Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Rejection (Psychology): Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Keratoplasty, Penetrating: Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Rats, Inbred LewImmunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Mice, Inbred C57BLTransplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Mice, Inbred BALB CHistocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Graft Enhancement, Immunologic: The induction of prolonged survival and growth of allografts of either tumors or normal tissues which would ordinarily be rejected. It may be induced passively by introducing graft-specific antibodies from previously immunized donors, which bind to the graft's surface antigens, masking them from recognition by T-cells; or actively by prior immunization of the recipient with graft antigens which evoke specific antibodies and form antigen-antibody complexes which bind to the antigen receptor sites of the T-cells and block their cytotoxic activity.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Transplantation, Heterotopic: Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cyclosporins: A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Rats, Inbred WFTissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Host vs Graft Reaction: The immune responses of a host to a graft. A specific response is GRAFT REJECTION.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Minor Histocompatibility Loci: Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.DNA Probes, HLA: DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Mice, Inbred C3HRats, Inbred BNAntibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Rats, Inbred ACILymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Mice, Inbred CBARadiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.HLA-DR6 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*13 and DRB1*14 alleles.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Corneal Edema: An excessive amount of fluid in the cornea due to damage of the epithelium or endothelium causing decreased visual acuity.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Complement C4b: The large fragment formed when COMPLEMENT C4 is cleaved by COMPLEMENT C1S. The membrane-bound C4b binds COMPLEMENT C2A, a SERINE PROTEASE, to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Corneal Neovascularization: New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Primary Graft Dysfunction: A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Living Donors: Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.Azathioprine: An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Transplants: Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Leukocyte Transfusion: The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Sirolimus: A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.Mice, Inbred DBAChimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Pulse Therapy, Drug: Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)CreatinineCTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Plasmapheresis: Procedure whereby plasma is separated and extracted from anticoagulated whole blood and the red cells retransfused to the donor. Plasmapheresis is also employed for therapeutic use.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Mice, Inbred ASwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Allografts: Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (1/6768)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

T lymphocyte adhesion mechanisms within inflamed human kidney: studies with a Stamper-Woodruff assay. (2/6768)

Renal inflammatory conditions are characterized by mononuclear cell recruitment to sites of inflammation. We have developed a modified Stamper-Woodruff assay system to analyze mechanisms of functional T cell adhesion to cryostat sections of renal biopsy material from patients with vasculitic glomerulonephritis (GN) and acute allograft rejection. Peripheral blood T cells adhered to intraglomerular, periglomerular, and tubulointerstitial regions of the cortex. Blocking monoclonal antibodies against tissue expressed ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and the CS-1 domain of fibronectin (CS-1Fn) differentially attenuated T cell adhesion. Glomerular adhesion in vasculitic GN and tubulointerstitial adhesion in acute rejection were particularly sensitive to both anti-ICAM-1 and anti-VCAM-1 antibodies, indicating a prominent role for ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 at glomerular sites in vasculitis and at tubulointerstitial sites in rejection. Furthermore, using KL/4 cells (LFA-1 expressing) and Jurkat cells (VLA-4 expressing), we demonstrated specific LFA-1/ICAM-1- and VLA-4/VCAM-1-mediated interactions within glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Jurkat cells also adhered to VCAM-1-free sites, and binding was inhibitable by anti-CS-1Fn antibody, thereby demonstrating a role for VLA-4/fibronectin interactions especially at intraglomerular sites in acute rejection where VCAM-1 is notably absent. We therefore propose a prominent functional role for ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CS-1 domain fibronectin in T cell recruitment to the inflamed kidney.  (+info)

Reduced kidney transplant rejection rate and pharmacoeconomic advantage of mycophenolate mofetil. (3/6768)

BACKGROUND: Several multinational controlled clinical trials have shown that triple therapy immunosuppressive regimens which include mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), cyclosporin A (CSA) and steroids (S) are superior compared with conventional regimens which include azathioprine (AZA), CSA and S, mainly because MMF reduces the rate of acute rejection episodes in the first 6 months after kidney transplantation. Post-marketing studies are useful to evaluate the general applicability and costs of MMF-based immunosuppressive regimens. METHODS: Based on the excellent results of the published controlled clinical trials, we have changed the standard triple therapy immunosuppressive protocol (AZA+CSA+S) to an MMF-based regimen (MMF+CSA+S) at our centre. To analyse the impact of this change in regimen, we have monitored 6-month patient and graft survival, rejection rate, serum creatinine and CSA levels, as well as the costs of the immunosuppressive and anti-rejection treatments, in 40 consecutive renal transplant recipients (MMF group) and have compared the data with 40 consecutive patients transplanted immediately prior to the change in regimen (AZA group). RESULTS: Recipient and donor characteristics were similar in the AZA and MMF groups. Patient survival (37/40; 92.5% in the AZA group vs 38/40; 95% in the MMF group), graft survival (36/40 vs 36/40; both 90%) and serum creatinine (137+/-56 vs 139+/-44 micromol/l) after 6 months were not significantly different. However, the rate of acute rejection episodes (defined as a rise in creatinine without other obvious cause and treated at least with pulse steroids) was significantly reduced with MMF from 60 to 20% (P=0.0005). The resulting cost for rejection treatment was lowered 8-fold (from sFr. 2113 to 259 averaged per patient) and the number of transplant biopsies was lowered > 3-fold in the MMF group. The cost for the immunosuppressive therapy was increased 1.5-fold with MMF (from sFr. 5906 to 9231 per patient for the first 6 months). CONCLUSIONS: The change from AZA to MMF resulted in a significant reduction in early rejection episodes, resulting in fewer diagnostic procedures and rehospitalizations. The optimal long-term regimen in terms of patient and pharmacoeconomic benefits remains to be defined.  (+info)

Primary adult liver transplantation under tacrolimus: more than 90 months actual follow-up survival and adverse events. (4/6768)

The introduction of tacrolimus has shown decreased rates of acute and steroid-resistant rejection after liver transplantation (LTx). The aim of the present study is to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of tacrolimus in primary liver transplant recipients. The first 121 consecutive adults (aged >16 years) who underwent primary LTx at a single center from August 1989 to February 1990 were followed up until August 1997. The mean follow-up was 93.2 +/- 1.2 months (range, 90.5 to 96.5 months). Patient survival, graft survival, rate of rejection, and adverse events were examined. The actual 7-year patient survival rate was 67.8%, and the graft survival rate was 63.6%. Infections, recurrence of disease, de novo malignancies, and cardiovascular events constituted the main causes of graft loss and death in the long term. Graft loss related to acute or chronic rejection was rare. The rate of acute rejection beyond 2 years was approximately 3% per year, and most rejections were steroid responsive. Approximately 70% of the patients received only tacrolimus after 1 year. Four patients developed end-stage renal disease, and 2 patients underwent kidney transplantation. Hyperkalemia and hypertension were observed in one third of the patients. New-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was observed in 9% and 13% of the patients at the 1-year and 7-year follow-up, respectively. Seven patients developed de novo malignancies, including two skin malignancies. Six patients developed posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder during the entire follow-up period. Actual patient and graft survival at 7 years was excellent, and few adverse events developed after the first year. Graft loss from acute or chronic rejection was rare under tacrolimus, and approximately 70% of the patients were steroid free on tacrolimus monotherapy after the first year after LTx.  (+info)

Xenotransplantation. (5/6768)

As transplantation waiting lists lengthen because of the shortage of donor organs, the death rates of patients continue to rise. Xenotransplantation offers the potential to solve the problem of organ shortage br providing an unlimited supply of healthy donor organs. However, there are several barriers to xenotransplantation, including graft rejection, potential xenozoonosis, physiologic incompatibilities and ethical concerns. Experimental xenotransplantation studies continue in several areas, ranging from tissue to whole- organ grafting. Clinical studies continue in the area of tissue xenotransplantation. Trials with extracorporeal xenografts in an acute setting to support fulminant organ failure are likely to begin in the near future. The reintroduction of whole-organ xenotransplantation must be based on sound scientific analysis with broad societal input so as to offer the maximal benefit to transplant recipients and their families.  (+info)

Long-term results of pancreas transplantation under tacrolius immunosuppression. (6/6768)

BACKGROUND: The long-term safety and efficacy of tacrolimus in pancreas transplantation has not yet been demonstrated. The observation of prolonged pancreatic graft function under tacrolimus would indicate that any potential islet toxicity is short-lived and clinically insignificant. We report herein the results of pancreas transplantation in patients receiving primary tacrolimus immunosuppression for a minimum of 2 years. METHODS: From July 4, 1994 until April 18, 1996, 60 patients received either simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (n=55), pancreas transplant only (n=4), or pancreas after kidney transplantation (n=1). Baseline immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids without antilymphocyte induction. Azathioprine was used as a third agent in 51 patients and mycophenolate mofetil in 9. Rejection episodes within the first 6 months occurred in 48 (80%) patients and were treated with high-dose corticosteroids. Antilymphocyte antibody was required in eight (13%) patients with steroid-resistant rejection. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 35.1+/-5.9 months (range: 24.3-45.7 months), 6-month and 1-, 2-, and 33-year graft survival is 88%, 82%, 80%, and 80% (pancreas) and 98%, 96%, 93%, and 91% (kidney), respectively. Six-month and 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survival is 100%, 98%, 98%, and 96.5%. Mean fasting glucose is 91.6+/-13.8 mg/dl, and mean glycosylated hemoglobin is 5.1+/-0.7% (normal range: 4.3-6.1%). Mean tacrolimus dose is 6.5+/-2.6 mg/day and mean prednisone dose 2.0+/-2.9 mg/day at follow-up. Complete steroid withdrawal was possible in 31 (65%) of the 48 patients with functioning pancreases. CONCLUSIONS: These data show for the first time that tacrolimus is a safe and effective long-term primary agent in pancreas transplantation and provides excellent long-term islet function without evidence of toxicity while permitting steroid withdrawal in the majority of patients.  (+info)

Pediatric renal transplantation under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression. (7/6768)

BACKGROUND: Tacrolimus has been used as a primary immunosuppressive agent in adult and pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable outcomes. Methods. Between December 14, 1989 and December 31, 1996, 82 pediatric renal transplantations alone were performed under tacrolimus-based immunosuppression without induction anti-lymphocyte antibody therapy. Patients undergoing concomitant or prior liver and/or intestinal transplantation were not included in the analysis. The mean recipient age was 10.6+/-5.2 years (range: 0.7-17.9). Eighteen (22%) cases were repeat transplantations, and 6 (7%) were in patients with panel-reactive antibody levels over 40%. Thirty-four (41%) cases were with living donors, and 48 (59%) were with cadaveric donors. The mean donor age was 27.3+/-14.6 years (range: 0.7-50), and the mean cold ischemia time in the cadaveric cases was 26.5+/-8.8 hr. The mean number of HLA matches and mismatches was 2.8+/-1.2 and 2.9+/-1.3; there were five (6%) O-Ag mismatches. The mean follow-up was 4.0+/-0.2 years. RESULTS: The 1- and 4-year actuarial patient survival was 99% and 94%. The 1- and 4-year actuarial graft survival was 98% and 84%. The mean serum creatinine was 1.1+/-0.5 mg/dl, and the corresponding calculated creatinine clearance was 88+/-25 ml/min/1.73 m2. A total of 66% of successfully transplanted patients were withdrawn from prednisone. In children who were withdrawn from steroids, the mean standard deviation height scores (Z-score) at the time of transplantation and at 1 and 4 years were -2.3+/-2.0, -1.7+/-1.0, and +0.36+/-1.5. Eighty-six percent of successfully transplanted patients were not taking anti-hypertensive medications. The incidence of acute rejection was 44%; between December 1989 and December 1993, it was 63%, and between January 1994 and December 1996, it was 23% (P=0.0003). The incidence of steroid-resistant rejection was 5%. The incidence of delayed graft function was 5%, and 2% of patients required dialysis within 1 week of transplantation. The incidence of cytomegalovirus was 13%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 12%. The incidence of early Epstein-Barr virus-related posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 9%; between December 1989 and December 1992, it was 17%, and between January 1993 and December 1996, it was 4%. All of the early PTLD cases were treated successfully with temporary cessation of immunosuppression and institution of antiviral therapy, without patient or graft loss. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate the short- and medium-term efficacy of tacrolimus-based immunosuppression in pediatric renal transplant recipients, with reasonable patient and graft survival, routine achievement of steroid and anti-hypertensive medication withdrawal, gratifying increases in growth, and, with further experience, a decreasing incidence of both rejection and PTLD.  (+info)

Dual roles of sialyl Lewis X oligosaccharides in tumor metastasis and rejection by natural killer cells. (8/6768)

Aberrant expression of cell surface carbohydrates such as sialyl Lewis X is associated with tumor formation and metastasis. In order to determine the roles of sialyl Lewis X in tumor metastasis, mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells were stably transfected with alpha1, 3-fucosyltransferase III to express sialyl Lewis X structures. The transfected B16-F1 cells, B16-FTIII, were separated by cell sorting into three different groups based on the expression levels of sialyl Lewis X. When these transfected cells were injected into tail veins of C57BL/6 mice, B16-FTIII.M cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis X in poly-N-acetyllactosamines produced large numbers of lung tumor nodules. Surprisingly, B16-FTIII.H cells expressing the highest amount of sialyl Lewis X in shorter N-glycans died in lung blood vessels, producing as few lung nodules as B16-FTIII.N cells which lack sialyl Lewis X. In contrast, B16-FIII.H cells formed more tumors in beige mice and NK cell-depleted C57BL/6 mice than did B16-FTIII.M cells. B16-FTIII.H cells bound to E-selectin better than did B16-FTIII.M cells, but both cells grew at the same rate. These results indicate that excessive expression of sialyl Lewis X in tumor cells leads to rejection by NK cells rather than tumor formation facilitated by attachment to endothelial cells.  (+info)

  • After stratification for human leucocyte antigen (HLA) matching, it was found that kidneys from donors positive for the TNFA-A allele had a significantly increased incidence of acute rejection in HLA-DR mismatched transplants. (bmj.com)
  • 1 We subsequently reported that Banff criteria for Type I rejection were present in approximately 30% of protocol biopsies performed in the first 3 months post-transplant. (uninet.edu)
  • 7 In very early (mean time 8 days post-transplant) protocol biopsies in patients receiving tacrolimus and steroids, two thirds of whom also received mycophenolate mofetil, Shapiro et al showed that 25% of patients showed Banff Type I or Type II rejection, despite stable or improving renal function. (uninet.edu)
  • Using immunohistochemistry techniques, our group found an increasing frequency of expression of pro-inflammatory phenotypic and activation markers from normal, through subclinical, to clinical rejection biopsies for cells of both the lymphocyte and monocyte lineage. (uninet.edu)
  • were present in biopsies from patients with subclinical rejection and largely absent in normal protocol biopsies. (uninet.edu)
  • Transcripts for perforin, Fas ligand, and granzyme B were also present in patients with subclinical rejection, although in reduced amounts when compared to biopsies from patients with clinical rejection episodes. (uninet.edu)
  • There were no differences in IL-10 and IL-15 transcripts in clinical and subclinical rejection biopsies. (uninet.edu)
  • However, an increase in the baseline immunosuppression to include cyclosporine microemulsion, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone, while decreasing the incidence of early clinical rejections, failed to lower the prevalence of subclinical rejection. (uninet.edu)
  • Additional, albeit indirect, data in favor of a pathogenic role for subclinical rejection comes from the early observation of Isoniemi et al, who reported that in patients who had not experienced clinical acute rejection episodes, the development of chronic histological changes occurred in inverse relation to the amount of immunosuppression they had received. (uninet.edu)
  • Cytokines present in the renal graft may have originated from either the donor or the recipient. (bmj.com)
  • 5,8 By multivariate analysis, only HLA matching between donor and recipient correlated with the presence of subclinical rejection. (uninet.edu)
  • TNFα release has been correlated with the subsequent development of early graft failure. (bmj.com)
  • This prospective study included six patients at high risk for graft rejection who were treated with oral mycophenolate mofetil in combination with sirolimus for one year after penetrating keratoplasty. (aao.org)
  • Therefore, we analyzed three types of clinically relevant in vivo alloresponses: graft-vs-host disease (GVHD), allogeneic bone marrow (BM) graft rejection, and graft-vs-leukemia (GVL). (jimmunol.org)
  • These findings could pave the way for improvements in preventing GVHD and rejection of transplanted bone marrow and new therapies to prevent or treat a relapse of the underlying cancer after a transplant. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Finding the optimal conditions to avoid interfering with immune cells working to eradicate cancer while preventing graft rejection and GVHD is the holy grail of bone marrow transplant," said Leo Luznik, MD, associate professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in Baltimore, Maryland. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • However, there are severe complications associated with allo-HSCT such as disease relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), graft rejection, and infection mainly as a consequence of long term immuno-suppression ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The risk is highest after an allogeneic transplant because you may be taking medicines to suppress the immune system to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). (cancer.ca)
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) might happen after an allogeneic stem cell transplant. (cancer.ca)
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a medical complication following the receipt of transplanted tissue from a genetically different person. (wikipedia.org)
  • GvHD is commonly associated with stem cell transplant (bone marrow transplant), but the term also applies to other forms of tissue graft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas transplant rejection occurs when the host rejects the graft, GvHD occurs when the graft rejects the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphoid-Like Structures with Distinct B Cell Areas in Kidney Allografts are not Predictive for Graft Rejection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, in the absence of preexisting inflammation and vascularization, syngeneic grafts were accepted when the grafts were performed at a late time point after HSV infection (42 days), whereas allografts were rejected at this time. (arvojournals.org)
  • Whereas in biodegradable grafts this 'healing process' appears to be self limiting, in allografts the process goes on beyond the needs of functional repair, eventually, in some cases, leading to total vascular occlusion. (begellhouse.com)
  • Between 1987 and 1996, 209 cryopreserved allografts were implanted: 125 valved conduits or monocusps to reconstruct the right ventricular outflow tract in congenital heart disease, 50 allograft heart valves to treat native aortic and prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis and 34 cryopreserved arterial allografts to replace mycotic aortic aneurysms or infected aortic prosthetic grafts. (nih.gov)
  • T lymphocytes, indicating rejection, were found in all right-sided allografts from the paediatric population, but only in 9% of left-sided valves explanted from adults and in one of the four of arterial allografts. (nih.gov)
  • Right-sided cryopreserved allografts from a paediatric population showed ongoing cellular rejection. (nih.gov)
  • By contrast, there was only a weak T-cell mediated rejection to adult heart valve and arterial allografts. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, similar long-term results can be expected in adult arterial and heart valve allografts, whereas longevity of right-sided heart valve allograft in the paediatric age group seems endangered by cellular rejection. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that exposure of donor allografts to circulating mitochondrial DAMPs (mtDAMPs) prior to organ procurement would increase rates of graft rejection. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Mitochondrial DAMPs released by tissue injury in the setting of deceased organ donation predisposes allografts to rejection. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Clinical presentation and course of disease are heterogeneous, with rapid graft loss (within months after diagnosis) in some patients and slow progression of disease over years in others [ 5 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • At the time of clinical rejection, the nodules often presented as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) with lymphoid-like follicles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The range of clinical findings indicative of corneal graft rejection differs in some respects between DSEK and standard PK. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, one or more of the above factors may predispose the patient to rejection due to additional clinical features that confer a significant risk of graft failure. (statpearls.com)
  • From a clinical viewpoint, graft rejection is one of the greatest threats faced by an organ transplant recipient (OTR). (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusion: The clinical appearance and response to therapy in this case supported the diagnosis of immune-mediated stromal rejection. (elsevier.com)
  • In the clinical setting, graft-versus-host-disease is divided into acute and chronic forms, and scored or graded on the basis of the tissue affected and the severity of the reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report on a young patient with chronic-active ABMR in whom the decision was made for treatment with steroids, plasma exchange, and rituximab (despite severely impaired graft function and chronic changes by histology) in an attempt to stabilize kidney function and prolong the time before her return to dialyses, but in whom our treatment resulted in fatal outcome. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to find out whether MSC in combination with standard therapy of antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) are more effective in preventing organ deterioration and maintaining kidney function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • NULOJIX ® (belatacept) is indicated for prophylaxis of organ rejection in adult patients receiving a kidney transplant . (rxlist.com)
  • Use of NULOJIX for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in transplanted organs other than kidney has not been established [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Astagraf XL is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney transplant patients in combination with other immunosuppressants. (drugs.com)
  • This thesis tested the hypothesis that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may initiate or enhance chronic rejection of liver grafts. (open.ac.uk)
  • The incidence of urine PCR positivity and prolonged active CMV infection were risk factors for chronic rejection (Chapter 4). (open.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, active CMV infection and the TNF-2 promoter allele were shown to act synergistically as risk factors for chronic rejection (Chapter 4). (open.ac.uk)
  • CMV was also studied in the context of humoral immunity and chronic rejection (Chapter 5). (open.ac.uk)
  • Western blotting of hepatic artery and bile duct tissue (sites of rejection mediated damage) showed that post transplant IgA antibody to a 44 kD bile duct protein was associated with development of active CMV infection but was not associated with chronic rejection. (open.ac.uk)
  • Active CMV infection of the graft, especially epithelial cells, was associated with chronic rejection. (open.ac.uk)
  • Although several studies support the association between respiratory viruses and chronic lung rejection, the relationship between viral infection and acute rejection has not been established. (bmj.com)
  • The dominant pathological features of chronic rejection are persistent perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration, generalized transplant arteriosclerosis characterized by concentric neointimal formation and vascular occlusion, and interstitial fibrosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chronic rejection can take place over many years. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic rejection is the leading cause of organ transplant failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Chronic graft-versus-host-disease also attacks the above organs, but over its long-term course can also cause damage to the connective tissue and exocrine glands. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In the oral cavity, chronic graft-versus-host-disease manifests as lichen planus with a higher risk of malignant transformation to oral squamous cell carcinoma in comparison to the classical oral lichen planus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chronic form of graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD) normally occurs after 100 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the long-term success of HTx poses some challenges despite the improvement in the management of the short-term complications and in the methods to limit graft rejection. (mdpi.com)
  • Humoral rejection is the most common cause of solid organ transplant failure. (jci.org)
  • The main step to prevent this internal attack, called graft versus host disease, is giving the patient medicines to suppress the immune system, increasing the risk of infection. (natap.org)
  • Blocking CCR5, Reshef thought, might prevent graft-versus-host disease. (natap.org)
  • By quantifying graft-vs-host disease alloresponses in vivo, we demonstrate that both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell-mediated alloresponses are regulated by 4-1BB/4-1BB ligand interactions to approximately the same extent. (jimmunol.org)
  • MicroRNAs: The Missing Link in the Biology of Graft-Versus-Host Disease? (frontiersin.org)
  • In the classical sense, acute graft-versus-host-disease is characterized by selective damage to the liver, skin (rash), mucosa, and the gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, graft-versus-host disease can occur even when HLA-identical siblings are the donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • He subsequently postulated that the antigenic determinants recognized during the rejection are expressed on parental and not on F1 hybrid cells and hence must be inherited noncodominantly (Cudkowicz and Stimpfling, 1964). (springer.com)
  • Graft rejection was defined as an eye with a previously clear and thin graft, now showing some or all of the following signs: anterior chamber flare and cells, keratic precipitates on corneal endothelium, thickening of the graft, either diffusely or locally, and epithelial or endothelial rejection lines. (nature.com)
  • We show here, however, that anti-H-Y monospecific, H-2(b-restricted MataHari CD8(+) T cells reject H-2(k) male skin grafts, with which they cannot directly interact. (nih.gov)
  • Anyways, if you manage to detect cytokines, I'd probably go for Th1 vs. Th2 cytokines for example, to evaluate the function of T-cells, which are responsible for the graft rejection. (biology-online.org)
  • CMV was identified in bile duct epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, hepatocytes and mononuclear cells of liver grafts by in situ hybridisation (Chapter 6). (open.ac.uk)
  • GV remains widely unexplored in VCA, and so does the role of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) in acute rejection. (ovid.com)
  • T cells with NK phenotype cause acute rejection of marrow grafts. (jimmunol.org)
  • This study demonstrates that in the absence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, Batf3-dependent dendritic cells elicit the rejection of cells and grafts expressing mismatched minor Ags. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cellular mechanisms of graft rejection mediated by CD4-CD8-TCR alphabeta T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • CD4^-CD8^-T cell receptor αβ T cells:Generation of an in vitro major histcompatibility complex class I specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and allogenic tumor rejection. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Several studies have shown increased numbers of HLA class II positive cells infiltrating stroma in sections of rejected grafts. (statpearls.com)
  • Rejection of H-Y disparate skin grafts by monospecific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cells: no requirement for CD8+ T cells or B cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • After multiple grafts, it was confirmed that no CD8+ T cells or surface Ig+ B cells were present. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An immunofluorescent analysis of spleen cells after grafting showed that the majority of T cells expressed activation markers (CD44, CD25, and intracytoplasmic IL-2) and a significant proportion were making IFN-gamma and IL-4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Aim was to determine the significance of increased number of CD45 positive cells in predicting rejection. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Regulatory CD4+ T cells can also suppress rejection of third party transplant Ags provided they are expressed on the same graft as the tolerated Ags. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Next to T cells, innate natural killer (NK) cells may contribute to graft rejection. (ru.nl)
  • The DCs originate from non-classical monocytes and form stable, cognate interactions with effector T cells in the graft. (edu.au)
  • Targeting these cells provides a means for preventing or treating rejection. (edu.au)
  • An immuno-competent graft is administered, with viable and functional immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rejection of parental (P) BM graft by F1 generation is caused by NK cells as was said. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a clear corneal graft in the pupillary area was obtained and best-corrected visual acuity was good after the resolution of inflammation, a risk of corneal astigmatism remained. (dovepress.com)
  • Although the first successful penetrating corneal graft was reported in 1906, it took another half a century before the first description of opacification of a previously clear corneal graft was published. (statpearls.com)