The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
All organized methods of funding.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Organized groups of users of goods and services.
Financial support of research activities.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The process of negotiation between representatives of an employee organization, association or union, and representatives of the employer.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.
Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
Financing of medical care provided to public assistance recipients.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.
A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Assistance, such as money, food, or shelter, given to the needy, aged, or victims of disaster. It is usually granted on a temporary basis. (From The American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Association with or participation in an act that is, or is perceived to be, criminal or immoral. One is complicitous when one promotes or unduly benefits from practices or institutions that are morally or legally suspect.
Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
The status of health in rural populations.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.
Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Programs in which participation is required.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.

Medical practice: defendants and prisoners. (1/251)

It is argued in this paper that a doctor cannot serve two masters. The work of the prison medical officer is examined and it is shown that his dual allegiance to the state and to those individuals who are under his care results in activities which largely favour the former. The World Health Organisation prescribes a system of health ethics which indicates, in qualitative terms, the responsibility of each state for health provisions. In contrast, the World Medical Association acts as both promulgator and guardian of a code of medical ethics which determines the responsibilities of the doctor to his patient. In the historical sense medical practitioners have always emphasized the sanctity of the relationship with their patients and the doctor's role as an expert witness is shown to have centered around this bond. The development of medical services in prisons has focused more on the partnership between doctor and institution. Imprisonment in itself could be seen as prejudicial to health as are disciplinary methods which are more obviously detrimental. The involvement of medical practitioners in such procedures is discussed in the light of their role as the prisoner's personal physician.  (+info)

Special medical examination program reform proposal in Korea. (2/251)

We are at a time when reform in the special medical examination program in keeping with the changing times is desperately needed because the common perception of workers, employers, and medical examination facilities is "special medical examination is merely ritualistic and unproductive." Therefore, we have tried to set forth the basic structure for reforming the special medical examination program by taking a close look at the management status of the current program and analyzing its problems. The specifics of the special medical examination program reform proposal consist of three parts such as the types, health evaluation based on occupational medicine, and the interval, subject selection, items and procedure. Pre-placement medical examination and non-periodic medical examinations-as-necessary are introduced newly. Health evaluation based on occupational medicine consists of classification of health status, evaluation of work suitability, and post-examination measure. Details regarding the medical examination interval, subject selection, items and procedure were changed.  (+info)

The present state and future prospects of occupational health in Bangladesh. (3/251)

Bangladesh is a relatively young and developing country. At the present time, like in most developing countries, a clear demarcation between occupational health care and general medical care is difficult to be recognized in Bangladesh. Occupational health is a fairly new field, as the country is undergoing industrialization and occupational health activities are operated by several ministries, such as Labour, Health, Industry and Transport. Legal foundations of the occupational health-care system based on British India and Pakistani era, were adopted and amended by the Government of Bangladesh after the liberation of the country in 1971. Most of the Labour laws have been rectified by the Government of Bangladesh according to the ILO Conventions. Reconsideration of the occupational health service system avoiding duplication for the 'occupational health' component in several ministries might be helpful to achieve the successful provision of an occupational health service in the developing Bangladesh.  (+info)

Health status during the transition in Central and Eastern Europe: development in reverse? (4/251)

This paper reports on a study of the cross-national trends in health status during the economic transition and associated health sector reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). The central premise is that before long-run gains in health status are realized, the transition towards a market economy and adoption of democratic forms of government should lead to short-run deterioration as a result of: (i) reduction in real income and widening income disparities; (ii) stress and stress-related behaviour; (iii) lax regulation of environmental and occupational risks; and (iv) breakdown in basic health services. Analysis focused on three broad indicators of health status: life expectancy at birth, infant mortality rate and the probability of dying between the ages of 15 and 65 years, shown by the notation '50q15'. The study revealed significant new information about health status and the health sector which could not have been obtained without a proper cross-national study. Infant mortality rates in former socialist economies (FSE) follow the global trend, declining as per capita income rises. However, rates are lower than would be predicted given their income levels. Despite declining infant mortality, life expectancy at birth in the former socialist economies decreases as per capita income rises, in marked contrast to global trends. This is because rising income level is associated with greater probability of death between the ages of 15 and 65: the wealthier the society, the less healthy is its population, particularly for its males. Causes of death in the FSE follow global trends: higher death rates due to infectious and parasitic diseases in poorer countries, and higher death rates due to chronic diseases in wealthier countries. However, age-standardized death rates for chronic diseases generally associated with unhealthy lifestyles and environmental risk factors are very high when compared with wealthier established market economies (EME). Policies and procedures which alter the effectiveness of health services have had a demonstrable but mixed impact on health status during the early phase of transition. Effective preventive health strategies must be formulated and implemented to reverse the adverse trends observed in Central and Eastern Europe.  (+info)

Consumer hazards of plastics. (5/251)

The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease.  (+info)

Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, Part II: Weak guidelines take a disproportionate toll. (6/251)

Many diet-related chronic diseases take a disproportionate toll among members of racial minorities. Research shows the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and heart disease is higher among various ethnic groups compared with whites. The Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid, however, promote the use of multiple servings of meats and dairy products each day and do not encourage replacing these foods with vegetables, legumes, fruits, and grains. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans encourage a 30% caloric reduction in fat intake and make no provision for further reductions for those who wish to minimize health risks. Abundant evidence has shown that regular exercise combined with diets lower in fat and richer in plant products than is encouraged by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans are associated with reduced risk of these chronic conditions. While ineffective Dietary Guidelines potentially put all Americans at unnecessary risk, this is particularly true for those groups hardest hit by chronic disease.  (+info)

Abandonment of terminally ill patients in the Byzantine era. An ancient tradition? (7/251)

Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippocratic times thought the treatment and care of the terminally ill to be a challenge to nature and hubris to the gods. Nevertheless, it is a very curious attitude in the light of the concepts of the Christian Byzantine physicians who, according to the doctrines of the Christian religion, should have been imbued with the spirit of philanthropy and love for their fellowmen. The meticulous analysis of three examples of abandonment of Byzantine emperors, and especially that of Alexius I Comnenus, by their physicians reveals that this custom, following ancient pagan ethics, in those times took on a ritualised form without any significant or real content.  (+info)

Health sector development: from aid coordination to resource management. (8/251)

Aid coordination has assumed a prominent place on health policy agendas. This paper synthesizes the findings of research undertaken to explore the changing practices of aid coordination across a number of countries. It begins by reviewing the key issues giving rise to increased attention to aid coordination in the health sector. The second section describes, assesses and compares the strengths and weaknesses of the dominant mechanisms or instruments which were found to be employed to coordinate health sector aid in the case studies. From this analysis, four factors become clear. First, in many countries, coordination mechanisms have been introduced as a part of an incremental process of trying out different approaches--there is no one model that stands out at any one time. Secondly, some instruments function largely for consultation, predominantly coordinating inputs, while others are more directive and operational, and are used to manage inputs, processes and outputs. Third, many of the mechanisms have not excelled, although, fourth, it is difficult to judge the effectiveness or impact of aid coordination. It is therefore argued that concern with the effectiveness of aid coordination arrangements must give way to a broader analysis of the processes, outputs and outcomes governing the use of both external and domestic resources, focusing on institutional characteristics, the distribution and nature of influence among the actors, and the interests which they pursue through the aid regime. These factors varied considerably across the countries indicating that aid management is context dependent and subject to continuing changes. Finally, the paper looks at the findings in the light of the introduction of sector-wide approaches.  (+info)

The Himachal Pradesh Government today issued the notification to grant Dearness Allowance (DA) to the State Government employees with effect from Jan 1, 2017. In office memorandum issued today, the State Government enhanced the DA to State Government employees at the rate of four percent from the existing rate of 130 per cent to 134 pc to be paid with effect from Jan 1, 2017.. Moreover at the rate of two percent from existing rate of two per cent to four percent in respect of officers of all India Services who drawing pay in the revised pay scale. The DA would be paid in cash salary of September 2017 and the areas occurred form Jan 1, 2017 to Aug 31, 2017 would be credited to the GPF accounts of the employees with the salary of Sept 2017 and interest of this account would be accrued on Oct 1 2017. In case of Government employees who have retired between this terms arrears on the account of additional instalment would be paid in cash.. ...
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Land use planning and municipal authorizations: The streamlining measures in respect of land use planning are narrower in scope and more precise than in Bill 61. The Government can only bypass the Act respecting land use planning and development if an infrastructure project is a Government Intervention within the meaning of that Act, whereas Bill 61 also contained measures for projects that did not qualify as such. A Government Intervention occurs when the Government or its representatives perform certain prescribed acts, such as building infrastructure, carrying out work on the soil, or modifying the boundaries of a wildlife preserve - as a result, many of the projects listed in Schedule 1 may indeed qualify as Government Interventions. Further, rather than simply being able to bypass land use planning rules and municipal authorization requirements, the Bill instead sets out a simplified procedure for infrastructure projects that require a municipal authorization ...
Having previously pooh-poohed the dangers of the coronavirus, Richard Epstein is now calling for an immediate end to social distancing and business shutdowns. Its unfortunate that he has chosen to dig himself deeper into a hole rather than admitting his earlier mistake and moving on.. As I discussed in a previous post, Epstein initially predicted that the coronavirus would cause about 500 deaths in the U.S., which he then revised to 5000. The U.S. is now at 50,000, which is what Epstein initially predicted as global mortality.. Epstein says that his estimates are more accurate than initial estimates of millions of U.S. deaths. He may have been referring to the two million deaths estimated by Imperial College, London, a widely publicized forecast. But that high estimate explicitly assumed no government intervention. Epsteins estimate of the number of deaths without government intervention was one-tenth the actual number of deaths, which took place despite vigorous government intervention. That ...
The Whitehall study of British civil servants begun in 1967, showed a steep inverse association between social class, as assessed by grade of employment, and mortality from a wide range of diseases. Between 1985 and 1988 we investigated the degree and causes of the social gradient in morbidity in a …
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Posts about can I medically retire as a civilian federal government employee if I have ptsd from the military? yes but you have to prove your case written by OPM Disability Retirement Lawyer and Federal Disability Retirement Attorney
This is an analysis in the correct direction so that countries and the WHO acquire a know-how and tools that were missing. The past semester has been an observational experiment the world over, and lets hope that a good response to high rate epidemics is mapped out.. The countries proceeded by trial and error, some governments putting emphasis on lives and some on the economy, until their failing health systems forced them to regulate deaths.. In hind site it is easy to see that lock-downs should be selective, but the horror induced by the Lombardy horror videos, of patients effectively euthanized, dying in the corridors and army trucks carrying coffins, made some governments take early measures, as happened in Greece . The fear of the economy made other governments go with the herd immunity slogan, until their health system was overwhelmed ( see UK,…) and they came late to lock-downs, as an afterthought.. 1) The slogan vulnerable people will die anyway, go for herd immunity, was seen to be ...
The role of national governments in ecological or environmental conservation remains contentious the world over. While scientists and campaigners alike often demand that governments regulate and encourage restoration projects; ...
All the problems with the American health care system come from government intervention, so naturally the Democrats idea for fixing it is more government intervention. This is like trying to sober up by having another drink.. The reason seeing a doctor is already more like going to the DMV, and less like going to the Apple Genius Bar, is that the government decided health care was too important to be left to the free market. Yes-the same free market that has produced such a cornucopia of inexpensive goods and services that, today, even poor people have cell phones and flat-screen TVs.. As a result, its easier to get your computer fixed than your health. Thanks, government!. We already have near-universal health coverage in the form of Medicare, Medicaid, veterans hospitals, emergency rooms and tax-deductible employer-provided health care-all government creations.. So now, everyone expects doctors to be free. People who pay $200 for a haircut are indignant if it costs more than a $20 co-pay ...
Many politicians and pundits are panicked over the existing state of the oil and gasoline markets. Disregarding past experience, these parties advocate massive intervention in those markets, which would only serve to repeat and extend previous errors. These interventionists propose solutions to nonexistent problems. This Policy Analysis reviews the academic literature relevant to these matters and argues that the prevailing policy proposals are premised on a misunderstanding of energy economics and market realities. The interventionists do not distinguish between problems that government can remedy and those that it cannot. They ignore lessons that should have been learned from past experience. They embrace at best second- and third-best remedies rather than first-best remedies for the alleged problems. Moreover, they ignore the extreme difficulty associated with ensuring efficient policy response even when it seems to be theoretically warranted. Fear of oil imports is premised on pernicious
Over the past few weeks, Israels new government has put forward a series of proposals that would further encroach on the delicate balance between personal liberty and public overreach. Embracing ideas that would signal unprecedented intervention in our
I had a geology professor ages ago who had a rather scary medical issue. One morning she woke up and could not remember her own name, where she was, who was the guy in bed with her (who she had been married to for 10 years) and there was no alcohol involved. her memory had been declining for years, but at that point her husband decided it was worth taking her to a doctor. It took months of tests but they eventually concluded that her memory loss was caused by overexposure to MSG. The doctors told her that most food companies put tons of the stuff in our foods, but you cant tell if its in there by looking at the label. They convinced the FDA to let them disguise their secret ingredients with terms like natural flavors so they would not be revealing their trade secrets. However, the reason they put so much MSG in food is not so much as flavor but because it is mildly addictive. You cant just stop at one, you feel compelled to keep eating. She pretty much has to subsist almost entirely out of ...
This article won the 2011 Beth A. Hoffman Memorial Prize for Economic Writing.. Although critics on the left are very astute in describing the evils of present-day society, they usually fail to understand either the root of those problems (government intervention) or their solution (the operation of a freed market). In Progressive commentary on energy, pollution, and so on-otherwise often quite insightful-calls for government intervention are quite common. George Monbiot, for instance, has written that [t]he only rational response to both the impending end of the Oil Age and the menace of global warming is to redesign our cities, our farming and our lives. But this cannot happen without massive political pressure.. But this is precisely backward. Existing problems of excess energy consumption, pollution, big-box stores, the car culture, and suburban sprawl result from the massive political pressure that has already been applied, over the past several decades, to redesign our cities, our ...
Last week a Brown County (MN) District Judge ruled that 13 yr. old Daniel Hauser has been medically neglected by his parents. Now, this medical neglect is not that the parents will not give the child any treatment -- they are trying natural remedies -- but that they are not willing to submit to the specific medical treatment deemed necessary by doctors, and evidently this judge ...
John Finnie (Highlands and Islands) (Green) On a point of order, Presiding Officer. You will be aware that, under chapter 9B of the standing orders, this Parliament refused to consent to the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill. Last week, despite that lack of consent, the United Kingdom Governments timetable allowed the UK Parliament just over 15 minutes to debate our concerns and, indeed, all issues that related to devolution in Scotland, Wales and the north of Ireland. I understand that no MPs representing Scottish constituencies had the opportunity to speak in that debate.. I am a member of the Parliaments Justice Committee and the Rural Economy and Connectivity Committee. For several months, we have attempted-unsuccessfully-to get UK Government ministers to come before us. They have often cancelled at very short notice. I understand that other committees here have been treated with similar discourtesy. This Parliament is being treated with utter contempt by the UK Government and, in ...
Emptywheel wrote:. What I look forward to learning, though, is how having government employees do the work that telecom employees - who at least were bound by ECPA - avoids the same kind of abusive fishing expeditions.. All three branches of the US government would argue that by having government employees do the snooping, it would prevent abuse because government employees take an oath and pledge to respect the law, honor the Constitution, and never ever do bad things.. The fallacy of this naiveté, or political smoke blowing up ones ass if you prefer, is that for all the US governments key-logging, polygraph testing, and other Big Brother oversight processes, there is no there there. Its like believing in Santa Claus. A fairy tale one tells children.. If the US government keeps it all in house (ignoring inconvenient facts like that private contractors form a large part of the intelligence communitys workforce), then nobody outside of the US government will ever know what they are doing. ...
Yet, we still have plenty left over for those we deem the usual suspects, namely government employees, the beneficiaries of government programs, and the military (and this is by no means an exhaustive list). Certainly, there are a plethora of reasons that libertarians might cite to take issue with people in any of these groups. After all, they are actively participating in those activities that are destroying civilized society and robbing us of rights that we are entitled to enjoy. Even those who do not actively participate but who support these institutions with their votes are subject to our unrelenting scorn, typically punctuated by the damning rejoinder statist.. Now, these criticisms are almost always well-deserved. In supporting government intervention into our lives here at home and in the affairs of other nations, our opponents are claiming the right to initiate the use of force. Even on domestic issues, these interventions amount to acts of war against us as individuals, for an act ...
Parliament has appointed a 20-member committee to act as the emergency committee of selection, for the 7th parliament of the 4th Republic.. The mandate of this committee is to compose the various standing and select committees of Parliament so that the work of committees in the House can begin in earnest.. The Majority Leader, Osei Kyei Mensah-Bonsu on the floor of Parliament, explained that the committee of selection cannot procreate itself, so it was important for leadership to constitute that committee in consultation with the Speaker.. The 20-member committee of selection will be chaired by the Speaker of Parliament, Aaron Michael Oquaye.. ...
DOPT : Reservation for the Persons with Benchmark Disabilities No.36035/02/2017-Estt (Res) GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF PERSONNEL, PUBLIC GRIEVANCES & PENSIONS DEPARTMENT OF PERSONNEL & TRAINING North Block, New Delhi Dated the 15th January, 2018 OFFICE MEMORANDUM Subject: Reservation for the Persons with Benchmark Disabilities - reg. With enactment of THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ACT, 2016′ from 19th April, 2017 and notification of THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES RULES, 2017′ on 15th June, 2017, the following instructions are issued in line with the provisions made therein regarding reservation for Persons with Benchmark Disabilities, as defined under Section 2(r) of the Act against the posts and services of the Central Government. 2. QUANTUM OF RESERVATION 2.1 In case of direct recruitment, four per cent of the total number of vacancies to be filled up by direct recruitment, in the cadre strength in each group of posts i.e. Groups A, B and C shall be reserved for ...
DOPT : Reservation for the Persons with Benchmark Disabilities No.36035/02/2017-Estt (Res) GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF PERSONNEL, PUBLIC GRIEVANCES & PENSIONS DEPARTMENT OF PERSONNEL & TRAINING North Block, New Delhi Dated the 15th January, 2018 OFFICE MEMORANDUM Subject: Reservation for the Persons with Benchmark Disabilities - reg. With enactment of THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ACT, 2016′ from 19th April, 2017 and notification of THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES RULES, 2017′ on 15th June, 2017, the following instructions are issued in line with the provisions made therein regarding reservation for Persons with Benchmark Disabilities, as defined under Section 2(r) of the Act against the posts and services of the Central Government. 2. QUANTUM OF RESERVATION 2.1 In case of direct recruitment, four per cent of the total number of vacancies to be filled up by direct recruitment, in the cadre strength in each group of posts i.e. Groups A, B and C shall be reserved for ...
The national pay scene is very chaotic and full of anomalies, many of them legacies of history. Government employees now enjoy several unintended benefits which originated during British rule plus numerous concessions unique to India that have been wrested by them through agitation. An objective survey that will be equally fair to the government employees and the public that
The Conference committee on amendment of Bonus Act - Removal of Conditions on Payment Ceiling, Eligibility Limits. Decisions to pay Minimum Bonus without linking to loss when the performance indicator satisfy grant of bonus constituted to discuss the Agenda item No. 3 of 46th session of the Indian Labour Conference met under the chairmanship of Captain Abhimanyu, Minister of Labour, Govt. of Haryana. Shri Om Prakash Mittal, General Secretary, Laghu Udyog Bharti (LUB) and Ms. Meenakshi Gupta and Mr. B.B. Mallick, Joint Secretary, MoLE respectively were the Vice-Cheirman and Member Secretary of the Committee. The Committee had the representation of all the stake-holders (Workers Group, Employers Group and State Government ...
Weight: A weight variable is not included in the dataset. However, the SPSS commands created and disseminated by the data producer and incorporated as a separate section in the current ICPSR codebook include SPSS syntax for weighting the main sample only. Mode of Data Collection: on-site questionnaire Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:. ...
Protecting rights and facilitating stable relationships among federal agencies, labor organizations, and employees while advancing an effective and efficient government through the administration of the Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute. ...
This paper assesses the quantitative impact of government interventions on deaths related to the COVID-19 outbreak. Using daily data for 32 countries and relyin
Were excited to announce that government, nonprofit and military employees can get an Extra Crunch membership at a discounted rate of $50 per year, plus tax. If interested in claiming the deal, please contact our customer service team from your .org, .gov, .mil or similar work-related email domain. Well also accept other forms of verification, […]
Air Travel on LTC once in Ten Years to visit foreign countries - WB State Govt Orders issued on 9.10.2015 The state government of West Bengal issued orders on availing of Leave Travel Concession (LTC) to foriegn countires, such as, … [Read more...] ...
In preparation for the upcoming 2022 legislative session, your political action committees are now accepting proposals to craft HGEAs legislative package. Do you have an idea for a new law or are you looking to amend an existing one? Submit your idea no later than October 29, 2021.. Click here to submit your legislative proposal. If you have any questions, please contact the Member Service Center at (808) 543-0000 or [email protected] ...
Off-Payroll Reforms Delayed to April 2021. The proposed changes to the IR35 rules (known as the off-payroll reforms), which were due to come into force in April this year, and which would likely have seen many self-employed contractors reclassified by the engaging client as employees for UK payroll taxation purposes, have been postponed to April 2021.. UK businesses have welcomed this move, as it will buy them extra time to plan ahead for the proposed changes. The delay also potentially creates an opportunity in the meantime for the UK Government to address widespread concerns about the potential negative economic consequences of these proposed changes. Whether the government will actually do so, however, and to what extent, remains to be seen.. Further details on the proposed IR35 changes can be found in our Insight article, UK Employment Law: 2019 Highlights and 2020 Forecast.. UK Government to Step in And Pay Employees Salaries. For UK businesses struggling to pay their employees, the UK ...
The department agreed to sell its remaining 234 million shares in AIG, which represented 15.9 percent of the company, for $32.50 each. The sale in effect closes the books on a rescue that at its height had the government on the hook for more than $182 billion and owning 92 percent of the company. The offering is expected to be completed Friday.. Despite the bailouts profit, critics note the huge toll it took on public confidence in the financial system and the precedent it helped set for government intervention to protect companies deemed too big to fail.. The bailout was an enormous cost to this country, said Phil Angelides, who headed the governments Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission.. agrees to add sales tax for Massachusetts BOSTON - Massachusetts retailers are hailing a deal reached between online seller and state officials to begin collecting the states 6.25 percent sales tax from Bay State residents who order items through the website.. Gov. Deval Patrick ...
with the unconstitutional act of dissolving the Parliament. The present momentous crisis required a firm, an able, and an efficient ininistry. Whether the present ministers came under that description, Parliament must determine. But he thought they afforded but an unfavourable specimen of their future conduct, by shrinking from the responsibilty of having advised the dismissal of the late ministers. It was a constitutional maxim, founded in wisdom, that, the king could do no wrong ; for if he could, what scenes of bloodshed must ensue before he could be brought to justice? The Parliament, he said, had done nothing that could rem quire a dissolution. The reason alleged for it was, the ex. pediency of taking the sen e of the people. That, he contended, was in favour of the late minis ers, and instanced the great county of York. His lordship then adverted to the accusations against the late ministers, for opposing the go. vernment. One would think, he observed, on hearing these, that this was some ...
Forty female innovators have been backed by the UK Government to drive forward their novel innovations and business ideas to help the UK build back better from the pandemic and meet its climate change ambitions. To mark International Womens Day, the UK Government Science Minister Amanda Solloway announced the Women in Innovation Award winners will receive a cash injection of £50,000 each to scale up and bring to market their disruptive business ideas, many of which have been born out in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
In conjunction with the states and territories, the establishment of a national transport research centre.. Australian Greens Deputy Leader, Senator Christine Milne, said Getting people moving around cities like Melbourne faster, more conveniently, more sustainably and more cheaply is a challenge which needs to see the Federal and State governments working together.. Only with proper coordinated planning can we get a truly sustainable solution that will work for people and the planet.. Australian Greens Senator Scott Ludlam said These are important policy changes that have been backed by a Senate inquiry.. The states and territories have given political support to long term planning as part of a COAG process but we want to see the Federal government get the ball rolling.. Greens Member for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, said With more Greens elected in Victoria we will be able to do more to get good cooperative policies like these operating across the State and Federal levels of ...
But to an economist, it is not enough to note that you do or dont like something, to justify a policy to encourage or discourage it. We instead hold ourselves to a higher analysis standard - is there a net market failure sufficient to justify an intervention?. Except, alas, on (national at-a-time between-family) income and wealth inequality. There, most economists think it sufficient to just note that a policy influences inequality - they rarely feel a need to identity an associated market failure. For example, Christina Romer:. A successful argument for a government manufacturing policy has to go beyond the feeling that its better to produce real things than services. … The economic rationales for a policy aimed specifically at shoring up manufacturing largely fall into three categories. None are completely convincing:. MARKET FAILURES Government intervention can be justified on efficiency grounds if the free market wont work well. … The market can malfunction if there are positive ...
Comments: In October 2016, OGE submitted its action plan to address GAOs recommendations. OGE reported having a number of actions underway. OGE stated the agency is surveying agency ethics officials to determine whether executive branch agencies are experiencing data challenges related to special government employees not serving on boards. According to OGE, the agency plans to evaluate what steps may help agencies strengthen their data if the survey results show agencies are experiencing data challenges. OGE reported that, in consultation with OPM, the agency proposed new regulations that would improve coordination between agency human resource officials and agency ethics officials by requiring agency human resource officials to provide ethics officials with prompt notification of the appointment of all financial disclosure report filers, including special government employees. OGE also reported expanding the agencys ongoing review of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in light ...
I am quite sure that Gawande would not disagree that there should be a framework, but he would be careful about what the framework consisted of. In fact, his use of agricultural history demonstrates that rather than wanting medical reform to proceed helter skelter, he sees his patchwork approach as very well suited to providing true improvement in treatment and costs savings. Gawande certainly isnt advocating that medicine follow its own entropic trajectory, just as he did NOT suggest that that was how agriculture should progress. In fact, quite the opposite. He says, The agricultural system [before 1903] was fragmented and disorganized, and ignored evidence showing how things could be done better….Laissez faire had not worked. What did work was indeed government intervention even in the face of traditional American hostility to it. Private farms remained, along with the considerable advantages of individual initiative. [But] the government was enlisted to help millions of farmers ...
Matching grants are one of the most common policy instruments used by developing country governments to try to foster technological upgrading, innovation, exports, use of business development services and other activities leading to firm growth. However, since they involve subsidizing firms, the risk is that they could crowd out private investment, subsidizing activities that firms were planning to undertake anyway, or lead to pure private gains, rather than generating the public gains that justify government intervention. As a result, rigorous evaluation of the effects of such programs is important. The authors attempted to implement randomized experiments to evaluate the impact of seven matching grant programs offered in six African countries, but in each case were unable to complete an experimental evaluation. One critique of randomized experiments is publication bias, whereby only those experiments with \interesting\ results get published. The hope is to mitigate this bias by learning from ...
22 April 2010: President Obama delivers a speech on Wall Street to advocate more government intervention in the countrys financial sector, but offers no reforms for Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, which helped precipitate the 2008 meltdown. He also delivers a speech regarding the contributions of Earth Day to environmental awareness.. Meanwhile, 200,000 gallons of oil are spilling daily.. 23 April 2010: President Obama blasts the Arizona governor, state legislators, police officers and residents for backing federal laws that prohibit illegal immigration.. 23 April 2010: The oil continues to flow.. 24 April 2010: The president delivers his weekly radio address, which focuses on further regulation of Wall Street. He also calls upon certain segments of his original supporters - African-Americans, Latinos, Hispanics, and women - and asks them to mobilize for political action.. 24 April 2010: Efforts to contain the spill are hampered by lack of resources and difficult weather.. 25 April 2010: President ...
Handling of notices received from investigation/ enquiry officers of CBI/Cyber Crime - Handling of notices received from investigation/ enquiry officers
It would be easy to ignore Bedfords essay, but it would be a mistake to do so. True, his organization has slipped into irrelevancy. David Franke, one of the founding members of YAF, estimates that the group has no more than a few hundred dues-paying members, and thus is easily dwarfed by the many thousands of young people who have flocked to Ron Pauls Young Americans for Liberty and Students for Liberty.. There are rumors, however, that YAF is trying to rebuild itself, and there is more at stake than whether Bedford will succeed in breathing new life into a moribund organization. In his attack on Ron Paul, Bedford signals the type of people that he believes are deserving of inclusion within YAF and, indirectly, the conservative movement writ large: namely, neoconservatives who generally favor government intervention, both at home and abroad.. But the issues of greatest concern for CPAC-goers do not comport with YAFs vision. Attendees signaled an interest in limited, constitutional government, ...
By Alasdair Macleod, Head of Research, GoldMoney. The economic establishment failed to foresee the banking crisis five years ago. They then assured us that monetary stimulus was all that was needed to get economic growth back on track. Despite their abysmal track record, they continue with the same flawed Keynesian and monetarist beliefs, refusing to even consider they might be wrong. They are a collective of wise monkeys, seeing no evil, hearing no evil, and saying no evil.. The economic establishment blames todays evils on free markets, on a lack of government intervention, and on banks for being reluctant to lend. It never blames the economic establishment itself. Meanwhile, it blames government deficits on cheats who dont pay their taxes. It never looks at the political cheats who fail to cut their spending according to their diminishing cloth. I could go on; instead, I will attempt to identify the mounting dangers that face us all.. There are four horsemen of the global economic ...
By Ram Puniyani MD The issues related to our educational institutions-patriotism started coming up to the fore with this Government coming to power (May 2014). One after the other news of Government intervention in different institutions, more so the nationally well known ones started disturbing us. There was the case of IIT Madras where Periyar Ambedkar Study Circle was banned. Then IIT Bombay Director […]. ...
Medical allowance is a set amount given as an allowance to employees for whether he/she avails the medical treatment and shows bills to show the expenditure. Now, a medical reimbursement… ...
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Transfer and posting of Arunachal government employees are being done in some departments. Though transfers and postings are a regular affair, the timing is slightly problematic, given the fact that it is being done amidst a pandemic, most of the government employees are engaged in Covid-19 duties, and the roads are blocked in many places ...
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In this paper we construct a dynamic heterogeneous agent general equilibrium model to quantify the effects of child labor legislation on human capital accumulation and the distribution of wealth and welfare. Crucial model elements include a human capital externality in the market sector, an informal home production sector in which child labor laws cannot be enforced, uninsurable idiosyncratic income risk, borrowing constraints, and endogenous wage and interest rate determination in general equilibrium. We calibrate the model to US data around 1880 and find that the welfare consequences for individual households of a transition to policies that restrict child labor or provide tax-financed free education depend crucially on the main source of a households income. Whereas households with significant financial asset holdings unambiguously lose from any government intervention, high-wage workers benefit most from a ban on child labor, while low-wage workers benefit most from free education. Based on ...
Chapter 9 summarizes lessons from successful firms and their use of constructive dialogue to help prevent undisciplined risk-taking. The books recommendation, that constructive dialogue be required of all major financial firms as a way to strengthen them and contribute to their safety and soundness, builds on the work of Professor Sydney Finkelstein and colleagues about the need for respectful challenge to help offset the possibility of flawed decision making by a leader. Moreover, only effective supervision can help protect financial firms from a race to the bottom. In 2005-2007 lenders and borrowers took on increasing amounts of risk without regard to the consequences. Citigroups CEO sought government intervention to reduce risks that firms took in the race for market share and profits. CEOs can benefit from feedback from supervisors as well as their boards, management teams, and risk officers.
As previously reported (Commercial property evictions ban extended until 25 March 2022), on 24 June 2021 the UK Government extended the moratorium on landlords evicting commercial tenants for non-payment of rent during the pandemic under s82 of the Coronavirus Act 2020 until 25 March 2022. Similarly, the restriction on the Commercial Rent Arrears Recovery (CRAR), which prevents landlords seizing a tenants goods in lieu of rent unless the tenant has more than 554 days of rent arrears, was extended until 25 March 2022. The restriction on the serving of winding up petitions based on a statutory demand under the Corporate Insolvency and Governance Act 2020 was also extended until the 30 September 2021.The UK Government has now issued, on 4 August 2021, a policy statement called Supporting Business with Commercial Rent Debts confirming that they will introduce legislation to ringfence rent arrears accrued during the pandemic due to enforced closures of commercial premises. As with previous ...
List of forms of government Central government Civics Comparative government Constitutional economics Deep state Digital ... such as state and provincial governments as well as local governments. The word government derives from the Greek verb κυβερνάω ... A coalition government is one in which multiple parties cooperate to form a government as part of a coalition agreement. In a ... A government is the system to govern a state or community. The Columbia Encyclopedia defines government as "a system of social ...
The Trevín government was the regional government of Asturias led by President Antonio Trevín. It was formed in June 1995 after ...
"E-Government Portal". Retrieved 2 October 2017. "E-Gov Development Center. About us". e-Government - ... such as m-government (mobile government), ubiquitous government), and g-government (GIS/GPS applications for e-government). The ... E-government is also known as e-gov, electronic government, Internet governance, digital government, online government, ... "Government of Sri Lanka Official Web Portal". Retrieved 3 July 2013. "Government Information Center". ...
... a reference to both a city in Kyushu and the ancient headquarters of Kyushu government." "Government Office Ruins" at Japan- ... The Dazaifu (大宰府 or 太宰府) is a Japanese term for the regional government in Kyushu from the 8th to the 12th centuries. The name ... It is the town which grew up around the government center in the 7th through the 12th centuries. It is also the name of the ... As it grew and developed, a large complex of government offices (都府楼跡, Tofuro-ato) was built for the use of the hierarchy of ...
Local governments were important in Tudor England. Regional governments helped oversee parts of England that the Privy Council ... Each city and town had its own government, headed by a mayor as well. Manors were run by nobility and gentry. Land was power at ... Elizabethan government concerning foreign policy is often accused of being affected by factionalism. This appears true in the ... The stability and structure of the government helped to allow the arts to flourish and prompted other achievements in ...
... may refer to: First Jones government, the Welsh Assembly Government led by Carwyn Jones from 2009 to 2011 ... the Welsh Government led by Carwyn Jones from 2011 to 2016 Third Jones government, the Welsh Government led by Carwyn Jones ... from 2016 to 2018 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Jones government. If an internal link led ...
"Government Plates by Death Grips reviews". AnyDecentMusic?. Retrieved January 6, 2020. "Reviews for Government Plates by Death ... Government Plates is the third studio album by experimental hip hop group Death Grips. It was released for free download on ... Upon its release, Government Plates was met with generally positive reviews. At Metacritic the album received an average score ... On January 14, 2014, Government Plates was made available for purchase through iTunes. The album has sold 13,000 copies as of ...
The proposed government would give the BSP 13 ministries and would give the MRF 5. Since the participating parties of the ... Stanishev's government also managed to keep education spending at around 4.3% of GDP, increasing from BGN 1.65 to 2.2 billion ... After being satisfied by only 2 of the responses, he rejected the idea of forming a government under the second mandate and ... Almost a month after the election the first attempt to form a government was made. The Bulgarian Socialist Party, with 82 seats ...
In linguistics, case government is government of the grammatical case of a noun, wherein a verb or adposition is said to ' ... Case government may modify the meaning of the verb substantially, even to meanings that are unrelated. Case government is an ... In books on Finnish grammar writen in Finnish the phenomenon of case government is usually referred to as "rektio", from the ... true case government is absent, but if the aforementioned subject pronouns are understood as regular pronouns in the accusative ...
A national government is the government of a nation. National government or National Government may also refer to: Central ... the British government from 1931 to 1940 New Zealand National Party governments First National Government of New Zealand, the ... a provisional government based in Kars, Turkey Transitional National Government, the Somali government from 2000 to 2004 ... Canada Ukrainian national government (1941) All pages with titles containing National Government National Government Parks, ...
... (Norwegian:, Northern Sami: Ráđđ is the web portal for the Government of Norway. Operated ... Government of Norway, Government services portals, Norwegian websites, 2007 establishments in Norway, All stub articles, ... Government Administration Services. "Contact". Retrieved 31 October 2008. Official website Official website (in Norwegian) ... by the Government Administration Services, it provides a range of information services related to each of the ministries, the ...
The Palestinian Authority Government of April 2003 was a government of the Palestinian National Authority (PA) from 29 April to ... appointed Qurei PM of a small emergency cabinet before a government could be presented to Parliament. Formerly, the government ... The Abbas Government was not long-lived. Abbas already resigned as Prime Minister on 6 September 2003, because of a struggle ... Arafat accepted Abbas' new government on 24 April, and on 29 April Abbas and his Cabinet were approved by the Parliament. The ...
Structure of Armenian government Official website of the government of Armenia "Government - Structure - The Government of the ... The government of Armenia is led by Hovik Abrahamyan, who took the office in April 2014. The government of Armenia consists of ... Abrahamyan's government was the governing body of Armenia from April 2014 to September 2016. Hovik Abrahamyan was designated ... It was a coalition government formed by Republican Party, Prosperous Armenia, Rule of Law party and ARF. The cabinet consisted ...
Cabinet of Madagascar (CS1 French-language sources (fr), Current governments, Government of Madagascar, 2018 establishments in ... The Ntsay government has governed Madagascar since 4 June 2018. It was formed by Prime Minister Christian Ntsay. Minister of ...
The Davutoğlu Government can refer to three different governments of Turkey, which were formed and led by Prime Minister Ahmet ... First Davutoğlu Cabinet (29 August 2015 - 28 August 2015) 2015 interim election government of Turkey (28 August 2015 - 17 ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Davutoglu Government. If an internal link led you here, you ...
... s List of government gazettes List of British colonial gazettes Journals of legislative bodies Annals ... A government gazette (also known as an official gazette, official journal, official newspaper, official monitor or official ... It is usually established by statute or official action, and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a ... ISBN 90-6544-631-1. See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette ...
Ghana Government. Retrieved 19 March 2020. "PAST MINISTERS". Official website of the government of Ghana. Government of Ghana. ... Governments of Ghana, 1972 in Ghana, 1969 establishments in Ghana, 1972 disestablishments, Lists of government ministers of ... This is a listing of the ministers who served in Busia's Progress Party government during the Second Republic of Ghana. The ... "MINISTER FOR DEFENCE". ...
In political philosophy, limited government is the concept of a government limited in power. It is a key concept in the history ... John Locke, a liberal philosopher, was an important theorist of liberal government. Writing in his Two Treatises of Government ... He cites four specific limitations on government power. Locke's first limitation specified that governments could only govern ... or government. Locke further reasoned that the powers of the government had to be restricted to only what the people allowed it ...
The Homans Government consisted of eight ministers, which was one less than the previous government as the N-VA has shifted the ... The Homans Government (Regering-Homans) was the interim Flemish Government formed and sworn in on 2 July 2019, following the ... the interim Homans government was formed as a continuation of the Bourgeois Government, consisting of the same centre-right ... The coalition was a continuation of the Bourgeois Government, consisting of the N-VA (35 seats), CD&V (19 seats) and Open Vld ( ...
Max Barry's Jennifer Government page Jennifer Government: NationStates website Jennifer Government at IMDb (Articles with short ... Hack and Jennifer Government succeed in rescuing Kate and arresting John. Barry optioned film rights for Jennifer Government to ... Employees of the government, including the novel's title character, take the surname Government. Schools are sponsored and ... This makes the government unable to write new laws or even to hold elections. The President of the United States still retains ...
The Modrow government refers to the final socialist government of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), which was led by ... Despite the personnel change the new government was unable to bring stability to the situation, with increased absenteeism ... Government of East Germany, 1989 establishments in East Germany, 1990 disestablishments in East Germany, Historic German ... official Hans Modrow from November 1989 until East Germany's first democratically elected government took power on 18 March ...
Government subsidies may lead to excess demand, which can be solved in two ways. Either the government chooses to meet all the ... Government failure may arise in any of three ways the government can involve in an area of social and economic activity: ... However, Government failure often arises from an attempt to solve market failure. The idea of government failure is associated ... Government failure, in the context of public economics, is an economic inefficiency caused by a government intervention, if the ...
Government statements, Government publications, All stub articles, Government stubs). ... A government circular is a written statement of government policy. It will often provide information, guidance, rules, and/or ...
... is a commodity cheese that was controlled by the US federal government from World War II to the early 1980's ... Government cheese was provided to welfare, food stamp, and Social Security recipients at no cost to them. Government cheese was ... "The Tyranny and the Comfort of Government Cheese". August 21, 2018. "How the US Ended up with Warehouses Full of 'Government ... Some people reminisce both good or bad opinions concerning the flavor of government cheese. Affinity for government cheese is ...
González I Government, the government of Spain under Felipe González from 1982 to 1986. González II Government, the government ... González III Government, the government of Spain under Felipe González from 1989 to 1993. González IV Government, the ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title González government. If an internal link led you here, you ... government of Spain under Felipe González from 1993 to 1996. ... The term González government may refer to: ...
The government carried out a large number of privatization deals and concession agreements. Some of them (the sale of BTC, the ... The government agency on tourism is added to the ministry; and the portfolio is taken up by Nina Chilova (NDSV). Original ... The government agency on Youth and Sport is transformed into a ministry. Vasil Ivanov-Luchano (NDSV) is appointed its minister ... The government agency on Energy and Energy Resources is transformed into a ministry. Milko Kovachev (NDSV) is appointed its ...
... , Manama Government House, Minsk Government House, Hong Kong, is located on Government Hill, Central, on Hong ... Government House of Punjab in Lahore. Government House of Sindh in Karachi. Government House, Basseterre, Saint Kitts, is the ... Government House, Yerevan Government House, Baku, is a government building housing various state ministries of Azerbaijan. It ... Government House (St. Augustine), listed on the NRHP in Florida Government House (Maryland) Government House (New York City), ...
The government was composed by the following parties: Christian Democracy (DC): prime minister, 13 ministers and 30 ... Italian governments, 1954 establishments in Italy, 1955 disestablishments in Italy, Cabinets established in 1954, Cabinets ...
The government was formed by the United Democratic Forces, an electoral alliance led by the Union of Democratic Forces, after ... Kostov's government was the first since 1990 to serve its entire four-year mandate. In the previous parliamentary election ( ... A great success for the government is the decision to remove Bulgaria from the negative visa list of the member states of the ... Up to that point in time the UDF had formed government only once, under Philip Dimitrov, and governed for one year only (1991- ...
... greater citizen participation in government is linked to government transparency. Advocates of open government often argue that ... The government of the Netherlands adopted an Open Government in Action (Open overheid in actie) Plan for 2016-2017, which ... Open government data (OGD), a term which refers specifically to the public publishing of government datasets, is often made ... The Freedom of Government Information Law of 2005, stated that all government information must be made public. Such information ...
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  • Indeed, in the criminal process context, the content of the "government message" is dictated by the Constitution and the role of attorneys in our system of justice. (
  • FILE - In this Jan. 7, 2019, file photo, Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey looks on during a speech after being sworn in for his second term during his inauguration ceremony at the state Capitol in Phoenix. (
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  • Around 3,000 German police and Special Forces officers were involved in the operation to detain individuals believed to be members of a domestic terrorist organization formed in late 2021, Reichsbürger [Citizens of the Reich] movement, with planned to overthrow the government and form their own state. (
  • Since March 29, 2021, the Government of Niger has started Covid-19 vaccination roll out that was launched in Niamey by the Prime Minister and across the country on 4 May 2021 by the Minister of Public Health, Population and Social Affairs, Dr Illiassou MAINASSARA. (
  • the world health organization (WHO) is honored to be the recipient of this funding that has been used to support the Government to reach the goal of vaccinating 30% of Niger total popula-tion by December 2021. (
  • The Falkland Islands Government announced on Thursday that a referendum will be held on Thursday, 26 March 2020. (
  • Since October 2020, the British government has enforced a ban on providing plastic straws, stirrers, and cotton buds to customers in England. (
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  • Electronic government (e- government ) refers to the use of information and computing technologies by government agencies to deliver services, information, and resources to citizens, businesses, and other organizations. (
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  • The country's tax collector is among the federal agencies affected by the government shutdown, now in its second week. (
  • The Nutrition Symposium drew participants from Government ministries, departments and agencies (MDAs), donor agencies, civil society organisations, implementing partners and and UN agencies. (
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  • We have now reviewed the extensive feedback provided by stakeholders and finalised this report to Government, making 27 recommendations which include specific actions. (
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  • On March 17 CDC partnered with the White House Council for Environmental Quality and the General Services Administration (GSA) to host Greening Government: A Dialogue with the Federal Environmental Executive. (
  • Despite a challenging context of community scepticism and poor government services, the NGO did successfully form VHSNCs by harnessing its respected interlocutor status, preexisting relationships, and ability to "sell" the VHSNC as a mechanism for improving local well-being. (
  • At a time when Christians have been under attack in India, the country's government has honored two prominent Catholic religious, including naming the superior general of the Missionaries of Charity for India's second-highest civilian award. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Adoption of IAL classification by the Government of India. (
  • A case study of the multiple roles and pressures facing a nongovernmental organization contracted by government to strengthen community health in northern India. (
  • We present a qualitative case study of an NGO implementing a government -designed intervention to strengthen Village Health , Sanitation , and Nutrition Committees (VHSNCs) in rural north India . (
  • The survey highlights difficulties brought about by the pandemic and includes interviews with oversight officials in state government who were, in many cases, the first line of defense against fraud, waste and abuse in these federal pandemic relief programs. (
  • While the VHSNC enabled community members to voice concerns to government officials , improvements often failed to meet community expectations . (
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  • While nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) can potentially strengthen valuable citizen political engagement, NGOs that are increasingly oriented towards donor and government contracts may instead contribute to depoliticizing development. (
  • Americans may find themselves missing an agency they usually love to hate if the government shutdown persists: the Internal Revenue Service. (
  • The Senate today voted 73 to 26 to continue funding government operations through September 30 - the end of fiscal 2013 - and prevent a shutdown when current appropriations run out on March 27. (
  • Cite this: Senate Passes Spending Bill to Avert Government Shutdown - Medscape - Mar 20, 2013. (
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  • Authorities arrested more than two dozen people in connection with an alleged plot to overthrow the German government. (
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  • Britain's splintered government was rocked on Friday by a growing scandal over who leaked news that Prime Minister Theresa May has conditionally allowed Chinese giant Huawei to develop the UK 5G network. (
  • The Arizona Republic says that its writers have waited months for requests for comprehensive records such as government contracts or salary information for staff, which are public records. (
  • Contrary to assumptions that NGOs become "tamed" through taking government contracts , being contracted to deliver inputs for community participation was intertwined with microlevel political action, though this came at a cost to the NGO. (
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  • PHOENIX (AP) - The administration of Arizona Gov. Doug Ducey has developed a pattern of delaying or withholding public records requests, according to a newspaper review. (
  • The handling of business processes in connection with actions by government and public administrations based on information and communication technologies. (
  • In Garcetti v. Ceballos, the U.S. Supreme Court incorporated the "government speech" doctrine into its case law regarding the speech rights of public employees. (
  • Getting good government : capacity building in the public sectors of developing countries / edited by Merilee S. Grindle. (
  • A protracted fight between President Donald Trump and Democratic congressional leaders to fund the government could delay payouts of tax refunds to millions of Americans who are owed money. (
  • Finally, the scope of government control inherent in the theory and practice of the government speech doctrine is at odds with and interferes with the core function of the publicly employed attorney. (
  • The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to improve and facilitate citizens' relationships with government through democratic procedures, cost-effective transactions and efficient regulations, all of which enhances this relationship. (
  • The Inter-Parliamentary Union has compiled a list of the countries with the largest percentage of women in the Lower House of government. (
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  • The goal of the program is not to assess the financial health of participating governments, but rather to ensure that users of their financial statements have the information they need to do so themselves. (
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  • The people of PNG are being kept in suspense when nothing is done and want to see some positive action being taken by the government to ensure good governance practices are observed. (
  • Policy Brief: Quality of Care – What are effective policy options for governments in low- and middle-income countries to improve and regulate the quality of ambulatory care? (
  • Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. (
  • Two more senior government ministers announced last weekend their decisions to quit at the imminent federal election, highlighting both the intensifying breakup of the Liberal-National Coalition and the broader fear in ruling circles of the rising social and political discontent. (
  • Desperate to hold his government together until the election, which he must call by mid-May, Prime Minister Scott Morrison asked all three to remain in their posts until after the poll, effectively making them lame duck ministers. (