Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Government Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.United StatesPublic Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.IndiaDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Consumer Organizations: Organized groups of users of goods and services.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Great BritainLobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Collective Bargaining: The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Colonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Foundations: Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Government PublicationsHealth Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Socialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Research Support, U.S. GovernmentIndustry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Medical Assistance: Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.PakistanHealth Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Relief Work: Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.National Health Insurance, United StatesCenters for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)NepalCommunity Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Complicity: Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Mandatory Programs: Programs in which participation is required.PhilippinesTechnology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Vietnam

Medical practice: defendants and prisoners. (1/251)

It is argued in this paper that a doctor cannot serve two masters. The work of the prison medical officer is examined and it is shown that his dual allegiance to the state and to those individuals who are under his care results in activities which largely favour the former. The World Health Organisation prescribes a system of health ethics which indicates, in qualitative terms, the responsibility of each state for health provisions. In contrast, the World Medical Association acts as both promulgator and guardian of a code of medical ethics which determines the responsibilities of the doctor to his patient. In the historical sense medical practitioners have always emphasized the sanctity of the relationship with their patients and the doctor's role as an expert witness is shown to have centered around this bond. The development of medical services in prisons has focused more on the partnership between doctor and institution. Imprisonment in itself could be seen as prejudicial to health as are disciplinary methods which are more obviously detrimental. The involvement of medical practitioners in such procedures is discussed in the light of their role as the prisoner's personal physician.  (+info)

Special medical examination program reform proposal in Korea. (2/251)

We are at a time when reform in the special medical examination program in keeping with the changing times is desperately needed because the common perception of workers, employers, and medical examination facilities is "special medical examination is merely ritualistic and unproductive." Therefore, we have tried to set forth the basic structure for reforming the special medical examination program by taking a close look at the management status of the current program and analyzing its problems. The specifics of the special medical examination program reform proposal consist of three parts such as the types, health evaluation based on occupational medicine, and the interval, subject selection, items and procedure. Pre-placement medical examination and non-periodic medical examinations-as-necessary are introduced newly. Health evaluation based on occupational medicine consists of classification of health status, evaluation of work suitability, and post-examination measure. Details regarding the medical examination interval, subject selection, items and procedure were changed.  (+info)

The present state and future prospects of occupational health in Bangladesh. (3/251)

Bangladesh is a relatively young and developing country. At the present time, like in most developing countries, a clear demarcation between occupational health care and general medical care is difficult to be recognized in Bangladesh. Occupational health is a fairly new field, as the country is undergoing industrialization and occupational health activities are operated by several ministries, such as Labour, Health, Industry and Transport. Legal foundations of the occupational health-care system based on British India and Pakistani era, were adopted and amended by the Government of Bangladesh after the liberation of the country in 1971. Most of the Labour laws have been rectified by the Government of Bangladesh according to the ILO Conventions. Reconsideration of the occupational health service system avoiding duplication for the 'occupational health' component in several ministries might be helpful to achieve the successful provision of an occupational health service in the developing Bangladesh.  (+info)

Health status during the transition in Central and Eastern Europe: development in reverse? (4/251)

This paper reports on a study of the cross-national trends in health status during the economic transition and associated health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The central premise is that before long-run gains in health status are realized, the transition towards a market economy and adoption of democratic forms of government should lead to short-run deterioration as a result of: (i) reduction in real income and widening income disparities; (ii) stress and stress-related behaviour; (iii) lax regulation of environmental and occupational risks; and (iv) breakdown in basic health services. Analysis focused on three broad indicators of health status: life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate and the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 65 years, shown by the notation '50q15'. The study revealed significant new information about health status and the health sector which could not have been obtained without a proper cross-national study. Infant mortality rates in former socialist economies (FSE) follow the global trend, declining as per capita income rises. However, rates are lower than would be predicted given their income levels. Despite declining infant mortality, life expectancy at birth in the former socialist economies decreases as per capita income rises, in marked contrast to global trends. This is because rising income level is associated with greater probability of death between the ages of 15 and 65: the wealthier the society, the less healthy is its population, particularly for its males. Causes of death in the FSE follow global trends: higher death rates due to infectious and parasitic diseases in poorer countries, and higher death rates due to chronic diseases in wealthier countries. However, age-standardized death rates for chronic diseases generally associated with unhealthy lifestyles and environmental risk factors are very high when compared with wealthier established market economies (EME). Policies and procedures which alter the effectiveness of health services have had a demonstrable but mixed impact on health status during the early phase of transition. Effective preventive health strategies must be formulated and implemented to reverse the adverse trends observed in Central and Eastern Europe.  (+info)

Consumer hazards of plastics. (5/251)

The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease.  (+info)

Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, Part II: Weak guidelines take a disproportionate toll. (6/251)

Many diet-related chronic diseases take a disproportionate toll among members of racial minorities. Research shows the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and heart disease is higher among various ethnic groups compared with whites. The Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid, however, promote the use of multiple servings of meats and dairy products each day and do not encourage replacing these foods with vegetables, legumes, fruits, and grains. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage a 30% caloric reduction in fat intake and make no provision for further reductions for those who wish to minimize health risks. Abundant evidence has shown that regular exercise combined with diets lower in fat and richer in plant products than is encouraged by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are associated with reduced risk of these chronic conditions. While ineffective Dietary Guidelines potentially put all Americans at unnecessary risk, this is particularly true for those groups hardest hit by chronic disease.  (+info)

Abandonment of terminally ill patients in the Byzantine era. An ancient tradition? (7/251)

Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippocratic times thought the treatment and care of the terminally ill to be a challenge to nature and hubris to the gods. Nevertheless, it is a very curious attitude in the light of the concepts of the Christian Byzantine physicians who, according to the doctrines of the Christian religion, should have been imbued with the spirit of philanthropy and love for their fellowmen. The meticulous analysis of three examples of abandonment of Byzantine emperors, and especially that of Alexius I Comnenus, by their physicians reveals that this custom, following ancient pagan ethics, in those times took on a ritualised form without any significant or real content.  (+info)

Health sector development: from aid coordination to resource management. (8/251)

Aid coordination has assumed a prominent place on health policy agendas. This paper synthesizes the findings of research undertaken to explore the changing practices of aid coordination across a number of countries. It begins by reviewing the key issues giving rise to increased attention to aid coordination in the health sector. The second section describes, assesses and compares the strengths and weaknesses of the dominant mechanisms or instruments which were found to be employed to coordinate health sector aid in the case studies. From this analysis, four factors become clear. First, in many countries, coordination mechanisms have been introduced as a part of an incremental process of trying out different approaches--there is no one model that stands out at any one time. Secondly, some instruments function largely for consultation, predominantly coordinating inputs, while others are more directive and operational, and are used to manage inputs, processes and outputs. Third, many of the mechanisms have not excelled, although, fourth, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness or impact of aid coordination. It is therefore argued that concern with the effectiveness of aid coordination arrangements must give way to a broader analysis of the processes, outputs and outcomes governing the use of both external and domestic resources, focusing on institutional characteristics, the distribution and nature of influence among the actors, and the interests which they pursue through the aid regime. These factors varied considerably across the countries indicating that aid management is context dependent and subject to continuing changes. Finally, the paper looks at the findings in the light of the introduction of sector-wide approaches.  (+info)

  • Protecting rights and facilitating stable relationships among federal agencies, labor organizations, and employees while advancing an effective and efficient government through the administration of the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute. (
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  • The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is hosting a free webinar for state and local governments and others interested in learning more about the Pool Safely Grant Program on March 1, 2018 at 2:00 p.m. (
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  • In 2017, with funding from the Government of Estonia, UNHCR helped the most vulnerable people forced to leave their homes globally. (
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  • An anti-government activist is arrested during clashes in Caracas on July 28, 2017. (
  • Anti-government activists clash with riot police during a protest in Caracas on July 28, 2017. (
  • Members of the Bolivarian National Guard shield themselves from a Molotov cocktail as they confront a group of demonstrators during a protest against the government in Caracas, Venezuela on July 28, 2017. (
  • A protester handling a Molotov cocktail confronts members of the Bolivarian National Guard during a protest against the government in Caracas, Venezuela on July 28, 2017. (
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  • Xerox ® Services for Digital Citizen was built to address the complex challenges of providing secure and compliant government services that meet the needs of all citizens. (
  • In this webinar, we'll unpack what citizens really want and how governments can meet those expectations while streamlining and reducing the cost of digital service delivery. (
  • It's what citizens want according to a recent Center for Digital Government survey. (
  • We're enabling state and local governments to better serve and protect citizens by connecting people, systems, and information resulting in more impactful outcomes. (
  • Governments at every level strive to keep citizens safe, healthy, and thriving. (
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  • How to build a world that works better for citizens and government. (
  • The OECD Global Network of Schools of Government provides direct access to OECD governance expertise and enables exchange of schools' experiences and good practices in ensuring that public sector employees have the skills and competencies to address current and future priorities. (
  • In response to the growing recognition that an effective and efficient public sector is essential for stimulating economic growth and social welfare, the OECD is increasingly called upon to assist in building public sector capacity to ensure responsiveness to government priorities. (
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  • CSG Government Solutions, a national leader in providing public sector IT strategy, quality management and systems modernization services, today announced that it has been awarded a Mission Oriented Business Integrated Services (MOBIS) contract by the Federal General Services Administration (GSA). (
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  • Our Government & Public Sector practice aims to be the preferred partner in driving transformational change for governments around the world. (
  • Nicaragua has been rocked since April 18 by anti-government protests that have been severely repressed by the authorities, leaving hundreds dead and thousands wounded. (
  • The president and vice-president of Venezuela's opposition-controlled National Assembly, Julio Borges, right, and Freddy Guevara respectively, swear judges named for a parallel supreme court in Caracas on Friday.The death toll in anti-government protests in the country since April has reached 100, prosecutors said Friday. (
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  • 4. introduction ∙ Today is not about telling you about how things are, it is about encouraging thinking ∙ The term "Digital government" is used instead of "e-government" ∙ Often, the first word is omitted ∙ This is important: in Estonia, e-government is not something distinct from the overall government ∙ "e-" is slightly overused, "Digital" is more precise We are discussing a very abstract and fragile topic, semantics are very important! (
  • All the features of Office 365 Government Community G1 plus Office desktop applications, personalized search and discovery, self-service business intelligence, enterprise management of apps, eDiscovery tools, hosted voicemail with auto-attendant capabilities, and other services. (
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  • All the features of Exchange Online Government Plan 1 plus cloud file storage and sharing, online meetings and instant messaging, HD videoconferencing, intranet and team sites, and other services. (
  • Learn how Hawaii's state government used Adobe Sign, an Adobe Document Cloud solution, to create paperless workflows, helping save time and providing new public services faster. (
  • We work with governments to bring artificial intelligence to more places, maximize the value of cloud and edge computing, and help to enhance cybersecurity at every point. (
  • The AWS Cloud provides scalable, cost-efficient solutions for governments around the world. (
  • Accenture is a leader in U.S. Gov. Private Cloud IaaS. (
  • Aquilent is a full-service Cloud solution provider to the federal government. (
  • In a monetarily sovereign country such as the United States of America , the United Kingdom and most other countries, government debt held in the home currency are merely savings accounts held at the central bank. (
  • The AAA collaborates with state governments to develop regulated programs for the efficient resolution of no-fault automobile insurance disputes. (
  • The AAA tailors disaster-recovery programs to state governments in response to large-scale natural disasters. (
  • The territorial institutions consist of the territorial government, the territorial assembly and the economic, social and cultural committee. (
  • Office 365 Government plans are available to (1) qualified government entities, including US federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government entities, and (2) other entities (subject to validation of eligibility) who handle data subject to government regulations and requirements, where use of Office 365 Government is appropriate to meet these regulations and requirements. (
  • The FSA ID is the username and password you use on federal student aid websites such as and, and on the myStudentAid mobile app. (
  • Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. (
  • A federal government website managed and paid for by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (
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  • The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government , national government, or (where appropriate) federal government and also to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. (
  • In federal states , local government generally comprises the third (or sometimes fourth) tier of government, whereas in unitary states , local government usually occupies the second or third tier of government, often with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions. (
  • Learn how a U.S. federal government agency modernized the data center to transform IT delivery, consolidate resources, and streamline management across private and public clouds. (
  • What this really amounts to is a power grab - giving the federal government power to try or re-try violent crimes that are purely intrastate. (
  • While the federal government will fund the benefits extension, the higher unemployment rate has put pressure on state unemployment insurance funds. (
  • Federal officials also are planning two separate data-gathering systems to keep track of government consultants hired by contract and by individual appointment. (
  • THE federal government has been accused of trying to blackmail artists who are threatening to boycott a major Sydney festival over the asylum seeker issue. (
  • THE federal government has been accused of 'bullying' artists who are threatening to boycott a major Sydney festival over a sponsorship deal with corporate giant Transfield. (
  • We are proud to have met this high standard so we can continue to help customers protect their most sensitive information -- whether a government agency, federal contractor or an enterprise operating in a highly-regulated industry. (
  • A central government with its own currency can pay for its nominal spending by creating money ex novo , although typical arrangements leave money creation to central banks. (
  • Under the central government were twenty-six governorates (sing. (
  • Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces. (
  • But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, and the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. (
  • As part of Beijing's overhaul of the finances of heavily-indebted local governments, the central government will pay off some of their loans and state banks including some of the "Big Four" will be forced to take some losses on the bad debt, said the sources, both of whom have direct knowledge of the plans. (
  • Wim Kok's government resigned in April 2002 after a report concluded that Dutch UN troops failed to prevent a massacre of Bosnian Muslims by Bosnian Serbs in a UN safe haven near Srebrenica in 1995. (
  • If you supply your email address, you will be automatically entered in a prize drawing that will take place at the 2002 Government Industry Meeting. (
  • epa) 31 October 2005 -- Poland's prime minister-designate, Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz, says he plans to present a minority government to be sworn in today. (
  • While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations. (
  • In the nineteenth and twentieth century, there was a significant increase in the size and scale of government at the national level. (
  • Government debt , also known as public interest , public debt , national debt and sovereign debt , contrasts to the annual government budget deficit , which is a flow variable that equals the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year. (
  • A government bond is a bond issued by a national government. (
  • Government bonds are sometimes regarded as risk-free bonds , because national governments can if necessary create money de novo to redeem the bond in their own currency at maturity. (
  • Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, and these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. (
  • To achieve this objective, we have brought together national schools of government in a Global Network of Schools of Government. (
  • supporting international exchange among national schools of government and the policy-making community. (
  • PARIS (AP) - Women workers danced in protest and striking Eiffel Tower employees shuttered France's most famed monument Friday - but the government pushed ahead anyway with a troubled bill redesigning the national retirement system. (
  • Despite buzzwords such as 'national,' 'U.S. government' or 'official,' these letters are from private companies. (
  • The local e-government environment varies tremendously across the North Sea Region of the EU, with municipal strategies being shaped by very different national, regional and local policy contexts and political and technological agendas. (
  • 1. Understanding e-governmentin EdinburghSummary & ContextThe local e-government environment varies tremendously across theNorth Sea Region of the EU, with municipal strategies being shaped byvery different national, regional and local policy contexts and political Project Context Mapand technological agendas. (
  • an officer called a commissioner represents the national government and is the council's executive agent. (
  • Computer hacker skills are in great demand in the U.S. government to fight the cyber wars that pose a growing national security threat - and they are in short supply. (
  • A motion, brought by the main opposition Liberal Party and backed by two other opposition parties, declared the government was in contempt of parliament and had lost its confidence in a row centred on Mr Harper's budget plans. (
  • Emboldened by the removal of Thailand's prime minister, anti-government protesters withdrew from Bangkok's main park and marched to the vacated prime minister's office compound seen here, where protest leader Suthep Thaugsuban has pledged to set up office, Bangkok, May 12, 2014. (
  • The région to an extent competes with the département , which was set up in 1790 and is still regarded by some as the main intermediate level of government. (
  • Use Workspace to prepare and submit your application and eRA Commons to track your application. (
  • Almoayyed Computers' well‑defined application infrastructure and services portfolio caters to a variety of industries/business sectors, including Government. (
  • The report also urges the government to allow the cost of childcare to be offset against tax, to monitor the number of women in senior positions in both public and private sectors, and to train teachers to promote equal opportunities in the classroom in an attempt to increase the number of girls taking science. (
  • Indeed the government, unconcerned about whether the housing finance investment will pay off for Citi, is effectively treating the mega-bank as a sort of not-for-profit, reflecting the blurring of sectors that accompanies hyper-regulation. (
  • We Brits muddled through the 19th and 20th centuries with an unwritten 'constitution', an amateur civil service, and part-time politicians who saw Parliament more as a club than a legislature and seat of government. (
  • It is the first time that a Canadian government has been found in contempt of parliament. (
  • Liberal leader Michael Ignatieff had accused the government of having "stonewalled" parliament for four months on details of its core spending priorities, as well as breaking election laws. (
  • Italy's new pro-Europe government has won its final mandatory confidence vote in Parliament. (
  • ROME (AP) - Italian Premier Giuseppe Conte on Monday won the first of two mandatory confidence votes on his four-day-old coalition of rival parties, after a day of fielding insults during a boisterous Parliament session from an opposition outraged that Italy got a new government instead of a new election. (
  • Anti-government protesters react as their leader arrives at Thailand's parliament building during the senate session in Bangkok, May 12, 2014. (
  • Newly elected Senate Speaker Surachai Liengboonlertchai (right) and anti-government protest leader Suthep Thaugsuban greet each other in parliament, Bangkok. (
  • Anti-government protest leader Suthep Thaugsuban, center, talks on his mobile phone during a rally outside the parliament building, in Bangkok, May 12, 2014. (
  • The Government Pension Fund of Norway is managed under the guise of the Ministry of Finance , as laid out by the Act of Parliament and guidelines that include a set of supplementary provisions. (
  • Firefighters work to douse the fire on a police boot set ablaze by opposition demonstrators clashing with riot police during an anti-government protest in Caracas, on Thursday. (
  • Singh is facing a mutiny from populist members of his coalition, and prominent parties have already dropped out, raising concerns that the government could collapse. (
  • If Singh can demonstrate a "genuine commitment" to his plans and "prove their intellectual coherence," the Indian voter - "whether farmer, trader, worker, consumer, or investor" - will support his government. (
  • Check out government agency case studies, white papers, eBooks, infographics, videos and thought leadership briefs about our government solutions. (
  • See how our solutions specifically address government needs. (
  • The AAA utilizes the advantages of ADR-quick response time and customized solutions--to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of government. (
  • The AWS Partner Competency Program has vetted, validated, and verified that the below partners have demonstrated experience in delivering quality government solutions. (
  • C2S Consulting Group (C2SCG) is a small agile women U.S.-owned professional solutions provider for government and commercial customers, headquartered in Herndon, VA. (
  • CSG Government Solutions continues to increase its presence across the United States. (
  • We use this information to make the website work as well as possible and improve government services. (
  • There are several options available to submit your application through to NIH and Department of Health and Human Services partners. (
  • Find out how local governments can deliver intelligent, innovative digital services to make their cities more sustainable, prosperous, and inclusive. (
  • A new generation of government services is now in session. (
  • In fact, there isn't even a government-wide definition of what consultant services are. (
  • It's always a good question, especially with private companies out there trying to charge you hefty fees for government or financial services that are usually free. (
  • If you are a nonprofit providing direct services to affected government workers: Thank you for your service. (
  • Last week a key panel, the Standing Committee on Procedure and House Affairs, dominated by opposition MPs, recommended the government be held in contempt for failing to provide sufficient cost information on its plans for new prisons and fighter jets. (
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  • Strengthening of the framework for the overthrow of the government by the assembly: at least 1/3 of signatory representatives Of a motion of no confidence, to be adopted by a majority of 3/5. (
  • Spend some time with to learn the basics about getting health coverage. (
  • Don't get me wrong, it is a good business school and there's lots to learn from business that is useful for government. (
  • It's only in the small print, if anywhere, that you learn that it's not a required bill and the sender is not affiliated with any government agency. (
  • The strictures on dress were relatively mild compared to other recent measures taken by the eight-month-old Government to roll back Islamic influence in Turkey. (
  • With government funding now very limited, governments need to be innovative to increase competitiveness through improvements in transport efficiency and customer service in the face of population growth and capacity constraints. (
  • In the following centuries, other countries in Europe and later around the world adopted similar financial institutions to manage their government debt. (
  • This is the fifth of a series of six reports summarising the local e-government environment in six municipalities from six different countries who are participating in the Smart Cities Interreg IVb project. (
  • This series of reports summarises the locale-government environment in six municipalities from six different countries No.5who are participating in the Smart Cities Interreg IVb project. (
  • Before the revolution , state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, and the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government. (
  • The Canadian opposition has toppled the Conservative government of Prime Minister Stephen Harper accusing it of abuse of power, and triggering the fourth election in seven years. (
  • Despite four months of deadly protests and the threat of U.S. sanctions, Venezuela on Saturday found itself 24 hours away from a consolidation of government power that appeared certain to drag the OPEC nation deeper into a crisis that has entire neighborhoods battling police and paramilitaries while the poor root for scraps in piles of trash. (
  • Currently administering programs for the FCC and the U.S. Department of Justice, the AAA handles disputes involving media, communications, licensing, program access, and retransmission consent, often under government regulatory or oversight authority. (