An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
Suppurative inflammation of the tissues of the internal structures of the eye frequently associated with an infection.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
Transplantation between animals of different species.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*13 and DRB1*14 alleles.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Diseases of the cornea.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and a common inhabitant of the NASAL CAVITY of both healthy and diseased PIGS. It is a common secondary invader in MYCOPLASMAL PNEUMONIA OF SWINE.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains Hol l 1 and Hol l 5 allergens.
A carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme found in MITOCHONDRIA where it provides bicarbonate ions that are components in the urea cycle and in GLUCONEOGENESIS.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain STILBENES.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The period following a surgical operation.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (1/6768)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (2/6768)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

Reduced kidney transplant rejection rate and pharmacoeconomic advantage of mycophenolate mofetil. (3/6768)

BACKGROUND: Several multinational controlled clinical trials have shown that triple therapy immunosuppressive regimens which include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin A (CSA) and steroids (S) are superior compared with conventional regimens which include azathioprine (AZA), CSA and S, mainly because MMF reduces the rate of acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months after kidney transplantation. Post-marketing studies are useful to evaluate the general applicability and costs of MMF-based immunosuppressive regimens. METHODS: Based on the excellent results of the published controlled clinical trials, we have changed the standard triple therapy immunosuppressive protocol (AZA+CSA+S) to an MMF-based regimen (MMF+CSA+S) at our centre. To analyse the impact of this change in regimen, we have monitored 6-month patient and graft survival, rejection rate, serum creatinine and CSA levels, as well as the costs of the immunosuppressive and anti-rejection treatments, in 40 consecutive renal transplant recipients (MMF group) and have compared the data with 40 consecutive patients transplanted immediately prior to the change in regimen (AZA group). RESULTS: Recipient and donor characteristics were similar in the AZA and MMF groups. Patient survival (37/40; 92.5% in the AZA group vs 38/40; 95% in the MMF group), graft survival (36/40 vs 36/40; both 90%) and serum creatinine (137+/-56 vs 139+/-44 micromol/l) after 6 months were not significantly different. However, the rate of acute rejection episodes (defined as a rise in creatinine without other obvious cause and treated at least with pulse steroids) was significantly reduced with MMF from 60 to 20% (P=0.0005). The resulting cost for rejection treatment was lowered 8-fold (from sFr. 2113 to 259 averaged per patient) and the number of transplant biopsies was lowered > 3-fold in the MMF group. The cost for the immunosuppressive therapy was increased 1.5-fold with MMF (from sFr. 5906 to 9231 per patient for the first 6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The change from AZA to MMF resulted in a significant reduction in early rejection episodes, resulting in fewer diagnostic procedures and rehospitalizations. The optimal long-term regimen in terms of patient and pharmacoeconomic benefits remains to be defined.  (+info)

Primary adult liver transplantation under tacrolimus: more than 90 months actual follow-up survival and adverse events. (4/6768)

The introduction of tacrolimus has shown decreased rates of acute and steroid-resistant rejection after liver transplantation (LTx). The aim of the present study is to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in primary liver transplant recipients. The first 121 consecutive adults (aged >16 years) who underwent primary LTx at a single center from August 1989 to February 1990 were followed up until August 1997. The mean follow-up was 93.2 +/- 1.2 months (range, 90.5 to 96.5 months). Patient survival, graft survival, rate of rejection, and adverse events were examined. The actual 7-year patient survival rate was 67.8%, and the graft survival rate was 63.6%. Infections, recurrence of disease, de novo malignancies, and cardiovascular events constituted the main causes of graft loss and death in the long term. Graft loss related to acute or chronic rejection was rare. The rate of acute rejection beyond 2 years was approximately 3% per year, and most rejections were steroid responsive. Approximately 70% of the patients received only tacrolimus after 1 year. Four patients developed end-stage renal disease, and 2 patients underwent kidney transplantation. Hyperkalemia and hypertension were observed in one third of the patients. New-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was observed in 9% and 13% of the patients at the 1-year and 7-year follow-up, respectively. Seven patients developed de novo malignancies, including two skin malignancies. Six patients developed posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder during the entire follow-up period. Actual patient and graft survival at 7 years was excellent, and few adverse events developed after the first year. Graft loss from acute or chronic rejection was rare under tacrolimus, and approximately 70% of the patients were steroid free on tacrolimus monotherapy after the first year after LTx.  (+info)

Xenotransplantation. (5/6768)

As transplantation waiting lists lengthen because of the shortage of donor organs, the death rates of patients continue to rise. Xenotransplantation offers the potential to solve the problem of organ shortage br providing an unlimited supply of healthy donor organs. However, there are several barriers to xenotransplantation, including graft rejection, potential xenozoonosis, physiologic incompatibilities and ethical concerns. Experimental xenotransplantation studies continue in several areas, ranging from tissue to whole- organ grafting. Clinical studies continue in the area of tissue xenotransplantation. Trials with extracorporeal xenografts in an acute setting to support fulminant organ failure are likely to begin in the near future. The reintroduction of whole-organ xenotransplantation must be based on sound scientific analysis with broad societal input so as to offer the maximal benefit to transplant recipients and their families.  (+info)

Long-term results of pancreas transplantation under tacrolius immunosuppression. (6/6768)

BACKGROUND: The long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in pancreas transplantation has not yet been demonstrated. The observation of prolonged pancreatic graft function under tacrolimus would indicate that any potential islet toxicity is short-lived and clinically insignificant. We report herein the results of pancreas transplantation in patients receiving primary tacrolimus immunosuppression for a minimum of 2 years. METHODS: From July 4, 1994 until April 18, 1996, 60 patients received either simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (n=55), pancreas transplant only (n=4), or pancreas after kidney transplantation (n=1). Baseline immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids without antilymphocyte induction. Azathioprine was used as a third agent in 51 patients and mycophenolate mofetil in 9. Rejection episodes within the first 6 months occurred in 48 (80%) patients and were treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Antilymphocyte antibody was required in eight (13%) patients with steroid-resistant rejection. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 35.1+/-5.9 months (range: 24.3-45.7 months), 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 33-year graft survival is 88%, 82%, 80%, and 80% (pancreas) and 98%, 96%, 93%, and 91% (kidney), respectively. Six-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survival is 100%, 98%, 98%, and 96.5%. Mean fasting glucose is 91.6+/-13.8 mg/dl, and mean glycosylated hemoglobin is 5.1+/-0.7% (normal range: 4.3-6.1%). Mean tacrolimus dose is 6.5+/-2.6 mg/day and mean prednisone dose 2.0+/-2.9 mg/day at follow-up. Complete steroid withdrawal was possible in 31 (65%) of the 48 patients with functioning pancreases. CONCLUSIONS: These data show for the first time that tacrolimus is a safe and effective long-term primary agent in pancreas transplantation and provides excellent long-term islet function without evidence of toxicity while permitting steroid withdrawal in the majority of patients.  (+info)

Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. (7/6768)

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD.  (+info)

Dual roles of sialyl Lewis X oligosaccharides in tumor metastasis and rejection by natural killer cells. (8/6768)

Aberrant expression of cell surface carbohydrates such as sialyl Lewis X is associated with tumor formation and metastasis. In order to determine the roles of sialyl Lewis X in tumor metastasis, mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells were stably transfected with alpha1, 3-fucosyltransferase III to express sialyl Lewis X structures. The transfected B16-F1 cells, B16-FTIII, were separated by cell sorting into three different groups based on the expression levels of sialyl Lewis X. When these transfected cells were injected into tail veins of C57BL/6 mice, B16-FTIII.M cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis X in poly-N-acetyllactosamines produced large numbers of lung tumor nodules. Surprisingly, B16-FTIII.H cells expressing the highest amount of sialyl Lewis X in shorter N-glycans died in lung blood vessels, producing as few lung nodules as B16-FTIII.N cells which lack sialyl Lewis X. In contrast, B16-FIII.H cells formed more tumors in beige mice and NK cell-depleted C57BL/6 mice than did B16-FTIII.M cells. B16-FTIII.H cells bound to E-selectin better than did B16-FTIII.M cells, but both cells grew at the same rate. These results indicate that excessive expression of sialyl Lewis X in tumor cells leads to rejection by NK cells rather than tumor formation facilitated by attachment to endothelial cells.  (+info)

The main symptoms of gait ataxia include:

* Unsteadiness
* Lack of coordination
* Wobbling or staggering while walking
* Increased risk of falling
* Difficulty with balance and equilibrium
* Slow and deliberate movements

Gait ataxia can be assessed using various clinical tests such as the Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Timed Up and Go test. Treatment options for gait ataxia depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

In summary, gait ataxia is a term used to describe an abnormal gait pattern due to dysfunction in the nervous system. It can be caused by various factors and can affect individuals of all ages. The symptoms include unsteadiness, lack of coordination, and increased risk of falling, among others. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include physical therapy, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

Endophthalmitis can be classified into several types based on its causes, such as:

1. Postoperative endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis occurs after cataract surgery or other intraocular surgeries. It is caused by bacterial infection that enters the eye through the surgical incision.
2. Endogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that originates within the eye, such as from a retinal detachment or uveitis.
3. Exogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that enters the eye from outside, such as from a penetrating injury or a foreign object in the eye.

The symptoms of endophthalmitis can include:

1. Severe pain in the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
3. Difficulty seeing or blind spots in the visual field
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Increased sensitivity to touch or pressure on the eye
6. Fever and chills
7. Swollen lymph nodes
8. Enlarged pupil
9. Clouding of the vitreous humor

If you suspect that you or someone else has endophthalmitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent vision loss. Treatment options for endophthalmitis may include antibiotics, vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous humor), and in some cases, removal of the affected eye.

Graft occlusion can occur due to a variety of factors, including:

1. Blood clots forming within the graft
2. Inflammation or infection within the graft
3. Narrowing or stenosis of the graft
4. Disruption of the graft material
5. Poor blood flow through the graft

The signs and symptoms of vascular graft occlusion can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockage. They may include:

1. Pain or tenderness in the affected limb
2. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
3. Weakness or numbness in the affected limb
4. Difficulty walking or moving the affected limb
5. Coolness or discoloration of the skin in the affected limb

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can diagnose vascular graft occlusion using imaging tests such as ultrasound, angiography, or MRI. Treatment options for vascular graft occlusion may include:

1. Medications to dissolve blood clots or reduce inflammation
2. Surgical intervention to repair or replace the graft
3. Balloon angioplasty or stenting to open up the blocked graft
4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve blood flow and promote healing.

Preventive measures to reduce the risk of vascular graft occlusion include:

1. Proper wound care and infection prevention after surgery
2. Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider
3. Avoiding smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors
4. Taking medications as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent blood clots and inflammation.

It is important to note that vascular graft occlusion can be a serious complication after surgery, but with prompt medical attention and appropriate treatment, the outcome can be improved.

The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.

Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.

In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.

Some common symptoms of corneal edema include:

* Blurred vision
* Haziness or clouding of the cornea
* Increased sensitivity to light
* Redness or discharge in the eye
* Pain or discomfort in the eye

Corneal edema can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and imaging tests such as cornea scans or ultrasound. Treatment for corneal edema depends on the underlying cause and may involve antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or other therapies to reduce swelling and promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove scar tissue or improve drainage of fluid from the eye.

If left untreated, corneal edema can lead to more serious complications such as corneal ulcers or vision loss. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of corneal edema to prevent any further damage and ensure proper treatment.

1. Keratoconus: This is a progressive thinning of the cornea that can cause it to bulge into a cone-like shape, leading to blurred vision and sensitivity to light.
2. Fuchs' dystrophy: This is a condition in which the cells in the innermost layer of the cornea become damaged, leading to clouding and blurred vision.
3. Bullous keratopathy: This is a condition in which there is a large, fluid-filled bubble on the surface of the cornea, which can cause blurred vision and discomfort.
4. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by infection or other conditions.
5. Dry eye syndrome: This is a condition in which the eyes do not produce enough tears, leading to dryness, irritation, and blurred vision.
6. Corneal abrasions: These are scratches on the surface of the cornea that can be caused by injury or other conditions.
7. Trachoma: This is an infectious eye disease that can cause scarring and blindness if left untreated.
8. Ocular herpes: This is a viral infection that can cause blisters on the surface of the cornea and lead to scarring and vision loss if left untreated.
9. Endophthalmitis: This is an inflammation of the inner layer of the eye that can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections, and can lead to severe vision loss if left untreated.
10. Corneal neovascularization: This is the growth of new blood vessels into the cornea, which can be a complication of other conditions such as dry eye syndrome or ocular trauma.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of corneal diseases that can affect the eyes. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms such as pain, redness, or blurred vision in one or both eyes. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and preserve vision.

CNV can cause vision loss and blindness if left untreated. It can also increase the risk of complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and corneal ulcers.

There are several treatment options for CNV, including:

1. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections: These medications can help reduce the growth of new blood vessels and preserve vision.
2. Photodynamic therapy: This involves the use of a light-sensitive medication and low-intensity laser to damage and shrink the new blood vessels.
3. Corneal transplantation: In severe cases, a corneal transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy one.
4. Surgical removal of the neovascularized tissue: This can be done through a surgical procedure called vitrectomy, where the new blood vessels are removed and the eye is filled with a gas or oil bubble.

Early detection and treatment of CNV are crucial to prevent vision loss and improve outcomes. Ophthalmologists use a range of diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and visual acuity assessments to diagnose and monitor the progression of the condition.

The primary graft dysfunction syndrome is a complex clinical entity characterized by severe respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, which develops within the first week after transplantation. PGD is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, and it is one of the leading causes of graft failure after solid organ transplantation.

There are several risk factors for primary graft dysfunction, including:

1. Recipient age and comorbidities
2. Donor age and comorbidities
3. Cold ischemic time (CIT)
4. Hypoxic injury during procurement
5. Delayed recipient surgery
6. Inadequate immunosuppression
7. Sepsis
8. Pulmonary infection
9. Hemodynamic instability
10. Pulmonary edema

The diagnosis of primary graft dysfunction is based on a combination of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings. The condition can be classified into three categories:

1. Mild PGD: characterized by mild respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with no evidence of severe inflammation or fibrosis.
2. Moderate PGD: characterized by moderate respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with evidence of severe inflammation and/or fibrosis.
3. Severe PGD: characterized by severe respiratory and cardiovascular dysfunction, with extensive inflammation and/or fibrosis.

The treatment of primary graft dysfunction is aimed at addressing the underlying cause of the condition. This may include administration of immunosuppressive drugs, management of infections, and correction of any anatomical or functional abnormalities. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary.

Prevention of primary graft dysfunction is crucial to minimize the risk of complications after lung transplantation. This can be achieved by careful donor selection, optimization of recipient condition before transplantation, and meticulous surgical technique during the procedure. Additionally, prompt recognition and management of early signs of PGD are essential to prevent progression to more severe forms of the condition.

In conclusion, primary graft dysfunction is a complex and multifactorial complication after lung transplantation that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the causes, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of PGD is essential for optimal management of patients undergoing lung transplantation.

The exact cause of Bronchiolitis Obliterans is not fully understood, but it is believed to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The condition is often associated with allergies and asthma, and viral infections such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can trigger the onset of symptoms.

Symptoms of Bronchiolitis Obliterans include:

* Persistent coughing, which may be worse at night
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Fatigue and poor appetite
* Recurrent respiratory infections

BO is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or pulmonary function tests. There is no cure for Bronchiolitis Obliterans, but treatment options are available to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include:

* Medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and improve lung function
* Pulmonary rehabilitation programs to improve breathing and overall health
* Oxygen therapy to help increase oxygen levels in the blood
* In severe cases, lung transplantation may be considered.

While Bronchiolitis Obliterans can significantly impact quality of life, with proper management and care, many individuals with the condition are able to lead active and productive lives.

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

CMV infections are more common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, or taking immunosuppressive drugs after an organ transplant. In these individuals, CMV can cause severe and life-threatening complications, such as pneumonia, retinitis (inflammation of the retina), and gastrointestinal disease.

In healthy individuals, CMV infections are usually mild and may not cause any symptoms at all. However, in some cases, CMV can cause a mononucleosis-like illness with fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes.

CMV infections are diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment is generally not necessary for mild cases, but may include antiviral medications for more severe infections. Prevention strategies include avoiding close contact with individuals who have CMV, practicing good hygiene, and considering immunoprophylaxis (prevention of infection through the use of immune globulin) for high-risk individuals.

Overall, while CMV infections can be serious and life-threatening, they are relatively rare in healthy individuals and can often be treated effectively with supportive care and antiviral medications.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Examples of OIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP): A type of pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii, which is commonly found in the lungs of individuals with HIV/AIDS.
2. Cryptococcosis: A fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, which can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, central nervous system, and skin.
3. Aspergillosis: A fungal infection caused by Aspergillus fungi, which can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, and brain.
4. Histoplasmosis: A fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, which is commonly found in the soil and can cause respiratory and digestive problems.
5. Candidiasis: A fungal infection caused by Candida albicans, which can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, throat, and vagina.
6. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can affect various parts of the body, including the brain, eyes, and lymph nodes.
7. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV): A viral infection that can cause various types of cancer, including Kaposi's sarcoma, which is more common in individuals with compromised immunity.

The diagnosis and treatment of OIs depend on the specific type of infection and its severity. Treatment may involve antibiotics, antifungals, or other medications, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. It is important for individuals with HIV/AIDS to receive prompt and appropriate treatment for OIs to help prevent the progression of their disease and improve their quality of life.

Hematologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, or lymphatic system. These types of cancer can originate from various cell types, including red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and lymphoid cells.

There are several subtypes of hematologic neoplasms, including:

1. Leukemias: Cancers of the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, which can lead to an overproduction of immature or abnormal white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
2. Lymphomas: Cancers of the immune system, which can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, or other organs. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow that can lead to an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells.
4. Myeloproliferative neoplasms: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Examples include polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes: Cancers that affect the blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leading to an underproduction of normal blood cells.

The diagnosis of hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests (such as complete blood counts and bone marrow biopsies), and imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans). Treatment options for hematologic neoplasms depend on the specific type of cancer, the severity of the disease, and the overall health of the patient. These may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapy with drugs that specifically target cancer cells.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

The term "acute-phase" describes the rapid onset and short duration of this reaction, which typically lasts for hours to days before resolving as the body's inflammatory response subsides. APR is characterized by a series of molecular events that result in altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair.

Some key components of an acute-phase reaction include:

1. Cytokine production: Cytokines are signaling molecules released by immune cells, such as white blood cells, that coordinate the immune response. During an APR, cytokine levels increase, triggering a cascade of downstream effects.
2. Leukocyte trafficking: White blood cells migrate towards sites of inflammation or infection, where they phagocytose (engulf and digest) pathogens and cellular debris. This process helps to limit the spread of infection and initiate tissue repair.
3. Coagulation cascade: The APR triggers a complex series of events involving blood coagulation factors, leading to the formation of blood clots and preventing excessive bleeding.
4. Anti-inflammatory response: As the APR progresses, anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), are produced to dampen the inflammatory response and promote tissue repair.
5. Cellular proliferation: To replace damaged cells and tissues, the APR stimulates cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration.
6. Nutrient mobilization: The APR enhances nutrient uptake and utilization by immune cells, allowing them to mount an effective response to the stress.
7. Hormonal changes: The APR is accompanied by changes in hormone levels, such as the increase in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and cortisol, which help to mobilize energy resources and regulate metabolism.
8. Immune tolerance: The APR helps to establish immune tolerance, preventing excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmune diseases or allergies.
9. Tissue remodeling: The APR stimulates the remodeling of damaged tissues, allowing for the restoration of normal tissue function.
10. Memory formation: The APR sets the stage for the formation of immunological memory, which enables the immune system to mount a more effective response to future infections or stressors.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

There are several types of prosthesis-related infections, including:

1. Bacterial infections: These are the most common type of prosthesis-related infection and can occur around any type of implanted device. They are caused by bacteria that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
2. Fungal infections: These types of infections are less common and typically occur in individuals who have a weakened immune system or who have been taking antibiotics for another infection.
3. Viral infections: These infections can occur around implanted devices, such as pacemakers, and are caused by viruses that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
4. Parasitic infections: These types of infections are rare and occur when parasites, such as tapeworms, infect the implanted device or the surrounding tissue.

Prosthesis-related infections can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and fever. In severe cases, these infections can lead to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the bloodstream.

Prosthesis-related infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the type of microorganism causing the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents to eliminate the infection, and may also involve surgical removal of the infected implant.

Prevention is key in avoiding prosthesis-related infections. This includes proper wound care after surgery, keeping the surgical site clean and dry, and taking antibiotics as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent infection. Additionally, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions for caring for your prosthesis, such as regularly cleaning and disinfecting the device and avoiding certain activities that may put excessive stress on the implant.

Overall, while prosthesis-related infections can be serious, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to effectively manage these complications and prevent long-term damage or loss of function. It is important to work closely with your healthcare provider to monitor for signs of infection and take steps to prevent and manage any potential complications associated with your prosthesis.

Corneal graft rejection. Survey of Ophthalmology, 52(4), 375-396. doi:10.1016/j.survophthal.2007.04.008 McCarey, B. E., Kaufman ... The types corneal rejection include epithelial rejection, chronic rejection, hyperacute rejection and endothelial rejection and ... It is used in a corneal transplantation procedure (also corneal grafting) whereby the whole, or part, of a cornea is replaced. ... During this time, anti-rejection drops will be needed to minimise inflammation; the dosage of which is carefully monitored by a ...
The model which describes this event is called "The missing self". The rejection of parental (P) BM graft by F1 generation is ... This event leads to parental graft rejection. Cudkowicz, G; Stimpfling, JH (1964). "Deficient Growth of C57Bl Marrow Cells ... In a case of hybrid resistance, the parental bone marrow (BM) graft is rejected by F1 generation in murine model. This ... rejection is caused by natural killer (NK) cells of the recipient. ...
Lymphocyte-dependent antibody and renal graft rejection.. Lancet. 1975; 1(7913):953-4. Tinckam KJ. Basic histocompatibility ... DSA are a result of B cell and plasma cell activation and bind to HLA and/or non-HLA molecules on the endothelium of the graft ... This became the standard method, still used today, for graft allocation. With PRA that identifies several antibodies to a ... AHG and DTE/AHG procedure identification of crossmatch-appropriate donor-recipient pairings that result in improved graft ...
Corneal Graft Rejection on eMedicine "Atlas of Ophthalmology". Archived from the original on 2011-07-07 ... Khodadoust AA, Silverstein AM (February 1976). "Induction of corneal graft rejection by passive cell transfer". Investigative ... This medical condition is similar to organ rejection after an organ transplant, except that it involves immunological rejection ... A Khodadoust line or chronic focal transplant reaction is a medical sign that indicates a complication of corneal graft surgery ...
Zijlstra M, Auchincloss H, Loring JM, Chase CM, Russell PS, Jaenisch R (April 1992). "Skin graft rejection by beta 2- ...
It is the sign of onset of graft rejection. Blood cell lineage "What Are Agranulocytes? - Definition & Function - Video & ...
Lin CM, Gill RG (February 2016). "Direct and indirect allograft recognition: pathways dictating graft rejection mechanisms". ... Rejection mediated by T lymphocytes sensitized by direct allorecognition pathway is predominant in the short period after the ... of passenger cells while indirect recognition contributes to continuing graft damage and plays role in chronic rejection. The ... In this case the alloantigens derived from graft are internalized, processed and presented in form of peptides by recipient's ...
S. domuncula has been used for study of graft rejection. Researchers have discovered that apoptotic factors are induced in the ... S. domuncula was the first demonstrated immune response of invertebrate species (1). These sponges also have similar graft- ... Wiens, Matthias; Perović-Ottstadt, Sanja; Müller, Isabel M.; Müller, Werner E. G. (November 2004). "Allograft rejection in the ...
These are the same T-cells that mediate graft rejection. This means that the addition of donor-veto cells to the donor graft ... Graft rejection is the main problem. Addition of donor-veto cells to the graft can provide one solution to this problem. Veto ... The large number of veto cells helped overcome the graft rejection that was mediated by the host CD8 T-cell precursors. An ... Transfer of these Anti-3rd party Tcm with megadose TCD HSCT in preclinical models was successful at preventing graft rejection ...
In organ transplant the goal was to explain graft rejection for recipients, and of course, to prevent future rejection. From ... This is called allograft [allo = different, graft(medical) = transplant] rejection. To explain rejection in a nutshell, certain ... The pilot sustained severe burns requiring skin grafts; however, skin grafts were a risky business at the time, often being ... Within days the skin grafts from the brother were completely destroyed. Successive skin grafts from the brother were destroyed ...
... but additionally include graft rejection (lifelong), detachment or displacement of lamellar transplants and primary graft ... There is a risk of cornea rejection, which occurs in about 10% of cases. Graft failure can occur at any time after the cornea ... and leflunomide to prevent graft rejection is increasing but there is insufficient evidence to ascertain which ... "Immunosuppressants for the prophylaxis of corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty". Cochrane Database of ...
Gottsch, John D.; Liu, Sammy H.; Stark, Walter J. (April 1992). "Mooren's Ulcer and Evidence of Stromal Graft Rejection After ... It is most likely, that amniotic membrane used as an ocular graft stop the inflammation process because of the expression of ...
With nipple grafts comes the possibility of rejection. In such cases, the nipple is often tattooed back on cosmetically or ... Nipple grafts are generally associated with double incision style chest reconstruction, but may be used in any reconstruction ... Some sensation will usually return to the grafted nipples over time. However, the procedure severs the nerves that go into the ... After the chest has been reconstructed, the nipples are grafted on in the appropriate male position. The areolae are often ...
This tool allows to finely characterize graft rejection by analyzing the expression of genes in the kidney, heart or lung graft ... He is known for his discoveries on the topic of graft rejection.,, Its approach proposing innovative methodological tools has ... anti-HLA graft rejection and the identification of associated biomarkers. He is also a recipient of the American Society of ... Revised diagnostic criteria for chronic active T cell-mediated rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, and prospects for ...
The use of autologous grafts prevents transplantation rejection reactions. Grafts used for oral reconstruction are preferably ... However, skin grafts differ from oral mucosa in: consistency, color and keratinization pattern. The transplanted skin graft ... there is a risk of the graft not being able to lose its original donor tissue characteristics. For example, skin grafts are ... Autologous grafts are used to transfer tissue from one site to another on the same body. ...
"Immunology of Transplant Rejection: Overview, History, Types of Grafts". 2017-03-09. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires , ... Additionally, it is used for treating graft-versus-host disease after a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto- ... Immunosuppressants are administered in order to help prevent rejection; however, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections ... "Transplant rejection: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2017-07-14. " ...
The main reason for this is tissue graft rejection caused by MHC incompatibility. In humans and other vertebrates, the immune ...
Williams, K A (1 May 2005). "Corneal graft rejection occurs despite Fas ligand expression and apoptosis of infiltrating cells ... "Corneal graft survival research and registry". Flinders University. Retrieved 7 April 2022. "Australian Corneal Graft Registry ... "Australian Corneal Graft Registry 10-Year Findings to Inform Future - mivision". 9 July 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2022. Weintraub ... Her research focuses on gene therapy of donor corneas to self produce protiens that assist in reducing transplant rejection in ...
... increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft- ... To limit the risks of transplanted stem-cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host disease in allogeneic HSCT, the donor ... Also, the incidence of patients experiencing rejection is very rare (and graft-versus-host disease impossible) due to the donor ... Graft-versus-tumor effect (GVT), or "graft versus leukemia" effect, is the beneficial aspect of the GvHD phenomenon. For ...
... is a possible solution to graft rejection in tissue engineering applications. Cell microencapsulation ... grafted a solid, but permeable, shell around the cells to provide increased mechanical strength. Sodium Citrate is used for ... The use of microencapsulation would protect the islet cells from immune rejection as well as allow the use of animal cells or ... The microcapsules should be strong enough and should not rupture on implantation as this could lead to an immune rejection of ...
Rejection of cutaneous grafts or transplantable tumors may be delayed. In addition, infection will increase the sensitivity of ... In the 1970s, studies concerning the importance of MHC locus were done exclusively in transplantation and tumor rejection. ...
Raghavan U, Jones NS, Romo T (2004). "Immediate autogenous cartilage grafts in rhinoplasty after alloplastic implant rejection ... Tidwell JK, Blijdorp PA, Stoelinga PJ, Brouns JB, Hinderks F (August 1992). "Composite grafting of the maxillary sinus for ... and platelet-rich fibrin as sole grafting material: a six-year experience". Implant Dentistry. 20 (1): 2-12. doi:10.1097/ID. ...
The aim of modifying the allograft is usually the mitigation of immunological graft rejection.[citation needed] Transient ... In allograft engineering the graft is substantially modified by altering its genetic composition. The genetic modification can ...
"Management of an irradiated anophthalmic socket following dermis-fat graft rejection: a case report". Indian J Ophthalmol. 56 ( ...
Tan, HH; Fiel, MI; Rio Martin, J; Schiano, TD (Jun 2009). "Graft rejection occurring in post-liver transplant patients ... is a variant of rejection and may lead to a negative outcome in patients with hepatitis C virus". Liver Transpl. 14 (6): 861-71 ... "Effect of ischemia-reperfusion on the incidence of acute cellular rejection and timing of histologic hepatitis C virus ...
Other major causes of death following heart transplantation include graft failure, organ rejection and infection. Diagnosis is ... Unlike rejection and infection, CAV in the transplanted heart was not initially a predicted outcome. Early survivors of heart ... The impact of CAV has changed over time, with early recipients being younger, having more rejection and cardiovascular risk ... This was devised in a similar way to the earlier acute rejection grading system by endomyocardial biopsy. Antibody-mediated ...
Hersh PS, Jordan AJ & Mayers M. Corneal graft rejection episode after excimer laser phototherapeutic keratectomy. Arch. Ophthal ...
February 2003). "Individualized T cell monitored administration of ATG versus OKT3 in steroid-resistant kidney graft rejection ... Muromonab-CD3 is approved for the therapy of acute, glucocorticoid-resistant rejection of allogeneic renal, heart and liver ... Unlike the monoclonal antibodies basiliximab and daclizumab, it is not approved for prophylaxis of transplant rejection, ... is an immunosuppressant drug given to reduce acute rejection in patients with organ transplants. It is a monoclonal antibody ...
These achievements include the following: initial description of the immunological nature of corneal graft rejection; discovery ...
Experiments in the rat have shown that Sertoli cells can help protect from graft rejection. These cells were isolated from the ... resulting in increased graft survival. Molecules released by the Sertoli cells are predicted to protect the graft. 2. It is ... Both the suppression of immune responses and the increased survival of grafts in the testis have led to its recognition as an ... Evidence includes the tolerance of testicular grafts in mice and rats, as well as the increased survival of transplants of ...
In 1930, he released the Clark Memorandum, a rejection of the Roosevelt Corollary and a move towards non-interventionism in ... The Hoover Presidency: A Reappraisal (1974) Graff, Henry F., ed. The Presidents: A Reference History (3rd ed. 2002) online ...
Studies of the impact of Medicaid expansion rejections calculated that up to 6.4 million people would have too much income for ... and grafts. Unlike Medicare, which is solely a federal program, Medicaid is a joint federal-state program. Each state ...
Graff, Gary (December 7, 2011). "Rock Hall Inductees 2012: Guns N' Roses, Beastie Boys Make Grade". Billboard. New York, NY: ... described her rejection as the biggest betrayal of his life up to that point, and said he "cried for days" afterwards. By the ...
He reportedly told friends he decided to use his mother's maiden name of Paciello as a rejection of his father, as well as a ... Graff, Gary (February 21, 2009). "Interview: Katy Perry". The Scotsman. UK. Archived from the original on March 7, 2009. ...
Graff, Garrett M. (2022). Watergate: A New History (1 ed.). New York: Avid Reader Press. pp. 393. ISBN 978-1-9821-3916-2. OCLC ... Webbe, Stephen (December 4, 1981). "Reagan scorns Senate rejection of silo-based MX missile plan". The Christian Science ...
... whose works on graft rejection and the discovery of acquired immune tolerance were fundamental to the medical practice of ... graft rejection and acquired immune tolerance. Basic Books, New York, 1957 The Future of Man: the BBC Reith Lectures 1959, ... This work was used in dealing with skin grafts required after burns. Medawar's work resulted in a shift of emphasis in the ... When the mouse developed into adult and skin grafting from that of the original strain was performed, there was no tissue ...
In: Graff WC, Smith JW, eds. Plastic surgery: a concise guide to clinical practice. 2nd Ed. Boston: Little Brown & Co; p. 603- ... shifts in position or rejection of the implants, could only be assessed to a limited degree due to the short follow-up time of ... rejection of the implants; hypertrophic scars; keloid on the skin incisions; cosmetically disfiguring edge formations on the ...
Graft damage during preparation and transportation Infection Hepatotoxic drugs Graft rejection Technical complications ( ... from passing to the cells to prevent an immune system rejection. Currently, hollow-fibre bioreactors are the most commonly ... in patients with primary nonfunction and other causes of graft dysfunction after liver transplantation in the era of extended ... and stabilize the patient to receive a re-transplant if the above goal is not achieved MARS Therapy Indication Primary graft ...
This led manager O'Neill respond to Wallace's bid rejection, saying the player remained part of his plan. After the transfer ... "Bellamy? That's my Bhoy United's graft no match for Welshman's craft as Celtic grind out crucial victory". Herald Scotland. 21 ...
... allograft rejection, autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory diseases. The first successful tests were performed on mouse models ... and their key role is to induce and maintain peripheral tolerance and suppress tissue inflammation in autoimmunity and graft vs ...
Historian Henry Graff says that in the mid-1890s, "unmistakably, the sentiment at home was maturing with immense force for the ... Challenge and Rejection: America and World Leadership, 1900-1921 (1967) online[ Pringle, Henry F (1931), Theodore Roosevelt ( ... Henry F. Graff (2002). Grover Cleveland: The American Presidents Series: The 22nd and 24th President, 1885-1889 and 1893-1897. ...
"PLA general who helped Xi battle graft in military retires". South China Morning Post. 30 December 2015. Lin Yunshi (林韵诗) (26 ... which has aroused notice for criticizing recent Party leadership and calls for the rejection of foreign models and a return to ... Chinese military's ability to wage war eroded by graft, its generals warn. Ben Blanchard and Megha Rajagopalan, Reuters, 18 ...
Susan Haack once claimed that a many-valued logic requires neither intermediate terms between true and false, nor a rejection ... 84-110.[10] Delia Graff Fara, "Shifting Sands: An Interest Relative Theory of Vagueness". Philosophical Topics, Vol. 28 No. 1, ... Oxford University Press, 2009; Delia Graff & Timothy Williamson (eds.), Vagueness. London: Routledge, 2002. Timothy Williamson ...
Graff 2015, pp. 157ff. Graff 2015, p. 170. Gallo & Marzano 2009, p. 10. Bar-Siman-Tov 2007, p. 20. Plaw 2016, p. 63. Peled 2006 ... ISBN 978-0-674-97505-7. Hoffnung, Menachem; Weinshall-Margel, Keren (2010). "Judicial Rejection as Substantial Relief: The ... Graff 2015, pp. 168-169. Graff 2015, p. 167. Gleim 2015. Michaeli 2013, pp. 7-46. Michaeli 2013, p. 43. Michaeli 2013, p. 47. ... Graff 2015, p. 173. Sait 2004, p. 221. Abdullah 2017. Harel 2003. Cohen 2010b, p. 146. WCLAC 2015, pp. 4-5. The Guardian 12 Sep ...
An advantage to this approach is that a person's own stem cells are used, avoiding tissue rejection by the immune system. Stem ... Osteochondral Grafting of Articular Cartilage Injury at eMedicine (CS1 German-language sources (de), Implants (medicine), ...
"Skin Grafting". WebMD. Retrieved 2008-08-20. Amst, Catherine; Carey, John (July 27, 1998). "Biotech Bodies ... But, on 19 September (after two weeks), the surgery was reversed because of a severe psychological problem (rejection) by the ... "High-Tech Skinny on Skin Grafts". CondéNet, Inc. 1999-02-16. Archived from the original on ... After hospital circumcision, the foreskin may be used in biomedical research, consumer skin-care products, skin grafts, or β- ...
While fighting his own bestial instincts and fears of social rejection, Beast dedicates his physical and mental gifts to the ... was able to perform brain surgery on the Red Skull to extract the fragment of Charles Xavier's brain that the Skull had grafted ...
In early July 2021, the Kano State House of Assembly suspended Rimingado for a month over 'the rejection of an accountant ... "Despite court ruling, Kano Assembly orders sack, arrest of anti-graft agency boss". New Agency of Nigeria. Peoples Gazette. ... "Kano Assembly suspends anti-graft agency boss". The Punch. Retrieved 5 July 2021. Maishanu, Abubakar Ahmadu. "Ganduje replaces ... "Police detain Kano anti-graft boss for alleged forgery". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 August 2021. (Articles with short ...
... he left the priesthood in rejection of the position of the Catholic Church, which refused to criminally denounce the pederast ... Patricio Graff (football player) Oscar Enrique Haack (football player) Carlos Haberkon (football player) Valentín Haberkon ( ...
"The ICC's rejection of Bemba's compensation claim points to need for reform". "Decision on the confirmation of charges against ... Graff, Julia (2004). "Corporate War Criminals and the International Criminal Court: Blood and Profits in the Democratic ...
... contributions include research into the mechanisms of diseases affecting sclera and mechanisms for corneal graft rejection. He ...
Let's wait until we're ready.' From one kind of quite light-hearted, rejection song, came the theme. I've been grafting on my ...
Raynal argued, echoing Metzinger and Gleizes, that the rejection of classical perspective in favor of multiplicity represented ... they are grafted together with love and geometric design, their limbs are bracings, ties of strength, they represent, not ...
They grafted sections of quail endothelial tubing which had previously expressed arterial markers onto chick veins (or vice ... to improve wound healing and benefit the integration of tissues from transplants by lowering the incidence of rejection.[ ... Vascular remodelling is pertinent to wound healing and proper integration of tissue grafting and organ donations. Promoting an ... angiogenesis and vascular remodelling is an important aspect of wound healing and the long-term stability of tissue grafts. ...
"The Role of First Lady" in Graff, Henry F., ed. The presidents: A Reference History (3rd ed. 2002) Deppisch, Ludwig M. (2015). ... Troy, Gil (1997). Affairs of State The Rise and Rejection of the Presidential Couple Since World War II. ISBN 9780684828206. By ...
Also, transplanted mesenchymal stem cells pose little risk for rejection as they are derived from the patients own tissue, so ... are genetically identical, however graft versus host disease is a possibility, where the cells change enough while outside the ...
"He made numerous fundamental contributions to our modern knowledge of the mechanisms of graft rejection and how to prevent it, ... During his PhD he worked on skin grafts in guinea pigs, demonstrating that when black skin was grafted onto white skin, the ... They also worked on graft-versus-host disease. In 1951 Billingham married and had 3 children with his wife Jean Billingham. ...
Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a) apheresis Photopheresis - used to treat graft-versus-host disease, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and ... transplant rejection, hemophilia) by directing plasma through protein A-agarose columns. Protein A is a cell wall component ... of the units tested and that the product be irradiated to avoid graft-versus-host disease (inactivate lymphocytes). Irradiation ... rejection in heart transplantation. Immunoadsorbtion with Staphylococcal protein A-agarose column - removal of allo- and ...
Development for them does not mean a wholesale rejection of traditions. Wholesale transplanting of innovations into a tribal ... for which he underwent four major surgical operations with bone grafting at Jokhio Hospital, Karachi. He was also awarded a ... society could not overcome the ferocious power of tradition; it is essential to graft these innovations only after first making ...
Overcoming chronic rejection is important to increasing graft and patient survival and quality of life for transplant ... However, animal models must be applicable to the treatment and/or prevention of human chronic graft rejection and the studies ... Full Text AI-95-009 IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF CHRONIC GRAFT REJECTION NIH GUIDE, Volume 24, Number 3, January 27, 1995 RFA: AI-95- ... This RFA, Immunopathogenesis of Chronic Graft Rejection, is related to the priority area of clinical prevention services. ...
Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipients immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. ... Tse G, Marson L. Immunology of graft rejection. In: Forsythe JLR, ed. Transplantation: A Companion to Specialist Surgical ... There are three types of rejection:. * Hyperacute rejection occurs a few minutes after the transplant when the antigens are ... All recipients have some amount of acute rejection.. *Chronic rejection can take place over many years. The bodys constant ...
Table 3h: Summary of Studies Reporting Graft Rejection. Table 3g: Summary of Studies Reporting Graft-Versus-Host-Disease. First ... a. Renal allograft function and rejections were followed for up to 1 year, reported period for graft rejection is from 30 days ... One study among renal transplant patients reported on graft rejection, with 4 episodes of rejection reported in 132 RZV ... graft-versus-host-disease (important), graft rejection (important), and reactogenicity grade ≥3 (important). ...
How is acute graft rejection treated in liver transplant patients?. How does chronic graft rejection manifest in liver ... Acute and chronic graft rejection. Acute rejection occurs in 20-70% of cases, most often at 7-14 days post transplant, and ... Chronic graft rejection is the major cause of late graft failure. The primary finding is persistently elevated serum alkaline ... How is graft rejection controlled following liver transplantation?. What are the potential toxic effects of cyclosporine in ...
Graft rejection. * ABPA usually occurs in patients with CF or underlying bronchial asthma. ...
Suhorukovs V, Tihomirova T. Impact of subclinical acute rejection on renal graft function: Results of three-year follow-up. ... Impact of subclinical acute rejection on renal graft function : Results of three-year follow-up. In: Proceedings of the Latvian ... The results of our study did not indicate any impact of subclinical rejection on renal graft function in the late post- ... The results of our study did not indicate any impact of subclinical rejection on renal graft function in the late post- ...
Liver graft rejection. 7 (13.5). Biliary anastomotic stricture. 5 (9.6). Liver malignancies. 2 (3.8). ...
Torque-teno virus for the prediction of graft rejection and infection disease after kidney transplantation: A systematic review ... whose diagnostic accuracy of acute rejection (AR) and infection after kidney transplantation (KT) has not been evaluated. We ...
Kidney transplant rejection dosing for Thymoglobulin, ATG rabbit (antithymocyte globulin rabbit), frequency-based adverse ... Acute Renal Graft Rejection. Indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of acute rejection in patients receiving a kidney ... Graft Versus Host Disease (Orphan). Indicated for prevention of graft vs host disease; 2 mg/kg IV infusion qDay x 3-4 days ... Solid Organ Transplant Rejection (Orphan). Indicated for prophylaxis of acute allograft rejection in adult recipients in solid ...
When perfusing the mixed islet graft after completed rejection of the concordant xenogeneic rat islets (6 wk after implantation ... Characterization of mixed syngeneic-allogeneic and syngeneic-xenogeneic islet-graft rejections in mice. Evidence of functional ... Characterization of mixed syngeneic-allogeneic and syngeneic-xenogeneic islet-graft rejections in mice. Evidence of functional ... No differences in insulin content could be observed between mixed islet grafts and pure syngeneic islet grafts 6 wk after ...
Corneal graft rejection † 1 0/264 (0.00%) 1/262 (0.38%) Hypersensitivity † 1 1/264 (0.38%) 0/262 (0.00%) ...
IFN-gamma alters the pathology of graft rejection: protection from early necrosis. J Immunol 2001; 166(12):7072-81.. 5. ... Predominant Th1 cell infiltration in acute rejection episodes of human kidney grafts. Kidney Int 1997; 51(6):1876-84.. 19. ... The impact of acute rejection on chronic rejection: a report of the North American Pediatric Renal Transplant Cooperative Study ... the level of FoxP3 gene expression was higher in the group with stable graft compared to the acute rejection group. The higher ...
... treat and prevent possible recurrence of herpes infection in corneal grafts and support graft survival. ... All patients with positive herpes DNA and no history of HK prior to PK received antiherpetic treatment and had a 100% graft ... This study evaluated the prevalence and graft survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) ... Graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a serious complication, especially in eyes with herpetic keratitis (HK). ...
As with other alpha interferons, liver and renal graft rejections have been reported on PEGASYS, alone or in combination with ...
... analysis of engraftment and acute graft-versus-host disease. Blood. 1996 Aug 1;88(3):795-802. Laughlin MJ, Barker J, Bambach B ... Graft Rejection;. Graft Versus Host Disease Recruitment Keyword(s). None Condition(s) ...
The rejection process was, however, fully reversible under immunosuppressive treatment and graft activity recovered within six ... MeSH terms: Antigens; Brain; Clinical Trials as Topic; Fetal Stem Cells; Graft Rejection; HLA Antigens; Humans; Huntington ... Alloimmunisation to donor antigens and immune rejection following foetal neural grafts to the brain in patients with ... We report biological demonstration of alloimmunisation without signs of rejection in four grafted patients out of 13 studied ...
Graft Rejection [‎3]‎. Greece [‎4]‎. Guideline [‎6]‎. Harm Reduction [‎6]‎. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points [‎2]‎. ...
Graft Rejection Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... 37+/-14 days for rejection-free patients, P=0.162). Conclusions: There were no demographic or clinical subpopulations not ... Background: Basiliximab is an interleukin-2 receptor (CD25) chimeric monoclonal antibody used for acute rejection prophylaxis ... basiliximab had not been cleared faster than in their rejection-free peers (P=0.322) nor had CD25 been saturated for a shorter ...
By 14 days, graft volume had retracted and GFP immunoreactivity was absent, indicating complete donor rejection. Consequently, ... Graft Rejection*; Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics; Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism; Inflammation/metabolism; ... MSC grafts were massively infiltrated by ED1-positive microglia/macrophages and surrounded by a marked astrogliosis. ...
Immunomodulatory agents to prevent graft rejection and biomarkers to predict transplantation outcomes. ...
... utilize immune and surrogate markers to predict graft acceptance, changes in graft function, rejection and patient survival. It ... develop diagnostic tests to predict graft rejection; and (4) develop surrogate biomarkers for acute and chronic rejection. This ... These measures are associated with more frequent and vigorous episodes of graft rejection that are not as responsive to therapy ... This disparity in long-term graft survival is very problematic for young children; graft loss requires that the patient be ...
Using nanoparticles to encapsulate eye medication decreased graft rejection while requiring fewer and smaller doses. ... The nanoparticle approach reversed signs of early rejection and maintained corneal grafts for six months without rejection. ... Each year, approximately 80,000 corneal transplantations take place in the U.S. However, rejection rates for the corneal grafts ... The resulting noncompliance to medication treatment can lead to even higher graft-rejection rates. ...
Traumatic: Prosthetic heart valves, march hemoglobinuria, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), graft rejection ... Traumatic: Prosthetic heart valves, march hemoglobinuria, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), graft rejection ...
Bilateral simultaneous corneal graft rejection. after influenza vaccination. . Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;121:708-9. ... Hamilton A, Massera R, Maloof A. Stromal rejection in a deep. anterior lamellar keratoplasty following influenza vaccination. ... Corneal transplant rejection. following influenza vaccination. . Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90(925). ... Corneal allograft rejection. following immunization. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;106:575-8. ...
While graft rejection does not occur, neurogenesis is strongly inhibited. We have found that there are two immune processes ... Stem cell grafts may be useful to replace neural stem cells that have been killed by the cancer treatment. We are also testing ... by the immune system if they do not closely match the recipient and we have found that classical methods to protect grafted ...
Introduction: Elevated cyclic strain often leads to vein graft rejection, which is correlated to increased thrombomodulin ...
It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION. Descriptor ID ... Suppression of allograft rejection by regulatory B cells ...
  • In 1944, Medawar showed that skin allograft rejection is a host versus graft response. (
  • Histocompatibility antigens are encoded on more than 40 loci, but the loci responsible for the most vigorous allograft rejection reactions are on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). (
  • 11. B cells in cluster or in a scattered pattern do not correlate with clinical outcome of renal allograft rejection. (
  • 16. Pretransplant low CD3+CD25high cell counts or a low CD3+CD25high/CD3+HLA-DR+ ratio are associated with an increased risk to acute renal allograft rejection. (
  • Suppression of allograft rejection by regulatory B cells induced via TLR signaling. (
  • Late severe acute intestinal allograft rejection is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality and, in the majority of cases, ends with total enterectomy. (
  • The rIL-12p70 alloactivated Ts1 cells markedly delayed PVG, but not third party Lewis, cardiac allograft rejection in normal DA recipients. (
  • These Th1-like Treg delayed specific donor allograft rejection demonstrating therapeutic potential. (
  • 1:1 of nTreg:effector CD4 + T cells to inhibit organ allograft rejection ( 2 , 8 ) or graft versus host disease (GVHD) ( 11 ). (
  • Thus, extremely large numbers of nTreg are required in vivo to prevent allograft rejection and GVHD in unmodified recipients ( 13 ). (
  • Knowledge of these mechanisms is also critical in developing strategies to minimize rejection and in developing new drugs and treatments that blunt the effects of the immune system on transplanted organs, thereby ensuring longer survival of these organs. (
  • In follow-up, in a period of three years there was no statistically significant difference in blood creatinine level, glomerular filtration rate, number of clinical rejections during the monitoring period, and three-year survival of the transplanted kidney in patients, regardless of where the treatment of subclinical rejection was applied. (
  • This study evaluated the prevalence and graft survival of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA in recipient corneas during PK. (
  • 9. CD20+ lymphocytes in renal allografts are associated with poor graft survival in pediatric patients. (
  • 10. The Effect of Histological CD20-Positive B Cell Infiltration in Acute Cellular Rejection on Kidney Transplant Allograft Survival. (
  • While the differences in one-year and five-year graft survival between children and adults are less pronounced than when the Cooperative Clinical Trial in Pediatric Transplantation (CCTPT) was established in 1994, children still do not achieve the long-term graft survival rates of adults who receive cadaveric renal transplants. (
  • Although many factors have been implicated in the difference in graft survival between pediatric and adult kidney transplant recipients, the most important appears to be the pediatric immune system. (
  • Therefore, changes in standard immunosuppression or the use of new treatment regimens that reduce or abolish the need for global immunosuppression hold the promise of improving graft survival and reducing adverse side effects. (
  • Research Objectives and Scope The purpose of this RFA is to support a program of multi-site, cooperative clinical trials in pediatric kidney transplantation to improve graft and patient survival. (
  • When compared to patients up to age 12 yr with FSGS, graft survival in both LD and CD transplants was worse in adolescents with FSGS (LD p = 0.035, CD p (
  • In conclusion, FSGS has a negative impact on graft survival in adolescents. (
  • Recurrence of FSGS results in a loss of the expected LD graft survival advantage in adolescents. (
  • Furthermore, adolescents with FSGS have decreased graft survival compared to younger children with FSGS. (
  • These data suggest that the rationale for LD transplantation in adolescents with FSGS should be based on factors other than the increased graft survival typically seen with LD transplantation. (
  • The authors concluded that the tagging of islet cells could be useful in clinical practice to help evaluate graft survival and, during graft rejection, to monitor the response to therapies. (
  • Torque-teno virus for the prediction of graft rejection and infection disease after kidney transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • Torque teno virus (TTV) is a promising novel marker for quantifying the immune function in solid organ recipients, whose diagnostic accuracy of acute rejection (AR) and infection after kidney transplantation (KT) has not been evaluated. (
  • In this prospective study, 3 months after transplantation 30 patients who received renal transplants from unrelated living donors were enrolled and divided into two groups, 20 patients with stable graft function and 10 patients with biopsy proven acute rejection. (
  • The higher percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+Th1 subset and number of IFN-γ secreting cells and also the lower expression of Foxp3 could prone the patients to acute rejection episode post transplantation. (
  • We report biological demonstration of alloimmunisation without signs of rejection in four grafted patients out of 13 studied during the course of a clinical trial involving fetal neural transplantation in patients with Huntington's Disease. (
  • All the macaques that received the grafts showed transient arrhythmias-problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat-that subsided by 4 weeks post-transplantation. (
  • Immunomodulatory agents to prevent graft rejection and biomarkers to predict transplantation outcomes. (
  • Our goal is to identify lung graft injury and dysfunction after transplantation in the early stages, so we can perform the proper interventions. (
  • To reduce the risk of graft rejection when used in conjunction with high-dose busulfan and cyclophosphamide as a preparative regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor (stem) cell transplantation (HSCT) for pediatric patients with class 3 beta-thalassemia. (
  • Images of cells in islet grafts have successfully been made in the laboratory, for example by rendering the cells bioluminescent ( Transplantation 2005;79:768-76). (
  • Although the actual extent of this privilege is controversial, there is general consensus about the limited need in intracerebral neural grafts for immunosuppressive regimens comparable to those used in other cases of allotransplantation. (
  • The rejection process was, however, fully reversible under immunosuppressive treatment and graft activity recovered within six months. (
  • Treating COVID-19 in solid organ transplant, hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and cellular immunotherapy recipients can be challenging due to the presence of coexisting medical conditions, the potential for transplant-related cytopenias, and the need for chronic immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease. (
  • In contrast to adults, children require higher doses of immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection. (
  • 2. Clinical trials to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new, less toxic immunosuppressive agents or regimens to prevent rejection or new approaches to reduce the number of immunosuppressive agents required to prevent rejection. (
  • The main problem focuses on preventing the graft from rejection with the use of immunosuppressive agents. (
  • With the help of immunosuppressive drugs, such as tacrolimus, sirolimis, mycophenolic acid, and everolimus, rejection rates of transplanted human organs can be reduced. (
  • Severe Late-Onset Acute Cellular Rejection in a Pediatric Patient With Isolated Small Intestinal Transplant Rescued With Aggressive Immunosuppressive Approach: A Case Report. (
  • Both were previously at the University of Louisville, where they generated the SA-PD-L1, a novel form of the molecule that can be positionally displayed on the surface of islet grafts or microgels for delivery to the graft site. (
  • Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient's immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. (
  • Mismatched organs, or organs that are not matched closely enough, can trigger a blood transfusion reaction or transplant rejection. (
  • Hyperacute rejection occurs a few minutes after the transplant when the antigens are completely unmatched. (
  • Acute rejection may occur any time from the first week after the transplant to 3 months afterward. (
  • Suppressing the immune response may prevent transplant rejection. (
  • Chronic rejection is the leading cause of organ transplant failure. (
  • Use in liver transplant patients is not recommended due to an increased risk of graft loss and death. (
  • NULOJIX is a selective T cell costimulation blocker indicated for prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult patients receiving a kidney transplant. (
  • One of the 3 patients engrafted but lost the graft at 7 months post-transplant. (
  • Based on the three patients losing their grafts, stopping rules were met and the study moved to the 2nd cohort where 1 dose of Cy was given at 50mg/kg on day 3 post-transplant. (
  • 1. CD20+ B-cell infiltration is related to the time after transplant and poor prognosis of acute cellular rejection in renal transplant. (
  • 2. Expression patterns of B cells in acute kidney transplant rejection. (
  • 3. Pathologic characteristics of early or late acute cellular rejection and outcome after kidney transplant. (
  • 19. Refractory acute kidney transplant rejection with CD20 graft infiltrates and successful therapy with rituximab. (
  • graft loss requires that the patient be returned to the transplant waiting list and dialysis with its attendant morbidity and side effects. (
  • The UPMC Division of Lung Transplant/Lung Failure conducts research to identify and quantify biological markers of graft rejection. (
  • Nowadays, the main cause for early graft loss is renal graft thrombosis because kidney transplant outcomes have improved drastically owing to advances in immunological techniques and immunosuppression. (
  • It was not until 1954 that the first successful human kidney transplant was completed between identical twins, with the recipient surviving eight years with normal graft function. (
  • Perturbations of the T-cell immune repertoire in kidney transplant rejection. (
  • The work we are doing is taking a page from that discovery and using immunotherapy in the opposite sense used by cancer treatments to control and 'turn off' an immune response to transplant a graft," Coronel said. (
  • When you get a transplant, like an islet transplant or organ transplant, even if it's matched, you will have an immune response to that graft, and your immune system will recognize it as non-self and will try to reject and attack the site of the graft. (
  • The microgels, which resemble clusters of micro-sized fish eggs, held and delivered a protein (SA-PD-L1) to a specific transplant area that successfully signaled the immune system to hold back an immune response, protecting a transplanted islet graft from being rejected. (
  • The pre-specified harms included serious adverse events (SAEs) (critical), immune-mediated disease (important), graft-versus-host-disease (important), graft rejection (important), and reactogenicity grade ≥3 (important). (
  • Allografts are grafts between members of the same species that differ genetically. (
  • The degree to which allografts undergo rejection depends partly on the degree of similarity or histocompatibility between the donor and the recipient. (
  • The aim of our study was to compare the percentage of CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, the number of IFN-γ secreting cells and the amount of FoxP3 expression in patients with or without stable graft function, to determine the roles of these immunological factors in stable and rejected renal allografts. (
  • 13. Lymphoid-Like Structures with Distinct B Cell Areas in Kidney Allografts are not Predictive for Graft Rejection. (
  • All recipients have some amount of acute rejection. (
  • In nine patients with subclinical rejection, treatment with steroids was applied, while eight recipients did not receive any additional therapy. (
  • Higher rate of endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is reported in renal graft recipients. (
  • This RFA, Immunopathogenesis of Chronic Graft Rejection, is related to the priority area of clinical prevention services. (
  • Chronic rejection can take place over many years. (
  • and (4) develop surrogate biomarkers for acute and chronic rejection. (
  • It carries notable risks, including, but not limited to, acute and chronic cellular rejection and graft malfunction. (
  • Other antigens cause only weaker reactions, but combinations of several minor antigens can elicit strong rejection responses. (
  • Alloimmunisation to donor antigens and immune rejection following foetal neural grafts to the brain in patients with Huntington's disease. (
  • After you no longer have signs of rejection, the dosage will likely be lowered. (
  • Especially because immunological reasons for early graft loss have virtually vanished because advances in immunological techniques and immunosuppression. (
  • Yet immunosuppression remained a problem and organ grafts were frequently rejected. (
  • A routine biopsy is often performed periodically to detect rejection early, before symptoms develop. (
  • 12. Clinical impacts of CD38+ B cells on acute cellular rejection with CD20+ B cells in renal allograft. (
  • Due to medication nonadherence, she developed severe late-onset acute cellular rejection manifested by high, bloody ostomy output and weight loss. (
  • Evaluate for evidence of infection or rejection in patients who present with compatible symptoms. (
  • However, data regarding the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy in the prevention of renal graft thrombosis are scarce. (
  • We wanted to use PD-L1 for the prevention of allogeneic islet graft rejection by simulating the way tumor cells use this molecule to evade the immune system, but without resorting to gene therapy. (
  • Therefore, more attention is being paid to the so-called subclinical rejections of renal grafts, detected by protocol biopsies, as a possible factor affecting renal function in late period. (
  • Within the frame of the study 40 protocol biopsies were performed in 26 patients with immediate and stable renal graft function. (
  • By 14 days, graft volume had retracted and GFP immunoreactivity was absent, indicating complete donor rejection. (
  • 7. C4d deposits in acute "cell-mediated" rejection: a marker for renal prognosis? (
  • Recurrent primary disease accounted for 15.2% of all graft failures in adolescents transplanted for FSGS with no difference between LD (17%) or CD (13.8%) grafts. (
  • Recurrent disease accounted for 3.2% of graft failures in adolescents without FSGS. (
  • Recurrent disease was the only cause of graft failure that differed between groups (p (
  • Autografts, which are grafts from one part of the body to another (eg, skin grafts), are not foreign tissue and, therefore, do not elicit rejection. (
  • On average, the grafts replaced 40% of damaged tissue. (
  • We use blood, fluid, and tissue samples to detect biological signals that may reflect the body's rejection of the transplanted lung. (
  • Transplanting less tissue helps preserve the integrity of the eye, lowers the risk of failure or rejection of the graft (the living tissue that is implanted), and speeds up the recovery period. (
  • These measures are associated with more frequent and vigorous episodes of graft rejection that are not as responsive to therapy as in adults, resulting in a higher rate of graft loss. (
  • This type of rejection is seen when a recipient is given the wrong type of blood. (
  • Most common abnormal uterine bleeding in graft recipient are: prolonged and profuse menstruation and inter-menstrual bleeding or spotting. (
  • Over ten-year experiences of HRT administration in graft recipient have proved the benefits of the therapy. (
  • These mechanisms are also involved in the rejection of transplanted organs, which are recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system. (
  • Some sites, such as the eye and the brain, are immunologically privileged (ie, they have minimal or no immune system cells and can tolerate even mismatched grafts). (
  • Medicines that suppress the immune system may stop the rejection. (
  • Ts1 cells re-cultured with rIL-2 and alloantigen remained of the Ts1 phenotype and did not suppress cardiac graft rejection in normal DA rats. (
  • The degree of immune response to a graft depends partly on the degree of genetic disparity between the grafted organ and the host. (
  • Xenografts, which are grafts between members of different species, have the most disparity and elicit the maximal immune response, undergoing rapid rejection. (
  • Our results underline the need for a reconsideration of the extent of the so-called immune privilege of the brain and of the follow-up protocols of patients with intracerebral grafts. (
  • Stopping rules were built into the study so that if too many patients either rejected their grafts or developed moderate to severe GVHD, the study would move to the 2nd cohort. (
  • 18. The extent of HLA-DR expression on HLA-DR(+) Tregs allows the identification of patients with clinically relevant borderline rejection. (
  • It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION. (
  • Dysfunction of the implanted lung due to rejection gets worse over time and cannot be reversed. (
  • Advances in genetic engineering, such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), have enabled gene editing to take place in vitro to prevent organ rejection. (
  • The CCTPT provides the infrastructure to conduct these clinical trials, perform studies of underlying mechanisms, and develop immune and surrogate markers of graft acceptance, rejection and function. (
  • Single episodes of acute rejection rarely lead to organ failure. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subclinical rejections and their impact on further renal graft function. (
  • The results of our study did not indicate any impact of subclinical rejection on renal graft function in the late post-operation period. (
  • In addition, the level of FoxP3 gene expression was higher in the group with stable graft compared to the acute rejection group. (
  • Over a 3-month period, the grafted cells infiltrated damaged heart muscle, matured, and organized into muscle fibers in all the monkeys who received the treatment. (
  • But we don't replace the patient's own inner layer, the endothelial cells, so there is less chance of endothelial graft rejection. (
  • Standard therapy to control graft rejection generally involves a combination of corticosteroids, a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus), and an antiproliferative agent. (
  • Calcium activity revealed that the grafts were electrically active and coupled to activity of the host heart. (
  • Grafts beat along with host muscle at rates of up to 240 beats per minute, the highest rate tested. (
  • Nowadays, the most prominent cause of early graft loss is renal graft thrombosis (RGT). (