplant sera from 116 kidney transplant recipients with a negative CDC crossmatch were assessed for donor-specific HLA antibodies by using Luminex single antigen beads. The patients received kidney transplants at Ramathibodi Hospital between January 2003 and December 2007. The results were correlated with kidney graft outcomes.. RESULTS: DSA were found in 24.1% (28/116) of all recipients. Of the twenty-eight DSA positive patients, four ...
Abstract 5671: The Effects of Pharmacological PAI-1 Inhibition in Acute and Chronic Rejection in Murine Cardiac Allografts |...
Backgrounds: Acute rejection and graft arterial disease (GAD) in cardiac transplantation are enhanced by inflammation and thrombus formation. However, little is known about the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in heart transplantation. Thus, the objective was to clarify the role of PAI-1 in the progression of rejection.. Methods and Results: Murine hearts were heterotopically transplanted using major mismatch combinations for evaluation of acute rejection and class II mismatch combinations for the GAD. We performed administration of the specific PAI-1 inhibitor (IMD-1622) into murine recipients of cardiac allografts. Nontreated allografts of the major mismatch group were acutely rejected (n=6; 7.3±0.2 days), while the PAI-1 inhibitor prolonged their survival (n=6; 13.7±2.4 days, P , 0.05). Pathologically, severe myocardial cell infiltration (40.8±3.3 %) and fibrosis (44.5±2.8 %) were observed in untreated allografts, the PAI-1 inhibitor attenuated infiltration (25.8±1.9 ...
Immunological aspects of clinical liver transplantation. - Semantic Scholar
With the improved survival achieved in the 1980s it has become apparent that graft rejection is a major problem following liver transplantation . Hyperacute rejection is uncommon, although syndromes of fulminant graft failure due to immunological mechanisms have been described. Acute cellular rejection occurs in approximately 70% of patients and usually responds to high-dose steroids. Between 10 and 15% develop chronic rejection, characterised by a progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts which is irreversible . The principal targets of both acute and chronic liver allograft rejection are intrahepatic bile ducts and endothelium . The increased ability of these cell types to express MHC antigens and adhesion molecules may be responsible for their involvement [2, 3] and may be enhanced by the release of proinflammatory cytokines associated with viral infection, particularly CMV . Although the importance of HLA matching remains unknown patients transplanted with ABO incompatible
Australian Medicines Handbook section 14.5.3 Anti-thymocyte globulin is indicated for the prophylaxis of renal graft rejection as well as the treatment of steroid-resistant renal transplant rejection. Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease. However, 15-35% of transplant recipients will experience one episode of acute rejection in the first year. Giving antibody to deplete thymocytes (T cells) is one way to suppress the immune system to prevent or reverse graft rejection. Anti-thymocyte globulin is a polyclonal antibody against human T cells. It is a gamma immunoglobulin produced by immunising rabbits. As well as depleting T cells in the circulation, anti-thymocyte globulin is also thought to reduce T cell proliferation, homing and cytotoxic effects within the body. Depletion of T cells occurs within a day of starting intravenous treatment. This immunoglobulin has been compared to other treatments in renal transplant patients who are also ...
KEGG PATHWAY: Allograft rejection - Homo sapiens (human)
Allograft rejection is the consequence of the recipients alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of antigen presentation. In the direct pathway, recipient T cells react to intact allogeneic MHC molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. This pathway would activate host CD4 or CD8 T cells. In contrast, donor MHC molecules (and all other proteins) shed from the graft can be taken up by host APCs and presented to recipient T cells in the context of self-MHC molecules - the indirect pathway. Such presentation activates predominantly CD4 T cells. A direct cytotoxic T-cell attack on graft cells can be made only by T cells that recognize the graft MHC molecules directly. Nontheless, T cells with indirect allospecificity can contribute to graft rejection by activating macrophages, which cause tissue injury and fibrosis, and are also likely to be important in the development of an alloantibody response ...
CIN'2003. Fink. C-reactive protein and chronic allograft nephropathy...
References. 1. Gjertson DW: Survival trends in long-term first cadaveric donor kidney transplants; in: Terasaki PI (ed): Clinical Tranplantation 1991. Los Angeles, UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory p 225. 2. Paul LC, Benediktsson H: Chronic transplant rejection. Transplant Reviews 1993;7:96-113. 3. Tullius SG, Tilney NL: Both alloantigen-dependent and independent factors influence chronic allograft rejection. Transplantation 1995;59:313-318. 4. Kahan BD: Toward a rational design of clinical trials of immunosuppressive agents in transplantation. Immunol Review 1993;136:29-49. 5. Ludwig J, Wiesner RH, Batts KP, Perkins JD, Krom RA: The acute vanishing bile duct syndrome (acute irreversible rejection) after orthotopic liver transplantation. Hepatology 1987;7:476-483. 6. Kobashigawa JA, Katznelson SA, Laks H, Johnson JA, Yeatman L, Wang XM, Chia D, Terasaki PI, Sabad A, Cogert GA, Trosian K, Hamilton MA, Moriguchi JD, Kawata N, Hage A, Drinkwater DC, Stevenson LW: Effect of pravastatin on outcomes after ...
Analysis of Macrophage Phenotype in Rejected Corneal Allografts | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose.: We investigated the phenotype of macrophages infiltrating rejected corneal allografts. Methods.: We performed allogeneic or syngeneic corneal transplantation in mice, and humanely killed animals at day 28 during allograft rejection when 60% of corneal allografts were rejected. We divided allografts into two groups: grafts with rejection as rejectors and grafts without rejection as nonrejectors, and analyzed for macrophage infiltration and their phenotype using immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated the time course of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by analyzing corneal grafts at days 7, 28, and 42 using real-time RT-PCR. Also, we assayed human corneal allografts with chronic graft failure. Results.: We found that a large number of CD11b+, F4/80+, or inducible nitrous oxide synthase cells (iNOS+) infiltrated corneal allografts during rejection in mice, while the cells were found rarely in syngeneic or allogeneic grafts that were not rejected. There were rare CD11c+ ...
Pediatric Renal Transplantation 1st Edition | Rent 9780471591207 | 0471591203
Partial table of contents: A Short History of Renal Transplantation (R. Calne). Considerations in Organ Transplantation (R. Kerman). Pretransplantation and Posttransplantation Psychosocial Evaluation. (G. Wolff). Impact of Recipient Age on Renal Allograft Outcome (G. Arbus & D. Hebert). Steroid Withdrawal After Renal Transplantation (E. Ingulli & A. Tejani). Treatment of Acute Rejection (G. Offner). Urologic Complications in Renal Transplantation (O. Salvatierra). Noncompliance to Medical Regimens (B. Cole). Malignancy in Children (I. Penn). Long-Term Outcome of Kidney Transplantation in Children (D. Potter). Index.Pediatric Renal Transplantation, 1 was published 1994 under ISBN 9780471591207 and ISBN 0471591203. [read more] ...
Role of T cell recruitment and chemokine-regulated intra-graft T cell motility patterns in corneal allograft rejection. |...
Quadruple immunosuppression in a pig model of small bowel transplantation<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quadruple immunosuppression in a pig model of small bowel transplantation. AU - Gruessner, Rainer W G. AU - Fasola, Carlos. AU - Fryer, Jon. AU - Nakhleh, Raouf E.. AU - Kim, Sung. AU - Gruessner, Angelika C.. AU - Beebe, David. AU - Moon, Chul. AU - Troppmann, Christoph. AU - Najarian, John S.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Rejection remains a major obstacle to successful small bowel transplantation in humans, irrespective of the immunosuppressants. Previous large animal studies have not used quadruple immunosuppression (with high- dose intravenous cyclosporine A [CSA]) for induction, followed by triple immunosuppression for maintenance therapy. Nor have immunosuppressive doses been comparable to clinical solid organ transplants. We studied, in 78 nonrelated outbred pigs, the effect of quadruple immunosuppression (including horse anti-pig thymocyte globulin [ATG] and high-dose intravenous CSA) on the incidence and severity of rejection in the early, critical ...
Fluvastatin in combination with cyclosporin in renal transplant recipients: a review of clinical and safety experience -...
In addition to an improvement in survival post-transplantation, the studies of Kobashigawa et al. (77) and Wenke et al. (78) provide evidence for an immunomodulatory effect of statins. Pravastatin significantly decreased the rate of haemodynamically important rejection episodes (P, 0·01), associated with improved survival (77). This finding was reproduced in a small pilot study in renal transplant recipients, in whom pravastatin therapy also significantly reduced the incidence of acute rejection episodes (80).. The mechanism by which statins may interfere with the aggressive immunologically mediated process underlying allograft rejection remains unclear. One possible mechanism involves an indirect effect on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin. As this agent is lipophilic it is transported in the blood in LDL and HDL cores. Cyclosporin binding to lipoproteins accounts for approximately 35% of whole blood levels, thus any change in LDL-cholesterol may interfere with the removal of cyclosporin ...
"Cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate graft rejection following bone marrow " by B. E. Bierer, Stephen G. Emerson et al.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors for Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy After Heart Transplantation | JACC: Journal of the...
Outcomes of cardiac transplantation have been improved with immunosuppressive therapies that effectively reduce the risk of rejection and with prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. With the current management leading to decreased likelihood of hyperacute and acute rejections, efforts have been focused on improving long-term survival by targeting post-transplant complications associated with chronic rejection. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) has been 1 of the main causes of mortality for heart transplant recipients (1). The CAV progression has been traditionally managed with mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, such as sirolimus and everolimus. Though mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors have been successful in ameliorating or preventing CAV, they frequently cause many significant side effects, like pancytopenia, wound healing issues, renal dysfunction and hyperlipidemia (2). This has limited their widespread use. Statins have been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of ...
A CRISPR-based assay for the detection of opportunistic infections post-transplantation and for the monitoring of transplant...
In organ transplantation, infection and rejection are major causes of graft loss. They are linked by the net state of immunosuppression. To diagnose and treat these conditions earlier, and to improve long-term patient outcomes, refined strategies for the monitoring of patients after graft transplantation are needed. Here, we show that a fast and inexpensive assay based on CRISPR-Cas13 accurately detects BK polyomavirus DNA and cytomegalovirus DNA from patient-derived blood and urine samples, as well as CXCL9 messenger RNA (a marker of graft rejection) at elevated levels in urine samples from patients experiencing acute kidney transplant rejection. The assay, which we adapted for lateral-flow readout, enables-via simple visualization-the post-transplantation monitoring of common opportunistic viral infections and of graft rejection, and should facilitate point-of-care post-transplantation monitoring. A fast and inexpensive point-of-care assay based on CRISPR-Cas13 accurately detects the DNA of
Most recent papers with the keyword Depression and rejection | Read by QxMD
In the present study, the predictors and outcomes associated with the trajectories of peer rejection were examined in a longitudinal sample of Italian children (338 boys, 269 girls) ages 10 to 14 years. Follow-up assessments included 60% of the original sample at age 16-17. Low, medium, and high rejection trajectory groups were identified using growth mixture models. Consistent with previous studies, we found that (a) being less prosocial and more physically aggressive at age 10 was characteristic of those children with the high rejection trajectory; (b) being less attractive was related to higher peer rejection from age 10 to 14; and (c) boys with a high rejection trajectory showed high levels of delinquency and anxiety-depression and low levels of academic aspiration at age 16-17, whereas girls with a high rejection trajectory showed low levels of academic aspiration and social competence at age 16-17 ...
New Data Provides Insights into the Prophylaxis of Organ Rejection and Prophylaxis of Fungal Infections in Liver Transplant...
CHERTSEY, England, September 9, 2013 /PRNewswire/ --. In liver transplant patients, late renal failure is a significant cause of morbidity and is associated with premature mortality,,. Invasive fungal infections affect between 8.4%-17.7% of liver transplant patients and are associated with a high mortality rate,,,. New data presented at the 16th Congress of the European Society for Organ Transplantation (ESOT) demonstrate that in liver transplant patients, initiating ADVAGRAF™ prolonged-release capsules (tacrolimus) therapy immediately post transplant, at a dose 25% lower than the upper recommended limit, in combination with basiliximab, results in significantly better renal function and a lower incidence of acute organ rejection when compared with standard dose ADVAGRAF therapy. Furthermore, delaying the introduction of ADVAGRAF post transplant gives no additional advantage in terms of renal function.. In a separate study and the largest of its kind, MYCAMINE[TM] ...
Chemokines and Transplant Vasculopathy | Circulation Research
Based on the finding of elevated levels of CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, as well as their shared receptor, CCR5, during acute cardiac rejection, Gao et al evaluated the specific role of CCR5 during cardiac allograft rejection.54 Similar to CCR1, they found that CCR5 was expressed on graft infiltrating mononuclear cells. Using either in vivo neutralization studies of CCR5 or CCR5−/− recipient animals, they demonstrated that the allografts had a marked reduction in infiltrating/activated mononuclear cells (ie, cells expressing IL-2 receptor). More importantly, they demonstrated that both strategies of ablating CCR5 signaling could prolong allograft survival from 7 to 20 days. Even more profound results were seen when CsA was given to the CCR5−/− recipients (ie, permanent allograft survival without signs of leukocyte infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, or the development of TV). Interestingly, when individual ligands of CCR5 were depleted, there was no significant prolongation of allograft ...
Pancreas Transplant pathology: A morphologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic comparison of allogeneic grafts...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreas Transplant pathology. T2 - A morphologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic comparison of allogeneic grafts with rejection, syngeneic grafts, and chronic pancreatitis. AU - Nakhleh, R. E.. AU - Gruessner, Rainer W G. AU - Swanson, P. E.. AU - Tzardis, P. J.. AU - Brayman, K.. AU - Dunn, D. L.. AU - Sutherland, D. E R. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - In an effort to establish diagnostic criteria for rejection and recurrent disease in transplanted pancreases, a comparative study was performed based on clinical diagnosis. Clinical rejection was diagnosed in patients who had decreased urinary amylase or increased blood glucose; they were treated for rejection and improved. A clinical diagnosis of recurrent diabetes was made in syngeneic transplant recipients with islet dysfunction. In addition, two control groups were used-nontransplant, nondiabetic pancreatitis patients and pretransplant normal biopsies from patients in the study. Morphologically, tissues were ...
Heart Health News - Education Resources - Heart & Vascular Institute - Willis-Knighton Health System - Shreveport
WEDNESDAY, Oct. 23 (HealthDay News) -- Drugs meant to reduce the risk of organ rejection may increase the risk of miscarriage and birth defects when taken by female kidney transplant patients, according to a new study.. The drugs -- called mycophenolic acid products -- reduce the risk of organ rejection by suppressing the immune system. The study included 163 female transplant patients who discontinued mycophenolic acid products prior to conception and 114 who conceived while taking the anti-rejection drugs.. Those who stopped taking mycophenolic acid products before they became pregnant had more live births (79 percent vs. 43 percent), fewer miscarriages (19 percent vs. 52 percent) and a lower rate of birth defects (6 percent vs. 14 percent) than those who were taking the drugs when they conceived.. Women who stopped the anti-rejection drugs before they became pregnant did not have an increased risk of kidney problems, according to the study, which is scheduled for presentation in early ...
Molecular Diagnosis of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Human Kidney Transplants - Sellarés - 2013 - American Journal of...
Sellarés, J., Reeve, J., Loupy, A., Mengel, M., Sis, B., Skene, A., de Freitas, D. G., Kreepala, C., Hidalgo, L. G., Famulski, K. S. and Halloran, P. F. (2013), Molecular Diagnosis of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Human Kidney Transplants. American Journal of Transplantation, 13: 971-983. doi: 10.1111/ajt.12150 ...
Biblio | Centre for Heart Lung Innovation
G. V. Cohen Freue, Sasaki, M., Meredith, A., Günther, O. P., Bergman, A., Takhar, M., Mui, A., Balshaw, R. F., Ng, R. T., Opushneva, N., Hollander, Z., Li, G., Borchers, C. H., Wilson-McManus, J., McManus, B. M., Keown, P. A., and W McMaster, R., "Proteomic signatures in plasma during early acute renal allograft rejection.", Mol Cell Proteomics, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 1954-67, 2010. ...
Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction After Heart Transplantation Predicts Allograft Vasculopathy and Cardiac Death | Circulation
Although most of the evidence indicates that CAV is a form of chronic allograft rejection, it is clear that the immunologic mechanisms that lead to intimal proliferation in transplant recipients operate in a milieu of nonimmunologic risk factors, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, viral infections, and donor predisposition.3 In one longitudinal study,15 independent predictors of severe allograft vasculopathy included first-year mean biopsy score, donor age, and hyperlipidemia.. The vascular endothelium, situated at the interface between the circulating immune cells and the vessel wall, is an early target of the immune system after transplantation. Chronic allograft endothelial damage leads to intimal proliferation, macrophage migration, and eventual smooth muscle hyperplasia.16 It is also well recognized that hyperlipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and other risk factors can also cause endothelial dysfunction.17 Regardless of the specific initiator of endothelial injury, the cascade of ...
Human leukocyte antigen
In graft rejection. Any cell displaying some other HLA type is "non-self" and is seen as an invader by the body's immune ... They are the major cause of organ transplant rejections. They may protect against or fail to protect (if down-regulated by an ... This is particularly important in the case of transplanted tissue, because it could lead to transplant rejection. Because of ... Donor-specific HLA antibodies have been found to be associated with graft failure in kidney, heart, lung, and liver ...
The model which describes this event is called "The missing self". The rejection of parental (P) BM graft by F1 generation is ... This event leads to parental graft rejection. Cudkowicz, G; Stimpfling, JH. "DEFICIENT GROWTH OF C57BL MARROW CELLS ... In a case of hybrid resistance, the parental bone marrow (BM) graft is rejected by F1 generation in murine model. This ... rejection is caused by natural killer (NK) cells of the recipient. ...
Khodadoust AA, Silverstein AM (February 1976). "Induction of corneal graft rejection by passive cell transfer". Investigative ... This medical condition is similar to organ rejection after an organ transplant, except that it involves immunological rejection ... Corneal Graft Rejection on eMedicine "Atlas of Ophthalmology". Atlasophthalmology.com. Retrieved 2011-01-02. http://www. ... A Khodadoust Line or chronic focal transplant reaction is a medical sign that indicates a complication of corneal graft surgery ...
Mononuclear cell infiltration
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... Graft-versus-tumor effect. Main article: Graft-versus-tumor effect. Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus ... Graft-versus-host disease. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ... To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic HSCT, the donor ...
S. domuncula has been used for study of graft rejection. Researchers have discovered that apoptotic factors are induced in the ... S. domuncula was the first demonstrated immune response of invertebrate species (1). These sponges also have similar graft- ... Allograft rejection in the mixed cell reaction system of the demospongeSuberites domunculais controlled by differential ...
History and naming of human leukocyte antigens
In organ transplant the goal was to explain graft rejection for recipients, and of course, to prevent future rejection. From ... This is called allograft [allo = different, graft(medical) = transplant] rejection. To explain rejection in a nutshell, certain ... The pilot suffered severe burns requiring skin grafts. However, at the time skin grafts were a risky business, often being ... Within days the skin grafts from the brother were completely destroyed. Successive skin grafts from the brother were destroyed ...
Male chest reconstruction
With nipple grafts comes the possibility of rejection. In such cases, the nipple is often tattooed back on cosmetically or ... Nipple grafts are generally associated with double incision style chest reconstruction, but may be used in any reconstruction ... A transverse inframammary incision with free nipple areolar grafts may be one approach. If there is too much blousing of the ... Some sensation will usually return to the grafted nipples over time. However, the procedure severs the nerves that go into the ...
... critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection". Transplantation. 85 (9): 1339-47. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e31816dd64a ... "Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients" ... While during infection T cell exhaustion can develop following persistent antigen exposure after graft transplant similar ... and are also implicated in transplant rejection. These cells are also known as CD8+ T cells since they express the CD8 ...
Oral mucosa tissue engineering
The use of autologous grafts prevents transplantation rejection reactions. Grafts used for oral reconstruction are preferably ... However, skin grafts differ from oral mucosa in: consistency, color and keratinization pattern. The transplanted skin graft ... there is a risk of the graft not being able to lose its original donor tissue characteristics. For example, skin grafts are ... Autologous grafts are used to transfer tissue from one site to another on the same body. ...
"Immunology of Transplant Rejection: Overview, History, Types of Grafts". 2017-03-09. Charles A Janeway, Jr; Travers, Paul; ... "Transplant rejection: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-14. " ... Additionally this is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto- ... immunosuppressants are given as an attempt to prevent this rejection; the side-effect is that the body becomes more vulnerable ...
Causes of cancer
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus leukemia" effect is the beneficial aspect of the Graft-versus-Host phenomenon ... To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic HSCT, the donor ... Also, the incidence of patients experiencing rejection (and graft-versus-host disease is impossible) is very rare due to the ...
Raghavan U, Jones NS, Romo T (2004). "Immediate autogenous cartilage grafts in rhinoplasty after alloplastic implant rejection ... Tidwell JK, Blijdorp PA, Stoelinga PJ, Brouns JB, Hinderks F (August 1992). "Composite grafting of the maxillary sinus for ... and platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material: a six-year experience". Implant Dentistry. 20 (1): 2-12. doi:10.1097/ID. ...
The common symptom of graft dysfunction, whether due to infection, rejection, or some other condition, is diarrhea. Intestinal ... In a multivisceral graft, the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and/or colon may be included in the graft. Multivisceral grafts are ... Immunosuppression is the primary determinant of outcome in small bowel transplantation; the risk for graft rejection is ... In the most basic and common graft, an isolated intestinal graft, only sections of the jejunum and ileum are transplanted. ...
... there are three types of graft rejection that may occur. They include hyperacute rejection, acute rejection and chronic ... Chronic rejection is the presence of any sign and symptom of rejection after 1 year. The cause of chronic rejection is still ... Liver rejection may happen anytime after the transplant. Lab findings of a liver rejection include abnormal AST, ALT, GGT and ... Unlike hyperacute rejection, which is B cell mediated, acute rejection is mediated by T cells. It involves direct cytotoxicity ...
Santosh G. Honavar
Thomas D. Schiano
Tan, HH; Fiel, MI; Rio Martin, J; Schiano, TD (Jun 2009). "Graft rejection occurring in post-liver transplant patients ... is a variant of rejection and may lead to a negative outcome in patients with hepatitis C virus". Liver Transpl. 14 (6): 861-71 ... "Effect of ischemia-reperfusion on the incidence of acute cellular rejection and timing of histologic hepatitis C virus ...
February 2003). "Individualized T cell monitored administration of ATG versus OKT3 in steroid-resistant kidney graft rejection ... Muromonab-CD3 is approved for the therapy of acute, glucocorticoid-resistant rejection of allogeneic renal, heart and liver ... Unlike the monoclonal antibodies basiliximab and daclizumab, it is not approved for prophylaxis of transplant rejection, ... is an immunosuppressant drug given to reduce acute rejection in patients with organ transplants. It is a monoclonal antibody ...
A. Edward Maumenee
Experiments in the rat have shown that Sertoli cells can help protect from graft rejection. These cells were isolated from the ... resulting in increased graft survival. Molecules released by the Sertoli cells are predicted to protect the graft. 2. It is ... Both the suppression of immune responses and the increased survival of grafts in the testis have led to its recognition as an ... Evidence includes the tolerance of testicular grafts in mice and rats, as well as the increased survival of transplants of ...
High-resolution computed tomography
... graft versus host reaction, GVHR); rejection of H2-incompatible grafts (skin, heart, bone marrow, etc.) by the recipients; and ... were also responsible for the rejection of incompatible grafts. Klein, with his coworker Vera Hauptfeld and his wife Dagmar ... Skin grafting and other methods indicated inbreeding within the demes, but sharing of certain alleles between the demes ...
The Compatibility Gene
It describes the history of immunology with the discovery of the principle of graft rejection by Peter Medawar, and the way the ... Frankenstein's Holy Trinity Davis tells the story of Peter Medawar's life and discoveries in graft rejection. 2. Self / Non- ... playing a part in the success of skin grafts, pregnancy, and more. The biologist Rebecca Nesbit, reviewing The Compatibility ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... CMV Primary Infection Is Associated With Donor-Specific T Cell Hyporesponsiveness and Fewer Late Acute Rejections After Liver ...
Knee cartilage replacement therapy
Julie Campbell (vascular biologist)
Her most recent work involves the development of autologous vascular grafts from cells of bone marrow, known as the myeloid, ... to reduce the risk of rejection. In 1992, Campbell founded the Australian Vascular Biology Society, which she cites as the ... She has used the same technology to grow bladder and uterine graft with long-term viability. These discoveries have been ... have potential use as access fistulae for haemodialysis patients and as coronary artery bypass grafts. ...
Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity
Several laboratory methods exist for determining the efficacy of antibodies or effector cells in eliciting ADCC. Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. After washing, effector cells expressing Fc receptor CD16 are co-incubated with the antibody-labelled target cells. Effector cells are typically PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cell), of which a small percentage are NK cells (Natural Killer cell); less often they are purified NK cells themselves. Over the course of a few hours a complex forms between the antibody, target cell, and effector cell which leads to lysis of the cell membrane of the target. If the target cell was pre-loaded with a label of some sort, that label is released in proportion to the amount of cell lysis. Cytotoxicity can be quantified by measuring the amount of label in solution compared to the amount of label that remains within healthy, intact cells. The classical method of detecting ...
The value of allergen labeling other than for intentional ingredients is controversial. This concerns labeling for ingredients present unintentionally as a consequence of cross-contact or cross-contamination at any point along the food chain (during raw material transportation, storage or handling, due to shared equipment for processing and packaging, etc.). Experts in this field propose that if allergen labeling is to be useful to consumers, and healthcare professionals who advise and treat those consumers, ideally there should be agreement on which foods require labeling, threshold quantities below which labeling may be of no purpose, and validation of allergen detection methods to test and potentially recall foods that were deliberately or inadvertently contaminated. Labeling regulations have been modified to provide for mandatory labeling of ingredients plus voluntary labeling, termed precautionary allergen labeling (PAL), also known as "may contain" statements, for ...
Type IV hypersensitivity
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
Choice of graft. Type. Typically, age and lifestyle help determine the type of graft used for ACL reconstruction.[ ... Because the tissue used in an autograft is the patient's own, the risk of rejection is minimal. ... Types of grafts. Grafts are inserted through a tunnel that is drilled through the shin bone (tibia) and thigh bone (femur ... With a hamstring graft, this number doubles, decreasing the risk of re-injury. The stiffness of a hamstring graft-quadruple ...
An interesting inverse relationship exists between infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. In areas where multiple infectious diseases are endemic, autoimmune diseases are quite rarely seen. The reverse, to some extent, seems to hold true. The hygiene hypothesis attributes these correlations to the immune manipulating strategies of pathogens. While such an observation has been variously termed as spurious and ineffective, according to some studies, parasite infection is associated with reduced activity of autoimmune disease. The putative mechanism is that the parasite attenuates the host immune response in order to protect itself. This may provide a serendipitous benefit to a host that also suffers from autoimmune disease. The details of parasite immune modulation are not yet known, but may include secretion of anti-inflammatory agents or interference with the host immune signaling. A paradoxical observation has been the strong association of certain microbial organisms with ...
ಅಲರ್ಜಿ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Martin Luther and antisemitism
Gentiles (believers in Christ other than Jews) have been grafted into the vine. In Christ there is neither Jew nor Gentile but ... The supreme sin for him was the persistent rejection of God's revelation of himself in Christ. The centuries of Jewish ... Luther's reliance on the Bible as the sole source of Christian authority fed his later fury toward Jews over their rejection of ...
Health care providers. Given the ubiquitous use of latex products in health care settings, management of latex allergy presents significant health organizational problems. Those healthcare workers-such as physicians, nurses, aides, dentists, dental hygienists, operating room employees, occupational therapists, laboratory technicians, and hospital housekeeping personnel-who frequently use latex gloves and other latex-containing medical supplies are at risk for developing latex allergy. Between about 4% to 17% of healthcare workers have a reaction, which usually presents as Irritant Contact Dermatitis. This contact dermatitis can develop further through allergic sensitivity to a status of full anaphylactic shock. Apart from the uncomfortable and in some cases life-threatening health implications, this will effectively hinder the person from working with any amount of latex and could impede their chance of maintaining their vocation. In the surgical setting, the risk of a potentially ...
Evolution - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Limfocyty T regulatorowe, wolna encyklopedia
Tumor rejection by in vivo administration of anti-CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor alpha) monoclonal antibody. „Cancer Res". 59 (13 ... CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T Cells: new therapeutics for graft-versus-host disease. „J Exp Med". 196 (3), s. 401-406, ... Prevention of acute and chronic allograft rejection with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T lymphocytes. „Nat Med". 14 (1), s. 88-92 ... Ex vivo selection of recipient-type alloantigen-specific CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T cells for the control of graft-versus ...
Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs- ... This allows for allogeneic treatments to be performed without a high rejection risk. ... leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment. ... "New Insight for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease". Mediators Inflamm. 2014: 701013. doi ...
The graft is given a break from humoral rejection when the complement cascade is interrupted, circulating antibodies are ... Cellular rejection. Rejection of the xenograft in hyperacute and acute vascular rejection is due to the response of the ... these include hyperacute rejection, acute vascular rejection, cellular rejection, and chronic rejection. ... Acute vascular rejection. Also known as delayed xenoactive rejection, this type of rejection occurs in discordant ...
This holds the risk that in case of acute rejection in which the face must be removed, she would not have enough tissue for ... A triangle of face tissue from a brain-dead woman's nose and mouth was grafted onto the patient. On 13 December 2007, the first ... The recipient of a face transplant will take life-long medications to suppress the immune system and fight off rejection. ... The surgeons then connected facial graft vessels to the patient's blood vessels in order to restore blood circulation in the ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
... essential that the HLA complexes of both the donor and recipient be as closely matched as possible to prevent graft rejection. ... Rejection and the side effects of preventing rejection (especially infection and nephropathy) were, are, and may always be the ... Among his advances was the tubed pedicle graft, which maintained a flesh connection from the donor site until the graft ... causing transplant rejection. The risk of transplant rejection can be estimated by measuring the Panel reactive antibody level ...
Transplanting only ABO-compatible grafts (matching blood groups between donor and recipient) helps prevent rejection mediated ... Acute rejection. Developing with formation of cellular immunity, acute rejection occurs to some degree in all transplants ... Immunologic mechanisms of rejection. Rejection is an adaptive immune response via cellular immunity (mediated by killer T ... Rejection detection. Diagnosis of acute rejection relies on clinical data-patient signs and symptoms but also calls on ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
The modern period, beginning in 1920, saw major developments in research into the cause and treatment of discoid and systemic lupus. Research conducted in the 1920s and 1930s led to the first detailed pathologic descriptions of lupus and demonstrated how the disease affected the kidney, heart, and lung tissue. A major breakthrough was made in 1948 with the discovery of the LE cell (the lupus erythematosus cell-a misnomer, as it occurs with other diseases as well). Discovered by a team of researchers at the Mayo Clinic, they discovered that the white blood cells contained the nucleus of another cell that was pushing against the white's cell proper nucleus. Noting that the invading nucleus was coated with antibody that allowed it to be ingested by a phagocytic or scavenger cell, they named the antibody that causes one cell to ingest another the LE factor and the two nuclei cell result in the LE cell. The LE cell, it was determined, was a part of an anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) ...
... and the term homovital graft might be used in reference to grafts whose cells must continue to grow and reproduce for the graft ... An immune response against an allograft or xenograft is termed rejection. An allogenic bone marrow transplant can result in an ... These grafts persist however as homostatic grafts and are completely replaced by host tissues in time.) "Composite Tissue ... Unlike allografts, such grafts do not corporate into the body. As with many operations, allotransplantation also has some side ...
Xenotransplantation - graft rejection detection?? - Biology-Online
A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow...
A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow ... A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow ... A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow ... A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow ...
acute graft rejection | Transplant Now
acute rejection Adherence Antibody-mediated rejection biopsy bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome cancer complement ... Timing of Basiliximab Induction and Development of Acute Rejection in Lung Transplant Patients. Warning: Invalid argument ... cytomegalovirus deceased donation donor-specific antibodies DSA ethics everolimus graft failure heart transplant hepatitis C ... circulatory support mortality organ donation outcome outcomes pediatric Quality of life randomized controlled trial Rejection ...
Hyperacute Rejection of a Living Unrelated Kidney Graft
... Dietlind Tittelbach-Helmrich,1,2 Dirk Bausch,1,2 Oliver Drognitz,1 ... acute rejection episodes and long-term graft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients," Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 87 ... is an additional risk factor for early renal graft loss associated with acute vascular rejection," Transplantation, vol. 69, no ... S. C. Jordan, H. K. Yap, R. S. Sakai, P. Alfonso, and M. Fitchman, "Hyperacute allograft rejection mediated by anti-vascular ...
Bone Marrow Graft Rejection as a Function of TNK Cells | SpringerLink
A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow ... Rejection of parental grafts by resistant F I hybrid mice. J Exp Med 134: 1513-1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Cudkowicz G (1975b): Rejection of bone marrow allo-grafts by irradiated athymic nude mice. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 16: 170-177 ... I. Graft rejection by irradiated responder mice. J Exp Med 134: 83-102CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
NCT00254709 | Kidney Failure, Graft Rejection, Aged Clinical Trial | Pfizer
Fatal Pneumococcus Sepsis after Treatment of Late Antibody-Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection
... is a major cause of late renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Risks and benefits of treatment of late ABMR have not been ... Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a major cause of late renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Risks and benefits of ... Antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection (ABMR) is a major cause of late allograft dysfunction and graft loss [1-3]. The ... Fatal Pneumococcus Sepsis after Treatment of Late Antibody-Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection. ...
NCT00266123 | Graft Rejection, Kidney Failure, Kidney Transplant Clinical Trial | Pfizer
New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients | EurekAlert! Science News
Treating donor corneas with a cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients Treating donor tissue with a special ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ... Eight weeks post-transplantation, they noted a significant increase in graft survival (68.7 percent of treated grafts had ...
Simple technique may prevent corneal graft rejection without medication - American Academy of Ophthalmology
Treating corneal grafts with a cocktail of cytokines prior to implantation may free transplant patients from the burden of ... investigated outcomes of corneal transplants in mouse eyes with a high-risk for graft rejection (inflamed and vascularized ... during which the authors observed a significant increase in graft survival: 67% of cytokine-treated grafts survived compared ... Treating corneal grafts with a cocktail of cytokines prior to implantation may free transplant patients from the burden of ...
Combined intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and oral cyclosporine A in the treatment of corneal graft rejection: 5-year...
Treatment was successful in reversing the graft rejection in 32/34 (94%) eyes. Irreversible graft failure occurred in one eye ... During a mean follow-up period of 19.2 ± 16.7 months (range 1-55 months), further episodes of graft rejection were seen in 1/32 ... Conclusion Our 5-year experience with the use of oral CSA in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection has shown this ... Treatment of corneal graft rejection included 1% prednisolone eye drops, intravenous infusion of 500 mg methyl prednisolone, ...
Cross-primed CD8(+) T cells mediate graft rejection via a distinct effector pathway
... Nat Immunol. 2002 Sep;3(9):844-51. doi: ... Such rejection is interferon-gamma-dependent and only occurs if the recipient endothelium expresses H-2(b). The findings ... We show here, however, that anti-H-Y monospecific, H-2(b-restricted MataHari CD8(+) T cells reject H-2(k) male skin grafts, ...
JCI - Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection
Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection. ... Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection. ... did not accelerate the rate of islet graft attrition, suggesting resistance to humoral rejection. Murine DSAs bound to ... Humoral rejection is the most common cause of solid organ transplant failure. Here, we evaluated a cohort of 49 patients who ...
Rejection of Skin Grafts from Mice chronically infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus by non-infected Syngeneic...
... tissues of mice chronically infected with LCM virus undergo an antigenic change which can be detected by transplant rejection. ... MOUSE PARVOVIRUS INFECTION POTENTIATES ALLOGENEIC SKIN GRAFT REJECTION AND INDUCES SYNGENEIC GRAFT REJECTION1 *Maureen D. ... Rejection of Skin Grafts from Mice chronically infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus by non-infected Syngeneic ... HOLTERMANN, O., MAJDE, J. Rejection of Skin Grafts from Mice chronically infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus by ...
Non-interventional-study With Tacrolimus Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Renal Graft Rejection - Tabular View -...
Non-interventional-study With Tacrolimus Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Renal Graft Rejection. This study has been ... A Single-site, Prospective Non-interventional-study With Adport Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Graft Rejection in Patients ... Efficacy of Adport Sandoz© in prevention of renal graft rejection by observing serum creatinine levels [ Time Frame: ... Efficacy of Tacrolimus Sandoz© in prevention of renal graft rejection by observing serum creatinine levels [ Time Frame: ...
Obesity in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and the risks of acute rejection, graft loss and death | SpringerLink
Acute rejection Body mass index Graft survival Kidney transplantation Obesity Pediatrics Electronic supplementary material. The ... Obesity in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and the risks of acute rejection, graft loss and death. ... at the time of transplantation and the subsequent development of acute rejection (within the first 6 months), graft loss and ... recipients diagnosed with obesity have a substantially increased risk of allograft failure but not acute rejection of the graft ...
Combination sirolimus/mycophenolate therapy may help prevent graft rejection in high-risk patients - American Academy of...
This prospective study included six patients at high risk for graft rejection who were treated with oral mycophenolate mofetil ... This prospective study included six patients at high risk for graft rejection who were treated with oral mycophenolate mofetil ... Combination sirolimus/mycophenolate therapy may help prevent graft rejection in high-risk patients ... Endothelial rejection episodes occurred in three patients at two, four, and 10 months after transplantation. Rejection was ...
Maraviroc & Transplant Rejection: Blockade of Lymphocyte Chemotaxis in Visceral Graft-versus-Host Disease
... ... Blockade of Lymphocyte Chemotaxis in Visceral Graft-versus-Host Disease - pdf attached. Ran Reshef, M.D., Selina M. Luger, M.D ... "Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of death and complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell ... Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of death and complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell ...
Xenogeneic skin graft rejection is especially dependent on CD4+ T cells. - PubMed - NCBI
Xenogeneic skin graft rejection is especially dependent on CD4+ T cells.. Pierson RN 3rd1, Winn HJ, Russell PS, Auchincloss H ... Furthermore, the addition of cyclosporine was synergistic with the anti-CD4 antibody in prolonging graft survival. These ... or both anti-T cell antibodies together in an effort to prolong xenogeneic compared with allogeneic skin graft survival. Mice ...
Corneal neovascularization as a risk factor for graft failure and rejection after keratoplasty: an evidence-based meta-analysis...
... for graft rejection. There was evidence of incremental increase of risk for graft failure and rejection as more corneal ... is thought to be associated with an increased rate of corneal graft failure and potentially also graft rejection. ... An increase in the risk of graft failure and rejection in the presence of pathologic CNV was seen in studies with a pooled risk ... Graft failure and rejection risk increase with an increasing number of corneal quadrants affected by neovascularization before ...
Graft rejection-like reactions in the early postoperative period after | OPTH
Keywords: deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, keratoconus, stromal rejection, graft rejection-like reactions, early ... However, some patients with KC experience graft rejection-like inflammatory reactions within 2 months (usually in the first ... Although a clear corneal graft in the pupillary area was obtained and best-corrected visual acuity was good after the ... We collected data on the characteristics and incidence of severe inflammatory graft reactions in the early postoperative phase ...
Cytomegalovirus and chronic rejection of liver grafts - Open Research Online
Cytomegalovirus and chronic rejection of liver grafts.. PhD thesis The Open University. ... This thesis tested the hypothesis that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may initiate or enhance chronic rejection of liver grafts. A ... Active CMV infection of the graft, especially epithelial cells, was associated with chronic rejection.. Finally, human ... Matching and mismatching of HLA alleles between donor and recipient was not shown to be a risk factor for chronic rejection. ...
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Chronic Antibody Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection (ABMR) - Tabular...
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Chronic Antibody Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection (ABMR). The safety ... Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Chronic Antibody Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection (ABMR) ... Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Chronic Antibody Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection (ABMR) ... Graft survival rate [ Time Frame: 12 months ]. Graft survival rate at 12 months post MSC transplantation ...
A Theranostic Small Interfering RNA Nanoprobe Protects Pancreatic Islet Grafts From Adoptively Transferred Immune Rejection |...
To mimic immune rejection of the xenografts, we used an adoptive transfer model in which islet grafts were severely challenged ... This study demonstrated that our approach could protect pancreatic islet grafts from immune rejection and could potentially be ... Downregulation of factors that mediate immune rejection using RNA interference holds promise for improving islet graft ... A Theranostic Small Interfering RNA Nanoprobe Protects Pancreatic Islet Grafts From Adoptively Transferred Immune Rejection. ...
Respiratory viruses are not associated with acute graft rejection during the acute phase of infection | Thorax
This study provides evidence that respiratory viruses per se do not promote acute graft rejection, at least during the acute ... Upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections and acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis ... Respiratory viruses are not associated with acute graft rejection during the acute phase of infection ... Respiratory viruses are not associated with acute graft rejection during the acute phase of infection ...
Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion as Prevention for Graft Rejection and Graft-versus-host Disease
Non-infectious complications Post-BM/PSC Transplant: Graft rejection/graft failure - ONA
Graft rejection is often difficult to distinguish from graft failure and is presumed to be immunologic rejection by the host of ... Graft rejection is a major cause of graft failure and is due to an immune response of residual post immune cells against donor ... Determine if graft rejection and consider DLI.. Determine if graft failure/loss and consider additional donor stem cells with ... Graft failure/rejection occurs in ,1% of recipients of matched sibling bone marrow or stem cell grafts treated with a ...
New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients
... describe a novel strategy to promote the tolerance of corneal transplants in patients at high risk for rejection by targeting ... that work together to promote tolerance of the graft by the transplant recipients immune system. ... Treating donor corneas with a cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients. by Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ...
Adipose-derived Stromal Cells attenuate Acute Rejection and Graft Vasculopathy in Rodent Vascularized Composite...
Both rejection and graft vasculopathy (GV) seriously endanger long-term outcomes, eventually leading to graft failure. GV ... Adipose-derived Stromal Cells attenuate Acute Rejection and Graft Vasculopathy in Rodent Vascularized Composite ... Systemic (SASC) versus local intragraft (LASC) ASC administration was evaluated for therapy of acute rejection and GV in fully ... GV was observed during acute rejection in small arterioles, but not in femoral vessels, and was significantly reduced after ...
Corneal graft rejection was prevented by conbercept eye drop in vascularized cornea | IOVS | ARVO Journals
... which is the main incentive to induce the graft rejection after corneal transplantation. To avoid the graft rejection after ... After surgery, conbercept eye drop was applied to prevent the immune graft rejection and FK-506 eye drop was used as the ... Conclusions: Application of conbercept eye drop may be a valuable treatment to prevent corneal graft rejection through the ... Hongshan Liu, Xingwu Zhong; Corneal graft rejection was prevented by conbercept eye drop in vascularized cornea. Invest. ...
Frontiers | Ex Vivo Expanded Human Non-Cytotoxic CD8+CD45RClow/− Tregs Efficiently Delay Skin Graft Rejection and GVHD in...
... high-dose IL-2 and IL-15 and that such expanded Tregs efficiently delay GVHD and human skin transplantation rejection in immune ... high dose IL-2 and IL-15 and that such expanded Tregs efficiently delay GVHD and human skin transplantation rejection in immune ... Top: graft survival was scored on macroscopic signs of graft rejection from 0 to 3 (rejection). Two-way row-matched (RM) ANOVA ... inhibit GVHD and skin graft rejection indefinitely for some of the recipients, suggesting even inhibition of chronic graft ...
RFA-FD-14-020: Prospective Studies on the Impact of Generic Immunosuppressants on Acute Rejection and Long Term Graft survivals...
Prospective Studies on the Impact of Generic Immunosuppressants on Acute Rejection and Long Term Graft survivals (U01) RFA-FD- ... Patient and graft survival, severity of biopsy-proven acute rejection and other efficacy points will be monitored. Methods such ... Prospective Studies on the Impact of Generic Immunosuppressants on Acute Rejection and Long Term Graft survivals (U01) ... short term acute rejection and long term patient graft survival. The outcome of this study will help respond to public concerns ...
TransplantationAllograftRecipientsImmunosuppressiveTransplantsBiopsiesImmunosuppressionPatientsIncidenceHistologicalDiseaseAntibodiesDonorTransplant rejectionLungEarly graft failureAntibodySurvivalTransplantationSkin graftAllograft rejectionPenetrating keratoplastyMiceGVHDDelayed graft functionAllograftsPrevent corneal graft rejectionPancreatic isletClinicalAntigensBone marrowKidneyRecipientIsletChronicCorneaLymphocytesRenalSyngeneicMethodsHumoralDiseaseVascularizationInfectionCellsSeverity of acute rejectionVascularClear corneal graftEndothelial rejection linesRisk factor for acute rejection
- To determine whether polymorphisms of the genes encoding donor or recipient interleukin 1α (IL-1α), tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), or IL-4 have any impact on the incidence of acute rejection after renal transplantation. (bmj.com)
- Transplantation of renal grafts is an established treatment for renal failure in a variety of medical conditions. (bmj.com)
- Despite these figures transplantation is still somewhat limited, mainly because of rejection which can destroy the tissue soon after transplantation or over a more prolonged time frame. (pharmiweb.com)
- Host vs graft reaction is the principal mechani sm of acute rejection and causes graft destruction days to months after transplantation. (pharmiweb.com)
- Immunosuppressants are used to control rejection and are primarily responsible for the success of transplantation. (pharmiweb.com)
- Chronic rejection is defined as a gradual deterioration in graft function beginning at least 3 months after transplantation 3 . (radiopaedia.org)
- Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is rapidly produced by damaged nephron epithelia and is one of the most promising new markers of renal injury, delayed graft function and acute allograft rejection (AR);however, the functional importance of Lcn2 in renal transplantation is largely unknown. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Speaking about the study, senior author Daniel Kreisel said, " Antibody-mediated rejection is a vexing problem that is increasingly being acknowledged as an important cause of lung failure after transplantation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The use of antibody to complement protein C5 for salvage treatment of severe antibody-mediated rejection ," American Journal of Transplantation, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- However, the focus of this article is to review the airway pathology of lung transplantation, including surgical and infectious complications and acute and chronic rejection , with special emphasis on those areas that directly affect clinical decision-making and management. (freethesaurus.com)
- However, chronic rejection has emerged as the leading obstacle to better long-term survival and the shortage of suitable donor organs remains the primary limitation to the more widespread use of lung transplantation. (freethesaurus.com)
- It is clear that although HLA matching improves graft outcome, acute and chronic rejection of the allograft is still a problem with both cadaveric and living donors. (bmj.com)
- Because of the profound influence of cytokines on such processes as wound healing, inflammation, and antibody production, there has been an explosion of interest recently in all aspects of cytokines related to solid organ allograft rejection, in the hope that it may provide a better understanding of the rejection process. (bmj.com)
- After resolution of acute rejection, the allograft commonly survives for prolonged periods, even though immunosuppressive drug dosages are reduced to very low levels. (pharmiweb.com)
- Both Legendre et al 4 and Nankivell et al 5 have demonstrated that the prevalence of subclinical rejection observed in a 3-month protocol biopsy in cyclosporine-treated renal allograft recipients was 29% and 23% respectively, similar to our centre. (uninet.edu)
- Results from animal models have suggested that some allograft infiltrates may be immunoregulatory and therefore beneficial to the long-term survival of the graft. (uninet.edu)
- 11,12 In our studies only the macrophage activation marker allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) (but not CD25, CD69 or perforin) discriminated between subclinical and clinical rejection. (uninet.edu)
- Six patients lost their grafts because of allograft dysfunction, in three of whom acute antibody-mediated rejection (N = 2) and thrombosis of allograft vein were confirmed histologically. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Jurewicz reported a prevalence of 18% of subclinical rejection at 3 months in cadaveric renal transplant recipients on tacrolimus, azathioprine and prednisone. (uninet.edu)
- 7 In this latter study, however, over 60% of patients were recipients of living-related grafts, and greater than 50% of patients had received induction therapy with anti-lymphocyte agents. (uninet.edu)
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral pathogen in renal transplant recipients resulting in graft rejection. (elsevier.com)
- 50%-75% of recipients experience acute cellular rejection, most commonly in the first 90 days, while chronic rejection (CR) occurs in 15% of patients (18). (freethesaurus.com)
- 1 We subsequently reported that Banff criteria for Type I rejection were present in approximately 30% of protocol biopsies performed in the first 3 months post-transplant. (uninet.edu)
- 7 In very early (mean time 8 days post-transplant) protocol biopsies in patients receiving tacrolimus and steroids, two thirds of whom also received mycophenolate mofetil, Shapiro et al showed that 25% of patients showed Banff Type I or Type II rejection, despite stable or improving renal function. (uninet.edu)
- Using immunohistochemistry techniques, our group found an increasing frequency of expression of pro-inflammatory phenotypic and activation markers from normal, through subclinical, to clinical rejection biopsies for cells of both the lymphocyte and monocyte lineage. (uninet.edu)
- were present in biopsies from patients with subclinical rejection and largely absent in normal protocol biopsies. (uninet.edu)
- Transcripts for perforin, Fas ligand, and granzyme B were also present in patients with subclinical rejection, although in reduced amounts when compared to biopsies from patients with clinical rejection episodes. (uninet.edu)
- There were no differences in IL-10 and IL-15 transcripts in clinical and subclinical rejection biopsies. (uninet.edu)
- However, an increase in the baseline immunosuppression to include cyclosporine microemulsion, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone, while decreasing the incidence of early clinical rejections, failed to lower the prevalence of subclinical rejection. (uninet.edu)
- Additional, albeit indirect, data in favor of a pathogenic role for subclinical rejection comes from the early observation of Isoniemi et al, who reported that in patients who had not experienced clinical acute rejection episodes, the development of chronic histological changes occurred in inverse relation to the amount of immunosuppression they had received. (uninet.edu)
- 6 More recently, Gloor et al reported a prevalence of subclinical rejection of only 2.6% at 3 months in patients on tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. (uninet.edu)
- More recently our group has reported that subclinical rejection is more prevalent in patients presensitized to Class I and Class II HLA antigens as detected by flow-cytometry crossmatching. (uninet.edu)
- Twelve of the 32 patients were CMV IgM positive and out of 12 patients, 9 had rejection and 4 experienced CMV disease. (elsevier.com)
- Statistical analysis of the data obtained revealed no association between the cytokine gene polymorphisms tested and the incidence of post-transplant acute rejection. (bmj.com)
- However, at present there are no laboratory assays that are capable of predicting the incidence of acute rejection. (bmj.com)
- Histological diagnosis is made demostration of graft arteries and arteriolar proliferation, interstitial cellular infiltration and fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and glomerular changes. (radiopaedia.org)
- Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) was defined when there was (1) histological evidence of tissue injury, (2) C4d positivity, and (3) the detection of circulating anti-HLA donor-specific antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Sero-molecular evaluation of human cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant rejection. (elsevier.com)
- The prevalence of CMV disease and renal graft rejection is not well studied in India. (elsevier.com)
- CMV IgM specific mu capture ELISA helped in diagnosis of CMV disease, though it is less sensitive in detection of rejection. (elsevier.com)
- PCR itself was proved not sensitive enough in detecting either CMV disease or rejection. (elsevier.com)
Early graft failure1
- Therefore, treatment strategies are not standardized, and decisions regarding type and intensity of treatment have to be made on an individual basis, trying to weigh the chances of treatment success with prolongation of graft survival against the risks of increased immunosuppression. (hindawi.com)
- BOSTON) - Treating donor corneas with a cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, outcomes in high-risk corneal transplant patients, according to a new study led by researchers at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. (eurekalert.org)
- With the goal of improving survival of cornea grafts for patients in the high-risk category, the authors of the Scientific Reports study developed a technique in preclinical models to make the donor tissue more likely to be accepted by the host, rather than tweaking the immune system of the host to accept the donated tissue. (eurekalert.org)
- Eight weeks post-transplantation, they noted a significant increase in graft survival (68.7 percent of treated grafts had survived, while none of the control grafts had survived). (eurekalert.org)
- however, passive transfer of the same DSAs did not affect islet graft survival in murine models. (jci.org)
- C ) Islet graft survival curves for recipients on immunosuppression with (solid line) or without DSA (dashed line) are compared. (jci.org)
- B6 mice were treated in vivo with anti-CD4, anti-CD8, or both anti-T cell antibodies together in an effort to prolong xenogeneic compared with allogeneic skin graft survival. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, the addition of cyclosporine was synergistic with the anti-CD4 antibody in prolonging graft survival. (nih.gov)
- With the advancement in transplantation protocols, acute survival of renal transplants has improved, but long-term survival is still unsatisfactory, as most of the renal transplants develop chronic graft rejection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The long-term survival and function of islet grafts is compromised by immune rejection-related factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Maryam Tahvildari et al, Treatment of donor corneal tissue with immunomodulatory cytokines: a novel strategy to promote graft survival in high-risk corneal transplantation, Scientific Reports (2017). (medicalxpress.com)
- Immunosuppressive regimens have significantly improved long-term graft survival in the last decades but they still cannot prevent the allograft from chronic graft dysfunction and they remain a significant obstacle for the welfare of transplanted patients, thus, in the last years, improvement of allograft survival has stagnated ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The objective of this study is to conduct prospective clinical studies to investigate the impact of generic immunosuppressants on short term acute rejection and long term patient graft survival. (nih.gov)
- However, the impact of introduction of generic immunosuppressants on long term graft survival was never systematically evaluated in well controlled clinical studies. (nih.gov)
- The question whether the brand to generic switch or switch among multiple generic products may introduce clinically relevant changes in drug exposure and thus affect acute rejection, adverse events, and long term graft survival remains debated in transplant community. (nih.gov)
- The present study was designed to investigate the potency and safety of KRP-203 on allograft survival against both acute and chronic rejection in rat skin and heart transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions- These findings demonstrated that KRP-203 prolonged skin and heart allograft survival and significantly attenuated chronic rejection and bradycardia as an adverse effect. (ahajournals.org)
- Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) were introduced to clinical use in the 1980s and have improved graft and patient survival after organ transplantation. (ahajournals.org)
- The long-term outcome of graft and patient survival is highly influenced by the occurrence of chronic rejection. (ahajournals.org)
- The clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty was evaluated by the rate of rejection-free graft survival and graft survival evaluation by the Kaplan-Meier logrank test. (bmj.com)
- Rejection-free graft survival rates were 60.8% in group 1 and 54.5% in group 2 (Kaplan-Meier logrank test, p = 0.474). (bmj.com)
- The difference in the graft survival rates between the groups was also not statistically significant (Kaplan-Meier logrank test, p = 0.518). (bmj.com)
- Although there was no change in the three stages of BOS, there was a trend towards improved survival (P = 0.062) and a significant decrease in graft loss due to BOS (P = 0.049) in patients receiving MMF. (uzh.ch)
- As a potential consequence, MMF significantly reduced graft loss due to BOS and tended to improve overall survival in these patients. (uzh.ch)
- Long term survival of orthotopic LEW liver grafts in WF rats:elimination or inactivation of effector CTL and altered antigenicity as possible reasons for tolerance. (nii.ac.jp)
- Additionally, other clinical parameters such as baseline demographics, graft and recipient survival and other severe postoperative complications, including complicated urinary tract infection, severe pneumonia, and severe bleeding, will be also assessed. (biomedcentral.com)
- Moreover, prolonged ischemic time leads to a significantly earlier and greater onset of acute rejection, which also exerts an adverse effect on graft survival. (biomedcentral.com)
- The primary endpoints comprised the rate and the severity of acute rejection episodes as well as the 3-year graft function and survival. (sciepub.com)
- Furthermore, the patient and graft survival as well as the serum creatinine levels upon discharge and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months were also comparable. (sciepub.com)
- Since its first successful attempt in 1954, kidney transplantation (KT) has witnessed tremendous progression in graft survival (GS), as well as acute rejection (AR) rate and severity. (sciepub.com)
- IgG-DSA and C1q-DSA MFI were measured and correlated with graft loss or survival. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusions A rapid reduction of DSA concentration below the threshold required for complement activation is associated with better graft survival, and C1q-DSA is a better predictor of outcomes than IgG-DSA MFI reduction. (elsevier.com)
- This single centre retrospective review of 119 patients transplanted between 1994 and 2009 examined the impact of the timing of basiliximab dosing on the frequency and severity of acute rejection, the development of BOS, and overall survival. (transplantnow.com)
- However, MHC Class 1-disparate skin grafts from KIL-2 donors were rejected faster (median survival time (MST) 12 days) than grafts of non-transgenic littermate skin (MST 18 days), In contrast. (edu.au)
- Skin graft survival and antidonor rat humoral responses were quantified. (elsevier.com)
- Similar results were observed in sensitized [OP] -/- and control mouse recipients, showing markedly prolonged rat skin graft survival in [OP] -/- mice. (elsevier.com)
- However, long-term acceptance and survival of transplanted islets is currently limited mainly due to immune-mediated rejection and/or recurrence of autoimmunity. (elsevier.com)
- In vivo, administration of MSCs significantly reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to allogeneic antigen and profoundly prolonged the survival of fully allogeneic islet grafts in transplant recipients. (ox.ac.uk)
- Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. (edu.au)
- It examines evaluation, management, and procurement of living and deceased donor kidneys, the selection of suitable recipients, interpretation of graft dysfunction, and expected survival based upon a large database of information. (worldcat.org)
- Mean survival time (MST) of allografts was determined and graft histology, immunohistochemistry and FACS analysis of infiltrating lymphocytes (GILs) was performed on POD7. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
- H. Ekberg, P. J. Svensson, M. Simanaitis, and B. Dahlbäck, "Factor V R506Q mutation (activated protein C resistance) is an additional risk factor for early renal graft loss associated with acute vascular rejection," Transplantation , vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 1577-1581, 2000. (hindawi.com)
- The observation was unexpected, as transplantation antigens are known to be inherited codominantly (Snell, 1953) and therefore parental marrow grafts should not be subject to immunological rejection mechanisms. (springer.com)
- Its role in the treatment of acute cadaveric renal allograft transplantation was first reported in 1983, 11 and our group has used a combination of topical steroids, intravenous pulse methyl prednisolone, and oral CSA in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection. (nature.com)
- Using data from the ANZDATA Registry (1994-2013), we assessed the association between age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) at the time of transplantation and the subsequent development of acute rejection (within the first 6 months), graft loss and death using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. (springer.com)
- Of the 750 children, 102 (16.2%) experienced acute rejection within the first 6 months of transplantation, 235 (31.3%) lost their allograft and 53 (7.1%) died. (springer.com)
- Endothelial rejection episodes occurred in three patients at two, four, and 10 months after transplantation. (aao.org)
- Here we report preliminary experiments involving transplantation of cells from virus carrier mice to syngeneic non-infected recipients which suggest that tissues of mice chronically infected with LCM virus undergo an antigenic change which can be detected by transplant rejection. (nature.com)
- Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of death and complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). (natap.org)
- Finally, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was not detected in serum, whole blood or liver graft tissue by PCR and was not an important pathogen after liver transplantation. (open.ac.uk)
- Downregulation of factors that mediate immune rejection using RNA interference holds promise for improving islet graft resistance to damaging factors after transplantation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This study demonstrated that our approach could protect pancreatic islet grafts from immune rejection and could potentially be applied to allotransplantation and prevention of the autoimmune recurrence of T1DM in islet transplantation or endogenous islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Corneal neovascularization is a distinctive sign of immune privilege crash of cornea, which is the main incentive to induce the graft rejection after corneal transplantation. (arvojournals.org)
- To avoid the graft rejection after corneal transplantation of alkali burned cornea, conbercept eye drop was used to prevent the graft rejection following corneal transplantation. (arvojournals.org)
- We demonstrate that total CD8 + CD45RC low/− Tregs can be efficiently expanded in the presence of anti-CD3/28 mAbs, high-dose IL-2 and IL-15 and that such expanded Tregs efficiently delay GVHD and human skin transplantation rejection in immune humanized mice. (frontiersin.org)
- The presence of small B cell clusters during the first 2 months after transplantation was not associated with early rejection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- α4-1BB mAb increased the graft-vs-leukemia effect of a suboptimal number of donor splenocytes given later post bone marrow transplantation by bolstering allogeneic responses resulting in leukemia elimination. (jimmunol.org)
- Modifying the ligation of 4-1BB represents a new approach to altering the graft-vs-host disease and graft-vs-leukemia effects of allogeneic T cells post bone marrow transplantation. (jimmunol.org)
- More specifically, the present invention relates to (1) a pharmaceutical composition for suppressing, treating or preventing transplant rejection (immune rejection) associated with transplantation of an organ or part thereof or tissue, and (2) The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for increasing the effect of suppressing, treating or preventing transplant rejection (immunorejection) associated with transplantation of an organ or a part thereof or a tissue by an immunosuppressant. (google.com)
- In transplantation, a major obstacle for graft acceptance in MHC-matched individuals is the mismatch of minor histocompatibility Ags. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft rejection are major problems following intestinal transplantation (IT). (elsevier.com)
- Van Thiel, David H. / NK activity during graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection in rats following intestinal semiallogenic and allogenic transplantation with or without mesenteric lymphadenectomy . (elsevier.com)
- Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with potent anti-inflammatory, regenerative and immune-modulatory properties are considered as a candidate to prevent both DGF and acute rejection in renal transplantation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we propose a prospective multicenter controlled study to assess the clinical value of allogeneic MSCs in preventing both DGF and acute rejection simultaneously as induction therapy in deceased-donor renal transplantation. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study will clarify the clinical value of UC-MSCs in preventing DGF and acute rejection simultaneously in deceased-donor renal transplantation, and provide evidence as to whether allogeneic MSCs can be used as clinically feasible and safe induction therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- This development of corneal transplantation models in the rat and mouse-facilitated studies of rejection in inbred donor and recipient animals showed a wide range of investigative immunological reagents. (statpearls.com)
- Proposed graft-recipient corneas with two or more quadrants of deep vascularisation or one bearing a previously rejected graft that is inflamed at the time of transplantation are at significantly higher risk of rejection. (statpearls.com)
- Once transplantation is successfully completed, care must be taken to prevent postoperative events that lead to rejection, for example, vascularization of recipient cornea or graft wound, suture loosening, or graft infection. (statpearls.com)
- Van Thiel, D. H. / NK activity during graft-vs-host disease and graft rejection in rats following intestinal transplantation . (elsevier.com)
- Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is still the major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (frontiersin.org)
- We wished to determine whether CD4+ T cells could reject a skin graft that was discordant for a single minor transplantation Ag in the absence of CD8+ T cells or Ab. (ox.ac.uk)
- Moreover, CD26 is associated with many diseases and the mechanisms of CD26 in some of these diseases such as in immune rejection of organ transplantation have not been fully elucidated. (fu-berlin.de)
- After allogeneic tail-skin transplantation, in comparison to wild-type (CD26+/+) mice, CD26-/- mice showed reduced necrosis of grafts and delayed graft rejection. (fu-berlin.de)
- These results indicate that CD26 is involved in allogeneic skin graft rejection and suggests a potential role of CD26-deficiency in repressing the immune rejection in clinical organ transplantation. (fu-berlin.de)
- Skin graft rejection elicited by beta 2-microglobulin as a minor transplantation antigen involves multiple effector pathways: role of Fas-Fas ligand interactions and Th2-dependent graft eosinophil infiltrates. (ac.be)
- It is also known that glomerular margination of leucocytes occur early after transplantation and was associated with DSA level and early graft dysfunction. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
- KIR gene and KIR ligand analysis to predict graft rejection after renal transplantation. (ru.nl)
- METHODS: In this study, we have evaluated whether acute rejection after reduction of immunosuppression after renal transplantation was associated with peripheral blood NK cell frequencies or with predicted NK cell alloreactivity based on KIR gene and ligand analysis. (ru.nl)
- Our preliminary results showed that macrophages infiltrated islet grafts shortly after transplantation in both syngeneic and allogeneic recipient mice, but the number of infiltrating macrophages increased significantly in the allografts during progression of acute rejection. (elsevier.com)
- These results point to macrophage involvement in the initial inflammatory response after islet transplantation in both syngeneic and allogeneic grafts and to an active role during ensuing acute rejection of the allografts. (elsevier.com)
- Hyperacute graft rejection during heart transplantation for giant cell myocarditis: a case report. (unil.ch)
- Most rejections after liver transplantation are easy to successfully treat with increased immunosuppression, but such treatment may carry risks such as increased susceptibility to infection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Graft-versus-host-disease-associated oral cancer may have more aggressive behavior with poorer prognosis, when compared to oral cancer in non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. (wikipedia.org)
- After bone marrow transplantation, T cells present in the graft, either as contaminants or intentionally introduced into the host, attack the tissues of the transplant recipient after perceiving host tissues as antigenically foreign. (wikipedia.org)
- Xenogeneic skin graft rejection is especially dependent on CD4+ T cells. (nih.gov)
- the kinetics of KIL-2 H-Y-disparate skin graft rejection (MST 14 days) did not differ significantly from controls (MST 16 days), suggesting that upregulation of IL-2 at the effector site could affect CD4(-) T cell-independent. (edu.au)
- Connection between the anti-organ and anti-nuclear titres of antilymphocyte sera and their inhibitory effect on skin graft rejection in mice. (elsevier.com)
- DI-fusion Skin graft rejection elicited by beta 2-microglobulin as a. (ac.be)
- Linked suppression of skin graft rejection can operate through indirect recognition. (ox.ac.uk)
- 2) SM LN removal and corneal grafts in "high-risk" hosts, which had been (A) subjected to corneal trauma with vascularization or (B) allosensitized by previous corneal graft or (C) allosensitized by previous skin graft. (elsevier.com)
- This approach may also protect the graft from subsequent episodes of allograft rejection. (nature.com)
- CD122 + PD-1 + CD8 + Tregs efficiently inhibited skin allograft rejection in mice upon adoptive transfer and were more efficient at inhibiting islets allograft rejection than CD4 + CD25 + Tregs ( 23 , 24 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In two distinct marrow graft rejection systems, host CD8 + and CD4 + T cells each separately contributed to host anti-donor T cell-mediated allograft rejection. (jimmunol.org)
- We investigated the potential of predicting allograft rejection by measuring the ability of graft-infiltrating cells to take up 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG). (ovid.com)
- Allograft rejection occurs most commonly in the second 6 months post-grafting, and it has been reported that more than 10% of the observed reactions can take place as late as 4 years after surgery. (statpearls.com)
- Chronic Allograft Rejection Associated Vasculopathy and Synthetic Biodegradable Vascular Grafts: A Lesson to Learn? (begellhouse.com)
- We therefore hypothesized that local cell-cell contacts between macrophages and effector T lymphocytes promote conversion of infiltrating M2 macrophages, typically involved in wound healing and tissue remodeling, to M1 macrophages which subserve effector cell function in islet allograft rejection. (elsevier.com)
- 2011). We will accomplish the objective of this application by pursuing the following three specific aims: (1) Macrophages are necessary for efficient islet allograft rejection~ (2) Infiltratng macrophages acquire M1 phenotype during acute rejection~ and (3) Macrophage M2/M1 conversion is mediated through local cell-cell contacts with T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that MSCs can prevent islet allograft rejection leading to stable, long-term normoglycemia. (ox.ac.uk)
- Donor allograft exposure to circulating mtDAMPs increases allograft rejection by increasing recipient allospecific CD4 and CD8 T cell activation, proliferation and graft infiltration. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
- Almost three decades ago, G. Cudkowicz (Cudkowicz and Cosgrove, 1961) made the curious observation that irradiated (A × B)F1 hybrid mice transplanted with parental bone marrow from either parent A or parent B may acutely reject one but not the other graft. (springer.com)
- Perhaps not surprisingly, the phenomenon of acute parental marrow graft rejection in F1 hybrid mice, also called hybrid resistance (HR), found its counterpart in the ability of irradiated mice to acutely reject allogeneic marrow grafts (Cudkowicz and Bennett, 1971a). (springer.com)
- Cud-kowicz, 1975a), and the rejection of H-2 k marrow by strain 129 mice maps to the K region (Cudkowicz and Warner, 1979). (springer.com)
- Cudkowicz G (1975a): Genetic control of resistance to allogeneic and xenogenic bone marrow grafts in mice. (springer.com)
- Cudkowicz G (1975b): Rejection of bone marrow allo-grafts by irradiated athymic nude mice. (springer.com)
- I. Graft rejection by irradiated responder mice. (springer.com)
- Rejection of parental grafts by resistant F I hybrid mice. (springer.com)
- A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. (jimmunol.org)
- Syngeneic and allogeneic (C57BL/6 mice) corneal grafts were performed in mice with HSK at different times after infection. (arvojournals.org)
- Some grafts were performed on HSV-infected CD4 T cell-deficient BALB/c mice. (arvojournals.org)
- Corneal grafts in mice with HSK rejected with higher frequency and more rapid tempo compared with grafts in uninfected mice. (arvojournals.org)
- Rejection of an IA^+ variant line of FBL-3 leukemia by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes with CD4^+ and CD4^-CD8^-T-cell receptor αβ phenotype generated in CD8-depleted C57BL/6 mice. (nii.ac.jp)
- Roles of CD8^+ and CD4^+ cells on lethal graft-versus-host disease in nude mice. (nii.ac.jp)
- These KIL-2 transgenic mice were used to investigate the effects of localized IL-2 dysregulation on immune responses, Peripheral tolerance to skin antigens was not broken by in situ IL-2 expression because syngeneic KIL-2 skin grafts were not rejected. (edu.au)
- No effect on rejection kinetics was observed when wild type allogeneic skin was grafted onto transgenic mice that expressed bcl2 constitutively In their lymphocytes (MST of 14 days, birth sets), indicating that this was not simply due to Increased longevity of T cells within the IL-2 expressing graft. (edu.au)
- Less infiltrated macrophages and T cells were detected in the graft tissues of CD26-/- mice during graft rejection. (fu-berlin.de)
- IL-5 mediates eosinophilic rejection of MHC class II-disparate skin allografts in mice. (ac.be)
- Methods: Xenogeneic rat skin grafts were transplanted to macrophage colony, stimulating factor (M-CSF)/macrophage-deficient osteopetrotic ([OP] -/- ) and wild-type control mice. (elsevier.com)
- Levels of T-cell-dependent antirat antibodies [immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a and IgGin sera of [OP] -/- mice were significantly lower than that of control mice 2 weeks post-rat skin grafting. (elsevier.com)
- 1) Adoptive transfer of possible regulatory splenocytes from mice with long-term accepted corneal graft after SM LN removal. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusion The results suggest that removal of the SM LN in "high-risk" mice prevents rejection by mechanisms involving immune "ignorance", since prior allosensitization prevents graft acceptance after LN removal. (elsevier.com)
- Rejection of skin grafts from different inbred strains by nude mice reconstituted with allogeneic or congenic thymus cell suspensions. (jax.org)
- Therefore, we analyzed three types of clinically relevant in vivo alloresponses: graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), allogeneic bone marrow (BM) graft rejection, and graft-vs-leukemia (GVL). (jimmunol.org)
- These findings could pave the way for improvements in preventing GVHD and rejection of transplanted bone marrow and new therapies to prevent or treat a relapse of the underlying cancer after a transplant. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Finding the optimal conditions to avoid interfering with immune cells working to eradicate cancer while preventing graft rejection and GVHD is the holy grail of bone marrow transplant," said Leo Luznik, MD, associate professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in Baltimore, Maryland. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- However, there are severe complications associated with allo-HSCT such as disease relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), graft rejection, and infection mainly as a consequence of long term immuno-suppression ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The risk is highest after an allogeneic transplant because you may be taking medicines to suppress the immune system to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (cancer.ca)
- Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) might happen after an allogeneic stem cell transplant. (cancer.ca)
- Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person. (wikipedia.org)
- GvHD is commonly associated with stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant), but the term also applies to other forms of tissue graft. (wikipedia.org)
- Whereas transplant rejection occurs when the host rejects the graft, GvHD occurs when the graft rejects the host. (wikipedia.org)
Delayed graft function2
- However, higher incidences of delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection exert adverse effects on graft outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We did not find any significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the length of hospital stay, the rate and severity of acute rejection, the rate of CMV infection, the occurrence of delayed graft function and the rate and type of surgical complications at 1 year. (sciepub.com)
- Lymphoid-Like Structures with Distinct B Cell Areas in Kidney Allografts are not Predictive for Graft Rejection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- However, in the absence of preexisting inflammation and vascularization, syngeneic grafts were accepted when the grafts were performed at a late time point after HSV infection (42 days), whereas allografts were rejected at this time. (arvojournals.org)
- Whereas in biodegradable grafts this 'healing process' appears to be self limiting, in allografts the process goes on beyond the needs of functional repair, eventually, in some cases, leading to total vascular occlusion. (begellhouse.com)
- Between 1987 and 1996, 209 cryopreserved allografts were implanted: 125 valved conduits or monocusps to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract in congenital heart disease, 50 allograft heart valves to treat native aortic and prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis and 34 cryopreserved arterial allografts to replace mycotic aortic aneurysms or infected aortic prosthetic grafts. (nih.gov)
- T lymphocytes, indicating rejection, were found in all right-sided allografts from the paediatric population, but only in 9% of left-sided valves explanted from adults and in one of the four of arterial allografts. (nih.gov)
- Right-sided cryopreserved allografts from a paediatric population showed ongoing cellular rejection. (nih.gov)
- By contrast, there was only a weak T-cell mediated rejection to adult heart valve and arterial allografts. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, similar long-term results can be expected in adult arterial and heart valve allografts, whereas longevity of right-sided heart valve allograft in the paediatric age group seems endangered by cellular rejection. (nih.gov)
- We hypothesized that exposure of donor allografts to circulating mitochondrial DAMPs (mtDAMPs) prior to organ procurement would increase rates of graft rejection. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
- Mitochondrial DAMPs released by tissue injury in the setting of deceased organ donation predisposes allografts to rejection. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
Prevent corneal graft rejection1
- DSA did not affect pancreatic islet graft function. (jci.org)
- Pancreatic islet graft function of 49 patients was assessed every year using the β score (mean ± SD). (jci.org)
- Linear regression was used to estimate the relation between time and pancreatic islet graft function. (jci.org)
- The rate of pancreatic islet graft attrition was estimated for the 9 patients with DSA (left, DSA+) and the remaining 40 patients without DSA (right, No DSA). (jci.org)
- The expected results from these aims will establish local cell-cell contacts within target tissues as a novel cellular mechanism underlying the active role of macrophages in pancreatic islet rejection. (elsevier.com)
- Clinical presentation and course of disease are heterogeneous, with rapid graft loss (within months after diagnosis) in some patients and slow progression of disease over years in others [ 5 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- At the time of clinical rejection, the nodules often presented as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) with lymphoid-like follicles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The range of clinical findings indicative of corneal graft rejection differs in some respects between DSEK and standard PK. (bmj.com)
- Furthermore, one or more of the above factors may predispose the patient to rejection due to additional clinical features that confer a significant risk of graft failure. (statpearls.com)
- From a clinical viewpoint, graft rejection is one of the greatest threats faced by an organ transplant recipient (OTR). (diva-portal.org)
- Conclusion: The clinical appearance and response to therapy in this case supported the diagnosis of immune-mediated stromal rejection. (elsevier.com)
- In the clinical setting, graft-versus-host-disease is divided into acute and chronic forms, and scored or graded on the basis of the tissue affected and the severity of the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
- Cudkowicz G (1971): Genetic control of bone marrow graft rejection. (springer.com)
- A bone marrow evaluation is necessary but results are dependent on timing of suspected graft failur/rejection. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Cytotoxic T lymphocytes mediate graft rejection following bone marrow " by B. E. Bierer, Stephen G. Emerson et al. (haverford.edu)
- Regulation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Graft Rejection Following Bone Marrow. (haverford.edu)
- Newer research indicates that other graft-versus-host-disease target organs include the immune system (the hematopoietic system, e.g., the bone marrow and the thymus) itself, and the lungs in the form of immune-mediated pneumonitis. (wikipedia.org)
- In a case of hybrid resistance, the parental bone marrow (BM) graft is rejected by F1 generation in murine model. (wikipedia.org)
- Here, we report on a young patient with chronic-active ABMR in whom the decision was made for treatment with steroids, plasma exchange, and rituximab (despite severely impaired graft function and chronic changes by histology) in an attempt to stabilize kidney function and prolong the time before her return to dialyses, but in whom our treatment resulted in fatal outcome. (hindawi.com)
- The purpose of this study is to find out whether MSC in combination with standard therapy of antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) are more effective in preventing organ deterioration and maintaining kidney function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- NULOJIX ® (belatacept) is indicated for prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult patients receiving a kidney transplant . (rxlist.com)
- Use of NULOJIX for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in transplanted organs other than kidney has not been established [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
- Astagraf XL is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney transplant patients in combination with other immunosuppressants. (drugs.com)
- Such rejection is interferon-gamma-dependent and only occurs if the recipient endothelium expresses H-2(b). (nih.gov)
- In contrast, the vasculature of DSA-exposed allogeneic islet grafts was devoid of lesions because sprouting of recipient capillaries reestablished blood flow in grafted islets. (jci.org)
- The 2 factors predictive of increased risk of neovascularization and graft failure were increased recipient age (P = 0.003) and male gender (P = 0.046). (nih.gov)
- The potential for islet grafts to elicit allo- or xenoimmunogenic responses depends on their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility with the recipient HLA ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Despite the relative immune privilege of the cornea as a transplant tissue (both the recipient corneal bed and the anterior chamber are immune-privileged sites) the most common cause of corneal graft failure in all reports is allogeneic rejection. (statpearls.com)
- Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. (edu.au)
- This type of rejection is seen when a recipient is given the wrong type of blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Immune cells (white blood cells) in the donated tissue (the graft) recognize the recipient (the host) as foreign (nonself). (wikipedia.org)
- This rejection is caused by natural killer (NK) cells of the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
- Thus, we conclude that endothelial chimerism combined with vascular sequestration of DSAs protects islet grafts from humoral rejection. (jci.org)
- A ) The regression line slope indicates the rate of islet graft attrition in the cohort. (jci.org)
- Studies indicate that several factors influence the decrease in islet graft function ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Extensive research efforts have been dedicated to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying rejection of islet grafts by effector cells of the adaptive immune system. (elsevier.com)
- In this application, we aim to establish the role of cell-cell contacts between graft-infiltrating macrophages and effector T lymphocytes in islet rejection. (elsevier.com)
- Mesenchymal stem cells prevent the rejection of fully allogenic islet grafts by the immunosuppressive activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. (ox.ac.uk)
- This thesis tested the hypothesis that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may initiate or enhance chronic rejection of liver grafts. (open.ac.uk)
- The incidence of urine PCR positivity and prolonged active CMV infection were risk factors for chronic rejection (Chapter 4). (open.ac.uk)
- Furthermore, active CMV infection and the TNF-2 promoter allele were shown to act synergistically as risk factors for chronic rejection (Chapter 4). (open.ac.uk)
- CMV was also studied in the context of humoral immunity and chronic rejection (Chapter 5). (open.ac.uk)
- Western blotting of hepatic artery and bile duct tissue (sites of rejection mediated damage) showed that post transplant IgA antibody to a 44 kD bile duct protein was associated with development of active CMV infection but was not associated with chronic rejection. (open.ac.uk)
- Active CMV infection of the graft, especially epithelial cells, was associated with chronic rejection. (open.ac.uk)
- Although several studies support the association between respiratory viruses and chronic lung rejection, the relationship between viral infection and acute rejection has not been established. (bmj.com)
- The dominant pathological features of chronic rejection are persistent perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration, generalized transplant arteriosclerosis characterized by concentric neointimal formation and vascular occlusion, and interstitial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Chronic rejection can take place over many years. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic rejection is the leading cause of organ transplant failure. (medlineplus.gov)
- Chronic graft-versus-host-disease also attacks the above organs, but over its long-term course can also cause damage to the connective tissue and exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] In the oral cavity, chronic graft-versus-host-disease manifests as lichen planus with a higher risk of malignant transformation to oral squamous cell carcinoma in comparison to the classical oral lichen planus. (wikipedia.org)
- The chronic form of graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD) normally occurs after 100 days. (wikipedia.org)
- Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a major cause of late renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. (hindawi.com)
- Since ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and ongoing process of immune response to grafts are the major causes of DGF and acute rejection, the optimal induction intervention should possess capacities of both repairing renal structure injury and suppressing immune response simultaneously. (biomedcentral.com)
- In corneas with HSK and vascularization at the time of grafting, both syngeneic and allogeneic corneal grafts failed with similar frequency and tempo. (arvojournals.org)
- Uptake of [18F]FDG during an alloresponse was measured both in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures and in vivo using allogeneic and syngeneic skin grafts. (ovid.com)
- The main step to prevent this internal attack, called graft versus host disease, is giving the patient medicines to suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infection. (natap.org)
- Blocking CCR5, Reshef thought, might prevent graft-versus-host disease. (natap.org)
- By quantifying graft-vs-host disease alloresponses in vivo, we demonstrate that both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell-mediated alloresponses are regulated by 4-1BB/4-1BB ligand interactions to approximately the same extent. (jimmunol.org)
- MicroRNAs: The Missing Link in the Biology of Graft-Versus-Host Disease? (frontiersin.org)
- In the classical sense, acute graft-versus-host-disease is characterized by selective damage to the liver, skin (rash), mucosa, and the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
- However, graft-versus-host disease can occur even when HLA-identical siblings are the donors. (wikipedia.org)
- The overall rate of viral infection in grade A0/A1 acute rejection cases was 25.4%, compared with 12.6% in grade A2 or higher rejection. (bmj.com)
- This study provides evidence that respiratory viruses per se do not promote acute graft rejection, at least during the acute phase of infection, but that they do worsen graft function recovery when simultaneously present with acute rejection. (bmj.com)
- It is important to rule out other causes of graft failure such as infection (in particular CMV, herpes viruses) and medication use. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- He subsequently postulated that the antigenic determinants recognized during the rejection are expressed on parental and not on F1 hybrid cells and hence must be inherited noncodominantly (Cudkowicz and Stimpfling, 1964). (springer.com)
- Graft rejection was defined as an eye with a previously clear and thin graft, now showing some or all of the following signs: anterior chamber flare and cells, keratic precipitates on corneal endothelium, thickening of the graft, either diffusely or locally, and epithelial or endothelial rejection lines. (nature.com)
- We show here, however, that anti-H-Y monospecific, H-2(b-restricted MataHari CD8(+) T cells reject H-2(k) male skin grafts, with which they cannot directly interact. (nih.gov)
- Anyways, if you manage to detect cytokines, I'd probably go for Th1 vs. Th2 cytokines for example, to evaluate the function of T-cells, which are responsible for the graft rejection. (biology-online.org)
- CMV was identified in bile duct epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, hepatocytes and mononuclear cells of liver grafts by in situ hybridisation (Chapter 6). (open.ac.uk)
- GV remains widely unexplored in VCA, and so does the role of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in acute rejection. (ovid.com)
- T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow grafts. (jimmunol.org)
- This study demonstrates that in the absence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, Batf3-dependent dendritic cells elicit the rejection of cells and grafts expressing mismatched minor Ags. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Cellular mechanisms of graft rejection mediated by CD4-CD8-TCR alphabeta T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
- CD4^-CD8^-T cell receptor αβ T cells:Generation of an in vitro major histcompatibility complex class I specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and allogenic tumor rejection. (nii.ac.jp)
- Several studies have shown increased numbers of HLA class II positive cells infiltrating stroma in sections of rejected grafts. (statpearls.com)
- Rejection of H-Y disparate skin grafts by monospecific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cells: no requirement for CD8+ T cells or B cells. (ox.ac.uk)
- After multiple grafts, it was confirmed that no CD8+ T cells or surface Ig+ B cells were present. (ox.ac.uk)
- An immunofluorescent analysis of spleen cells after grafting showed that the majority of T cells expressed activation markers (CD44, CD25, and intracytoplasmic IL-2) and a significant proportion were making IFN-gamma and IL-4. (ox.ac.uk)
- Aim was to determine the significance of increased number of CD45 positive cells in predicting rejection. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
- Regulatory CD4+ T cells can also suppress rejection of third party transplant Ags provided they are expressed on the same graft as the tolerated Ags. (ox.ac.uk)
- Next to T cells, innate natural killer (NK) cells may contribute to graft rejection. (ru.nl)
- The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. (edu.au)
- Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. (edu.au)
- An immuno-competent graft is administered, with viable and functional immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
- The rejection of parental (P) BM graft by F1 generation is caused by NK cells as was said. (wikipedia.org)
Severity of acute rejection1
Clear corneal graft2
- Although a clear corneal graft in the pupillary area was obtained and best-corrected visual acuity was good after the resolution of inflammation, a risk of corneal astigmatism remained. (dovepress.com)
- Although the first successful penetrating corneal graft was reported in 1906, it took another half a century before the first description of opacification of a previously clear corneal graft was published. (statpearls.com)