An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*13 and DRB1*14 alleles.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Diseases of the cornea.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The period following a surgical operation.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (1/6768)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (2/6768)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

Reduced kidney transplant rejection rate and pharmacoeconomic advantage of mycophenolate mofetil. (3/6768)

BACKGROUND: Several multinational controlled clinical trials have shown that triple therapy immunosuppressive regimens which include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin A (CSA) and steroids (S) are superior compared with conventional regimens which include azathioprine (AZA), CSA and S, mainly because MMF reduces the rate of acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months after kidney transplantation. Post-marketing studies are useful to evaluate the general applicability and costs of MMF-based immunosuppressive regimens. METHODS: Based on the excellent results of the published controlled clinical trials, we have changed the standard triple therapy immunosuppressive protocol (AZA+CSA+S) to an MMF-based regimen (MMF+CSA+S) at our centre. To analyse the impact of this change in regimen, we have monitored 6-month patient and graft survival, rejection rate, serum creatinine and CSA levels, as well as the costs of the immunosuppressive and anti-rejection treatments, in 40 consecutive renal transplant recipients (MMF group) and have compared the data with 40 consecutive patients transplanted immediately prior to the change in regimen (AZA group). RESULTS: Recipient and donor characteristics were similar in the AZA and MMF groups. Patient survival (37/40; 92.5% in the AZA group vs 38/40; 95% in the MMF group), graft survival (36/40 vs 36/40; both 90%) and serum creatinine (137+/-56 vs 139+/-44 micromol/l) after 6 months were not significantly different. However, the rate of acute rejection episodes (defined as a rise in creatinine without other obvious cause and treated at least with pulse steroids) was significantly reduced with MMF from 60 to 20% (P=0.0005). The resulting cost for rejection treatment was lowered 8-fold (from sFr. 2113 to 259 averaged per patient) and the number of transplant biopsies was lowered > 3-fold in the MMF group. The cost for the immunosuppressive therapy was increased 1.5-fold with MMF (from sFr. 5906 to 9231 per patient for the first 6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The change from AZA to MMF resulted in a significant reduction in early rejection episodes, resulting in fewer diagnostic procedures and rehospitalizations. The optimal long-term regimen in terms of patient and pharmacoeconomic benefits remains to be defined.  (+info)

Primary adult liver transplantation under tacrolimus: more than 90 months actual follow-up survival and adverse events. (4/6768)

The introduction of tacrolimus has shown decreased rates of acute and steroid-resistant rejection after liver transplantation (LTx). The aim of the present study is to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in primary liver transplant recipients. The first 121 consecutive adults (aged >16 years) who underwent primary LTx at a single center from August 1989 to February 1990 were followed up until August 1997. The mean follow-up was 93.2 +/- 1.2 months (range, 90.5 to 96.5 months). Patient survival, graft survival, rate of rejection, and adverse events were examined. The actual 7-year patient survival rate was 67.8%, and the graft survival rate was 63.6%. Infections, recurrence of disease, de novo malignancies, and cardiovascular events constituted the main causes of graft loss and death in the long term. Graft loss related to acute or chronic rejection was rare. The rate of acute rejection beyond 2 years was approximately 3% per year, and most rejections were steroid responsive. Approximately 70% of the patients received only tacrolimus after 1 year. Four patients developed end-stage renal disease, and 2 patients underwent kidney transplantation. Hyperkalemia and hypertension were observed in one third of the patients. New-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was observed in 9% and 13% of the patients at the 1-year and 7-year follow-up, respectively. Seven patients developed de novo malignancies, including two skin malignancies. Six patients developed posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder during the entire follow-up period. Actual patient and graft survival at 7 years was excellent, and few adverse events developed after the first year. Graft loss from acute or chronic rejection was rare under tacrolimus, and approximately 70% of the patients were steroid free on tacrolimus monotherapy after the first year after LTx.  (+info)

Xenotransplantation. (5/6768)

As transplantation waiting lists lengthen because of the shortage of donor organs, the death rates of patients continue to rise. Xenotransplantation offers the potential to solve the problem of organ shortage br providing an unlimited supply of healthy donor organs. However, there are several barriers to xenotransplantation, including graft rejection, potential xenozoonosis, physiologic incompatibilities and ethical concerns. Experimental xenotransplantation studies continue in several areas, ranging from tissue to whole- organ grafting. Clinical studies continue in the area of tissue xenotransplantation. Trials with extracorporeal xenografts in an acute setting to support fulminant organ failure are likely to begin in the near future. The reintroduction of whole-organ xenotransplantation must be based on sound scientific analysis with broad societal input so as to offer the maximal benefit to transplant recipients and their families.  (+info)

Long-term results of pancreas transplantation under tacrolius immunosuppression. (6/6768)

BACKGROUND: The long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in pancreas transplantation has not yet been demonstrated. The observation of prolonged pancreatic graft function under tacrolimus would indicate that any potential islet toxicity is short-lived and clinically insignificant. We report herein the results of pancreas transplantation in patients receiving primary tacrolimus immunosuppression for a minimum of 2 years. METHODS: From July 4, 1994 until April 18, 1996, 60 patients received either simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (n=55), pancreas transplant only (n=4), or pancreas after kidney transplantation (n=1). Baseline immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids without antilymphocyte induction. Azathioprine was used as a third agent in 51 patients and mycophenolate mofetil in 9. Rejection episodes within the first 6 months occurred in 48 (80%) patients and were treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Antilymphocyte antibody was required in eight (13%) patients with steroid-resistant rejection. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 35.1+/-5.9 months (range: 24.3-45.7 months), 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 33-year graft survival is 88%, 82%, 80%, and 80% (pancreas) and 98%, 96%, 93%, and 91% (kidney), respectively. Six-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survival is 100%, 98%, 98%, and 96.5%. Mean fasting glucose is 91.6+/-13.8 mg/dl, and mean glycosylated hemoglobin is 5.1+/-0.7% (normal range: 4.3-6.1%). Mean tacrolimus dose is 6.5+/-2.6 mg/day and mean prednisone dose 2.0+/-2.9 mg/day at follow-up. Complete steroid withdrawal was possible in 31 (65%) of the 48 patients with functioning pancreases. CONCLUSIONS: These data show for the first time that tacrolimus is a safe and effective long-term primary agent in pancreas transplantation and provides excellent long-term islet function without evidence of toxicity while permitting steroid withdrawal in the majority of patients.  (+info)

Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. (7/6768)

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD.  (+info)

Dual roles of sialyl Lewis X oligosaccharides in tumor metastasis and rejection by natural killer cells. (8/6768)

Aberrant expression of cell surface carbohydrates such as sialyl Lewis X is associated with tumor formation and metastasis. In order to determine the roles of sialyl Lewis X in tumor metastasis, mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells were stably transfected with alpha1, 3-fucosyltransferase III to express sialyl Lewis X structures. The transfected B16-F1 cells, B16-FTIII, were separated by cell sorting into three different groups based on the expression levels of sialyl Lewis X. When these transfected cells were injected into tail veins of C57BL/6 mice, B16-FTIII.M cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis X in poly-N-acetyllactosamines produced large numbers of lung tumor nodules. Surprisingly, B16-FTIII.H cells expressing the highest amount of sialyl Lewis X in shorter N-glycans died in lung blood vessels, producing as few lung nodules as B16-FTIII.N cells which lack sialyl Lewis X. In contrast, B16-FIII.H cells formed more tumors in beige mice and NK cell-depleted C57BL/6 mice than did B16-FTIII.M cells. B16-FTIII.H cells bound to E-selectin better than did B16-FTIII.M cells, but both cells grew at the same rate. These results indicate that excessive expression of sialyl Lewis X in tumor cells leads to rejection by NK cells rather than tumor formation facilitated by attachment to endothelial cells.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Urine proteomic profiling for biomarkers of acute renal transplant rejection.. AU - Liang, Shu Ling. AU - Clarke, William. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Acute allograft rejection is a serious impediment to long-term success in renal transplantation. Early detection of rejection is crucial for treatment of rejection, and can help avoid long-term effects such as chronic rejection or loss of the transplanted organ. The current diagnostic paradigm is a combination of clinical presentation, biochemical measurements (serum creatinine), and needle biopsy. There are significant efforts underway to find alternate biomarkers for early detection of acute rejection, including protein profiling of urine by mass spectrometry. One approach for protein profiling is to use affinity mass spectrometry - we describe a method for this using ProteinChips and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry.. AB - Acute allograft rejection is a serious impediment to long-term success in renal transplantation. Early detection ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute cellular rejection following human heart transplantation is associated with increased expression of vitronectin receptor (integrin αvβ3). AU - Yamani, Mohamad H.. AU - Yang, Jiacheng. AU - Masri, Carolyna S.. AU - Ratliff, Norman B.. AU - Bond, Meredith. AU - Starling, Randall C.. AU - McCarthy, Patrick. AU - Plow, Edward. AU - Young, James B.. PY - 2002/2. Y1 - 2002/2. N2 - The vitronectin receptor (integrin αvβ3), a cell-surface adhesion receptor, has been shown to play a significant role in endothelial cell migration, apoptosis, atherosclerosis, and T-lymphocyte activation. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that cardiac allograft rejection is associated with increased expression of αvβ3. We also determined whether fibronectin receptor (α5β1) and tissue factor are up-regulated in the presence of acute cellular rejection. We evaluated endomyocardial biopsy specimens with histologic evidence of different degrees of acute cellular rejection (grade 0, n ...
were present in biopsies from patients with subclinical rejection and largely absent in normal protocol biopsies. Transcripts for perforin, Fas ligand, and granzyme B were also present in patients with subclinical rejection, although in reduced amounts when compared to biopsies from patients with clinical rejection episodes. There were no differences in IL-10 and IL-15 transcripts in clinical and subclinical rejection biopsies. Additional, albeit indirect, data in favor of a pathogenic role for subclinical rejection comes from the early observation of Isoniemi et al, who reported that in patients who had not experienced clinical acute rejection episodes, the development of chronic histological changes occurred in inverse relation to the amount of immunosuppression they had received.15 Similarly, Legendre et al reported a patient cohort that never experienced clinical rejection episodes, in whom the development of chronic rejection at 2 years was preceded by subclinical rejection at three ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sero-molecular evaluation of human cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant rejection.. AU - Kishore, Janak. AU - Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy. AU - Savitri, AU - Ayyagari, Archana. AU - Sharma, Rakesh Kumar. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common viral pathogen in renal transplant recipients resulting in graft rejection. The prevalence of CMV disease and renal graft rejection is not well studied in India. Sequential specimens from 32 renal allograft recipients were examined by using CMV IgM specific mu capture ELISA and DNA by PCR. Twelve of the 32 patients were CMV IgM positive and out of 12 patients, 9 had rejection and 4 experienced CMV disease. CMV IgM specific mu capture ELISA helped in diagnosis of CMV disease, though it is less sensitive in detection of rejection. PCR itself was proved not sensitive enough in detecting either CMV disease or rejection. At present, optimal laboratory detection of CMV infection in these patients can be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide production and nitric oxide synthase expression in acute human renal allograft rejection. AU - Albrecht, EWJA. AU - van Goor, H. AU - Tiebosch, ATMG. AU - Moshage, H. AU - Tegzess, Adam. AU - Stegeman, CA. PY - 2000/12/15. Y1 - 2000/12/15. N2 - Background Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which are either constitutively expressed in the kidney or inducible, in resident and infiltrating cells during inflammation and allograft rejection. NO is rapidly degraded to the stable end products nitrite and nitrate, which can be measured in serum and urine, and may serve as noninvasive markers of kidney allograft rejection.Methods. Total nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) were measured in serum and urine thrice meekly after an overnight fast in 18 consecutive patients following renal cadaveric transplantation. Inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression was immunochemically determined in renal biopsy specimens with or without acute ...
Critical evaluation of radiolabeled lymphocytes to detect acute renal transplant rejection in a large animal model. - Get your full text copy in PDF #4818
Chronic renal transplant rejection is a form of renal transplant rejection. It usually later following transplantation. Pathology Chronic rejection is defined as a gradual deterioration in graft function beginning at least 3 months after transp...
A graft vessel preparation device and a method for using the graft vessel preparation device is provided. The graft vessel preparation device establishes and maintains a critical dimension on a graft vessel which corresponds to a dimension of an anastomosis site on a target vessel. One example of a graft vessel preparation device which prepares a graft vessel for a vascular anastomosis procedure includes a parallelogram linkage, a first spreader arm and a second spreader arm. The first spreader arm and the second spreader arm mount on opposing members of the parallelogram linkage in a parallel configuration. The spreader arms are configured in order to allow the placement of an end of a graft vessel over the spreader arms. The spreader arms are also configured to separate within an interior of the graft vessel once the graft vessel is placed over the spreader arms in order to establish a critical dimension. The critical dimension is established using a critical dimension locator. The critical dimension
Purpose: Belatacept as a high-affinity variant of CTLA-4Ig, has been applied into kidney transplantation to against acute rejection. However, adoption of Belatacept has been limited in part due to concerns regarding higher rates and grades of acute rejection in clinical trials specially in TCMR. Our previous research found that BTLA pathway was involved in pathogenesis of acute rejection in biopsy-proven patients and attenuated T cell mediated rejection in rat transplantation model.. *Methods: In this study we supposed a combined therapy, Belatacept combined with BTLA, could more effectively attenuated acute rejection after kidney transplantation. In vitro, we extracted the mature DCs and splenocyte from rats to do mixed lymphocyte reaction treated with or without Belatacept and BTLA-overexpression adenovirus. The cell proliferation was measured by BrdU analysis. Then the rat kidney transplantation model was used to research the graft rejection in single and combined therapy. The rats (n=5 each ...
Renal graft failure due to chronic rejection, also known as chronic allograft nephropathy, is one of the leading causes for repeat renal transplantation. Chronic rejection is characterized by progressive fibrosis and scarring. Renal biopsies of patients undergoing chronic rejection show greater expression of profibrotic cytokines, including TGF-beta and PDGF, than normal kidney tissue. Moreover, the cytokine activity of chronic rejection resembles that of other fibrosing renal diseases. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEinh) and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been shown to protect effectively against other types of fibrotic disease. These drugs may protect against fibrosis and preserve renal function in renal transplant patients with chronic rejection, in part by blocking activation of TGF-beta and PDGF. This study evaluates the impact of irbesartan (an AII-RB which acts similar to an ACEinh) and pravastatin on the clinical progression of chronic rejection and on the expression of ...
BACKGROUND: The potential therapeutic benefits of CD3 monoclonal antibodies, such as OKT3, have been limited by their immunogenicity and their propensity to activate a severe cytokine release syndrome. This has constrained the clinical use of OKT3 to the treatment of acute rejection episodes of organ allografts. METHODS: We have humanized a rat CD3 antibody and created a single amino acid substitution in position 297 of the IgG1 heavy chain to prevent glycosylation and, consequently, binding of the therapeutic antibody to Fc receptors and to complement. This antibody has been given as first line antirejection therapy in nine kidney transplant recipients with biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes. RESULTS: None of the patients demonstrated any antiglobulin response nor any significant cytokine release syndrome. Seven of the nine showed evidence of resolution of their rejection, although some patients experienced re-rejection. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that CD3 antibodies can be engineered to
Introduction: Due to the parallel liver transplant, SLK recipients are thought to be protected from kidney rejection and receive similar immunosuppression (IS) as liver transplant alone (LTA). However, data to support this assumption and practice are not available.. Aim: To characterize the incidence and outcomes of rejection after SLK and compare outcomes and IS requirements to LTA.. Methods: All SLK recipients from 1996-2010 were included. A more recent SLK and LTA cohort (2007-10) given identical IS regimens were matched by age, transplant year, and liver disease.. Results: 181 received SLK: age 54.0 ± 10.8 years, 60.9 % male, 32.0 % HCV+. One year patient, liver, and kidney graft survival were 82.9%, 80.7% and 79.6 %, respectively. Kidney rejection occurred in 14.3%: 20 (11.0%) acute cellular (ACR), 4 (2.2%) antibody-mediated, and 2 (1.1%) chronic rejection (CR). Liver rejection occurred in 16.1%: 22 (12.2%) ACR and 7 (3.9%) CR. Graft failure (5 kidney, 4 liver) contributed to 9 (25.8%) ...
Looking for Antibody-Mediated Rejection? Find out information about Antibody-Mediated Rejection. Destruction of a graft by the immune system of the recipient. Rejection in a dream may suggest that there are feelings or situations the dreamer wants to be... Explanation of Antibody-Mediated Rejection
BACKGROUND Although many risk factors are reported about graft rejection after heart transplantation (HTx), the effect of HLA mismatch (MM) still remains unknown, especially in the Japanese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of HLA MM on graft rejection among HTx recipients in Japan. METHODS We retrospectively investigated the association of the number of HLA MM including class I (A, B) and class II (DR) (for each locus MM: 0 to 2, total MM: 0 to 6) and the incidence of moderate to severe acute cellular rejection (ACR) confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥ 3A/2R) within 1 year after HTx. RESULTS Between 2007 and 2014, we had 49 HTx cases in our institute. After excluding those with insufficient data and positive donor-specific antigen, finally 35 patients were enrolled. Moderate to severe ACR was observed in 16 (45.7%) patients. The number of HLA-DR MM was significantly associated with the
Cytokines present in the renal graft may have originated from either the donor or the recipient. Mutations in cytokine polymorphism sequences may alter transcription factor sites, which could alter transcription itself and subsequent cytokine production. However, the exact role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in transplant outcome remains controversial, with some groups showing a correlation,1-3 but others not.4,5. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a proinflammatory cytokine. TNFα release has been correlated with the subsequent development of early graft failure. A G to A base change at position −308 of the TNFα promoter region has been described, resulting in two alleles TNF1 and TNF2.6 The TNF2 allele is in linkage disequilibrium with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype A1-B8-DR3. Wilson et al have provided evidence that the TNF2 allele is a much stronger transcriptional activator than the TNF1 allele.7 The molecular mechanism to explain this has not been elucidated; there ...
Background: Regulatory T cells have been suggested to have a protective role against acute rejection in allograft recipients. However, there is little information available about their contribution to chronic rejection process. The role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF- β1) as a profibrogenic and/or immunoregulatory cytokine in renal allografts is also controversial. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of CD4+CD25+CD127- and CD3+CD8+CD28- regulatory T cells in chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) and to investigate the expression of TGF- β1 in renal allografts. Methods: Thirty biopsy-proven CAD patients were pair-matched with 30 stable graft function patients and a third group of healthy volunteers. Flowcytometry was performed on PBMCs to determine the frequency of CD3+CD8+CD28- and CD4+CD25+CD127- regulatory T cells in lymphocyt population. TGF- β1 gene expression was assessed by Real Time PCR. Results: The percentage of CD3+CD8+CD28- Tregs among renal allograft recipients was higher than
Background: Predisposing factors, long-term occurrence, and histopathological changes associated with recovery or progression to allograft failure from chronic rejection (CR) were studied in adult patients treated primarily with tacrolimus. Methods: CR cases were identified using stringent criteria applied to a retrospective review of computerized clinicopathological data and slides. Results: After 1973 days median follow- up, 35 (3.3%) of 1049 primary liver allograft recipients first developed CR between 16 and 2532 (median 242) days. The most significant risk factors for CR were the number (P,0.001) and histological severity (P,0.005) of acute rejection episodes and donor age ,40 years (P,0.03). Other demographic and matching parameters were not associated with CR in this cohort. Ten patients died with, but not of, CR. Eight required retransplantation because of CR at a median of 268 days. Ten resolved either histologically or by normalization of liver injury tests over a median of 548 days. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Value of Protocol Biopsies to Identify Patients With De Novo Donor-Specific Antibody at High Risk for Allograft Loss. AU - Schinstock, Carrie. AU - Cosio, Fernando G. AU - Cheungpasitporn, W.. AU - Dadhania, D. M.. AU - Everly, M. J.. AU - Samaniego-Picota, M. D.. AU - Cornell, L.. AU - Stegall, Mark D. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - De novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) is associated with antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) and allograft loss, yet the allograft histology associated with dnDSA remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the allograft histology associated with dnDSA in patients with serial surveillance biopsies. We retrospectively studied adult conventional solitary kidney transplant recipients from October 2007 to May 2014. The definition of dnDSA was new donor-specific antibody (DSA) with mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ,1000. The incidence of dnDSA was 7.0% (54 of 771) over mean follow-up of 4.2 ± 1.9 years. Patients with dnDSA had reduced ...
The aim of our study was to investigate the expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in renal allograft biopsy samples and assess the clinical significance of its use as a biomarker for tissue damage. A total of 69 renal allograft biopsy samples from 17 patients with normal serum creatinine and 52 cases of increased serum creatinine were collected. They were divided into different groups according to the Banff 2007 diagnostic criteria. KIM-1 expression was detected by immunohistochemical methods and the association of KIM-1 and blood biochemical indexes was analyzed. KIM-1 expression increased as Banff 2007 classification grade increased and was positively correlated with tubular inflammation severity in the acute T-cell rejection group. Moreover, KIM-1 expression was strongly positive in the chronic active antibody-mediated rejection group. Interestingly, KIM-1 was weakly positive in the normal group without obvious acute rejection and injury of immunosuppressant toxicity. In this group, ...
Synonyms for Chronic rejection in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chronic rejection. 41 synonyms for rejection: refusal, turning down, declining, dismissal, spurning, rebuff, knock-back, non-acceptance, denial, veto, dismissal, exclusion.... What are synonyms for Chronic rejection?
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Thomas Bachelet, Celine Nodimar, Jean-Luc Taupin, Sebastien Lepreux, Karine Moreau, Delphine Morel, Gwendaline Guidicelli, Lionel Couzi, Pierre Merville].
In their paper published in this issue of Heart, Goland et al provide novel insights into changes in function of the transplanted heart within the first year (see page 1681).1 This paper, together with a recent article also published in this journal,2 contribute greatly in illuminating a field in which physiological investigation has been largely uncharted.. After the first heart transplant was performed by Christiaan Barnard in 1967, success was variable until immunosuppressive regimens were perfected.3 With these measures, and improved understanding of the immunology of rejection, the incidence of hyperacute allograft failure, largely due to hyperacute rejection, has become rare.4 However, acute rejection is still a concern, although its incidence decreases with time after transplantation5 most probably owing to the development of immune tolerance. Chronic rejection is a more difficult problem as it follows an insidious course. The histological hallmarks of chronic rejection in the ...
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Although the precise link between the increased incidence of allograft rejection in female heart transplant recipients remains uncertain, various gender-specific characteristics may predispose women to earlier rejection episodes. Critical care practitioners must be cognizant of the underlying immunologic factors that indicate higher risk in these recipients. Until the ideal treatment for cardiac rejection is discovered, identifying pertinent immunologic factors, attending to subtle symptoms, obtaining serial endomyocardial biopsies and initiating prompt, additional aggressive immunosuppressive protocols remain paramount in rendering quality patient care. Research must continue to elicit more specific tissue-typing antigens and more selective immunosuppressive agents that will ultimately result in prolonged survival of all heart transplant recipients. ...
Utku N, Heinemann T, Tullius SG, Bulwin GC, Beinke S, Blumberg RS, Beato F, Randall J, Kojima R, Busconi L, Robertson ES, Schülein R, Volk HD, Milford EL, Gullans SR. Prevention of acute allograft rejection by antibody targeting of TIRC7, a novel T cell membrane protein. Immunity. 1998 Oct; 9(4):509-18 ...
Kidney transplantation is the best treatment for many patients with kidney failure. Sometimes a transplanted kidney is rejected by the patients immune system. Many types of immune system cells, including B cells, are active in rejection. B cells produce antibodies against anything the body sees as non-self, like germs or a transplanted kidney. Most medicines that help prevent transplant rejection affect cells other than B cells. Belimumab is a medication used to treat a disease called lupus. Belimumab slows development of antibody-producing B cells. This study will test whether belimumab works on parts of the immune system that cause rejection. Twenty to thirty adults getting a kidney transplant will be in this study. Like flipping a coin, a computer will randomly assign half to be given belimumab and half to be given placebo (a fake medicine). Patients and doctors will not know which medicine was assigned until the study is over. A total of 7 doses of study medicine will be given through a ...
A method of diagnosing cardiac transplant rejection within a patient comprising, obtaining a sample of a biological fluid from the patient, and determining the level of a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) or a fragment thereof, within the sample of body fluid. The step of determining the concentration of BNP involves an assay comprising at least one antibody exhibiting affinity for the BNP or a fragment thereof, and the biological fluid comprises plasma, urine or cerebrospinal fluid. Furthermore, the antibody used within the method may comprises a polyclonal antibody, a monoclonal antibody, or a combination thereof. Preferably, the method involves obtaining at least two of the samples of body fluid from the patient over a period of time and comparing the BNP levels, with an increase in BNP being indicative of an upcoming rejection episode.
A simple, inexpensive blood test could soon help doctors halt organ rejection before it impairs transplanted hearts and kidneys.. In the past, we couldnt spot rejection episodes until they harmed the organ, said Atul Butte, MD, PhD, who is co-senior author of the new research and an associate professor of medical informatics and of pediatrics at the Stanford University School of Medicine, in addition to director of the Center for Pediatric Bioinformatics at Lucile Packard Childrens Hospital. Our goal is to develop blood tests that will keep transplanted organs functioning so that patients can avoid a second transplant.. Butte and his collaborators have made a big step toward that goal. The Stanford team found three easily measured proteins that rise in the blood during acute rejection, in which a patients immune system attacks his or her transplanted organ. The research, which will be published online Sept. 23 in PLoS-Computational Biology, is the first-ever report of an immune-rejection ...
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immune Adenosine A2B Receptors Rabbit polyclonal to ZNF248, Ticlopidine hydrochloride manufacture The CD28/CTLA-4 blocker belatacept selectively inhibits alloreactive T cell responses but is associated with a high incidence of acute rejection following renal transplantation, which led us to investigate the etiology of belatacept resistant graft rejection. to Th1 cells, Th17 memory space cells indicated significantly higher levels of the coinhibitory molecule CTLA-4. Excitement in the presence of belatacept inhibited Th1 reactions but augmented Th17 cells due to higher level of sensitivity to coinhibition by CTLA-4. Th17 cells from renal transplant recipients were resistant to ex vivo CD28/CTLA-4 blockade with belatacept, and an elevated rate of recurrence of Th17 memory space cells was connected with acute rejection during belatacept therapy. These data focus on important variations in costimulatory and coinhibitory requirements of CD4+ memory space subsets, and demonstrate that the ...
For decades, immunologists have been trying to train the transplant recipients immune system to accept transplanted cells and organs without the long-term use of anti-rejection drugs. New University of Minnesota preclinical research shows that this is now possible.. In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers at the University of Minnesota Medical Schools Department of Surgery and Schulze Diabetes Institute, collaborating with colleagues at Northwestern University, have maintained long-term survival and function of pancreatic islet transplants despite complete discontinuation of all anti-rejection drugs on day 21 after the transplant. This study was performed in a stringent preclinical transplant setting in nonhuman primates, one step away from humans.. For many patients with end-stage organ failure, transplantation is the only effective and remaining treatment option. To prevent transplant rejection, recipients must take medications long-term that suppress the bodys immune ...
Addressing the etiological heterogeneity of interstitial fibrosis in kidney allografts represents an important challenge to improve long-term transplant outcomes. We investigated the determinants, clinical and histological phenotype, and outcome of i-IF/TA in a prospective cohort of kidney recipient
Check DSSSB Rejection List 2021 for the Post of Junior Engineerby Delhi Subordinate Services Selection Board (DSSSB) on its Rejection List link and download the DSSSB Rejection List 2021 date sheet. Aspirants can check the complete details about DSSSB Rejection List 2021 and other important Latest updates on the DSSSB 2021 Rejection List on Fresherslive.
In a study published in Nature Communications, researchers at the University of Minnesota Medical Schools Department of Surgery and Schulze Diabetes Institute, collaborating with colleagues at Northwestern University, have maintained long-term survival and function of pancreatic islet transplants despite complete discontinuation of all anti-rejection drugs on day 21 after the transplant. This study was performed in a stringent preclinical transplant setting in nonhuman primates, one step away from humans.. For many patients with end-stage organ failure, transplantation is the only effective and remaining treatment option. To prevent transplant rejection, recipients must take medications long-term that suppress the bodys immune system. These immunosuppressive drugs are effective at preventing rejection over the short term; however, because anti-rejection drugs suppress all of the immune system nonspecifically, people taking these drugs face the risk of serious infections and even cancer. ...
Chronic rejection is the most common cause of late graft failure after solid organ transplantation. A model of chronic rejection, the rat aortic allograft, has histologic features that parallel those in the vessels of human transplanted organs. However, the molecular tools required to dissect the im …
Predicting liver transplant rejection The survival rate of liver transplant patients one year after treatment has improved from about 30 in the 1970s to more than 80, with acute cellular rejection ACR the most common complication. It occurs in about 30 of cases and is generally arrested by drug treatment. However, if ACR occurs more than one year...
Solid organ transplantation is a marvel of modern medicine; tens of thousands of patients await organs. Although the survival rate for transplant recipients has substantially improved over the past several decades, organ rejection remains a challenge. Transplant rejection mediated by alloreactive T cells, which react against tissue from a genetically distinct donor, and reperfusion injury, which is tissue damage that occurs when blood returns after oxygen deprivation, are two major mechanisms of long-term graft failure. A class of immunoglobulin M (IgM) autoantibodies of unknown function, which bind to leukocyte antigens and increase during inflammatory conditions, might help prevent such failure.. Because patients with high blood levels of such IgM antibodies show better transplant outcomes than those without, Lobo et al. examined whether these antibodies might protect against transplant rejection in mice. The authors transplanted genetically mismatched hearts into either wild-type or IgM ...
Oxford University scientists in the UK have shown that a powerful drug given at the time of a kidney transplant operation not only halves the early risk of rejection, but that it also allows a less toxic regimen of anti-rejection drugs to be used after the operation.
Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is rapidly produced by damaged nephron epithelia and is one of the most promising new markers of renal injury, delayed graft function and acute allograft rejection (AR);however, the functional importance of Lcn2 in renal transplantation is largely unknown. To understand the role of Lcn2 in renal AR, kidneys from Balb/c mice were transplanted into C57Bl/6 mice and vice versa and analyzed for morphological and physiological outcomes of AR at posttransplantation days 3, 5, and 7. The allografts showed a steady increase in intensity of interstitial infiltration, tubulitis and periarterial aggregation of lymphocytes associated with a substantial elevation in serum levels of creatinine, urea and Lcn2. Perioperative administration of recombinant Lcn2:siderophore:Fe complex (rLcn2) to recipients resulted in functional and morphological amelioration of the allograft at day 7 almost as efficiently as daily immunosuppression with cyclosporine A (CsA). No significant differences were ...
Rejection is a risk of transplantation. The phenomenon is usually caused by a reaction of the recipients immune system vis-à-vis the transplant, which it considers an invader. HLAs (human leucocyte antigens), which are present on the surface of all cells, are a sort of unique identifier for each person. In transplants, doctors try to avoid rejection by ensuring that the donor and recipient are compatible with regard to blood group and HLA antigens. Despite these precautions, one in ten transplants results in rejection. To solve this mystery, the researchers focused on blood vessels, an important component in transplantation. When blood vessels are damaged, rejection is more difficult to treat. We discovered that the damaged blood vessels release specific bits of cells: small membrane vesicles that put the immune system on alert. If we then perform a transplant, the immune system immediately attacks the donor organ, said Melanie Dieudé, a researcher at the CRCHUM and first author of the ...
What have we come to when grown people cannot take rejection? Did we never learn that as good as we might be, sometimes the other guy (or gal) is better?. Recently the organizers of a writing contest asked for prayer before they delivered the winning entries. Apparently, they feared the reactions of the losers. They even sent a letter of apology and encouragement for them.. Did this begin when we were passed through every grade simply because the new premise is that no one ever fails? Or was it because Mother didnt teach us to share? Or maybe the hockey coach made too much of us when we finally got our one goal of the season.. Rejection has a purpose and we miss out on that when we will not take rejection in stride.. But the rejection will force honesty, as God reveals who they really are. (Luke 2:35b, MSG). The thoughts of many hearts will be revealed. (Luke 2:35b, NIV). The secret thoughts and purposes of many hearts may be brought out and disclosed. (Luke 2:35b, AMP). So what does rejection ...
Rejection and criticism are part of being alive. We all experience it. The more we try to achieve something, impress someone, or get something, the more we will experience it. How well we accept it reflects our maturity. To accept rejection properly requires strength. For that reason, many psychologists advise us not to take it personally, even though we have invested so much. They suggest some form of emotional detachment, knowing that rejection does not necessarily imply that we are not good enough. Rejection does not also suggest that we are not worthy of someones love. We should avoid overthinking it and conclude that something is wrong with us. Rejection needs a strong personality, who will not take the sense of self from someones choice. According to experts, we should understand that our sense of self is completely independent of someones decision to accept or reject us. When we become aware that a person who rejected us has her own reasons. These reasons have usually been created by ...
Definition of rejections in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is rejections? Meaning of rejections as a finance term. What does rejections mean in finance?
Failed Allografts. The reasons for liver allograft failure vary with the time since transplantation(1-6). Primary dysfunction because of ischemic/preservation injury and hepatic artery thrombosis and subsequent bile duct necrosis are the most common causes of liver within the first several weeks. Humoral and severe acute cellular rejection also occur during this time, but they are uncommon causes of early allograft failure. Frequently, a combination of the above factors ultimately contribute to deterioration of graft function(1-6). Between 2-3 weeks and 6 months after transplantation, delayed complications of early technical problems, such as the biliary sludge syndrome from ischemic cholangitis(7, 8), acute rejection and rapidly developing cases of chronic rejection(9, 10) are the major causes of graft failure. There are still graft failures that occur more than 6 months after transplantation, as a result of delayed technical complications. These usually involve the hepatic artery and ...
Basiliximab is a monoclonal interleukin-2 receptor antagonist commonly used for induction immunosuppression in lung transplantation. This single centre retrospective review of 119 patients transplanted between 1994 and 2009 examined the impact of the timing of basiliximab dosing on the frequency and severity of acute rejection, the development of BOS, and overall survival. Pre-implantation administration of […]. ...
While immunosuppressive drugs now permit good control of acute allograft rejection, chronic rejection remains an important medical problem, and the induction of stable transplantation tolerance has not yet been achieved in patients. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a secosteroid hormone that …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiparametric Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Detect Acute Cardiac Allograft Rejection After Heart Transplantation. AU - Dolan, Ryan S.. AU - Rahsepar, Amir A.. AU - Blaisdell, J.. AU - Suwa, Kenichiro. AU - Ghafourian, Kambiz. AU - Wilcox, Jane E. AU - Khan, Sadiya Sana. AU - Vorovich, Esther Elizabeth. AU - Rich, Jonathan D. AU - Anderson, Allen Sawyer. AU - Yancy, Clyde W. AU - Collins, Jeremy D.. AU - Carr, James. AU - Markl, Michael. PY - 2019/8/1. Y1 - 2019/8/1. N2 - Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of multiparametric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) for the detection of acute cardiac allograft rejection (ACAR). Background: ACAR is currently diagnosed by endomyocardial biopsy, but CMR may be a noninvasive alternative because of its capacity for regional myocardial structure and function characterization. Methods: Fifty-eight transplant recipients (mean age 47.0 ± 14.7 years) and 14 control subjects (mean age 47.7 ± ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The yield of surveillance endomyocardial biopsies as a screen for cellular rejection in pediatric heart transplant patients. AU - Levi, Daniel S.. AU - DeConde, Adam S.. AU - Fishbein, Michael C.. AU - Burch, Caron. AU - Alejos, Juan C.. AU - Wetzel, Glenn T.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Endomyocardial biopsy is commonly used to screen for cellular rejection in pediatric heart transplant patients. The yield of EMBs when combined with newly developed immunohistochemical techniques and modern immunosuppression in pediatric heart transplant patients is unknown. After OHT, surveillance biopsies were performed on a routine basis on all pediatric patients. EMBs were also performed on symptomatic OHT patients suspected to have rejection. All positive results (greater than ISHLT grade 1B) were confirmed with immunohistochemical staining. A retrospective review of consecutive EMBs performed in this institution from January 1995 to January 2003 was performed. The echocardiographic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreas allograft rejection. T2 - Analysis of concurrent renal allograft biopsies and posttherapy follow-up biopsies. AU - Troxell, Megan L.. AU - Koslin, David Bradley. AU - Norman, Douglas. AU - Rayhill, Stephen. AU - Mittalhenkle, Anuja. PY - 2010/7/15. Y1 - 2010/7/15. N2 - Background: Pancreas and kidney allograft function is routinely monitored with serum studies (amylase, lipase, and creatinine). Increased levels commonly prompt tissue biopsy, to diagnose cause of graft dysfunction. Historically, pancreas allografts were infrequently biopsied, although serum enzymes and renal rejection may be poor surrogates for pancreas status. Methods: Pancreas allograft biopsies at our center were reviewed and reclassified according to University of Maryland (UMD) and Banff criteria; C4d immunostaining was performed. Findings were correlated with clinical data and renal allograft biopsies. Results: Fifty-six pancreas allograft biopsies from 27 patients were evaluated. UMD and Banff ...
Lung transplantation has become a therapeutic option for a number of end-stage pulmonary disorders. Lung transplant recipients experience more complications due to acute and chronic allograft rejection as compared to recipients of other solid organs. We postulated that the generation of TNF-alpha plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute lung allograft rejection. To test our hypothesis, we used a RT1-incompatible rat lung allograft model and demonstrated the time course, cellular source(s), and major compartment(s) of TNF production during the course of lung allograft rejection. This model allowed for immunogenetic standardization and reproducibility of lung allograft rejection across disparate major histocompatibility barriers. TNF production was characterized at the whole animal, organ, cellular, and molecular levels, and was found to be compartmentalized and expressed in a bimodal fashion from the lung allograft during lung allograft reimplantation and maximal rejection. Lung ...
Primary cilia are sensory organelles which co-ordinate several developmental/repair pathways including hedgehog signalling. Studies of human renal allografts suffering acute tubular necrosis have shown that length of primary cilia borne by epithelial cells doubles throughout the nephron and collecting duct, and then normalises as renal function returns. Conversely the loss of primary cilia has been reported in chronic allograft rejection and linked to defective hedgehog signalling. We investigated the fate of primary cilia in renal allografts suffering acute rejection. Here we observed that in renal allografts undergoing acute rejection, primary cilia were retained, with their length increasing 1 week after transplantation and remaining elevated. We used a mouse model of acute renal injury to demonstrate that elongated renal primary cilia in the injured renal tubule show evidence of smoothened accumulation, a biomarker for activation of hedgehog signalling. We conclude that primary cilium-mediated
OBJECTIVES: Primary cilia are sensory organelles which co-ordinate several developmental/repair pathways including hedgehog signalling. Studies of human renal allografts suffering acute tubular necrosis have shown that length of primary cilia borne by epithelial cells doubles throughout the nephron and collecting duct, and then normalises as renal function returns. Conversely the loss of primary cilia has been reported in chronic allograft rejection and linked to defective hedgehog signalling. We investigated the fate of primary cilia in renal allografts suffering acute rejection. RESULTS: Here we observed that in renal allografts undergoing acute rejection, primary cilia were retained, with their length increasing 1 week after transplantation and remaining elevated. We used a mouse model of acute renal injury to demonstrate that elongated renal primary cilia in the injured renal tubule show evidence of smoothened accumulation, a biomarker for activation of hedgehog signalling. We conclude that primary
Chronic rejection significantly limits long-term success of solid organ transplantation. De novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to mismatched donor human leukocyte antigen after human lung transplantation predispose lung grafts to chronic rejection. We sought to delineate mediators and mechanisms of DSA pathogenesis and to define early inflammatory events that trigger chronic rejection in lung transplant recipients and obliterative airway disease, a correlate of human chronic rejection, in mouse. Induction of transcription factor zinc finger and BTB domain containing protein 7a (Zbtb7a) was an early response critical in the DSA-induced chronic rejection. A cohort of human lung transplant recipients who developed DSA and chronic rejection demonstrated greater Zbtb7a expression long before clinical diagnosis of chronic rejection compared to nonrejecting lung transplant recipients with stable pulmonary function. Expression of DSA-induced Zbtb7a was restricted to alveolar macrophages (AMs), and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A predictive model for acute allograft rejection of liver transplantation. AU - Liu, Chien-Liang. AU - Soong, Ruey Shyang. AU - Lee, Wei Chen. AU - Chen, De Hsuan. AU - Hsu, Shang Hwa. PY - 2018/3/15. Y1 - 2018/3/15. N2 - Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has become an increasingly used treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, acute allograft rejection is still a problem in postoperative care of liver transplantation with immunosuppressive therapy and it can lead to allograft damage and harm the survival of liver transplantation patient. This work proposes to use data-driven approach to build a predictive model for acute rejection. We consider not only prediction accuracy, but also interpretability of the prediction outcome in building the predictive model, so that the medical staffs can identify how the prediction is induced from data. The experiments use the real data provided by liver transplantation intensive care unit (ICU) of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, ...
Lerner DL, Chapman Q, Green KG, Saffitz JE. Reversible down-regulation of connexin43 expression in acute cardiac allograft rejection. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2001 Jan; 20(1):93-7 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Current Australian practice in the prevention and management of corneal allograft rejection. AU - Barker, Nigel H.. AU - Henderson, Timothy R.M.. AU - Ross, Carolyn A.. AU - Coster, Douglas J.. AU - Williams, Keryn A.. PY - 2000/10. Y1 - 2000/10. N2 - Purpose: To determine current practice in the prevention and management of corneal allograft rejection in Australia. Methods: A questionnaire was circulated to attendees at the 1998 Eye Bank Meeting in Adelaide. Twenty-four responses were received and analysed. Results: All respondents used topical corticosteroids for routine prophylaxis and to treat established rejection episodes. Prednisolone acetate was the most frequently prescribed topical corticosteroid. Systemic non-steroidal immunosuppression was prescribed almost exclusively for high-risk grafts. Seventy-five per cent of surgeons used systemic antiviral agents for the treatment of graft rejection in patients with Herpes simplex keratitis. Conclusion: There was a wide ...
AIMS: Exosome-mediated microRNA transfer is a recently discovered mode of cell-to-cell communication, in which microRNAs act as paracrine molecules, exerting their regulatory effects in recipient cells. T cells and endothelial cells are two main players in the mechanism of acute cellular cardiac rejection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of exosomal microRNAs in the crosstalk between T cells and endothelial cells and its implications for the molecular mechanisms that drive acute cellular rejection in heart transplantation.. METHODS AND RESULTS: Exosomes isolated from serum samples of heart transplant patients with and without acute cardiac allograft rejection were profiled and showed enrichment of miR-142-3p, miR-92a-3p, miR-339-3p and miR-21-5p. Treatment of endothelial cells with the respected serum exosomes resulted the increased of miR-142-3p level in endothelial cells. Using T cells isolated from healthy donors and activated with either anti-CD3/CD28 antibody or IL-2/PHA, ...
The Banff Classification is a schema for nomenclature and classification of renal allograft pathology, established in 1991 by Kim Solez and Lorraine C. Racusen in Banff, Canada. The initiative was inspired by the then recent development of a consensus grading system for diagnosis of rejection in cardiac allografts led by Dr Margaret Billingham, a key participant at the first Banff meeting. Prior the Banff Classification there was no standardized, international classification for renal allograft biopsies, which resulted in considerable heterogeneity among pathologists in characterization of renal allograft biopsies. The first Banff schema was published in 1993, and has since undergone updates at regular intervals. The classification is expanded and updated every two years in meetings organized by the Banff Foundation for Allograft Pathology. An evaluation of the Banff Classification in March 2000 confirmed significant association between the revised Banff 97 classification and graft outcome. ...
Background. In renal transplantation, cold ischaemia (CI) determines acute rejection through innate immunity among others. Acute rejection episodes are a risk factor for late allograft dysfunction and proteinuria. This implies some alteration of the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Besides its effects on acute rejection, we hypothesized that CI might somehow damage the GFB being directly responsible for late proteinuria.. Methods. On rat kidney allografts suffering from antibody-mediated acute rejection with or without CI and compared with syngeneic grafts, we quantified the gene expression of innate and adaptive immune mediators and assessed the capillary glomerular basement membranes (CapBM) by immunostaining collagen-IV (ColIV). ColIV was also assessed in equivalent groups from a previous chronic study followed up for 24 weeks.. Results. CI up-regulated enzymes critical in the stabilization of collagen chains, increasing ColIV deposition and thickening the CapBM. CI increased the C4d and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-immunological risk factors associated with chronic allograft nephropathy following kidney transplantation. AU - Shiroki, Ryoichi. AU - Hoshinaga, Kiyotaka. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. N2 - Although the precise mechanisms are unclear, not only alloantigen-dependent but also antigen-independent factors are generally thought to influence the development of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Among the non-immunological determinants, there are various factors related with donor, recipient and graft procurement. As donor factors, age and cause of death were demonstrated to be significantly independent in long-term graft survival of cadaveric kidney transplantation. Grafts from aged donors and from donors with athelosclerosis showed poor prognosis on graft survival. Regarding recipient factors, cardiovascular complications, as hypertension and hyperlipidemia, were responsible for graft as well as patient survival. In addition, CMV infection and drug nephrotoxicity were also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combining theoretical and experimental techniques to study murine heart transplant rejection. AU - Arciero, Julia C.. AU - Maturo, Andrew. AU - Arun, Anirudh. AU - Oh, Byoung Chol. AU - Brandacher, Gerald. AU - Raimondi, Giorgio. PY - 2016/11/7. Y1 - 2016/11/7. N2 - The quality of life of organ transplant recipients is compromised by complications associated with life-long immunosuppression, such as hypertension, diabetes, opportunistic infections, and cancer. Moreover, the absence of established tolerance to the transplanted tissues causes limited long-term graft survival rates. Thus, there is a great medical need to understand the complex immune system interactions that lead to transplant rejection so that novel and effective strategies of intervention that redirect the system toward transplant acceptance (while preserving overall immune competence) can be identified. This study implements a systems biology approach in which an experimentally based mathematical model is used to ...
Allograft rejection and infection are the major sources of morbidity and mortality after heart transplant. Early differential diagnosis is clinically crucial but difficult. The aim of the study was to examine serum cytokine profiles associated with each entity and whether such profiles could help to differentiate between them. Heart allografts from Wistar rats were transplanted to Lewis rats as described by Yokoyama. Cardiac rejection and pulmonary bacterial infection were induced by Cyclosporine cessation and bacteria bronchus injection, and pathologically confirmed. Ninety serological cytokines profiles of the study objects were then simultaneously measured using a biotin label-based cytokine array. The fold change (FC) was used for relative cytokine concentration comparison analysis. Four cytokines in cardiac rejection group were significantly dysregulated as compared to health controls (β -Catenin, 0.51 FC; E-Selectin, 0.62 FC; IFN-gamma, 1.87 FC; and IL-13, 0.60 FC, respectively). In pulmonary
Purpose: : Previous studies have demonstrated that allergic conjunctivitis increases the incidence and tempo of corneal allograft rejection in mice. We wished to determine if Th2-based allergic inflammation in the lungs or Th1-based inflammation of the skin would exacerbate corneal graft rejection. Methods: : Airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was induced in BALB/c mice using either ovalbumin (OVA) or short ragweed extract (SRW). AHR was confirmed by plethysmography and by ELISA and histological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Contact hypersensitivity was induced by skin painting with oxazalone prior to corneal transplantation. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to donor alloantigens and to skin sensitization were determined using conventional ear-swelling assays. C57BL/6 corneal allografts were transplanted orthotopically to naïve mice, mice sensitized and challenged with oxazalone, or mice with ongoing AHR. Results: : Mice with ongoing AHR that was induced with SRW ...
Introduction: The development of de novo donor-specific antibodies (dnDSA) has been associated with rejection and graft loss in kidney transplantation, and DSA screening is now recommended in all kidney transplant recipients. However, the clinical significance of dnDSA in patients with a stable creatinine remains unclear. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 103 patients receiving a first, kidney alone transplant between 12/1/2007 and 12/31/2013. Inclusion criteria were age ,18 years old at the time of transplant and at least two years of DSA monitoring. All patients underwent DSA screening every 3 months post-transplant with additional testing as clinically indicated. No treatment was given for DSAs in the absence of biopsy-proven rejection. Results: 20 patients (19%) developed dnDSA in the setting of a stable creatinine and 13 patients (13%) developed dnDSA in the setting of an elevated creatinine. Median follow-up time post-transplant was 4.1 (IQR 2.9-5.7) years. In a Cox ...
Global Markets Directs, Heart Transplant Rejection - Pipeline Review, H1 2020, provides an overview of the Heart Transplant Rejection
Avoiding HLA-DR mismatching appears to be beneficial in pediatric kidney transplant patients, however the likelihood of finding a matching donor must be considered against the wait time for a possible donation, according to a report in the July issue of Archives of Surgery, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.. Although avoiding HLA [human leukocyte antigen; cell surface antigens that regulate host cell responses to transplanted cells] antigen mismatching has been shown to benefit long-term graft survival, it has raised concerns about disadvantaging minority groups, particularly black patients, and pediatric patients, who have severe growth retardation and other problems when dialysis is prolonged before transplantation, the authors write as background information in the article. Currently, only HLA-DR matching is considered in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) organ allocation system.. To examine the relationship between HLA-DR mismatching and rejection, graft survival and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heart transplant rejection with hemodynamic compromise. T2 - A multiinstitutional study of the role of endomyocardial cellular infiltrate. AU - Mills, R. M.. AU - Naftel, D. C.. AU - Kirklin, J. K.. AU - Van Bakel, A. B.. AU - Jaski, B. E.. AU - Massin, E. K.. AU - Eisen, H. J.. AU - Lee, F. A.. AU - Fishbein, D. P.. AU - Bourge, R. C.. AU - McGiffin, D. C.. AU - Weiss, T.. AU - Crosswyt, A.. AU - Austin, B.. AU - Early, L.. AU - Holmes, P.. AU - Veazey, M.. AU - Sims, P.. AU - Hubbard, K.. AU - Brush, J.. AU - Pritzker, M. R.. AU - Lake, K. D.. AU - OKane, M.. AU - Chapman, S.. AU - Hoffman, F.. AU - Seimers, N.. AU - Jorgensen, C.. AU - Pedersen, W.. AU - Joyce, L.. AU - Eales, F.. AU - Emery, R. W.. AU - Von Reuden, T.. AU - Bruhn, P.. AU - King, M.. AU - Arom, K.. AU - Hellman, K. J.. AU - Pacheco, D.. AU - Moore, C.. AU - Levin, S.. AU - Blair, P.. AU - Mudge, G. H.. AU - Jarcho, J.. AU - Johnson, P.. AU - Loh, E.. AU - Hobbs, R. E.. AU - Rincon, G.. AU - Bott-Silverman, ...
Adult mice can be rendered immunologically tolerant of allogeneic tissues if transplanted under cover of mAbs to CD4 and CD8. Tolerance generated in this manner is characterized by the presence of regulatory CD4+ T cells that can recruit naive T cells to become tolerant also through infectious tolerance. Regulatory CD4+ T cells can also suppress rejection of third party transplant Ags provided they are expressed on the same graft as the tolerated Ags. This process of linked suppression can act across whole MHC barriers and represents a powerful mechanism with therapeutic potential. Tolerance can also be induced to reprocessed minor transplantation Ags presented through host APCs (indirect recognition). We here demonstrate that linked suppression can also be induced through the indirect pathway. This finding may be important in the development of transplantation tolerance in the clinic.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preoperative psychological factors predicting graft rejection in patients undergoing kidney transplant: a pilot study. AU - Citterio, Franco. AU - Calia, Rosaria. AU - Lai, C. AU - Aceto, P. AU - Luciani, M. AU - Saraceni, C. AU - Lai, S. AU - Gargiulo, A. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretransplant psychological variables included in the CBA 2.0 Primary Scale-fear, personality, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, state and trait anxiety, psychological reactions, and depression-could predict graft rejection among patients undergoing kidney transplantation.. AB - The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretransplant psychological variables included in the CBA 2.0 Primary Scale-fear, personality, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, state and trait anxiety, psychological reactions, and depression-could predict graft rejection among patients undergoing kidney transplantation.. KW - Adult. KW - Analysis of Variance. KW - Female. KW - Graft ...
... SAN FRANCISCO July 30 2014 /-...The study shows that post-transplant treatment with C1-INH results in ... Antibody-mediated rejection is a severe form of rejection that can oc...The placebo-controlled single-center study evaluated 20 highly sensit...,Study,Suggests,C1-INH,May,Aid,in,Prevention,of,Antibody-Mediated,Rejection,Following,Kidney,Transplant,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
BACKGROUND: The traditional method for assessing HLA antibodies in recipient serum samples is the complement-dependent cytotoxicity testing (CDC). Recently, the highly sensitive microbead-based Luminex assay was introduced and can detect low levels of anti-HLA Abs.. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of pretransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSA) detectable by Luminex, despite a negative CDC crossmatch, on the outcomes of kidney transplantation. The correlation and cut-off value of panel reactive antibody (PRA) and DSA was also evaluated.. METHODS: Pre-transplant sera from 116 kidney transplant recipients with a negative CDC crossmatch were assessed for donor-specific HLA antibodies by using Luminex single antigen beads. The patients received kidney transplants at Ramathibodi Hospital between January 2003 and December 2007. The results were correlated with kidney graft outcomes.. RESULTS: DSA were found in 24.1% (28/116) of all recipients. Of the twenty-eight DSA positive patients, four ...
Backgrounds: Acute rejection and graft arterial disease (GAD) in cardiac transplantation are enhanced by inflammation and thrombus formation. However, little is known about the effect of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in heart transplantation. Thus, the objective was to clarify the role of PAI-1 in the progression of rejection.. Methods and Results: Murine hearts were heterotopically transplanted using major mismatch combinations for evaluation of acute rejection and class II mismatch combinations for the GAD. We performed administration of the specific PAI-1 inhibitor (IMD-1622) into murine recipients of cardiac allografts. Nontreated allografts of the major mismatch group were acutely rejected (n=6; 7.3±0.2 days), while the PAI-1 inhibitor prolonged their survival (n=6; 13.7±2.4 days, P , 0.05). Pathologically, severe myocardial cell infiltration (40.8±3.3 %) and fibrosis (44.5±2.8 %) were observed in untreated allografts, the PAI-1 inhibitor attenuated infiltration (25.8±1.9 ...
We describe a caucasian 17-year old male, transplanted at three years of age because of ESRD due to congenital nephrotic syndrome (Finnish type), who lost his first graft due to chronic allograft nephropathy. While on the waiting list, he presented a progressive rise in Panel Reactive Antibodies levels (PRA 99.61%). The patient received a desensitization protocol based on plasmapheresis (PP), immunoglobulins and Rituximab, with minor response (post desensitization PRA 75%). He was enrolled in a National Protocol for organs allocation to immunized patients and received his second non-living HLA-compatible kidney transplant at the age of 16. He had prompt function of his allograft. On postoperative day 30 he developed a biopsy-proven antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) [Figure 1].. Post-transplant immunological monitoring showed donor-specific anti-DQ5 antibodies (DSA) that were already present at the time of transplantation. The patient received three methylprednisolone pulses and 45 PP sessions, ...
With the improved survival achieved in the 1980s it has become apparent that graft rejection is a major problem following liver transplantation [1]. Hyperacute rejection is uncommon, although syndromes of fulminant graft failure due to immunological mechanisms have been described. Acute cellular rejection occurs in approximately 70% of patients and usually responds to high-dose steroids. Between 10 and 15% develop chronic rejection, characterised by a progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts which is irreversible [2]. The principal targets of both acute and chronic liver allograft rejection are intrahepatic bile ducts and endothelium [2]. The increased ability of these cell types to express MHC antigens and adhesion molecules may be responsible for their involvement [2, 3] and may be enhanced by the release of proinflammatory cytokines associated with viral infection, particularly CMV [3]. Although the importance of HLA matching remains unknown patients transplanted with ABO incompatible
Australian Medicines Handbook section 14.5.3 Anti-thymocyte globulin is indicated for the prophylaxis of renal graft rejection as well as the treatment of steroid-resistant renal transplant rejection. Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease. However, 15-35% of transplant recipients will experience one episode of acute rejection in the first year. Giving antibody to deplete thymocytes (T cells) is one way to suppress the immune system to prevent or reverse graft rejection. Anti-thymocyte globulin is a polyclonal antibody against human T cells. It is a gamma immunoglobulin produced by immunising rabbits. As well as depleting T cells in the circulation, anti-thymocyte globulin is also thought to reduce T cell proliferation, homing and cytotoxic effects within the body. Depletion of T cells occurs within a day of starting intravenous treatment. This immunoglobulin has been compared to other treatments in renal transplant patients who are also ...
Allograft rejection is the consequence of the recipients alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of antigen presentation. In the direct pathway, recipient T cells react to intact allogeneic MHC molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. This pathway would activate host CD4 or CD8 T cells. In contrast, donor MHC molecules (and all other proteins) shed from the graft can be taken up by host APCs and presented to recipient T cells in the context of self-MHC molecules - the indirect pathway. Such presentation activates predominantly CD4 T cells. A direct cytotoxic T-cell attack on graft cells can be made only by T cells that recognize the graft MHC molecules directly. Nontheless, T cells with indirect allospecificity can contribute to graft rejection by activating macrophages, which cause tissue injury and fibrosis, and are also likely to be important in the development of an alloantibody response ...
References. 1. Gjertson DW: Survival trends in long-term first cadaveric donor kidney transplants; in: Terasaki PI (ed): Clinical Tranplantation 1991. Los Angeles, UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory p 225. 2. Paul LC, Benediktsson H: Chronic transplant rejection. Transplant Reviews 1993;7:96-113. 3. Tullius SG, Tilney NL: Both alloantigen-dependent and independent factors influence chronic allograft rejection. Transplantation 1995;59:313-318. 4. Kahan BD: Toward a rational design of clinical trials of immunosuppressive agents in transplantation. Immunol Review 1993;136:29-49. 5. Ludwig J, Wiesner RH, Batts KP, Perkins JD, Krom RA: The acute vanishing bile duct syndrome (acute irreversible rejection) after orthotopic liver transplantation. Hepatology 1987;7:476-483. 6. Kobashigawa JA, Katznelson SA, Laks H, Johnson JA, Yeatman L, Wang XM, Chia D, Terasaki PI, Sabad A, Cogert GA, Trosian K, Hamilton MA, Moriguchi JD, Kawata N, Hage A, Drinkwater DC, Stevenson LW: Effect of pravastatin on outcomes after ...
Purpose.: We investigated the phenotype of macrophages infiltrating rejected corneal allografts. Methods.: We performed allogeneic or syngeneic corneal transplantation in mice, and humanely killed animals at day 28 during allograft rejection when 60% of corneal allografts were rejected. We divided allografts into two groups: grafts with rejection as rejectors and grafts without rejection as nonrejectors, and analyzed for macrophage infiltration and their phenotype using immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated the time course of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by analyzing corneal grafts at days 7, 28, and 42 using real-time RT-PCR. Also, we assayed human corneal allografts with chronic graft failure. Results.: We found that a large number of CD11b+, F4/80+, or inducible nitrous oxide synthase cells (iNOS+) infiltrated corneal allografts during rejection in mice, while the cells were found rarely in syngeneic or allogeneic grafts that were not rejected. There were rare CD11c+ ...
Partial table of contents: A Short History of Renal Transplantation (R. Calne). Considerations in Organ Transplantation (R. Kerman). Pretransplantation and Posttransplantation Psychosocial Evaluation. (G. Wolff). Impact of Recipient Age on Renal Allograft Outcome (G. Arbus & D. Hebert). Steroid Withdrawal After Renal Transplantation (E. Ingulli & A. Tejani). Treatment of Acute Rejection (G. Offner). Urologic Complications in Renal Transplantation (O. Salvatierra). Noncompliance to Medical Regimens (B. Cole). Malignancy in Children (I. Penn). Long-Term Outcome of Kidney Transplantation in Children (D. Potter). Index.Pediatric Renal Transplantation, 1 was published 1994 under ISBN 9780471591207 and ISBN 0471591203. [read more] ...
Role of T cell recruitment and chemokine-regulated intra-graft T cell motility patterns in corneal allograft rejection.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
This chapter will cover four conditions related to kidney (cadaver renal transplant [CRT], living-related renal transplant [LRRT]), simultaneous kidney-pancreas (SPKT), pancreas after kidney (PAKT), and pancreas (PTA) transplants: rejection, allograft dysfunction, anatomic complications and infection. The basic principles hold for all of the different transplants. Clinical features may overlap and therefore a high index of suspicion is required. Monitoring of laboratory tests (blood urea nitrogen/creatinine [BUN/Cr], amylase, lipase, glucose), ultrasound, biopsy, and a close relationship with the transplant surgeon and/or transplant nephrologist is paramount.. Rejection. Kidney and pancreas rejection can be either acute or chronic, with acute rejection being more common. Acute rejection generally can occur in the first few weeks to several months after transplant. Chronic rejection is usually a result of several episodes of acute rejection and presents as progressive deterioration of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quadruple immunosuppression in a pig model of small bowel transplantation. AU - Gruessner, Rainer W G. AU - Fasola, Carlos. AU - Fryer, Jon. AU - Nakhleh, Raouf E.. AU - Kim, Sung. AU - Gruessner, Angelika C.. AU - Beebe, David. AU - Moon, Chul. AU - Troppmann, Christoph. AU - Najarian, John S.. PY - 1996/2/15. Y1 - 1996/2/15. N2 - Rejection remains a major obstacle to successful small bowel transplantation in humans, irrespective of the immunosuppressants. Previous large animal studies have not used quadruple immunosuppression (with high- dose intravenous cyclosporine A [CSA]) for induction, followed by triple immunosuppression for maintenance therapy. Nor have immunosuppressive doses been comparable to clinical solid organ transplants. We studied, in 78 nonrelated outbred pigs, the effect of quadruple immunosuppression (including horse anti-pig thymocyte globulin [ATG] and high-dose intravenous CSA) on the incidence and severity of rejection in the early, critical ...
In addition to an improvement in survival post-transplantation, the studies of Kobashigawa et al. (77) and Wenke et al. (78) provide evidence for an immunomodulatory effect of statins. Pravastatin significantly decreased the rate of haemodynamically important rejection episodes (P, 0·01), associated with improved survival (77). This finding was reproduced in a small pilot study in renal transplant recipients, in whom pravastatin therapy also significantly reduced the incidence of acute rejection episodes (80).. The mechanism by which statins may interfere with the aggressive immunologically mediated process underlying allograft rejection remains unclear. One possible mechanism involves an indirect effect on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin. As this agent is lipophilic it is transported in the blood in LDL and HDL cores. Cyclosporin binding to lipoproteins accounts for approximately 35% of whole blood levels, thus any change in LDL-cholesterol may interfere with the removal of cyclosporin ...
Bierer, Barbara E., et al. Regulation of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Graft Rejection Following Bone Marrow. Transplantation 46.6 (1988): 835-839.. ...
Outcomes of cardiac transplantation have been improved with immunosuppressive therapies that effectively reduce the risk of rejection and with prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. With the current management leading to decreased likelihood of hyperacute and acute rejections, efforts have been focused on improving long-term survival by targeting post-transplant complications associated with chronic rejection. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) has been 1 of the main causes of mortality for heart transplant recipients (1). The CAV progression has been traditionally managed with mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, such as sirolimus and everolimus. Though mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors have been successful in ameliorating or preventing CAV, they frequently cause many significant side effects, like pancytopenia, wound healing issues, renal dysfunction and hyperlipidemia (2). This has limited their widespread use. Statins have been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of ...
In organ transplantation, infection and rejection are major causes of graft loss. They are linked by the net state of immunosuppression. To diagnose and treat these conditions earlier, and to improve long-term patient outcomes, refined strategies for the monitoring of patients after graft transplantation are needed. Here, we show that a fast and inexpensive assay based on CRISPR-Cas13 accurately detects BK polyomavirus DNA and cytomegalovirus DNA from patient-derived blood and urine samples, as well as CXCL9 messenger RNA (a marker of graft rejection) at elevated levels in urine samples from patients experiencing acute kidney transplant rejection. The assay, which we adapted for lateral-flow readout, enables-via simple visualization-the post-transplantation monitoring of common opportunistic viral infections and of graft rejection, and should facilitate point-of-care post-transplantation monitoring. A fast and inexpensive point-of-care assay based on CRISPR-Cas13 accurately detects the DNA of
The improvement in graft function observed in the 1990s occurred during a discrete period of time between 1994 and 1997. Before and after these years, the mean GFR remained stable. This period of improvement coincides with the rapid adoption of mycophenolate mofetil for azathioprine in calcineurin-based immunosuppression protocols. The multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that not only mycophenolate mofetil but also use of tacrolimus was associated with improved GFR. Although the reduction in the rejection rate had a positive impact on graft function during the 1990s, it cannot explain the majority of the improvement noted in GFR between the two eras, because both patients with and without rejection improved almost equally in the two eras. To what extent immunologic versus nonimmunologic factors resulted in this improvement is unclear.. Subclinical rejection, which may be an important determinant of graft function, is a possible immunologic cause for the improvement in graft ...
In the present study, the predictors and outcomes associated with the trajectories of peer rejection were examined in a longitudinal sample of Italian children (338 boys, 269 girls) ages 10 to 14 years. Follow-up assessments included 60% of the original sample at age 16-17. Low, medium, and high rejection trajectory groups were identified using growth mixture models. Consistent with previous studies, we found that (a) being less prosocial and more physically aggressive at age 10 was characteristic of those children with the high rejection trajectory; (b) being less attractive was related to higher peer rejection from age 10 to 14; and (c) boys with a high rejection trajectory showed high levels of delinquency and anxiety-depression and low levels of academic aspiration at age 16-17, whereas girls with a high rejection trajectory showed low levels of academic aspiration and social competence at age 16-17 ...
In graft rejection[edit]. Any cell displaying some other HLA type is "non-self" and is seen as an invader by the body's immune ... They are the major cause of organ transplant rejections. They may protect against or fail to protect (if down-regulated by an ... This is particularly important in the case of transplanted tissue, because it could lead to transplant rejection. Because of ... Donor-specific HLA antibodies have been found to be associated with graft failure in kidney, heart, lung, and liver ...
Corneal graft rejection. Survey of Ophthalmology, 52(4), 375-396. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2007.04.008 McCarey, B. E., Kaufman ... The types corneal rejection include epithelial rejection, chronic rejection, hyperacute rejection and endothelial rejection and ... It is used in a corneal transplantation procedure (also corneal grafting) whereby the whole, or part, of a cornea is replaced. ... During this time, anti-rejection drops will be needed to minimise inflammation; the dosage of which is carefully monitored by a ...
Lymphocyte-dependent antibody and renal graft rejection.. Lancet. 1975; 1(7913):953-4. Fu, Y.; Sun, Z.; Fuchs, E. J.; Wang, Y ... Antibody-mediated transplant rejection involves B cell and plasma cell activation resulting in the generation of donor-specific ... This became the standard method, still used today, for graft allocation. With PRA that identifies several antibodies to a ... AHG and DTE/AHG procedure identification of crossmatch-appropriate donor-recipient pairings that result in improved graft ...
With nipple grafts comes the possibility of rejection. In such cases, the nipple is often tattooed back on cosmetically or ... Nipple grafts are generally associated with double incision style chest reconstruction, but may be used in any reconstruction ... A transverse inframammary incision with free nipple areolar grafts may be one approach. If there is too much blousing of the ... Some sensation will usually return to the grafted nipples over time. However, the procedure severs the nerves that go into the ...
Corneal Graft Rejection on eMedicine "Atlas of Ophthalmology". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07 ... Khodadoust AA, Silverstein AM (February 1976). "Induction of corneal graft rejection by passive cell transfer". Investigative ... This medical condition is similar to organ rejection after an organ transplant, except that it involves immunological rejection ... A Khodadoust Line or chronic focal transplant reaction is a medical sign that indicates a complication of corneal graft surgery ...
"Skin graft rejection by beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 175 (4): 885-93. doi: ...
The use of autologous grafts prevents transplantation rejection reactions. Grafts used for oral reconstruction are preferably ... However, skin grafts differ from oral mucosa in: consistency, color and keratinization pattern. The transplanted skin graft ... there is a risk of the graft not being able to lose its original donor tissue characteristics. For example, skin grafts are ... Autologous grafts are used to transfer tissue from one site to another on the same body. ...
"Immunology of Transplant Rejection: Overview, History, Types of Grafts". 2017-03-09. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) ... Additionally, it is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto- ... Immunosuppressants are administered in order to help prevent rejection; however, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections ... "Transplant rejection: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2017-07-14. " ...
It is the sign of onset of graft rejection. Blood cell lineage "What Are Agranulocytes? - Definition & Function - Video & ...
Rejection of cutaneous grafts or transplantable tumors may be delayed. In addition, infection will increase the sensitivity of ... In the 1970s, studies concerning the importance of MHC locus were done exclusively in transplantation and tumor rejection. ...
Lin CM, Gill RG (February 2016). "Direct and indirect allograft recognition: pathways dictating graft rejection mechanisms". ... Rejection mediated by T lymphocytes sensitized by direct allorecognition pathway is predominant in the short period after the ... of passenger cells while indirect recognition contributes to continuing graft damage and plays role in chronic rejection. The ... In this case the alloantigens derived from graft are internalized, processed and presented in form of peptides by recipient's ...
Raghavan U, Jones NS, Romo T (2004). "Immediate autogenous cartilage grafts in rhinoplasty after alloplastic implant rejection ... Tidwell JK, Blijdorp PA, Stoelinga PJ, Brouns JB, Hinderks F (August 1992). "Composite grafting of the maxillary sinus for ... and platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material: a six-year experience". Implant Dentistry. 20 (1): 2-12. doi:10.1097/ID. ...
S. domuncula has been used for study of graft rejection. Researchers have discovered that apoptotic factors are induced in the ... S. domuncula was the first demonstrated immune response of invertebrate species (1). These sponges also have similar graft- ... Allograft rejection in the mixed cell reaction system of the demospongeSuberites domunculais controlled by differential ...
These are the same T-cells that mediate graft rejection. This means that the addition of donor-veto cells to the donor graft ... Graft rejection is the main problem. Addition of donor-veto cells to the graft can provide one solution to this problem. Veto ... The large number of veto cells helped overcome the graft rejection that was mediated by the host CD8 T-cell precursors. An ... Transfer of these Anti-3rd party Tcm with megadose TCD HSCT in preclinical models was successful at preventing graft rejection ...
In organ transplant the goal was to explain graft rejection for recipients, and of course, to prevent future rejection. From ... This is called allograft [allo = different, graft(medical) = transplant] rejection. To explain rejection in a nutshell, certain ... The pilot suffered severe burns requiring skin grafts; however, skin grafts were a risky business at the time, often being ... Within days the skin grafts from the brother were completely destroyed. Successive skin grafts from the brother were destroyed ...
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... Graft-versus-tumor effect[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-tumor effect. Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT) or "graft versus ... Graft-versus-host disease[edit]. Main article: Graft-versus-host disease. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is an inflammatory ... To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic HSCT, the donor ...
... but additionally include graft rejection (lifelong), detachment or displacement of lamellar transplants and primary graft ... There is a risk of cornea rejection, which occurs in about 10% of cases. Graft failure can occur at any time after the cornea ... and leflunomidprevent to prevent graft rejection is increasing but there is insufficient evidence to ascertain which ... "Immunosuppressants for the prophylaxis of corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty". Cochrane Database of ...
... critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection". Transplantation. 85 (9): 1339-47. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e31816dd64a ... "Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients" ... While during infection T cell exhaustion can develop following persistent antigen exposure after graft transplant similar ... and are also implicated in transplant rejection. These cells are also known as CD8+ T cells since they express the CD8 ...
The main reason for this is tissue graft rejection caused by MHC incompatibility. In humans and other vertebrates, the immune ...
... graft versus host reaction, GVHR); rejection of H2-incompatible grafts (skin, heart, bone marrow, etc.) by the recipients; and ... were also responsible for the rejection of incompatible grafts. Klein, with his coworker Vera Hauptfeld and his wife Dagmar ... Skin grafting and other methods indicated inbreeding within the demes, but sharing of certain alleles between the demes ...
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... To limit the risks of transplanted stem-cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic HSCT, the donor ... Also, the incidence of patients experiencing rejection is very rare (and graft-versus-host disease impossible) due to the donor ... Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT), or "graft versus leukemia", effect is the beneficial aspect of the GVHD phenomenon. For ...
Cell encapsulation, technology made to overcome the existing problem of graft rejection in tissue engineering applications ...
The aim of modifying the allograft is usually the mitigation of immunological graft rejection. Transient genetic allograft ... In allograft engineering the graft is substantially modified by altering its genetic composition. The genetic modification can ...
"Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: a case report". Indian J Ophthalmol. 56 ( ...
Tan, HH; Fiel, MI; Rio Martin, J; Schiano, TD (Jun 2009). "Graft rejection occurring in post-liver transplant patients ... is a variant of rejection and may lead to a negative outcome in patients with hepatitis C virus". Liver Transpl. 14 (6): 861-71 ... "Effect of ischemia-reperfusion on the incidence of acute cellular rejection and timing of histologic hepatitis C virus ...
The common symptom of graft dysfunction, whether due to infection, rejection, or some other condition, is diarrhea. Intestinal ... In a multivisceral graft, the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, and/or colon may be included in the graft. Multivisceral grafts are ... Immunosuppression is the primary determinant of outcome in small bowel transplantation; the risk for graft rejection is ... In the most basic and common graft, an isolated intestinal graft, only sections of the jejunum and ileum are transplanted. ...
Hersh PS, Jordan AJ & Mayers M. Corneal graft rejection episode after excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy. Arch. Ophthal ...
February 2003). "Individualized T cell monitored administration of ATG versus OKT3 in steroid-resistant kidney graft rejection ... Muromonab-CD3 is approved for the therapy of acute, glucocorticoid-resistant rejection of allogeneic renal, heart and liver ... Unlike the monoclonal antibodies basiliximab and daclizumab, it is not approved for prophylaxis of transplant rejection, ... is an immunosuppressant drug given to reduce acute rejection in patients with organ transplants. It is a monoclonal antibody ...
These achievements include the following: initial description of the immunological nature of corneal graft rejection; discovery ...
When the grafts were rejected, Woodruff determined that rejection must be controlled by additional factors. In 1951 Woodruff ... He took advantage of this access and his wife's skills as a lab assistant to investigate in utero grafts (tissue grafts ... an eminent zoologist and important pioneer in the study of rejection. The two men discussed transplantation and rejection, ... Woodruff's work with the allografts gave him a solid basis to work in the developing field of transplantion and rejection. To ...
Exhaustive differentiation of alloreactive CD8+ T cells: critical for determination of graft acceptance or rejection (PDF). ... Disappearance of T Cell-Mediated Rejection Despite Continued Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Late Kidney Transplant Recipients. ... CMV Primary Infection Is Associated With Donor-Specific T Cell Hyporesponsiveness and Fewer Late Acute Rejections After Liver ...
Graft-versus-host disease. *Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. *Transplant rejection. Transplant networks. and ... A hand transplant was performed in Ecuador in 1964, but the patient suffered from transplant rejection after only two weeks due ...
An advantage to this approach is that a person's own stem cells are used, avoiding tissue rejection by the patient's immune ... Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injury at eMedicine. ...
Her most recent work involves the development of autologous vascular grafts from cells of bone marrow, known as the myeloid, ... to reduce the risk of rejection. In 1992, Campbell founded the Australian Vascular Biology Society, which she cites as the ... She has used the same technology to grow bladder and uterine graft with long-term viability. These discoveries have been ... have potential use as access fistulae for haemodialysis patients and as coronary artery bypass grafts. ...
Part of Frankenstein's rejection of his creation is the fact that he does not give it a name, which causes a lack of identity. ... Although the creature would be described in later works as a composite of whole body parts grafted together from cadavers and ...
Gentiles (believers in Christ other than Jews) have been grafted into the vine. In Christ there is neither Jew nor Gentile but ... The supreme sin for him was the persistent rejection of God's revelation of himself in Christ. The centuries of Jewish ... Luther's reliance on the Bible as the sole source of Christian authority fed his later fury toward Jews over their rejection of ...
Several laboratory methods exist for determining the efficacy of antibodies or effector cells in eliciting ADCC. Usually, a target cell line expressing a certain surface-exposed antigen is incubated with antibody specific for that antigen. After washing, effector cells expressing Fc receptor CD16 are co-incubated with the antibody-labelled target cells. Effector cells are typically PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cell), of which a small percentage are NK cells (Natural Killer cell); less often they are purified NK cells themselves. Over the course of a few hours a complex forms between the antibody, target cell, and effector cell which leads to lysis of the cell membrane of the target. If the target cell was pre-loaded with a label of some sort, that label is released in proportion to the amount of cell lysis. Cytotoxicity can be quantified by measuring the amount of label in solution compared to the amount of label that remains within healthy, intact cells. The classical method of detecting ...
The value of allergen labeling other than for intentional ingredients is controversial. This concerns labeling for ingredients present unintentionally as a consequence of cross-contact or cross-contamination at any point along the food chain (during raw material transportation, storage or handling, due to shared equipment for processing and packaging, etc.).[10][11] Experts in this field propose that if allergen labeling is to be useful to consumers, and healthcare professionals who advise and treat those consumers, ideally there should be agreement on which foods require labeling, threshold quantities below which labeling may be of no purpose, and validation of allergen detection methods to test and potentially recall foods that were deliberately or inadvertently contaminated.[106][107] Labeling regulations have been modified to provide for mandatory labeling of ingredients plus voluntary labeling, termed precautionary allergen labeling (PAL), also known as "may contain" statements, for ...
Graft-versus-host disease[5]. *Chronic transplant rejection. See also[edit]. *Type I hypersensitivity ...
Choice of graft[edit]. Type[edit]. Typically, age and lifestyle help determine the type of graft used for ACL reconstruction.[ ... Because the tissue used in an autograft is the patient's own, the risk of rejection is minimal. ... Types of grafts[edit]. Grafts are inserted through a tunnel that is drilled through the shin bone (tibia) and thigh bone (femur ... With a hamstring graft, this number doubles, decreasing the risk of re-injury. The stiffness of a hamstring graft-quadruple ...
An interesting inverse relationship exists between infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. In areas where multiple infectious diseases are endemic, autoimmune diseases are quite rarely seen. The reverse, to some extent, seems to hold true. The hygiene hypothesis attributes these correlations to the immune manipulating strategies of pathogens. While such an observation has been variously termed as spurious and ineffective, according to some studies, parasite infection is associated with reduced activity of autoimmune disease.[17][18][19] The putative mechanism is that the parasite attenuates the host immune response in order to protect itself. This may provide a serendipitous benefit to a host that also suffers from autoimmune disease. The details of parasite immune modulation are not yet known, but may include secretion of anti-inflammatory agents or interference with the host immune signaling. A paradoxical observation has been the strong association of certain microbial organisms with ...
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis) · Transplant rejection · Latex allergy (I+IV). ...
... treatment of donor graft sites, and hard to heal burn wounds in the elderly. Bland, Eric (November 23, 2009). "Spray-on skin ... eliminating tissue rejection, minimizing scar formation and reintroducing normal pigmentation, vascularization and innervation ...
Health care providers. Given the ubiquitous use of latex products in health care settings, management of latex allergy presents significant health organizational problems. Those healthcare workers-such as physicians, nurses, aides, dentists, dental hygienists, operating room employees, occupational therapists, laboratory technicians, and hospital housekeeping personnel-who frequently use latex gloves and other latex-containing medical supplies are at risk for developing latex allergy.[25] Between about 4% to 17% of healthcare workers have a reaction, which usually presents as Irritant Contact Dermatitis. This contact dermatitis can develop further through allergic sensitivity to a status of full anaphylactic shock. Apart from the uncomfortable and in some cases life-threatening health implications, this will effectively hinder the person from working with any amount of latex and could impede their chance of maintaining their vocation.[26] In the surgical setting, the risk of a potentially ...
Skin grafts between non-related cheetahs illustrate this point: there is no rejection of the donor skin. ...
... and graft compatibility[edit]. HLA-B is one of three major HLAs that should be matched between donors and recipients. ... the likelihood and severity of rejection is minimized.[6] ...
However they reject grafts from other species but accept them from other members of their own species. In a few marine species ... gray cells play the leading role in rejection of foreign material. When invaded, they produce a chemical that stops movement of ...
Tumor rejection by in vivo administration of anti-CD25 (interleukin-2 receptor alpha) monoclonal antibody. „Cancer Res". 59 (13 ... CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T Cells: new therapeutics for graft-versus-host disease. „J Exp Med". 196 (3), s. 401-406, ... Prevention of acute and chronic allograft rejection with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T lymphocytes. „Nat Med". 14 (1), s. 88-92 ... Ex vivo selection of recipient-type alloantigen-specific CD4(+)CD25(+) immunoregulatory T cells for the control of graft-versus ...
The transplantation of larger solid organs often requires immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection or graft vs host disease ...
Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs- ... This allows for allogeneic treatments to be performed without a high rejection risk.[64] ... leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment.[5] ... "New Insight for the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease". Mediators Inflamm. 2014: 701013. doi ...
The graft is given a break from humoral rejection[28] when the complement cascade is interrupted, circulating antibodies are ... Cellular rejection[edit]. Rejection of the xenograft in hyperacute and acute vascular rejection is due to the response of the ... these include hyperacute rejection, acute vascular rejection, cellular rejection, and chronic rejection. ... Acute vascular rejection[edit]. Also known as delayed xenoactive rejection, this type of rejection occurs in discordant ...
This holds the risk that in case of acute rejection in which the face must be removed, she would not have enough tissue for ... A triangle of face tissue from a brain-dead woman's nose and mouth was grafted onto the patient. On 13 December 2007, the first ... The recipient of a face transplant will take life-long medications to suppress the immune system and fight off rejection.[1] ... The surgeons then connected facial graft vessels to the patient's blood vessels in order to restore blood circulation in the ...
... but has not been shown to reduce graft rejection.[6] Mannitol acts as an osmotic laxative[12] in oral doses larger than 20 g,[ ...
Transfusion-associated graft versus host disease. Unknown/. multiple. Foreign. *Hypersensitivity pneumonitis *Allergic ...
... essential that the HLA complexes of both the donor and recipient be as closely matched as possible to prevent graft rejection. ... Rejection and the side effects of preventing rejection (especially infection and nephropathy) were, are, and may always be the ... Among his advances was the tubed pedicle graft, which maintained a flesh connection from the donor site until the graft ... causing transplant rejection. The risk of transplant rejection can be estimated by measuring the Panel reactive antibody level ...
Transplanting only ABO-compatible grafts (matching blood groups between donor and recipient) helps prevent rejection mediated ... Acute rejection[edit]. Developing with formation of cellular immunity, acute rejection occurs to some degree in all transplants ... Immunologic mechanisms of rejection[edit]. Rejection is an adaptive immune response via cellular immunity (mediated by killer T ... Rejection detection[edit]. Diagnosis of acute rejection relies on clinical data-patient signs and symptoms but also calls on ...
The modern period, beginning in 1920, saw major developments in research into the cause and treatment of discoid and systemic lupus. Research conducted in the 1920s and 1930s led to the first detailed pathologic descriptions of lupus and demonstrated how the disease affected the kidney, heart, and lung tissue.[115] A major breakthrough was made in 1948 with the discovery of the LE cell (the lupus erythematosus cell-a misnomer, as it occurs with other diseases as well). Discovered by a team of researchers at the Mayo Clinic, they discovered that the white blood cells contained the nucleus of another cell that was pushing against the white's cell proper nucleus.[116] Noting that the invading nucleus was coated with antibody that allowed it to be ingested by a phagocytic or scavenger cell, they named the antibody that causes one cell to ingest another the LE factor and the two nuclei cell result in the LE cell.[117] The LE cell, it was determined, was a part of an anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) ...
... and the term homovital graft might be used in reference to grafts whose cells must continue to grow and reproduce for the graft ... An immune response against an allograft or xenograft is termed rejection. An allogenic bone marrow transplant can result in an ... These grafts persist however as homostatic grafts and are completely replaced by host tissues in time.) "Composite Tissue ... Unlike allografts, such grafts do not corporate into the body. As with many operations, allotransplantation also has some side ...
... Dietlind Tittelbach-Helmrich,1,2 Dirk Bausch,1,2 Oliver Drognitz,1 ... acute rejection episodes and long-term graft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients," Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 87 ... is an additional risk factor for early renal graft loss associated with acute vascular rejection," Transplantation, vol. 69, no ... S. C. Jordan, H. K. Yap, R. S. Sakai, P. Alfonso, and M. Fitchman, "Hyperacute allograft rejection mediated by anti-vascular ...
A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow ... Rejection of parental grafts by resistant F I hybrid mice. J Exp Med 134: 1513-1528CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Cudkowicz G (1975b): Rejection of bone marrow allo-grafts by irradiated athymic nude mice. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 16: 170-177 ... I. Graft rejection by irradiated responder mice. J Exp Med 134: 83-102CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Hints: Click on a [map] link to show a map of that region. Click on a [studies] link to search within your current results for studies in that region. Use the back button to return to this list and try another region. Studies with no locations are not included in the counts or on the map. Studies with multiple locations are included in each region containing locations ...
... is a major cause of late renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Risks and benefits of treatment of late ABMR have not been ... Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a major cause of late renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Risks and benefits of ... Antibody-mediated renal allograft rejection (ABMR) is a major cause of late allograft dysfunction and graft loss [1-3]. The ... Fatal Pneumococcus Sepsis after Treatment of Late Antibody-Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection. ...
Pfizer is currently recruiting for the NCT00266123 Graft Rejection, Kidney Failure, Kidney Transplant Cancer trial. Review ...
Treating donor corneas with a cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients Treating donor tissue with a special ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ... Eight weeks post-transplantation, they noted a significant increase in graft survival (68.7 percent of treated grafts had ...
Treating corneal grafts with a cocktail of cytokines prior to implantation may free transplant patients from the burden of ... investigated outcomes of corneal transplants in mouse eyes with a high-risk for graft rejection (inflamed and vascularized ... during which the authors observed a significant increase in graft survival: 67% of cytokine-treated grafts survived compared ... Treating corneal grafts with a cocktail of cytokines prior to implantation may free transplant patients from the burden of ...
269 Studies found for: MYCOPHENOLIC ACID AND Antitubercular AND graft AND rejection ...
Treatment was successful in reversing the graft rejection in 32/34 (94%) eyes. Irreversible graft failure occurred in one eye ... During a mean follow-up period of 19.2 ± 16.7 months (range 1-55 months), further episodes of graft rejection were seen in 1/32 ... Conclusion Our 5-year experience with the use of oral CSA in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection has shown this ... Treatment of corneal graft rejection included 1% prednisolone eye drops, intravenous infusion of 500 mg methyl prednisolone, ...
... Nat Immunol. 2002 Sep;3(9):844-51. doi: ... Such rejection is interferon-gamma-dependent and only occurs if the recipient endothelium expresses H-2(b). The findings ... We show here, however, that anti-H-Y monospecific, H-2(b-restricted MataHari CD8(+) T cells reject H-2(k) male skin grafts, ...
Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection. ... Endothelial chimerism and vascular sequestration protect pancreatic islet grafts from antibody-mediated rejection. ... did not accelerate the rate of islet graft attrition, suggesting resistance to humoral rejection. Murine DSAs bound to ... Humoral rejection is the most common cause of solid organ transplant failure. Here, we evaluated a cohort of 49 patients who ...
... tissues of mice chronically infected with LCM virus undergo an antigenic change which can be detected by transplant rejection. ... MOUSE PARVOVIRUS INFECTION POTENTIATES ALLOGENEIC SKIN GRAFT REJECTION AND INDUCES SYNGENEIC GRAFT REJECTION1 *Maureen D. ... Rejection of Skin Grafts from Mice chronically infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus by non-infected Syngeneic ... HOLTERMANN, O., MAJDE, J. Rejection of Skin Grafts from Mice chronically infected with Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus by ...
Xenotransplantation - graft rejection detection??. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and ... Th2 cytokines for example, to evaluate the function of T-cells, which are responsible for the graft rejection. Antibodies ...
Non-interventional-study With Tacrolimus Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Renal Graft Rejection. This study has been ... A Single-site, Prospective Non-interventional-study With Adport Sandoz© Capsules for Prophylaxis of Graft Rejection in Patients ... Efficacy of Adport Sandoz© in prevention of renal graft rejection by observing serum creatinine levels [ Time Frame: ... Efficacy of Tacrolimus Sandoz© in prevention of renal graft rejection by observing serum creatinine levels [ Time Frame: ...
Acute rejection Body mass index Graft survival Kidney transplantation Obesity Pediatrics Electronic supplementary material. The ... Obesity in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and the risks of acute rejection, graft loss and death. ... at the time of transplantation and the subsequent development of acute rejection (within the first 6 months), graft loss and ... recipients diagnosed with obesity have a substantially increased risk of allograft failure but not acute rejection of the graft ...
This prospective study included six patients at high risk for graft rejection who were treated with oral mycophenolate mofetil ... This prospective study included six patients at high risk for graft rejection who were treated with oral mycophenolate mofetil ... Combination sirolimus/mycophenolate therapy may help prevent graft rejection in high-risk patients ... Endothelial rejection episodes occurred in three patients at two, four, and 10 months after transplantation. Rejection was ...
... ... Blockade of Lymphocyte Chemotaxis in Visceral Graft-versus-Host Disease - pdf attached. Ran Reshef, M.D., Selina M. Luger, M.D ... "Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of death and complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell ... Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of death and complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell ...
Xenogeneic skin graft rejection is especially dependent on CD4+ T cells.. Pierson RN 3rd1, Winn HJ, Russell PS, Auchincloss H ... Furthermore, the addition of cyclosporine was synergistic with the anti-CD4 antibody in prolonging graft survival. These ... or both anti-T cell antibodies together in an effort to prolong xenogeneic compared with allogeneic skin graft survival. Mice ...
... for graft rejection. There was evidence of incremental increase of risk for graft failure and rejection as more corneal ... is thought to be associated with an increased rate of corneal graft failure and potentially also graft rejection. ... An increase in the risk of graft failure and rejection in the presence of pathologic CNV was seen in studies with a pooled risk ... Graft failure and rejection risk increase with an increasing number of corneal quadrants affected by neovascularization before ...
Keywords: deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, keratoconus, stromal rejection, graft rejection-like reactions, early ... However, some patients with KC experience graft rejection-like inflammatory reactions within 2 months (usually in the first ... Although a clear corneal graft in the pupillary area was obtained and best-corrected visual acuity was good after the ... We collected data on the characteristics and incidence of severe inflammatory graft reactions in the early postoperative phase ...
The Role of Graft Expressed Fas-Ligand on Allograft Rejection MD Dooldeniya ; MD Dooldeniya ... MD Dooldeniya, F Morgan, PJ Dyson, AN Warrens; The Role of Graft Expressed Fas-Ligand on Allograft Rejection. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 ... Early isolated V-lesion may not truly represent rejection of the kidney allograft Clin Sci (Lond) (October,2018) ... Serum Amyloid a Levels in Human Renal Allograft Rejection Clin Sci (Lond) (November,1983) ...
Cytomegalovirus and chronic rejection of liver grafts.. PhD thesis The Open University. ... This thesis tested the hypothesis that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may initiate or enhance chronic rejection of liver grafts. A ... Active CMV infection of the graft, especially epithelial cells, was associated with chronic rejection.. Finally, human ... Matching and mismatching of HLA alleles between donor and recipient was not shown to be a risk factor for chronic rejection. ...
To mimic immune rejection of the xenografts, we used an adoptive transfer model in which islet grafts were severely challenged ... This study demonstrated that our approach could protect pancreatic islet grafts from immune rejection and could potentially be ... Downregulation of factors that mediate immune rejection using RNA interference holds promise for improving islet graft ... A Theranostic Small Interfering RNA Nanoprobe Protects Pancreatic Islet Grafts From Adoptively Transferred Immune Rejection. ...
This study provides evidence that respiratory viruses per se do not promote acute graft rejection, at least during the acute ... Upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections and acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis ... Respiratory viruses are not associated with acute graft rejection during the acute phase of infection ... Respiratory viruses are not associated with acute graft rejection during the acute phase of infection ...
... After Allogeneic Hematopoietic ... Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion as Prevention for Graft Rejection and Graft-versus-host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic ... Mesenchymal Stem Cell Infusion as Prevention for Graft Rejection and Graft-versus-host Disease After Allogeneic Hematopoietic ...
Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, NK cells may display ... Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) ... On the other hand, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection constitutes a risk factor directly associated to the rate of graft ... The dual role of NK cells in the interrelation of HCMV infection with rejection deserves attention. Further phenotypic, ...
Graft rejection is often difficult to distinguish from graft failure and is presumed to be immunologic rejection by the host of ... Graft rejection is a major cause of graft failure and is due to an immune response of residual post immune cells against donor ... Determine if graft rejection and consider DLI.. Determine if graft failure/loss and consider additional donor stem cells with ... Graft failure/rejection occurs in ,1% of recipients of matched sibling bone marrow or stem cell grafts treated with a ...
... describe a novel strategy to promote the tolerance of corneal transplants in patients at high risk for rejection by targeting ... that work together to promote tolerance of the graft by the transplant recipients immune system. ... Treating donor corneas with a cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, ... New technique may prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplant patients. by Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary ...
The use of an artificial cornea in patients who have experienced multiple immunologic graft rejections is more likely to result ... Belin said, and if we look at the subset of just patients with immunologic graft rejection, not ocular surface disease, the ... The use of an artificial cornea in patients who have experienced multiple immunologic graft rejections is more likely to result ... The use of an artificial cornea in patients who have experienced multiple immunologic graft rejections is more likely to result ...
Both rejection and graft vasculopathy (GV) seriously endanger long-term outcomes, eventually leading to graft failure. GV ... Adipose-derived Stromal Cells attenuate Acute Rejection and Graft Vasculopathy in Rodent Vascularized Composite ... Systemic (SASC) versus local intragraft (LASC) ASC administration was evaluated for therapy of acute rejection and GV in fully ... GV was observed during acute rejection in small arterioles, but not in femoral vessels, and was significantly reduced after ...
  • Xenogeneic skin graft rejection is especially dependent on CD4+ T cells. (
  • B6 mice were treated in vivo with anti-CD4, anti-CD8, or both anti-T cell antibodies together in an effort to prolong xenogeneic compared with allogeneic skin graft survival. (
  • Requirement of CD4 T cells for skin graft rejection against thymus leukemia (TL) antigen and multiple epitopes on the TL molecule recognized by CD4 T cells. (
  • By selective depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in vivo using the respective mAbs, we demonstrate that CD4 T cells are necessary for skin graft rejection against thymus leukemia (TL) Ag. (
  • the kinetics of KIL-2 H-Y-disparate skin graft rejection (MST 14 days) did not differ significantly from controls (MST 16 days), suggesting that upregulation of IL-2 at the effector site could affect CD4(-) T cell-independent. (
  • We wished to determine whether CD4+ T cells could reject a skin graft that was discordant for a single minor transplantation Ag in the absence of CD8+ T cells or Ab. (
  • These results indicate that CD26 is involved in allogeneic skin graft rejection and suggests a potential role of CD26-deficiency in repressing the immune rejection in clinical organ transplantation. (
  • Connection between the anti-organ and anti-nuclear titres of antilymphocyte sera and their inhibitory effect on skin graft rejection in mice. (
  • Linked suppression of skin graft rejection can operate through indirect recognition. (
  • DI-fusion Skin graft rejection elicited by beta 2-microglobulin as a. (
  • Skin graft rejection elicited by beta 2-microglobulin as a minor transplantation antigen involves multiple effector pathways: role of Fas-Fas ligand interactions and Th2-dependent graft eosinophil infiltrates. (
  • Skin graft survival and antidonor rat humoral responses were quantified. (
  • Similar results were observed in sensitized [OP] -/- and control mouse recipients, showing markedly prolonged rat skin graft survival in [OP] -/- mice. (
  • To investigate this question, we therefore used a skin graft model in BALB/c mice whe. (
  • Therefore, treatment strategies are not standardized, and decisions regarding type and intensity of treatment have to be made on an individual basis, trying to weigh the chances of treatment success with prolongation of graft survival against the risks of increased immunosuppression. (
  • BOSTON) - Treating donor corneas with a cocktail of molecules prior to transplanting to a host may improve survival of grafts and, thus, outcomes in high-risk corneal transplant patients, according to a new study led by researchers at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. (
  • With the goal of improving survival of cornea grafts for patients in the high-risk category, the authors of the Scientific Reports study developed a technique in preclinical models to make the donor tissue more likely to be accepted by the host, rather than tweaking the immune system of the host to accept the donated tissue. (
  • Eight weeks post-transplantation, they noted a significant increase in graft survival (68.7 percent of treated grafts had survived, while none of the control grafts had survived). (
  • however, passive transfer of the same DSAs did not affect islet graft survival in murine models. (
  • C ) Islet graft survival curves for recipients on immunosuppression with (solid line) or without DSA (dashed line) are compared. (
  • Furthermore, the addition of cyclosporine was synergistic with the anti-CD4 antibody in prolonging graft survival. (
  • The long-term survival and function of islet grafts is compromised by immune rejection-related factors. (
  • On the other hand, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection constitutes a risk factor directly associated with the rate of graft loss and reduced host survival. (
  • Maryam Tahvildari et al, Treatment of donor corneal tissue with immunomodulatory cytokines: a novel strategy to promote graft survival in high-risk corneal transplantation, Scientific Reports (2017). (
  • Immunosuppressive regimens have significantly improved long-term graft survival in the last decades but they still cannot prevent the allograft from chronic graft dysfunction and they remain a significant obstacle for the welfare of transplanted patients, thus, in the last years, improvement of allograft survival has stagnated ( 1 ). (
  • The objective of this study is to conduct prospective clinical studies to investigate the impact of generic immunosuppressants on short term acute rejection and long term patient graft survival. (
  • However, the impact of introduction of generic immunosuppressants on long term graft survival was never systematically evaluated in well controlled clinical studies. (
  • The question whether the brand to generic switch or switch among multiple generic products may introduce clinically relevant changes in drug exposure and thus affect acute rejection, adverse events, and long term graft survival remains debated in transplant community. (
  • The present study was designed to investigate the potency and safety of KRP-203 on allograft survival against both acute and chronic rejection in rat skin and heart transplantation. (
  • Conclusions- These findings demonstrated that KRP-203 prolonged skin and heart allograft survival and significantly attenuated chronic rejection and bradycardia as an adverse effect. (
  • Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) were introduced to clinical use in the 1980s and have improved graft and patient survival after organ transplantation. (
  • The long-term outcome of graft and patient survival is highly influenced by the occurrence of chronic rejection. (
  • The clinical outcome of penetrating keratoplasty was evaluated by the rate of rejection-free graft survival and graft survival evaluation by the Kaplan-Meier logrank test. (
  • Rejection-free graft survival rates were 60.8% in group 1 and 54.5% in group 2 (Kaplan-Meier logrank test, p = 0.474). (
  • The difference in the graft survival rates between the groups was also not statistically significant (Kaplan-Meier logrank test, p = 0.518). (
  • This study analyzed graft survival for 220 pairs of cadaveric kidneys for the similarity of parameters reflecting function and rejection. (
  • Parameters reflecting function showed sustained pairing posttransplantation, as did graft survival. (
  • In contrast, measures of rejection strongly affected survival but showed no pairing. (
  • Six-month graft survival and renal function were reduced in grafts for which the mate kidney displayed any criteria for functional impairment (dialysis dependency, low urine output [≤1 L] in the first 24 h posttransplant or day-7 serum creatinine ≥ 400 μmol/L), even for kidneys which themselves lacked those criteria. (
  • In contrast, rejection affects survival and function, but it is not primarily determined by the characteristics of the donor tissue. (
  • Graft survival reflects both of these influences. (
  • Donor factors influence initial graft function and survival ( 5 - 8 ). (
  • In this study, we compared mate kidneys for the similarity of function (low urine output, dialysis dependency, serum creatinine [SCr]), as well as rejection and graft survival. (
  • Although there was no change in the three stages of BOS, there was a trend towards improved survival (P = 0.062) and a significant decrease in graft loss due to BOS (P = 0.049) in patients receiving MMF. (
  • As a potential consequence, MMF significantly reduced graft loss due to BOS and tended to improve overall survival in these patients. (
  • Long term survival of orthotopic LEW liver grafts in WF rats:elimination or inactivation of effector CTL and altered antigenicity as possible reasons for tolerance. (
  • Additionally, other clinical parameters such as baseline demographics, graft and recipient survival and other severe postoperative complications, including complicated urinary tract infection, severe pneumonia, and severe bleeding, will be also assessed. (
  • Moreover, prolonged ischemic time leads to a significantly earlier and greater onset of acute rejection, which also exerts an adverse effect on graft survival. (
  • However, MHC Class 1-disparate skin grafts from KIL-2 donors were rejected faster (median survival time (MST) 12 days) than grafts of non-transgenic littermate skin (MST 18 days), In contrast. (
  • The primary endpoints comprised the rate and the severity of acute rejection episodes as well as the 3-year graft function and survival. (
  • Furthermore, the patient and graft survival as well as the serum creatinine levels upon discharge and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months were also comparable. (
  • Since its first successful attempt in 1954, kidney transplantation (KT) has witnessed tremendous progression in graft survival (GS), as well as acute rejection (AR) rate and severity. (
  • IgG-DSA and C1q-DSA MFI were measured and correlated with graft loss or survival. (
  • Conclusions A rapid reduction of DSA concentration below the threshold required for complement activation is associated with better graft survival, and C1q-DSA is a better predictor of outcomes than IgG-DSA MFI reduction. (
  • This single centre retrospective review of 119 patients transplanted between 1994 and 2009 examined the impact of the timing of basiliximab dosing on the frequency and severity of acute rejection, the development of BOS, and overall survival. (
  • In vivo, administration of MSCs significantly reduced delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to allogeneic antigen and profoundly prolonged the survival of fully allogeneic islet grafts in transplant recipients. (
  • However, long-term acceptance and survival of transplanted islets is currently limited mainly due to immune-mediated rejection and/or recurrence of autoimmunity. (
  • Eliminating recipient DCs reduces the proliferation and survival of graft-infiltrating T cells and abrogates ongoing rejection or rejection mediated by transferred effector T cells. (
  • AHG and DTE/AHG procedure identification of crossmatch-appropriate donor-recipient pairings that result in improved graft survival. (
  • H. Ekberg, P. J. Svensson, M. Simanaitis, and B. Dahlbäck, "Factor V R506Q mutation (activated protein C resistance) is an additional risk factor for early renal graft loss associated with acute vascular rejection," Transplantation , vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 1577-1581, 2000. (
  • The observation was unexpected, as transplantation antigens are known to be inherited codominantly (Snell, 1953) and therefore parental marrow grafts should not be subject to immunological rejection mechanisms. (
  • Here we report preliminary experiments involving transplantation of cells from virus carrier mice to syngeneic non-infected recipients which suggest that tissues of mice chronically infected with LCM virus undergo an antigenic change which can be detected by transplant rejection. (
  • Its role in the treatment of acute cadaveric renal allograft transplantation was first reported in 1983, 11 and our group has used a combination of topical steroids, intravenous pulse methyl prednisolone, and oral CSA in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection. (
  • Using data from the ANZDATA Registry (1994-2013), we assessed the association between age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) at the time of transplantation and the subsequent development of acute rejection (within the first 6 months), graft loss and death using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. (
  • Of the 750 children, 102 (16.2%) experienced acute rejection within the first 6 months of transplantation, 235 (31.3%) lost their allograft and 53 (7.1%) died. (
  • Endothelial rejection episodes occurred in three patients at two, four, and 10 months after transplantation. (
  • Finally, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was not detected in serum, whole blood or liver graft tissue by PCR and was not an important pathogen after liver transplantation. (
  • Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a major cause of death and complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). (
  • Downregulation of factors that mediate immune rejection using RNA interference holds promise for improving islet graft resistance to damaging factors after transplantation. (
  • This study demonstrated that our approach could protect pancreatic islet grafts from immune rejection and could potentially be applied to allotransplantation and prevention of the autoimmune recurrence of T1DM in islet transplantation or endogenous islets. (
  • Allograft rejection constitutes a major complication of solid organ transplantation requiring prophylactic/therapeutic immunosuppression, which increases susceptibility of patients to infections and cancer. (
  • Corneal neovascularization is a distinctive sign of immune privilege crash of cornea, which is the main incentive to induce the graft rejection after corneal transplantation. (
  • To avoid the graft rejection after corneal transplantation of alkali burned cornea, conbercept eye drop was used to prevent the graft rejection following corneal transplantation. (
  • We demonstrate that total CD8 + CD45RC low/− Tregs can be efficiently expanded in the presence of anti-CD3/28 mAbs, high-dose IL-2 and IL-15 and that such expanded Tregs efficiently delay GVHD and human skin transplantation rejection in immune humanized mice. (
  • The presence of small B cell clusters during the first 2 months after transplantation was not associated with early rejection. (
  • In transplantation, a major obstacle for graft acceptance in MHC-matched individuals is the mismatch of minor histocompatibility Ags. (
  • More specifically, the present invention relates to (1) a pharmaceutical composition for suppressing, treating or preventing transplant rejection (immune rejection) associated with transplantation of an organ or part thereof or tissue, and (2) The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for increasing the effect of suppressing, treating or preventing transplant rejection (immunorejection) associated with transplantation of an organ or a part thereof or a tissue by an immunosuppressant. (
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft rejection are major problems following intestinal transplantation (IT). (
  • Van Thiel, David H. / NK activity during graft-versus-host disease and graft rejection in rats following intestinal semiallogenic and allogenic transplantation with or without mesenteric lymphadenectomy . (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with potent anti-inflammatory, regenerative and immune-modulatory properties are considered as a candidate to prevent both DGF and acute rejection in renal transplantation. (
  • Here, we propose a prospective multicenter controlled study to assess the clinical value of allogeneic MSCs in preventing both DGF and acute rejection simultaneously as induction therapy in deceased-donor renal transplantation. (
  • This study will clarify the clinical value of UC-MSCs in preventing DGF and acute rejection simultaneously in deceased-donor renal transplantation, and provide evidence as to whether allogeneic MSCs can be used as clinically feasible and safe induction therapy. (
  • This development of corneal transplantation models in the rat and mouse-facilitated studies of rejection in inbred donor and recipient animals showed a wide range of investigative immunological reagents. (
  • Proposed graft-recipient corneas with two or more quadrants of deep vascularisation or one bearing a previously rejected graft that is inflamed at the time of transplantation are at significantly higher risk of rejection. (
  • Once transplantation is successfully completed, care must be taken to prevent postoperative events that lead to rejection, for example, vascularization of recipient cornea or graft wound, suture loosening, or graft infection. (
  • Van Thiel, D. H. / NK activity during graft-vs-host disease and graft rejection in rats following intestinal transplantation . (
  • In the transplantation setting, humoral immune responses that target the donor tissue are undesirable and can lead to antibody mediated rejection (AMR). (
  • This shows that it is possible to regulate immune rejection by transplanting immune regulatory cells derived from iPSCs before cell or tissue transplantation. (
  • Moreover, CD26 is associated with many diseases and the mechanisms of CD26 in some of these diseases such as in immune rejection of organ transplantation have not been fully elucidated. (
  • After allogeneic tail-skin transplantation, in comparison to wild-type (CD26+/+) mice, CD26-/- mice showed reduced necrosis of grafts and delayed graft rejection. (
  • It is also known that glomerular margination of leucocytes occur early after transplantation and was associated with DSA level and early graft dysfunction. (
  • KIR gene and KIR ligand analysis to predict graft rejection after renal transplantation. (
  • METHODS: In this study, we have evaluated whether acute rejection after reduction of immunosuppression after renal transplantation was associated with peripheral blood NK cell frequencies or with predicted NK cell alloreactivity based on KIR gene and ligand analysis. (
  • Our preliminary results showed that macrophages infiltrated islet grafts shortly after transplantation in both syngeneic and allogeneic recipient mice, but the number of infiltrating macrophages increased significantly in the allografts during progression of acute rejection. (
  • These results point to macrophage involvement in the initial inflammatory response after islet transplantation in both syngeneic and allogeneic grafts and to an active role during ensuing acute rejection of the allografts. (
  • Hyperacute graft rejection during heart transplantation for giant cell myocarditis: a case report. (
  • Home Research Outputs Fear of graft rejection 1-5 years after lung transplantation. (
  • Aim: To explore the perceived threat of the risk of graft rejection and its relationship to psychological general well-being and self-efficacy 1-5 years after lung transplantation. (
  • It is used in a corneal transplantation procedure (also corneal grafting) whereby the whole, or part, of a cornea is replaced. (
  • This approach may also protect the graft from subsequent episodes of allograft rejection. (
  • CD122 + PD-1 + CD8 + Tregs efficiently inhibited skin allograft rejection in mice upon adoptive transfer and were more efficient at inhibiting islets allograft rejection than CD4 + CD25 + Tregs ( 23 , 24 ). (
  • We investigated the potential of predicting allograft rejection by measuring the ability of graft-infiltrating cells to take up 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([18F]FDG). (
  • Allograft rejection occurs most commonly in the second 6 months post-grafting, and it has been reported that more than 10% of the observed reactions can take place as late as 4 years after surgery. (
  • Chronic Allograft Rejection Associated Vasculopathy and Synthetic Biodegradable Vascular Grafts: A Lesson to Learn? (
  • CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that MSCs can prevent islet allograft rejection leading to stable, long-term normoglycemia. (
  • We therefore hypothesized that local cell-cell contacts between macrophages and effector T lymphocytes promote conversion of infiltrating M2 macrophages, typically involved in wound healing and tissue remodeling, to M1 macrophages which subserve effector cell function in islet allograft rejection. (
  • 2011). We will accomplish the objective of this application by pursuing the following three specific aims: (1) Macrophages are necessary for efficient islet allograft rejection~ (2) Infiltratng macrophages acquire M1 phenotype during acute rejection~ and (3) Macrophage M2/M1 conversion is mediated through local cell-cell contacts with T lymphocytes. (
  • Association of factor V Leiden mutation with delayed graft function, acute rejection episodes and long-term graft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients," Thrombosis and Haemostasis , vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 194-198, 2002. (
  • Live imaging revealed that DSAs were sequestrated in the circulation of the recipients and failed to reach the endocrine cells of grafted islets. (
  • Over 10 years of follow-up, pediatric transplant recipients diagnosed with obesity have a substantially increased risk of allograft failure but not acute rejection of the graft or death. (
  • Recipients with the TNF-2 promoter allele (associated with enhanced expression of TNF) were at increased risk of chronic rejection. (
  • 1 The pathogenesis of GVHD is multifactorial, but ultimately, donor-derived T cells recognize recipient antigens as foreign, resulting in activation, expansion, and cytokine release and leading to destruction of host tissues.2 Current therapies for GVHD target T cells and cytokines, often antagonize T-cell-mediated graft-versus-tumor responses, and delay immune reconstitution.3 Preventing GVHD without intensive immune suppression would represent a major advance for HSCT recipients. (
  • Upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections and acute graft rejection in lung transplant recipients. (
  • Treating 100 recipients with tacrolimus instead of cyclosporin would avoid 12 suffering acute rejection, two losing their graft but cause an extra five to become insulin-requiring diabetics. (
  • At six months graft loss was significantly reduced in tacrolimus-treated recipients (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.86), and this effect was persistent up to three years. (
  • Aim of this study was to compare rejected grafts of adult and three week old immature recipients in the rat keratoplasty model on an immunohistological basis. (
  • The "high-risk phenotype" of corneal graft recipients is considered to be related to preexisting vascularization such as that associated with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) keratitis (HSK). (
  • In contrast, syngeneic grafts in nonvascularized HSV-infected recipients failed if they were performed within 10 days of HSV infection, an effect that was dependent on CD4 T cells, as demonstrated using CD4 deficient mice. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppression with MMF significantly decreased the incidence, severity and recurrence of acute rejection episodes in lung transplant recipients. (
  • In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) or SD-Brown Norway (BN) F 1 rat intestine was transplanted into BN recipients with and without associated graft mesenteric lymphadenectomy (GML). (
  • this decreases to 35% to 70% in recipients with high-risk factors for rejection. (
  • While reversal of acute graft rejection episodes does not present such challenges in the cornea as in other transplanted tissues, effective prophylaxis in corneal graft recipients identified at high risk of rejection is much less evidence-based. (
  • Their use in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) was aiming mainly to avoid early AR historically known to predict graft loss 3 , in patients suffering from delayed graft function (DGF) 4 and in many immunosuppression protocols used to avoid or to minimize calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) 5 based immunosuppression therapy. (
  • Surprisingly, the transfer of either Th1 or Th2 CD4+ T cell lines from these mice into T cell-depleted recipients was sufficient to cause a specific rejection of male skin. (
  • All recipients have some amount of acute rejection. (
  • The results also showed that depletion of macrophages in allograft recipients delayed rejection. (
  • Results: The lung recipients reported an overall low perceived threat of the risk of graft rejection with no gender differences. (
  • This prospective study included six patients at high risk for graft rejection who were treated with oral mycophenolate mofetil in combination with sirolimus for one year after penetrating keratoplasty. (
  • One of the largest causes for issue in penetrating keratoplasty is the natural immune rejection of a transplanted corneal button which can cause reversible or irreversible damage to the grafted cornea. (
  • Almost three decades ago, G. Cudkowicz (Cudkowicz and Cosgrove, 1961) made the curious observation that irradiated (A × B)F1 hybrid mice transplanted with parental bone marrow from either parent A or parent B may acutely reject one but not the other graft. (
  • Perhaps not surprisingly, the phenomenon of acute parental marrow graft rejection in F1 hybrid mice, also called hybrid resistance (HR), found its counterpart in the ability of irradiated mice to acutely reject allogeneic marrow grafts (Cudkowicz and Bennett, 1971a). (
  • Cud-kowicz, 1975a), and the rejection of H-2 k marrow by strain 129 mice maps to the K region (Cudkowicz and Warner, 1979). (
  • Cudkowicz G (1975a): Genetic control of resistance to allogeneic and xenogenic bone marrow grafts in mice. (
  • Cudkowicz G (1975b): Rejection of bone marrow allo-grafts by irradiated athymic nude mice. (
  • I. Graft rejection by irradiated responder mice. (
  • Rejection of parental grafts by resistant F I hybrid mice. (
  • The skin expressing T3b-TL Ag from transgenic C3H Tg.Con.3-1 mice given chimeric H-2Kb/T3b-TL gene was rejected when grafted onto C3H/He recipient mice. (
  • CD8 CTL were generated in MEM (control)-treated C3H/He recipient mice, while Thy-1+ CD4- CD8- CTL were generated in CD8-depleted recipient mice after rejection. (
  • A novel cell type responsible for marrow graft rejection in mice. (
  • Syngeneic and allogeneic (C57BL/6 mice) corneal grafts were performed in mice with HSK at different times after infection. (
  • Some grafts were performed on HSV-infected CD4 T cell-deficient BALB/c mice. (
  • Corneal grafts in mice with HSK rejected with higher frequency and more rapid tempo compared with grafts in uninfected mice. (
  • Rejection of an IA^+ variant line of FBL-3 leukemia by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes with CD4^+ and CD4^-CD8^-T-cell receptor αβ phenotype generated in CD8-depleted C57BL/6 mice. (
  • Roles of CD8^+ and CD4^+ cells on lethal graft-versus-host disease in nude mice. (
  • These KIL-2 transgenic mice were used to investigate the effects of localized IL-2 dysregulation on immune responses, Peripheral tolerance to skin antigens was not broken by in situ IL-2 expression because syngeneic KIL-2 skin grafts were not rejected. (
  • No effect on rejection kinetics was observed when wild type allogeneic skin was grafted onto transgenic mice that expressed bcl2 constitutively In their lymphocytes (MST of 14 days, birth sets), indicating that this was not simply due to Increased longevity of T cells within the IL-2 expressing graft. (
  • The team then transplanted thymic epithelial cells from recipient mice derived from iPSCs and skin grafts from donor mice that were genetically compatible. (
  • The results showed that skin grafts in recipient mice lasted longer if thymic epithelial cells derived from iPSC were transplanted. (
  • Less infiltrated macrophages and T cells were detected in the graft tissues of CD26-/- mice during graft rejection. (
  • IL-5 mediates eosinophilic rejection of MHC class II-disparate skin allografts in mice. (
  • Methods: Xenogeneic rat skin grafts were transplanted to macrophage colony, stimulating factor (M-CSF)/macrophage-deficient osteopetrotic ([OP] -/- ) and wild-type control mice. (
  • Levels of T-cell-dependent antirat antibodies [immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a and IgG3] in sera of [OP] -/- mice were significantly lower than that of control mice 2 weeks post-rat skin grafting. (
  • Rejection of skin grafts from different inbred strains by nude mice reconstituted with allogeneic or congenic thymus cell suspensions. (
  • However, higher incidences of delayed graft function (DGF) and acute rejection exert adverse effects on graft outcomes. (
  • We did not find any significant difference between the 2 groups regarding the length of hospital stay, the rate and severity of acute rejection, the rate of CMV infection, the occurrence of delayed graft function and the rate and type of surgical complications at 1 year. (
  • The findings, published online in Scientific Reports , describe a novel strategy to promote the tolerance of corneal transplants in patients at high risk for rejection by targeting antigen-presenting cells in donor tissues with a combination of two cytokines, TGF-β and IL-10, that work together to promote tolerance of the graft by the transplant recipient's immune system. (
  • Systemic (SASC) versus local intragraft (LASC) ASC administration was evaluated for therapy of acute rejection and GV in fully mismatched rat hind-limb transplants after discontinuation of immunosuppression (FK-506). (
  • The chemotherapy drug cyclophosphamide prevents graft-versus-host (GVHD) disease in people who receive bone marrow transplants through an immune system cell that evades the toxic effects of cyclophosphamide and protects patients from a lethal form of GVHD. (
  • Chimerism and clinical outcome data from 244 hematopoietic stem cell transplants in 218 children were retrospectively analyzed to assess their relevance for the detection of graft rejection and malignant relapse. (
  • Even though medicines are used to suppress the immune system, organ transplants can still fail because of rejection. (
  • Lymphoid-Like Structures with Distinct B Cell Areas in Kidney Allografts are not Predictive for Graft Rejection. (
  • However, in the absence of preexisting inflammation and vascularization, syngeneic grafts were accepted when the grafts were performed at a late time point after HSV infection (42 days), whereas allografts were rejected at this time. (
  • Whereas in biodegradable grafts this 'healing process' appears to be self limiting, in allografts the process goes on beyond the needs of functional repair, eventually, in some cases, leading to total vascular occlusion. (
  • Therefore, induction therapy is widely used in KT to improve both short- and long-term graft outcomes. (
  • An increase in the risk of graft failure and rejection in the presence of pathologic CNV was seen in studies with a pooled risk ratio of 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-1.49) for graft failure and 2.07 (95% CI, 0.98-3.15) for graft rejection. (
  • The risk of graft failure or rejection has decreased over the years with more effective transplant procedures, but when this occurs, mortality rates remain high. (
  • Preoperative characteristics of the graft-recipient eye can be identified in many patients to indicate a significantly high risk of graft failure. (
  • Furthermore, one or more of the above factors may predispose the patient to rejection due to additional clinical features that confer a significant risk of graft failure. (
  • Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a major cause of late renal allograft dysfunction and graft loss. (
  • Since ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and ongoing process of immune response to grafts are the major causes of DGF and acute rejection, the optimal induction intervention should possess capacities of both repairing renal structure injury and suppressing immune response simultaneously. (
  • Lymphocyte-dependent antibody and renal graft rejection. (
  • Descriptions of pathological features of corneal transplant rejection result from the examination of replaced grafts following irreversible failure. (
  • Failure to do so causes transplant rejection and a return to dialysis, or sometimes even death. (
  • We further posit that longitudinal tracking of pre-identified donor-reactive T cell clones is predictive of post-transplant rejection, or predict progression from subclinical to acute rejection, and that this can be monitored non-invasively in the post-transplant blood (and/or urine pellets) rather than in biopsies. (
  • Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient's immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. (
  • Mismatched organs, or organs that are not matched closely enough, can trigger a blood transfusion reaction or transplant rejection. (
  • Suppressing the immune response may prevent transplant rejection. (
  • Morelli, Adrian E. / Graft-infiltrating host dendritic cells play a key role in organ transplant rejection . (
  • Antibody-mediated transplant rejection involves B cell and plasma cell activation resulting in the generation of donor-specific antibodies (DSA), which bind to HLA and/or non-HLA molecules on the endothelium. (
  • Both rejection and graft vasculopathy (GV) seriously endanger long-term outcomes, eventually leading to graft failure. (
  • Once T-cell activation has occurred, however, stalling the rejection process becomes increasingly difficult, leading to graft failure. (
  • The authors also found that in patients with simultaneous acute rejection and lower respiratory tract viral infection, the FEV 1 recovery rate was significantly lower than in patients who had acute rejection without a simultaneous viral infection. (
  • The major advantage is that, when we look at the survivability of a graft after a second failed graft, the rate of retention of that transplant clarity drops significantly,' he said. (
  • Systemic or local ASC therapy significantly reduces progression of onset acute rejection in VCA through attenuation of alloresponse and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (
  • GV was observed during acute rejection in small arterioles, but not in femoral vessels, and was significantly reduced after cytotherapy. (
  • An average of five or more CD45 positive cells in the post perfusion graft biopsy was significantly associated with rejection, both AMR and TCMR. (
  • These findings could pave the way for improvements in preventing GVHD and rejection of transplanted bone marrow and new therapies to prevent or treat a relapse of the underlying cancer after a transplant. (
  • Finding the optimal conditions to avoid interfering with immune cells working to eradicate cancer while preventing graft rejection and GVHD is the holy grail of bone marrow transplant," said Leo Luznik, MD, associate professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in Baltimore, Maryland. (
  • The risk is highest after an allogeneic transplant because you may be taking medicines to suppress the immune system to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) might happen after an allogeneic stem cell transplant. (
  • Application of conbercept eye drop may be a valuable treatment to prevent corneal graft rejection through the suppression of corneal neovascularization. (
  • Antibody-Mediated Graft Rejection Sample Report covering Antibody-Mediated Graft Rejection epidemiology from 2017 to 2030. (
  • DSA did not affect pancreatic islet graft function. (
  • Pancreatic islet graft function of 49 patients was assessed every year using the β score (mean ± SD). (
  • Linear regression was used to estimate the relation between time and pancreatic islet graft function. (
  • The rate of pancreatic islet graft attrition was estimated for the 9 patients with DSA (left, DSA+) and the remaining 40 patients without DSA (right, No DSA). (
  • The expected results from these aims will establish local cell-cell contacts within target tissues as a novel cellular mechanism underlying the active role of macrophages in pancreatic islet rejection. (
  • Pretransplant sensitization against angiotensin II type 1 receptor is a risk factor for acute rejection and graft loss. (
  • He subsequently postulated that the antigenic determinants recognized during the rejection are expressed on parental and not on F1 hybrid cells and hence must be inherited noncodominantly (Cudkowicz and Stimpfling, 1964). (
  • Graft rejection was defined as an eye with a previously clear and thin graft, now showing some or all of the following signs: anterior chamber flare and cells, keratic precipitates on corneal endothelium, thickening of the graft, either diffusely or locally, and epithelial or endothelial rejection lines. (
  • We show here, however, that anti-H-Y monospecific, H-2(b-restricted MataHari CD8(+) T cells reject H-2(k) male skin grafts, with which they cannot directly interact. (
  • Anyways, if you manage to detect cytokines, I'd probably go for Th1 vs. Th2 cytokines for example, to evaluate the function of T-cells, which are responsible for the graft rejection. (
  • CMV was identified in bile duct epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, hepatocytes and mononuclear cells of liver grafts by in situ hybridisation (Chapter 6). (
  • Active CMV infection of the graft, especially epithelial cells, was associated with chronic rejection. (
  • Beyond the pivotal role of alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of rejection, natural killer (NK) cells may display alloreactive potential in case of mismatch between recipient inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and graft HLA class I molecules. (
  • The dual role of NK cells in the interrelation of HCMV infection with rejection deserves attention. (
  • Besides the pivotal role played by alloantigen-specific T cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of graft rejection, natural killer (NK) cells alloreactivity and their contribution to antiviral defense receive increasing attention. (
  • It is important to try and distinguish graft failure, which potentially could be reversed with additional donor stem cells, from graft rejection, which might require intensification of immunosuppression or procedures to further eliminate any residual host immunity (such as donor lymphocyte infusions). (
  • If graft rejection is suspected, it is always difficult to determine if the patient requires additional immunosuppression (to inhibit immune-mediated rejection) or less immunosuppression (to enhance the "graft-vs.-host" reaction of donor T cells against residual host immune cells. (
  • In some cases, additional donor T cells (donor lymphocyte infusions [DLI]) are given to try and reverse rejection by providing enhanced donor immunity. (
  • At other times, additional donor stem cells may be given if concern is for graft failure rather than immune-mediated rejection. (
  • Graft rejection is often difficult to distinguish from graft failure and is presumed to be immunologic rejection by the host of the donor cells. (
  • In graft failure, these studies may still show a high percentage of donor cells despite having minimal hematopoiesis. (
  • GV remains widely unexplored in VCA, and so does the role of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in acute rejection. (
  • Depletion of CD4, but not of CD8, T cells blocked rejection. (
  • T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow grafts. (
  • This study demonstrates that in the absence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, Batf3-dependent dendritic cells elicit the rejection of cells and grafts expressing mismatched minor Ags. (
  • Assessing the metabolic activity of graft-infiltrating cells with [18F]FDG may be useful in the prediction of graft rejection episodes. (
  • Cellular mechanisms of graft rejection mediated by CD4-CD8-TCR alphabeta T cells. (
  • CD4^-CD8^-T cell receptor αβ T cells:Generation of an in vitro major histcompatibility complex class I specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and allogenic tumor rejection. (
  • As for acute rejection, mediators of the innate and adaptive immunity such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated to trigger T cell clonal expansion and differentiation of effector cells, which modulate the complement cascade to aggravate donor kidney injury [ 13 ]. (
  • A rejection episode results in loss of donor endothelial cells, which are critical for maintenance of corneal transparency. (
  • Several studies have shown increased numbers of HLA class II positive cells infiltrating stroma in sections of rejected grafts. (
  • Rejection of H-Y disparate skin grafts by monospecific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cells: no requirement for CD8+ T cells or B cells. (
  • After multiple grafts, it was confirmed that no CD8+ T cells or surface Ig+ B cells were present. (
  • An immunofluorescent analysis of spleen cells after grafting showed that the majority of T cells expressed activation markers (CD44, CD25, and intracytoplasmic IL-2) and a significant proportion were making IFN-gamma and IL-4. (
  • iPS cells to regulate immune graft rejection, The scientists propose a new strategy that uses induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that are induced to regulate the immune response of the transplanted tissue. (
  • The team, led by Professor Ken-chiro Seino from the University of Hokkaido's Institute of Genetic Medicine, found that thymic epithelial cells derived from mouse-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can regulate the immune response to skin grafts by prolonging their activity. (
  • T cells control the immune response, including organ rejection, and are closely linked to immunological self-tolerance, the ability of the immune system to recognize self-produced antigens as non-threatening. (
  • Pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESC) and iPSC, which are able to differentiate into different cell types, are expected to be alternative sources of graft grafts. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells prevent the rejection of fully allogenic islet grafts by the immunosuppressive activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. (
  • Regulatory CD4+ T cells can also suppress rejection of third party transplant Ags provided they are expressed on the same graft as the tolerated Ags. (
  • Aim was to determine the significance of increased number of CD45 positive cells in predicting rejection. (
  • Next to T cells, innate natural killer (NK) cells may contribute to graft rejection. (
  • Extensive research efforts have been dedicated to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying rejection of islet grafts by effector cells of the adaptive immune system. (
  • Here we demonstrate that graft-infiltrating, recipient (host) dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in driving the rejection of transplanted organs by activated (effector) T cells. (
  • The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. (
  • Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. (
  • Hyperacute rejection occurs a few minutes after the transplant when the antigens are completely unmatched. (
  • BACKGROUND: Despite overcoming xenograft hyperacute rejection (HAR), Gal (galactose-alpha1,3-galactose) expression may not be completely eliminated from the alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (Gal KO) pig because of alternative galactosyltransferases. (
  • The types corneal rejection include epithelial rejection, chronic rejection, hyperacute rejection and endothelial rejection and these can occur individually, or in some cases in conjunction. (
  • Preformed donor-specific HLA antibodies resulting in hyperacute rejection were first detected in 1969 by the complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch assay. (
  • The team accomplished this by treating donor tissue with the TGF-β and IL-10 cocktail, and then grafting them onto high-risk recipient eyes of a preclinical model. (
  • The researchers are hopeful that this novel method of using a combination of cytokines working together to promote tolerance of corneal grafts -- by treating the donor tissue rather than the recipient -- may transition more easily to the clinical setting. (
  • In contrast, the vasculature of DSA-exposed allogeneic islet grafts was devoid of lesions because sprouting of recipient capillaries reestablished blood flow in grafted islets. (
  • Such rejection is interferon-gamma-dependent and only occurs if the recipient endothelium expresses H-2(b). (
  • Matching and mismatching of HLA alleles between donor and recipient was not shown to be a risk factor for chronic rejection. (
  • The 2 factors predictive of increased risk of neovascularization and graft failure were increased recipient age (P = 0.003) and male gender (P = 0.046). (
  • The potential for islet grafts to elicit allo- or xenoimmunogenic responses depends on their major histocompatibility complex (MHC) compatibility with the recipient HLA ( 11 ). (
  • Despite the relative immune privilege of the cornea as a transplant tissue (both the recipient corneal bed and the anterior chamber are immune-privileged sites) the most common cause of corneal graft failure in all reports is allogeneic rejection. (
  • Paufique named this event " maladie du greffon " (disease of the graft) and suggested that sensitization of the donor by the recipient is the cause. (
  • This description followed previous experiments reported by Medawar, during which differences were observed between rabbit skin grafts of donor and recipient origin, giving rise to the term "histocompatibility. (
  • There is less robust evidence in the published literature that grafts in children, large-diameter donor corneas, and the proximity of the donor cornea to the recipient limbus cause a higher risk. (
  • It is our hypothesis that comprehensive profiling of donor-reactive T-cell repertoire can be made by using recipient pre-transplant mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) versus the donor and the immunoSEQ platform, and that detection of the same donor-reactive clones in post-transplant blood (urine pellets), and/or biopsies is diagnostic of acute rejection. (
  • From a clinical viewpoint, graft rejection is one of the greatest threats faced by an organ transplant recipient (OTR). (
  • This type of rejection is seen when a recipient is given the wrong type of blood. (
  • We show that donor DCs that accompany heart or kidney grafts are rapidly replaced by recipient DCs. (
  • The presence of pre-formed and de novo (newly formed) DSA, specific to donor/recipient mismatches are major risk factors for antibody-mediated rejection, which results in both acute and chronic transplant injury and is the primary cause of accelerated early and late allograft loss. (
  • Here, we report on a young patient with chronic-active ABMR in whom the decision was made for treatment with steroids, plasma exchange, and rituximab (despite severely impaired graft function and chronic changes by histology) in an attempt to stabilize kidney function and prolong the time before her return to dialyses, but in whom our treatment resulted in fatal outcome. (
  • This thesis tested the hypothesis that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may initiate or enhance chronic rejection of liver grafts. (
  • The incidence of urine PCR positivity and prolonged active CMV infection were risk factors for chronic rejection (Chapter 4). (
  • Furthermore, active CMV infection and the TNF-2 promoter allele were shown to act synergistically as risk factors for chronic rejection (Chapter 4). (
  • In addition, two or more episodes of acute rejection or a pre transplant diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PEG) were shown tu be risk factors for chronic rejection (Chapter 4). (
  • CMV was also studied in the context of humoral immunity and chronic rejection (Chapter 5). (
  • Western blotting of hepatic artery and bile duct tissue (sites of rejection mediated damage) showed that post transplant IgA antibody to a 44 kD bile duct protein was associated with development of active CMV infection but was not associated with chronic rejection. (
  • However, pre transplant IgA antibodies to 94 and 39 kD bile duct proteins or IgG antibodies to 160 and 85 kD hepatic artery proteins were associated with an increased risk of chronic rejection. (
  • Although several studies support the association between respiratory viruses and chronic lung rejection, the relationship between viral infection and acute rejection has not been established. (
  • The dominant pathological features of chronic rejection are persistent perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration, generalized transplant arteriosclerosis characterized by concentric neointimal formation and vascular occlusion, and interstitial fibrosis. (
  • Chronic rejection can take place over many years. (
  • Chronic rejection is the leading cause of organ transplant failure. (
  • the Perceived Threat of the Risk of Graft Rejection, the Psychological General Well-being and Self-efficacy in chronic illness. (
  • The clinical impact of ABMR has been increasingly appreciated since the recognition of C4d negative antibody-mediated rejection, which can be diagnosed in the absence of C4d staining, based on microcirculation lesions and the presence of circulating donor specific antibodies alone [ 4 ]. (
  • Here, we evaluated a cohort of 49 patients who were successfully grafted with allogenic islets and determined that the appearance of donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSAs) did not accelerate the rate of islet graft attrition, suggesting resistance to humoral rejection. (
  • Use of locally injected anti-T monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of acute corneal graft rejection. (
  • Thus, we conclude that endothelial chimerism combined with vascular sequestration of DSAs protects islet grafts from humoral rejection. (
  • A ) The regression line slope indicates the rate of islet graft attrition in the cohort. (
  • Studies indicate that several factors influence the decrease in islet graft function ( 6 ). (
  • In this application, we aim to establish the role of cell-cell contacts between graft-infiltrating macrophages and effector T lymphocytes in islet rejection. (
  • B ) Nine patients developed de novo donor-specific anti-HLA Abs (DSA), all in the first year after grafting. (
  • Finding donor chimerism decrease over time without concurrent relapse is often suggestive of rejection. (
  • In this case, finding donor chimerism decrease over time without concurrent relapse is often suggestive of rejection. (
  • Chimerism studies (note that in graft rejection, falling donor chimerism is often seen). (
  • The pressure to use organs from marginal donors underscores the importance of understanding the influence of donor tissue quality or characteristics on graft outcomes ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • Clinical presentation and course of disease are heterogeneous, with rapid graft loss (within months after diagnosis) in some patients and slow progression of disease over years in others [ 5 , 7 ]. (
  • At the time of clinical rejection, the nodules often presented as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) with lymphoid-like follicles. (
  • The incidence, symptoms and clinical characteristics of initial immunologic graft rejection episodes were analyzed retrospectively in 598 eyes treated with primary DSEK at a single tertiary referral center. (
  • The range of clinical findings indicative of corneal graft rejection differs in some respects between DSEK and standard PK. (
  • Conclusion: The clinical appearance and response to therapy in this case supported the diagnosis of immune-mediated stromal rejection. (
  • Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology) - Drugs in Development, 2021 provides an overview of the Corneal Graft Rejection pipeline landscape. (
  • The report provides a snapshot of the Global Therapeutic Landscape of Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology). (
  • The report reviews pipeline therapeutics for Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (
  • The report reviews key players involved in the development of Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (
  • The report assesses Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology) therapeutics based on Drug Target, Mechanism of Action (MoA), Route of Administration (RoA) and Molecule Type. (
  • The report reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology). (
  • Identify and understand important and diverse types of therapeutics under development for Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology). (
  • Devise corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Corneal Graft Rejection (Immunology) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics. (
  • Mills, RAD & Williams, KA 1998, ' Rejection of rat limbal grafts ', Ocular Immunology and Inflammation , vol. 6, pp. (
  • To investigate characteristics of initial immunologic graft rejection after Descemet's stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK). (
  • Immunologic graft rejection is an important post-operative complication after DSEK. (
  • Thus, in many cases of ABMR, the perceived threat of graft loss outweighs the perceived risks of increased immunosuppression, and the decision is made in favor of active treatment of rejection. (
  • BACKGROUND: The identification of transplant patients at high risk for rejection after reduction of immunosuppression would allow minimization of immunosuppression and avoidance of side effects in low-risk patients. (
  • RESULTS: No association was found between NK cell alloreactivity based on KIR gene analysis or peripheral blood NK cell subset frequencies and the occurrence of acute rejection after reduction of immunosuppression. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that in a setting where immunosuppression is reduced, prior analysis of NK cell reactivity cannot identify patients at risk for subsequent graft rejection. (
  • In contrast to standard full-thickness grafts, there were no epithelial immunologic reactions because the epithelium and anterior stroma are not transplanted in DSEK. (
  • Humoral rejection is the most common cause of solid organ transplant failure. (
  • They are the major cause of organ transplant rejections. (
  • However, when the donor's organ or tissue is transplanted, the graft is rejected by the recipient's immune system and finally destroyed. (
  • NULOJIX ® (belatacept) is indicated for prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult patients receiving a kidney transplant . (
  • Use of NULOJIX for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in transplanted organs other than kidney has not been established [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (
  • Single episodes of acute rejection rarely lead to organ failure. (
  • Astagraf XL is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney transplant patients in combination with other immunosuppressants. (
  • In corneas with HSK and vascularization at the time of grafting, both syngeneic and allogeneic corneal grafts failed with similar frequency and tempo. (
  • Uptake of [18F]FDG during an alloresponse was measured both in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures and in vivo using allogeneic and syngeneic skin grafts. (
  • Previous studies have indicated that prompt treatment and reversal of endothelial rejection episodes are associated with a better anatomical and functional outcome in the corneal graft. (
  • no endothelial rejection lines were observed. (
  • Again, the specificity of acute allogeneic marrow graft rejection pointed to antigenic determinants that were encoded close to the MHC region. (
  • Cudkowicz G (1971): Genetic control of bone marrow graft rejection. (
  • After surgery, conbercept eye drop was applied to prevent the immune graft rejection and FK-506 eye drop was used as the control. (
  • Higher the average CD45 cell count and the total count in one glomeruli, greater is the chance of developing rejection, AMR and TCMR, in the immediate post transplant period. (
  • In a retrospective analysis of patients treated with allogeneic HSCT after fludarabine and 2?Gy TBI, 15 of 77 evaluable patients (20%) experienced primary (n=2) or secondary graft rejection at a median of 66 days post transplant. (
  • Treating corneal grafts with a cocktail of cytokines prior to implantation may free transplant patients from the burden of immunosuppressive therapy, according to preclinical findings by a Massachusetts Eye and Ear research team. (
  • Results Outcome in 34 eyes of 34 patients (21 M;13 F) aged 60 ± 17.7 years (range 9-83 years), who presented after an average duration of 6.6 ± 6.3 days (range 0-30 days) following acute corneal graft rejection, are reported. (
  • The case records of patients with acute corneal graft rejection diagnosed at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, China between April 1995 and March 2000 were analysed. (
  • Rejection was reversible in two of these three patients. (
  • Instead of the a third or more of the patients having graft-versus-host disease, only about 15% did - far fewer than expected, and a sign that the medicine may be extremely effective. (
  • However, some patients with KC experience graft rejection-like inflammatory reactions within 2 months (usually in the first week) after DALK. (
  • Thus, patients with lower acute rejection grade were twice more likely to be positive for viral infection than those with higher rejection grades. (
  • The use of an artificial cornea in patients who have experienced multiple immunologic graft rejections is more likely to result in good-quality vision than is performing another corneal transplant, said Michael W. Belin, MD, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY. (
  • Graft rejection episodes occurred in 54 eyes of 48 patients. (
  • Renin gene expression in human kidney biopsies from patients with glomerulonephritis or graft rejection. (
  • In conclusion, early analysis of lineage-specific chimerism in peripheral blood can be used to identify patients who are at high risk of graft rejection. (
  • Use in liver transplant patients is not recommended due to an increased risk of graft loss and death [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (
  • The severity of acute rejection was graded as mild (A0, A1) to severe (A2-A4). (
  • Standard immunosuppressive therapy consists of initial treatment and maintenance regimes to prevent rejection and short courses of more intensive immunosuppressive therapy to treat episodes of acute rejection. (
  • The main step to prevent this internal attack, called graft versus host disease, is giving the patient medicines to suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infection. (
  • Blocking CCR5, Reshef thought, might prevent graft-versus-host disease. (
  • Regulatory role of host CD8+ T lymphocytes in experimental graft-versus-host disease across a single major histocompatibility complex class II incompatibility. (
  • Irreversible graft failure occurred in one eye in each group. (
  • As such, a T cell-mediated immune response occurring within weeks or even days of grafting causes irreversible β-cell damage ( 16 ). (
  • Endothelial decompensation results either from an irreversible episode of acute graft rejection or at an interval following one or more episodes of rejection which have been reversed by therapy. (
  • A bone marrow evaluation is necessary but results are dependent on timing of suspected graft failur/rejection. (
  • The overall rate of viral infection in grade A0/A1 acute rejection cases was 25.4%, compared with 12.6% in grade A2 or higher rejection. (
  • This study provides evidence that respiratory viruses per se do not promote acute graft rejection, at least during the acute phase of infection, but that they do worsen graft function recovery when simultaneously present with acute rejection. (
  • It is important to rule out other causes of graft failure such as infection (in particular CMV, herpes viruses) and medication use. (
  • The process of transplant vascular sclerosis closely resembles the remodeling of the vascular wall as seen when synthetic biodegradable small caliber vascular grafts are implanted. (
  • We collected data on the characteristics and incidence of severe inflammatory graft reactions in the early postoperative phase (ie, within 2 months after keratoplasty) and visual outcomes after these inflammatory reactions. (
  • Among them are immunologic factors that play a critical role because they contribute to innate and adaptive immune rejection ( 7 ), recurrence of autoimmunity ( 8 ), and toxicity associated with immunosuppressive agents ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Graft rejection remains a major complication, requiring prophylactic/therapeutic administration of immunosuppressive drugs. (