The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Hormones produced in the testis.
A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.
A Wnt protein that is involved in regulating multiple developmental processes such as the formation of the KIDNEY; ADRENAL GLANDS; MAMMARY GLANDS; the PITUITARY GLAND; and the female reproductive system. Defects in WNT4 are a cause of ROKITANSKY KUSTER HAUSER SYNDROME.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
A complex neoplasm composed of a mixture of gonadal elements, such as large primordial GERM CELLS, immature SERTOLI CELLS or GRANULOSA CELLS of the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. Gonadoblastomas are most often associated with gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XY.
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTES
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female to phenotypic male including variations in gonads and internal and external genitalia, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.
Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
A fibroblast growth factor that was originally identified as a mitogen for GLIAL CELLS. It is expressed primarily in NEURONS.
Neoplasms composed of tissues of the OVARY or the TESTIS, not neoplasms located in the ovaries or testes. Gonadal tissues include GERM CELLS, cells from the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A large family of mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, known commonly as scallops. They possess flat, almost circular shells and are found in all seas from shallow water to great depths.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.
A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.

The Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (wt1) product regulates Dax-1 gene expression during gonadal differentiation. (1/1073)

Gonadal differentiation is dependent upon a molecular cascade responsible for ovarian or testicular development from the bipotential gonadal ridge. Genetic analysis has implicated a number of gene products essential for this process, which include Sry, WT1, SF-1, and DAX-1. We have sought to better define the role of WT1 in this process by identifying downstream targets of WT1 during normal gonadal development. We have noticed that in the developing murine gonadal ridge, wt1 expression precedes expression of Dax-1, a nuclear receptor gene. We document here that the spatial distribution profiles of both proteins in the developing gonad overlap. We also demonstrate that WT1 can activate the Dax-1 promoter. Footprinting analysis, transient transfections, promoter mutagenesis, and mobility shift assays suggest that WT1 regulates Dax-1 via GC-rich binding sites found upstream of the Dax-1 TATA box. We show that two WT1-interacting proteins, the product of a Denys-Drash syndrome allele of wt1 and prostate apoptosis response-4 protein, inhibit WT1-mediated transactivation of Dax-1. In addition, we demonstrate that WT1 can activate the endogenous Dax-1 promoter. Our results indicate that the WT1-DAX-1 pathway is an early event in the process of mammalian sex determination.  (+info)

The effects of a t-allele (tAE5) in the mouse on the lymphoid system and reproduction. (2/1073)

Mice homozygous for tAE5, a recessive allele at the complex T-locus, are characterized by their unique short-tailed phenotype as well as by runting and low fertility. Histological and histochemical studies of the lymphoid and reproductive systems disclosed structural changes in the mutant spleen resembling those found in autoimmune conditions. Involution of the mutant thymus was greatly accelerated compared to normal. Necrotic changes occurred during spermiogenesis whereas ovarian structure was normal in mutants. The possible mechanisms of the mutant effects are discussed in the framework of other similar syndromes and the mode of action of alleles at the complex T-locus.  (+info)

Characterization of a Caenorhabditis elegans recA-like gene Ce-rdh-1 involved in meiotic recombination. (3/1073)

A recA-like gene was identified in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome project database. The putative product of the gene, termed Ce-rdh-1 (C. elegans RAD51 and DMC1/LIM15 homolog 1), consists of 357 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence of Ce-rdh-1 showed 46-60% identity to both RAD51 type and DMC1/LIM15 type genes in several eukaryote species. The results of RNAi (RNA-mediated interference) indicated that repression of Ce-rdh-1 blocked chromosome condensation of six bivalents and dissociation of chiasmata in oocytes of F1 progeny. Oogenesis did not proceed to the diakinesis stage. Accordingly, all the eggs produced (F2) died in early stages. These results suggest that Ce-rdh-1 participates in meiotic recombination.  (+info)

Patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans posterior structures by the Abdominal-B homolog, egl-5. (4/1073)

The Caenorhabditis elegans body axis, like that of other animals, is patterned by the action of Hox genes. In order to examine the function of one C. elegans Hox gene in depth, we determined the postembryonic expression pattern of egl-5, the C. elegans member of the Abdominal-B Hox gene paralog group, by means of whole-mount staining with a polyclonal antibody. A major site of egl-5 expression and function is in the epithelium joining the posterior digestive tract with the external epidermis. Patterning this region and its derived structures is a conserved function of Abd-B paralog group genes in other animals. Cells that initiate egl-5 expression during embryogenesis are clustered around the presumptive anus. Expression is initiated postembryonically in four additional mesodermal and ectodermal cell lineages or tissues. Once initiated in a lineage, egl-5 expression continues throughout development, suggesting that the action of egl-5 can be regarded as defining a positional cell identity. A variety of cross-regulatory interactions between egl-5 and the next more anterior Hox gene, mab-5, help define the expression domains of their respective gene products. In its expression in a localized body region, function as a marker of positional cell identity, and interactions with another Hox gene, egl-5 resembles Hox genes of other animals. This suggests that C. elegans, in spite of its small cell number and reproducible cell lineages, may not differ greatly from other animals in the way it employs Hox genes for regional specification during development.  (+info)

A new lethal syndrome of exomphalos, short limbs, and macrogonadism. (5/1073)

We report a new lethal multiple congenital abnormality (MCA) syndrome of exomphalos, short limbs, nuchal web, macrogonadism, and facial dysmorphism in seven fetuses (six males and one female) belonging to three unrelated families. X rays showed enlarged and irregular metaphyses with a heterogeneous pattern of mineralisation of the long bones. Pathological examination showed adrenal cytomegaly, hyperplasia of Leydig cells, ovarian stroma cells, and Langherans cells, and renal microcysts. We suggest that this condition is a new autosomal recessive MCA syndrome different from Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, especially as no infracytogenetic deletion or uniparental disomy of chromosome 11 was found.  (+info)

Mouse primordial germ cells lacking beta1 integrins enter the germline but fail to migrate normally to the gonads. (6/1073)

Primordial germ cells are the founder cells of the gametes. They are set aside at the initial stages of gastrulation in mammals, become embedded in the hind-gut endoderm, then actively migrate to the sites of gonad formation. The molecular basis of this migration is poorly understood. Here we sought to determine if members of the integrin family of cell surface receptors are required for primordial germ cell migration, as integrins have been implicated in the migration of several other motile cell types. We have established a line of mice which express green fluorescent protein in germline cells that has enabled us to efficiently purify primordial germ cells at different stages by flow cytometry. We have catalogued the spectrum of integrin subunit expression by primordial germ cells during and after migration, using flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Through analysis of integrin beta1(-/-)-->wild-type chimeras, we show that embryonic cells lacking beta1 integrins can enter the germline. However, integrin beta1(-/-) primordial germ cells do not colonize the gonad efficiently. Embryos with targeted deletion of integrin subunit alpha3, alpha6, or alphaV show no major defects in primordial germ cell migration. These results demonstrate a role for beta1-containing integrins in the development of the germline, although an equivalent role for * integrin subunit(s) has yet to be established.  (+info)

The sexually dimorphic expression of androgen receptors in the song nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale of the zebra finch develops independently of gonadal steroids. (7/1073)

The development of sex differences in brain structure and brain chemistry ("brain sex") of vertebrates is frequently thought to depend entirely on gonadal steroids such as androgens and estrogens, which act on the brain at the genomic level by binding to intracellular transcription factors, the androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ERs). These hormone actions are thought to shift the brain from a monomorphic to a dimorphic phenotype. One prominent such example is the nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale (HVc) of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), a set of cells in the caudal forebrain involved in the control of singing. In contrast with previous studies using nonspecific cell staining techniques, the size and neuron number of the HVc measured by the distribution of AR mRNA is already sexually dimorphic on posthatching day (P)9. No ARs or ERs are expressed in the HVc before day 9. Slice cultures of the caudal forebrain of P5 animals show that the sexually dimorphic expression of AR mRNA in HVc is independent of the direct action of steroids on this nucleus or any of its immediate presynaptic or postsynaptic partners. Therefore, gonadal steroids do not appear to be directly involved in the initial sex difference in the expression pattern of AR mRNA, size, and neuron number of the HVc. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the initial steroid-independent size and its subsequent steroid-independent growth by extension linearly with the extension of the forebrain explains 60-70% of the masculine development of the HVc. Thus, we suggest that epigenetic factors such as the gonadal steroids modify but cannot overwrite the sex difference in HVc volume determined autonomously in the brain.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans mel-11 myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit affects tissue contraction in the somatic gonad and the embryonic epidermis and genetically interacts with the Rac signaling pathway. (8/1073)

Caenorhabditis elegans embryonic elongation is driven by cell shape changes that cause a contraction of the epidermal cell layer enclosing the embryo. We have previously shown that this process requires a Rho-associated kinase (LET-502) and is opposed by the activity of a myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit (MEL-11). We now extend our characterization and show that mel-11 activity is required both in the epidermis during embryonic elongation and in the spermatheca of the adult somatic gonad. let-502 and mel-11 reporter gene constructs show reciprocal expression patterns in the embryonic epidermis and the spermatheca, and mutations of the two genes have opposite effects in these two tissues. These results are consistent with let-502 and mel-11 mediating tissue contraction and relaxation, respectively. We also find that mel-11 embryonic inviability is genetically enhanced by mutations in a Rac signaling pathway, suggesting that Rac potentiates or acts in parallel with the activity of the myosin phosphatase complex. Since Rho has been implicated in promoting cellular contraction, our results support a mechanism by which epithelial morphogenesis is regulated by the counteracting activities of Rho and Rac.  (+info)

The formation of complex organs from individual tissues is an essential developmental process that requires coordination of many different types of cellular events. Extensive cell-cell contact and communication ensures that these events are well orchestrated. The Drosophila gonad is an ideal model for studying organogenesis. Formation of this organ requires that germ cells and somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs), which are initially specified far apart from each other, undergo a complex morphogenetic program to form a properly patterned embryonic gonad. This organ then further differentiates into either an ovary or testis.. Germ cells are initially formed at the posterior pole of Drosophila embryos during the syncytial blastoderm stage. They are carried inside the embryo during gastrulation, where they migrate through the midgut epithelium into the mesoderm to contact SGPs (reviewed by Starz-Gaiano and Lehmann, 2001). SGPs are specified in bilateral clusters within three parasegments of the embryo ...
Proper gonad development is essential for successful reproduction. Gonad development has been studied but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. I used C. elegans as a model to study how the gonad is formed, by disrupting genes that may be involved. One of those genes is cdk-1, a cyclin-dependent kinase that is essential for cell division, because cdk-1 is required for the initiation of gonad development. How does cdk-1 control the initiation of gonad development? What other proteins does CDK-1 interact with? Cyclin-dependent kinases require cyclins to function and CDK-1 is known to interact with several cyclins. I sought to determine which of these cyclins CDK-1 interacts with to control initiation of gonad development by knocking down each cyclin by RNAi and looking for cdk-1 absence of gonads phenotype. I will also look at cdk-1 inhibitors and targets and shed some light on the control of reproductive development.
In most organisms, primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise far from the region where somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) are specified. Although PGCs in general originate as a single cluster of cells, the somatic parts of the gonad form on each site of the embryo. Thus, to reach the gonad, PGCs not only migrate from their site of origin but also split into two groups. Taking advantage of high-resolution real-time imaging, this study shows that in Drosophila PGCs are polarized and migrate directionally toward the SGPs, avoiding the midline. Unexpectedly, neither PGC attractants synthesized in the SGPs nor known midline repellents for axon guidance are required to sort PGCs bilaterally. Repellent activity provided by wunen (wun) and wunen-2 (wun-2) expressed in the central nervous system, however, is essential in this migration process and controls PGC survival. These results suggest that expression of wun/wun-2 repellents along the migratory paths provides faithful control over the sorting of PGCs into ...
For studying the influence of feed and temperature on gonad growth and maturity of the baby clam Marcia opima, experiments were conducted for 45 days at temperatures of 23°C and 28°C. The progress of gonadal recovery was followed by periodic determination of gonadosomatic index, condition index, digestive gland index and oocyte diameter. There was significant difference in the gonadosomatic index between fed and unfed clams at 23°C and 28°C. No significant difference in the gonadosomatic index was noted in the fed treatments at 23°C and 28°C, but the time of conditioning had significant influence on the gonadosomatic index. A significant relationship was found between the gonadosomatic index and condition index of the clams in all the treatments. ...
gonad Definition, gonad Best Plays of gonad in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in gonad, Word growth of gonad, Sequences of gonad
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Ran out 2uL of Claires C.gigas female gonad gDNA (from 20140328) and Macs C.gigas gonad gDNA (from 20140402) for quality assessment. Both samples had been isolated using Qiagens Blood & Tissue DNeasy Kit. 2uL of each sample was run on a 0.8% 1x TBE gel.. Results:. ...
Gonad: Gonad, in zoology, primary reproductive gland that produces reproductive cells (gametes). In males the gonads are called testes; the gonads in females are called ovaries. (see ovary; testis). The gonads in some lower invertebrate groups (e.g., hydrozoans) are temporary organs; in higher forms they
Gonad Shield Price - Buy gonad shield online at best price MedDeal.in from Delhi, India based store. Where to purchase x-ray lead gonad shield online.
Handprinted in the UK, 100%Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Gonads tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for years to come. an Ideal gift for anyone interested in gonads Sizes are Small 35 - 37, Medium 38 - 40, Large 40 - 41, XL 44 - 46, XXL 47 - 49, XXXL 50 -52
If the only considerations in the distal gonad were positioning nuclei near the edge and bringing plasma membrane extensions between nuclei, other arrangements of microtubules might work equally well. For example, microtubules could be nucleated at or near the nucleus and be pulled on by interactions with the cell cortex. This general arrangement is used frequently (Siegrist and Doe, 2007). However, the distal gonad is not simply a storage shed for future oocyte nuclei; it is hypothesized to function as a nurse compartment that provides material to the oocyte (Wolke et al., 2007). Oocytes, which are transcriptionally quiescent, are packed with material for early embryogenesis via actin-based cytoplasmic streaming from the rachis (Wolke et al., 2007). The transcriptionally active germline nuclei distal to the developing oocytes are thought to synthesize the rachis cytoplasm (Starck, 1977; Gibert et al., 1984; Wolke et al., 2007). The high free ribosome density observed in electron micrographs is ...
Testis differentiation in zebrafish involves juvenile ovary to testis transformation initiated by an apoptotic wave. The molecular regulation of this transformation process is not fully understood. NF-κB is activated at an early stage of development and has been shown to interact with steroidogenic factor-1 (Sf-1) in mammals, leading to the suppression of anti-Mullerian hormone (Amh) gene expression. Since Sf-1 and Amh are important for proper testis development, NF-κB-mediated induction of anti-apoptotic genes could therefore also play a role in zebrafish gonad differentiation. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential role of NF-κB in zebrafish gonad differentiation. Exposure of juvenile zebrafish to heat-killed E. coli activated the NF-κB pathways and resulted in an increased ratio of females. Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis of gonads showed elevated expression of NF-κB-regulated genes. To confirm the involvement of NF-κB-induced anti-apoptotic effects, zebrafish were ...
A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland[1] is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism. In the female of the species the reproductive cells are the egg cells, and in the male the reproductive cells are the sperm.[2] The male gonad, the testicle, produces sperm in the form of spermatozoa. The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. Both of these gametes are haploid cells. ...
Gonad Definition - Gonad is a general term used to reference a mans testes or a womans ovaries. Gonads are the source for all sexual production...
An understanding of cell-invasive behavior has been limited by the lack of in vivo models where this activity can be clearly visualized and manipulated. We show that a single cell in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, the anchor cell (AC), initiates u
Free Online Library: Expression of Egr3 in mouse gonads and its localization and function in oocytes. by Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences; Agricultural industry Biological sciences Antibodies Chromosomes DNA binding proteins Genetic transcription Gonads Genetic aspects Physiological aspects House mouse Mice Oocytes RNA Transcription (Genetics) Transcription factors Research Viral antibodies
Mohon tinggalkan pesan -dalam format apapun dengan media apapun- apabila telepon Bapak/Ibu tidak bisa kami angkat dan pasti akan kami jawab pesan Bapak/Ibu tersebut sesegera mungkin. ...
The gonads develop from the urogenital ridges (Figure 43-1), which are formed during the 4th week of gestation by the proliferation of the coelomic epithelium and condensation of the underlying mesenchyme along the mesonephros. The germ cells, located in the endoderm of the yolk sac, migrate to the genital ridges. At the early stage of development, the gonad is bipotential, capable of forming into either a testis or an ovary. During the 6th-7th week of gestation, at least four different genes, Wilms tumor suppressor gene (WT-1), Fushi-Tarza Factor-1 (FTZ-F1), steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1), and LIM-1, induce the development of the testis. The primordial germ cells differentiate into the Sertoli cells and associated Leydig cells, which aggregate into spermatogenic cords. Loose mesenchymal tissue condenses into a thick layer, the tunica albuginea, which surrounds the testis and separates its connection with the coelomic epithelium, thereby preventing further migration of mesonephric cells into the ...
Dmrt1 belongs to the DM domain gene family of conserved sexual regulators. In the mouse Dmrt1 is expressed in the genital ridge (the gonadal primordium) in both sexes and then becomes testis-specific shortly after sex determination. The essential role of DMRT1 in testicular differentiation is well e …
Polar conditions (low and stable seawater temperature coupled with highly seasonal primary productivity) constrain reproduction in benthic invertebrates. The reproductive cycle of the common Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri was investigated at monthly intervals over a 2 yr period in relation to seasonality of chlorophyll standing stock and ability to feed. Competence to spawn increased gradually throughout the austral winter to peaks in September to November. Gonad mass varied strongly, both seasonally and among 3 geographically close sites. Spawning occurred between October and January at each site, and was strongest in November of both years. Spawning was not always accompanied by a reduction in gonad mass because of simultaneous feeding and deposition of nutritive tissue for the forthcoming winter. Spawning was annual but there was also strong evidence for longer, multi-year periodicity in reproductive output. Histological analysis indicated an 18 to 24 mo vitellogenic cycle, with ...
Macs been having some difficulty getting good quality gDNA from some of her gonad samples, so she asked me to give it a shot.. Isolated DNA from 10mg (0.010g) of C.gigas gonad tissue using the Qiagen Blood & Tissue DNeasy Kit, with the following changes:. ...
Weeeeeeee (Gonads and Strife). Ok I dont care if this is albinoblacksheep the reason I posted is cause I found it on youtube and remembered when I first saw it Weeeeeeee (Gonads and Strife) Ok I dont care if this is albinoblacksheep the reason posted cause found it on youtube remembered when first saw
Biology Assignment Help, Gonads and ovary - reproduction, Normal 0 false false false EN-IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4
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The reproductive organs, or gonads, are found behind the intestines and close to the backbone in a quail. The testes in a rooster look like a pair of beans, while the single functioning ovary in a hen--which is typically on the left side of the body cavity--resembles a cluster of grapes. In both cases, gonad size is greatly reduced in the fall and winter, but they become enlarged and fully functional during the breeding season.. Below: Dissection images showing examples of partially enlarged testes in a rooster (first) and the ovary and oviduct, containing eggs in various stages of production, in the hen (second). Testes and ovary are indicated by yellow arrows.. ...
In our Gonads live show, Radiolab Presents: Sex Ed, we featured the work of artist Sindha Agha. Hypersaturated and surreal, heres a sampling.
May I suggest one more surgery that was alluded to in reference to the younger Bush - that of gonad replacement! In addition to the spinal replacement therapy, and what looks like necessary frontal…
Blue Octopus Cushion Cover / Gonad Print, Is One Of A Selection Of Four Designs. Mix & Match All Of Them To Your Desires, Or Use As A Standalone Statement.
Most studies of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function and depression in illicit drug users focus only on men or do not consider the impact of HIV infection along with drug use. This study investigated relationships ...
Melting dsDNA Donor Molecules Vastly Improves Precision Genome Enhancing in Caenorhabditiselegans CRISPR genome modifying has revolutionized genetics in quite a few organisms. Contained in the nematode Caenorhabditiselegans one injection into every of the 2 gonad arms of an grownup hermaphrodite exposes tons of of meiotic germ cells to modifying mixtures, allowing the restoration of a […]. ...
Melting dsDNA Donor Molecules Vastly Improves Precision Genome Enhancing in Caenorhabditiselegans CRISPR genome modifying has revolutionized genetics in quite a few organisms. Contained in the nematode Caenorhabditiselegans one injection into every of the 2 gonad arms of an grownup hermaphrodite exposes tons of of meiotic germ cells to modifying mixtures, allowing the restoration of loads […]. ...
I dont know if we can make any more progress, you know? At the end of the day, I dont believe that the package that we have can do anymore. I think thats just what it is.. Thats honestly my feeling, were doing the best we can. I think you can see from the results this weekend, Pols not a bad rider, and he did the best he could. I did a little better, and next weekend, it could be vice versa. But we always seem to be there or thereabouts on the same piece of tarmac.. I honestly believe its just the package we have isnt up to scratch. It cant do more than its doing. So were doing the best we can with it. I dont feel theres progress, because we have the same stuff weve had since the beginning of the season. What progress are we going to make when youve got the same thing?. Bradley Smith ...
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looks like MMRDA has limited options to raise more money as bidders for their land auctions are either extending or not showing up in the first place ...
A squirrel with a high-pitched voice singing about going Weeee. When youre a kid and you wanna go Weeee, but you aint got drugs yet.
And my in-house editor is ready to go! Also, its cold as balls right at the moment: -2, without windchill. Yes, I know other places in the US are colder at the moment. You know what? -2 is cold enough. This isnt the Freeze Your Gonads Off Olympics. And if it is, Im happy to…
Thanks to Catalyst for a nice little trade, this thing has more balls than Buster Gonad. Spent yesterday tidying it up, a severe fret polishing and filling lot
The effect of diethylstilboestrol on gonad development in quail embryos has been quantitatively analysed. Quail embryos at 4 days of incubation were treated with diethylstilboestrol (DES), using the egg dipping method. At 10 days of incubation, embryos were removed and killed by decapitation. Tissues were prepared for chromosome analysis, and the parts of the abdomen containing the gonads were prepared for serial sectioning and quantitative assessment. Left gonads of DES-treated male embryos resembled ovaries histologically, while their right gonads were markedly reduced in size. Right gonads of DES-treated female embryos were also further reduced by treatment with DES. There was no statistically significant effect by DES treatment on the size of left gonads, although the ratio of left compared with right gonadal volumes was highly significant. Since, in birds, the left embryonic gonad has ambisexual potential, while the potential of the right gonad is exclusively masculine, these results ...
Genetic and embryological experiments have established the Caenorhabditis elegans adult hermaphrodite gonad as a paradigm for studying the control of germline development and the role of soma-germline interactions. We describe ultrastructural features relating to essential germline events and the so …
Gonad development of the silver therapon Leiopotherapon plumbeus in two volcanic crater lake habitats (Sampaloc Lake, Taal Lake) in south Luzon, Philippines was examined during the annual reproductive cycle. The minimum body size‐at‐maturity of fish in these two lake habitats was also compared. Four gonad development stages were characterized as basis for the classification of ovarian (immature, maturing, mature, spawned) and testicular maturation (immature, maturing, mature) phases. The occurrence of all development stages in individual gonads suggest an asynchronous development whereby advanced stages are recruited continuously from a pool of younger stage germ cells to result in elevated female and male GSI throughout the annual cycle due to active gonadogenesis. Together with the increasing occurrence of advanced stage oocytes and spermatozoa from March until October, the elevated GSI of fish may indicate peak gonadal growth during the onset of the dry season (December-January) for ...
To establish stromal cell lines of human aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region and study the growth characteristics and hematopoiesis related molecules expression in these cells. Stromal cells of AGM region in human embryos of day 30-35 were isolated and cultured in vitro. Besides their growth characteristics were studied, hematopoiesis related molecules including surface and extracellular matrix proteins were analyzed respectively by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence methods. Stromal cells of human AGM region held the morphology of fibroblastoid cells. During logarithmic growth period, the cell population doubling time is about 16 h. By flow cytometry, surface markers CD31, CD34, CD45 were negatively expressed, while CD29, CD44, CD105, CD166 were positively detected on human AGM stromal cells. Through immunofluorescence assay, hematopoiesis related extracellular proteins such as tenascin, fibronectin, laminin and α-SMA were all positively expressed by stromal cells of AGM region. [Conclusion]
Embryonic Development of the Gonad:. Primitive gonad (genital ridge) develops near a mesonephric duct and a paramesonephric duct, as paired thickenings of the coelomic epithelial layer that lines the body cavity, specifically in the region that overlays the surface of the mesonephros. Bipotential gonad, that able to adopt either male or female fate, is the first sign of development of the reproductive organs, which appears in mouse at around E10.5. The gonadal ridge continues to grow and form primary sex cords (ovigerous/testis cords) within it. Development of a testis (male) or an ovary (female) is triggered by the expression and proper function of Sry, the testis-determining gene. The primary sex cords in the male will eventually mature to become the sperm-nurturing seminiferous tubules. In the female, the primary sex cords will contribute to nurturing tissue of developing ova.. The gonad consists of germ cells and somatic cells. The primordial germ cells (PGCs) do not arise within the genital ...
While the master regulator gene |em|Sry|/em| on the mammalian Y chromosome controls the switch for initiating male sex differentiation, many other species rely on environmental factors for gonadal sex differentiation. Yet other species, like zebrafish, appears to rely on a multitude of genetic cues for gonadal sex differentiation. Zebrafish gonadal differentiation initiates with the onset of a juvenile ovary stage and depending on the influence of unknown genetic factors either maintains oocyte development or initiate apoptotic processes to override the female differentiation pathway. In this review, we explore the role of different factors and genes that have been reported to influence zebrafish gonadal sex differentiation. We also give a brief insight of primordial germ cell (PGC) involvement in shaping male and female signaling pathway in gonadal development.
The directional migration and the following development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) during gonad formation are key steps for germline development. It has been proposed that the interaction between germ cells and genital ridge (GR) somatic cells plays essential roles in this process. However, the in vivo functional requirements of GR somatic cells in germ cell development are largely unknown. Wt1 mutation (Wt1R394W/R394W) results in GR agenesis through mitotic arrest of coelomic epitheliums. In this study, we employed the GR-deficient mouse model, Wt1R394W/R394W, to investigate the roles of GR somatic cells in PGC migration and proliferation. We found that the number of PGCs was dramatically reduced in GR-deficient embryos at embryonic day (E) 11.5 and E12.5 due to decreased proliferation of PGCs, involving low levels of BMP signaling. In contrast, the germ cells in Wt1R394W/R394W embryos were still mitotically active at E13.5, while all the germ cells in control embryos underwent mitotic arrest at
3. For reasons unbeknownst, I have been repeating the word gonads to myself. Drop hairband in the toilet? Gonads! Wake up with a headache? Gonads! Get stuck between a parked car and a recycling truck on Lincoln street at 7:30 am on Saturday before youve had your first cup of coffee and have to have the garbage men talk you out of the jam, only to sardine-can your rear left quarter panel requiring $1000+ worth of body work and a new tire?? GONADS!! This prompted a brief google search; and wouldnt you know it - there is a newly discovered jellyfish called the medeopolis, latin for city of gonads. Great name for a band ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunohistochemical Localization of Laminin and Cytokeratin in Embryonic Alligator Gonads. AU - Smith, Craig A.. AU - Joss, Jean M.P.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - Gonadal sex differentiation is temperature‐dependent in Alligator mississippiensis; testis differentiation occurs in embryos incubated at 33°C and ovary differentiation occurs in embryos incubated at 30°C. Laminin and cytokeratin were examined immunohistochemically in the gonads of alligator embryos incubated at these temperatures. The aim of this study was to determine whether these structural proteins show the same sex‐specific expression patterns reported for mammalian embryos, and to assess their usefulness as early markers of gonadal differentiation in species with temperature‐dependent sex determination. Laminin delineated enlarged seminiferous cords in differentiating testes from developmental stage 23 to hatching. Laminin distribution was more diffuse and revealed smaller cords of cells in ...
Introduction In clinical practice AP pelvis standard protocols are suitable for average size patients. However, as the average body size has increased over the past decades, radiographers have had to improve their practice in order to ensure that adequate image quality with minimal radiation dose to the patient is achieved. Gonad shielding has been found to be an effective way to reduce the radiation dose to the ovaries. However, the effect of increased body size, or fat thickness, in combination with gonad shielding is unclear. The goal of the study was to investigate the impact of gonad shielding in a phantom of adult female stature with increasing fat thicknesses on SNR (as a measure for image quality) and dose for AP pelvis examination. Methods An adult Alderson female pelvis phantom was imaged with a variety of fat thickness categories as a representation of increasing BMI. 72 images were acquired using both AEC and manual exposure with and without gonad shielding. The radiation dose to the ...
Male chick embryos of a sex-linked cross were injected with 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate on the fourth day of incubation. Their left gonads, together with ovaries from uninjected control females, were dissected at various intervals after hatching and processed for electron microscopic study. At the time of hatching no differences were found between the intersexual gonads of treated chicks and control ovaries with the exception of the presence, in the former, of great number of germ cells in interphase. Cortical degeneration in intersexual gonads began on the third day and was almost completed by the tenth. During this period germ cells underwent cytolysis while accompanying pre-follicular cells showed cytological characteristics which were undistinguishable from those found in control ovaries. This fact tends to suggest that the primary incompetency responsible for cortical degeneration lies in the germ cells and not in the pre-follicular cells.
TINGKAT KEMATANGAN GONAD DAN INDEKS KEMATANGAN GONAD KERANG POKEA (Batissa violacea var. celebensis, von Martens 1897) DI SUNGAI LAEYA KONAWE SELATAN
A formidable barrier to imaging studies of in vivo C. elegans sperm behavior has been the lack of bright, sperm-specific fluorescent markers. Use of dim sperm markers negatively influences the ability to perform confocal imaging in various ways, including but not limited to loss of signal deep into the gonad, which can be ~40 mm thick (Hubbard and Greenstein 2000); loss of spatial and temporal resolution, due to techniques commonly used to address imaging dim signals, such as signal accumulation; and increased phototoxicity and bleaching, due to increased excitation intensity. For in vivo imaging of the C. elegans hermaphrodite gonad, temporal resolution is limited by the rapidity of sheath contraction (McCarter et al. 1999) and the small physical size of sperm cells, parameters that already push the limits of many imaging systems. Researchers may find themselves trapped in the so-called pyramid of frustration, which refers to the difficult position of balancing the conflicting demands of high ...
Sherwood began his developmental biology career as a graduate student with David McClay at Duke University, studying Notch signaling in sea urchin embryos (1-3). After switching to nematodes, he discovered that a specialized gonadal cell, called the anchor cell, crosses the basement membranes separating the uterus and vulva at a specific stage of larval development (4). The anchor cell sends out active processes that attach to the vulval cells while remaining connected to its neighboring gonadal cells, providing a genetically and visually tractable model for examining cell invasion in vivo. Its a model that Sherwood has used to uncover the importance of the transcription factor FOS-1 for basement membrane removal (5) and, having returned to Duke to start his own laboratory in 2005, the role of netrin signaling in orienting the anchor cell to invade in the right direction (6).. ...
Molecular control of gonadal differentiation within the chicken embryo Into the mammalian embryo, two crucial ovarian pathways have already been defined. Initial involves the ?-catenin signalling pathway that is canonical. In this path, ovarian signalling particles R-Spondin 1 (Rspo1) and Wnt-4 activate the ?-catenin pathway within the developing feminine gonad (Fig. 2 ). Rspo1 is…
Nagsisimulang umunlad ang mga gonad bilang isang pangkaraniwang anlage, sa anyo ng mga talungtong na panggonad, at sa paglaon lamang na maipagkakaiba sa panlalaki o kaya pambabaeng mga organong pangkasarian. Ang pagkakaroon ng heneng SRY, na nasa kromosomang Y at pagsasakodigo ng paktorang nagtatakda ng itlog ng bayag, ang nagtatakda ng pagkakaibang pangkasarian na panglalaki. Sa kawalan ng heneng SRY mula sa kromosomang Y, umuunlad naman ang kasariang pambabae (bahay-itlog o obaryo sa halip na itlog ng bayag o testis).. Ang pagkakaroon at pag-unlad ng mga gonad ay isang bahagi ng pag-unlad ng mga organong pang-ihi at pangreproduksiyon.. ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Lesions_of_the_gonads.html?id=po5rAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareLesions of the gonads ...
Knowledge of the time and manner of origin of genetically induced defects may well be sought by classical methods of experimental embryology, involving transplantations between genotypes, providing the effects on a tissue of residence in a host of different genotype is not obscured by generalized reactions to transplantation. Such experimental transplantation is reported here, applied to analysis of the pleiotropic effects of the deleterious alleles at the W-locus in the mouse (Russell, review, 1955).. Through extensive investigation it has become apparent that the three major types of defect associated with these alleles are already established at birth. In contrast to their normal (ww) littermates, new-borns of the genotypes with which this paper will largely be concerned (WVWV and WW) are severely anaemic (Russell & Fondal, 1951), their gonads are almost totally devoid of germ-cells (Coulombre & Russell, 1954), and their hair follicles lack melanoblasts (Silvers, 1953).. ...
Neoplasms, Gonadal Tissue. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
has become a model animal in teleost species research due both to its short reproductive cycle and efficient proliferate capacity. Unfortunately, however, systematic data of its sexual differentiation and development have yet to be obtained. In the present study, we observed Medaka gonad development from the earliest recognizable stages through differentiation to maturation under a light microscope, after paraffin sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that among juveniles aged 5 to 10 days, the gonad located on the right side of the dorsal abdominal cavity and the germ cells was significantly larger than the surrounding somatic cells. Ten days after hatching, sexual differences between females and males became obvious, and germline cysts derived from oogonium division were present in the gonad. At 50 days after hatching, ovarian cavities and mature sperm were observed. Moreover, during the study we also observed the coexistence of two sexual characteristics during a ...
Genes involved in sex determination and differentiation have been identified in mice, humans, chickens, reptiles, amphibians and teleost fishes. However, little is known of their functional conservation, and it is unclear whether there is a common set of genes shared by all vertebrates. Coelacanths, basal Sarcopterygians and unique living fossils, could help establish an inventory of the ancestral genes involved in these important developmental processes and provide insights into their components. In this study 33 genes from the genome of Latimeria chalumnae and from the liver and testis transcriptomes of Latimeria menadoensis, implicated in sex determination and differentiation, were identified and characterized and their expression levels measured. Interesting findings were obtained for GSDF, previously identified only in teleosts and now characterized for the first time in the sarcopterygian lineage; FGF9, which is not found in teleosts; and DMRT1, whose expression in adult gonads has ...
The gonads, testes and ovaries, play a huge role in how the endocrine system works. And we seem to be doing everything we can to put them on the disabled list. We ...
J:143615 Orelio C, Haak E, Peeters M, Dzierzak E, Interleukin-1-mediated hematopoietic cell regulation in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region of the mouse embryo. Blood. 2008 Dec 15;112(13):4895-904 ...
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS ...
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS ...
The human reproductive organs need special protection from radiation. The Gonad shields is a radiation protection apparel ideal to protect the male reproductive organ and is available in one-size-fits-all and child sizes.
Find out all of the information about the Promega product: X-ray protective gonad shield . Contact a supplier or the parent company directly to get a quote or to find out a price or your closest point of sale.
Each lobe shows outer large testicular part and inner small ovarian part. The testicular part is brick red in colour and produces sperms. The ovarian part is pink in colour and produce ova. From each testicular part sperm ductule will arise. They open into spermduct. From each ovarian part ovarian ductule will come. They open into the oviduct. Each gonad has an oviduct and spermduct. They run parallelly and open separately into cloaca behind anus.. next topic is Retrogressive Metmorphosis in herdmania. ...
But even so, the are males with XXY, XXXY or even XX genotype and females with XXY genotype (that usually have specific behavioural activity like elevated criminal behaviour). What happens in that case? There is a specific gene, the SRY, located on the short arm of the Y chromosome, encoding the SRY protein (or else TDF = Testes Determining Factor). TDFs job is to induce differentiation of cells (specific cells of the undifferentiated cell mass) into testes. Other genes (that encode for specific proteins/factors/hormones) are also responsible for the formation of male gonads (testes). Though, there are no genes or hormones that induce formation of female gonads (ovaries ...
We built up an organization and went to China. There we secured material for twenty-five thousand ampules of male gonadal solution, highly concentrated and of uniform strength. We purchased our so-called College in France and there, after all forms of imaginary deaths, our five thousand heroines came. First, they were thoroughly treated with radium and the X-ray to produce bodies that were neutral, as far as sexual characteristics were concerned, and, after that, each one was given five doses of the substance that I was able to isolate and which, for convenience, I called MALE-FINE XXX. In a remarkably short time, these heroines experienced the desired physical changes, their voices deepened, became wonderfully masculine; they developed such growth of hair on the face that they had to begin shaving once a day. There was also a rather typical change in certain deposits of subcutaneous fat. But why go into all these details? It is sufficient to say that five thousand well educated, rather ...
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ). Probably breed throughout the year in deep water (Ref. 35388). ...
The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998 ...
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ). ...
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ). ...
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ). ...
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ). ...
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ). ...
In recent years, decreases in fish populations have been attributed, in part, to the effect of environmental chemicals on ovarian development. To understand the underlying molecular events we developed a dynamic model of ovary development linking gene transcription to key physiological end points, such as gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma levels of estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG), in largemo ...
The ventral uterus of hermaphrodites is derived from four cells of the somatic gonad primordium, two α cells and their sisters, the β cells. The two α cells undergo the AC/VU decision, a simple paradigm for lateral specification. The β cells are the sisters of the α cells; they lose the potential to be the AC early and generally adopt a VU fate even in a lin-12 null mutant. During the AC/VU decision, the two α cells communicate so that only one AC is made. Both cells initially express lin-12 and lag-2, the gene encoding its ligand for this decision. As the decision progresses, the transcription of both genes becomes mutually exclusive through feedback mechanisms. The α cell that has the edge in LIN-12 activation continues to express lin-12 and becomes the VU; the other α cell becomes the AC and continues to express lag-2. We are interested in understanding what distinguishes α from β cells, the regulatory circuitry underlying feedback in the AC/VU decision, and how β cells ...
The Saga of Germ line Saga of Germ line Two step process; Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are determined in a specific location in the embryo PGCs migrate to the gonad and become
I think this is my first view of the Irish Parliament in session. I have seen the Brits lots of times, but this was outstanding....almost like Galloway addressing Congress. It really demonstrates how badly broken is the US system of government. The Toasheach is the Prime Minister of Ireland and he must answer questions just like in Britain. It may be my bias as an Irish American, but the Irish seem to have better command of the English language than the English themselves. The Irish are also amazingly good at debate which is why this clip is so impressive. I hope that Ms Daly grabs the attention of the world like she did here in this clip. Well done ...
Im getting tired of seeing the gender card being played as a veiled excuse for ideological dominance. Conservative critic David Brooks predictably pines for the good ol days when boys were boys and men were men, and schools catered exclusively to the values and needs of these scions of masculinity. | By Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez
Further, to big to fail should not be allowed in the first place. The big banks, who are members of the oligopoly that controls the banking industry, must be broken up using existing anti-trust laws. We no longer have a free market in the banking industry serving the consumer. We have an industry serving the oligopoly that controls it ...
prad wrote: , part of the feeling im getting is that a function should only do one , thing and i likely try to squeeze too much into it. I dont think thats universally true, but you may need to stay simple while learning. , , im used to using a lot of print statements to figure out errors, but , may be the idea here is not to make errors because youre functions are , written correctly and are precise. Look at the Debug.Trace module. You can emit debugging messages in a non-safe but usually helpful manner. Be aware that the messages may come in an unexpected order due to laziness. Mike ...
A state senator has fired off a letter to the CEO of Tyson Foods asking the company to give a little something back after its decision to leave Norfolk on...
The contents, including all opinions and views expressed, of this blog are entirely personal and do not necessarily represent the opinions or views of anyone else, including other employees in CCS or at the University of California. CCS and the University of California have not approved and are not responsible for the material contained in this blog ...
Drosophila melanogaster strain Oregon-R carcass adult 4 days post synchronization at eclosion stage depleted in arthropod fat body, testis, female gonad, head ...
Tylenchidae. Body long (L= 1.11-1.53 mm), very slender (a = 67-122). Cuticle smooth over most of body, phasmids not seen. Body narrows slightly anteriorly then more abruptly near anterior extremity. Cephalic region flattened dorso-ventrally, with rounded margins, almost truncate anteriorly. Stylet long (38-51um), cone very slender, knobs well-developed. Metacorpus distinctly rounded and set-off, with well-developed valve. Esophageal glands slightly overlapping intestine. Female gonad anteriorly directed ; no post-vulval uterine branch observed. Female tail long, slender, narrowing gradually from vulva to acute terminus. Male body narrows abruptly at cloaca, tail almost tubular, very long and slender. Caudal alae prominent, leptoderan, with two sclerotized ribs supporting each ala. Spicules tylenchoid. Gubernaculum 8-14 um long, slender, simple. Testis single, outstretched. ...
Gonads[edit]. Main article: Development of the gonads. The gonads are the precursors of the testes in males and ovaries in ...
Gonads appear; the male genital duct of one terminates near the female genital duct of the other, permitting cross- ...
"THE GONADS". The-gonads.co.uk. "Nemesis To Go - Live: Vice Squad". Nemesis.to. "Fotozine chapter 1". Issuu. "Lily Marlene". ...
Causation is known to operate from chromosome to gonads, and from gonads to hormones. It is also significant from brain ... including chromosomes and gonads. Thus, for example, in many jurisdictions a person with XY chromosomes but female gonads could ... gonads: testicles; ovaries; ovarian and testicular tissues, not in same gonad (true hermaphroditism), ovotestes, or other ...
"The Gonads" (blog). 13 Jan. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 2010 Stewart Home interview. Ralf Real Shock (October 2010). "Interview ...
"THE GONADS". The-gonads.co.uk. https://www.resonancefm.com/schedule/2019-10-05 https://www.wagnerartproduction.com/spizz-energi ...
Gonads form from endoderm. And, each organ typically forms from one cell apparently. So each organ will be expected to be ... This means that typically, the brain will form from one embryo, and the gonads from a different one.[clarification needed] ... and gonads and body form will be the opposite sex. Hanley said that when he could not raise money for Butterfly, he decided to ...
The gonads are unpaired. Unusually, the male gonopore opens on the dorsal surface of the animal, above the pharynx, while the ...
Clara Padilla (April 11, 2010). "Voting with our Gonads". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 13, ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Clara Padilla (April 11, 2010). "Voting with our Gonads". Philippine Daily Inquirer. ...
Each individual has paired gonads. Despite having been asexual for millions of years, they have diversified into more than 450 ...
It also contains the gonads. A post-anal tail is present in juvenile member of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae. The prosome ... doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.1988.tb00907.x. Lester, SM (1986). "Ultrastructure of adult gonads and development and structure of the ... The metasome, or trunk, contains a looped digestive tract, gonads, and extends into a contractile stalk that connects ...
Gonads in the abdominal region. The sperm have ellipsodal heads 5μm in diameter, tail about 55μm long. The eggs are 110μm in ...
... medeopolis have many gonads located on their dorsal endoderm. These gonads have been described as arranged like "skyscrapers in ... Its binomial name is derived from "CSIRO jellyfish" and "city of gonads". Unlike most other jellyfish, males and females of C. ... "Experts astounded by 'city of gonads' jellyfish". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 5 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010. CS1 ... maint: discouraged parameter (link) Barry, Carolyn (6 May 2010). "City of Gonads Jellyfish Discovered". National Geographic ...
Bushell also sings in the Cockney Oi! bands GBX and the Gonads. He managed the New York City Oi! band Maninblack until the ... Pink Tent evolved into 1977 punk band the Gonads, who have also described themselves Oi!, punk pathetique and "Oi-Tone" because ... American Gonads (2018) Bushell's columns are known for their similes and metaphors, such as describing something as being "as ... The Gonads: Live - The Official Bootleg (1984) Live & Loud (1988) Back and Barking (1999) Schitz-Oi!-Phrenia (2001) Old Boots, ...
Sea otters have been observed to rip off an arm of this sea star to eat the gonads inside. Gulls will attempt to consume a pink ... Each arm contains two gonads. These stars lift their central discs off the bottom to spawn, releasing their microscopic gametes ...
Testicles are oval-shaped gonads. A boy generally possesses two testicles. Internal male reproductive organs include the vas ...
They also contain the gonads. Other secondary polyps are siphonozooids, which can force water into and out of the colony to ...
The hermaphroditic gonad acts as an ovotestis with sperm cells being stored in the same area of the gonad as the oocytes until ... The basic anatomy of C. elegans includes a mouth, pharynx, intestine, gonad, and collagenous cuticle. Like all nematodes, they ... Males have a single-lobed gonad, a vas deferens, and a tail specialized for mating, which incorporates spicules. Hermaphrodites ... Kimble J, Hirsh D (June 1979). "The postembryonic cell lineages of the hermaphrodite and male gonads in Caenorhabditis elegans ...
Gonad". Granta #86. Burwell 2007, p. 368. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBurwell2007 (help) "Cinematographer Paul Sarossy Returns ...
"Gonad Dissections , Schedl Lab". Archived from the original on 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2014-05-15. Schedl Lab Protocol for gonad ...
A novelty single was released in 1987 for Viz, featuring its Buster Gonad character, by the band XTC, with John Otway, as " ... or with a gonad-focused violent encounter with Mr. T and a 1970s playground toy, 'BA Baracus in Macca's clackers knackers ... Buster Gonad; Sid the Sexist; Sweary Mary or Finbarr Saunders and his Double Entendres. Others are based on stereotypes of ... the Fat Slags and Buster Gonad as nose art. The comic was reprimanded by the United Nations after featuring a strip called "The ...
The gonads take longer to regenerate. In the Bermudan population studied, no juvenile specimens of Holothuria parvula were ...
Byskov AG, Hoyer PE (1988). "Embryology of mammalian gonads and ducts.". In Knobil E, Neill J (eds.). The physiology of ...
... evolving anew gonads inside the abdomen. They are a ragtag bunch including hedgehogs, moles, rhinos and tapirs, hippopotamuses ...
Gonads are formed on the oral proboscis. Polyps carry filamentous tentacles. This jellyfish feed on various planktonic ...
Their gonads are on the manubrium ("handle"). Except in Eudendriidae and Laingiidae, prey can be captured by discharging ...
It is dioecious and has several gonads. Each of its gonads produce several oocytes while the male worms carry testes along its ... Gonads, Gametes, Embryonic Development and Larval Development". Marine and Freshwater Research. 30 (5): 661. doi:10.1071/ ...
"Lanciao & Balbacua / Stewed Bull's Gonads, Phallus & Epidermis…". Market Manila. Retrieved 15 May 2019. "Balbacua". Ang Sarap. ...
Gonadectomy is the removal of the gonads. Hemicolectomy is the removal of half the colon or the large intestine. ...
Other signs include change in voice, making it weak, hoarse, or high-pitched; atrophy of gonads, leading to reduced fertility; ...
Main article: Development of the gonads. Gonads start developing as a common primordium (an organ in the earliest stage of ... For the cartoon character, see Buster Gonad. For gonads of non-human organisms, see Sex organ. ... The male gonad, the testicle, produces sperm in the form of spermatozoa. The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. Both ... A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland[1] is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an ...
Gonad na pangtao, Gonada, Gonad na pantao, Glandula ng kasarian, Pantaong gonad, Sexual gland, Gonad, Gonad sa tao, Human gonad ... Gonad ng tao (tl); ต่อมบ่งเพศ (th); gonad (sco); Gonad (id); gonada (pl); gonade (nb); gonade (nl); Keemdrüüs (nds); Lytinė ... human gonad, reproductive gland, sex gland (en); Kønskirtel, Gonader, Kønskirtler, Gonad (da); 生殖巣, 性せん, 性腺, 性巣 (ja); گناد (fa) ... Gonad, ต่อมเพศ (th); Gònades (ca); gonader, könskörtlar, gonad (sv); gruczoł rozrodczy, gruczoł
Gonad na pangtao, Gonada, Gonad na pantao, Glandula ng kasarian, Pantaong gonad, Sexual gland, Gonad, Gonad sa tao, Human gonad ... Gonad ng tao (tl); Keemdrüüs (nds); gonad (sco); Gonad (id); gonada (pl); gonade (nb); gonade (nl); gónada (pt); 生殖腺 (ja); ... Gonad (da); Jinsiy Bezlar (uz); human gonad, reproductive gland, sex gland (en); 生殖巣, 性せん, 性腺, 性巣 (ja); γονάδες, αναπαραγωγικός ... gonada (lfn); Gonad (cy); Gónada (gl); غدة تناسلية (ar); γονάδα (el); Gonad (tr) glándula endocrina que produce los gametos de ...
Gonads in the lighting, gonads in the lightning -- gonads in the rain! ... go-nads. The Rhode Island School of Design's school mascot is the Nads. They even have a big penis costume as the mascot. ... gonads. The testicles or ovaries -- in either case, the pair of organs which: a. Produce hormones which, prior to birth, cause ... i just barely grazed one gonad accross the chair and man did it hurt ...
Go, Nads!. August 4, 2003 1:05 PM Subscribe. Interesting list of college athletic teams nicknames. [More inside.]. posted by ... Same thought, GO!Nads.... posted by thomcatspike at 1:21 PM on August 4, 2003 ...
A squirrel with a high-pitched voice singing about going Weeee. When youre a kid and you wanna go Weeee, but you aint got drugs yet.
Im getting tired of seeing the gender card being played as a veiled excuse for ideological dominance. Conservative critic David Brooks predictably pines for the good ol days when boys were boys and men were men, and schools catered exclusively to the values and needs of these scions of masculinity. | By Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez
In males the gonads are called testes; the gonads in females are called ovaries. (see ovary; testis). The gonads in some lower ... Gonad, in zoology, primary reproductive gland that produces reproductive cells (gametes). ... Gonad, in zoology, primary reproductive gland that produces reproductive cells (gametes). In males the gonads are called testes ... animal reproductive system: Role of gonads in hormone cycles. …the ultimate regulator of the gonads. Because of the effects of ...
The gonadal ridge, in turn, develops into a gonad. This is a testis in the male and an ovary in the female. At first, the ... The gonads initially develop from the mesothelial layer of the peritoneum. The ovary is differentiated into a central part, the ... The first appearance of the gonad is essentially the same in the two sexes, and consists in a thickening of the mesothelial ... The development of the gonads is part of the prenatal development of the reproductive system and ultimately forms the testes in ...
The male gonad, the testicle, produces sperm in the form of spermatozoa. The female gonad, the ovary, produces egg cells. Both ... Some hermaphroditic animals have a type of gonad called an ovotestis. The gonads are controlled by luteinizing hormone and ... A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an ... Gonads start developing as a common primordium (an organ in the earliest stage of development), in the form of gonadal ridges, ...
The gonads, testes and ovaries, play a huge role in how the endocrine system works. And we seem to be doing everything we can ... The gonads, testes and ovaries, play a huge role in how the endocrine system works. And we seem to be doing everything we can ...
Pitx2 regulates gonad morphogenesis. Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Concepción Rodríguez Esteban, Mercè Martí, Belén Santiago-Josefat ... Pitx2 regulates gonad morphogenesis. Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Concepción Rodríguez Esteban, Mercè Martí, Belén Santiago-Josefat ... Pitx2 regulates gonad morphogenesis. Joaquín Rodríguez-León, Concepción Rodríguez Esteban, Mercè Martí, Belén Santiago-Josefat ... This in turn not only allows for proper somatic development of the gonad cortex but also permits the proliferation and ...
Gonads (#). [Gr. that which generates.] Anatomy,Anat. One of the masses of generative tissue primitively alike ... ... Gon"ad (?), n.; pl. Gonads (#). [Gr. that which generates.] Anat. One of the masses of generative tissue primitively alike in ... Gonads and Strife. Profanity is the last refuge of the uncreative. monad. ...
I was cringing with sympathetic pain as soon as the game started, which is fine because thats the joke and its hilarious; however, the gameplay didnt hold up well enough for the game to stay enjoyable. The concept is pretty fun in theory: you have to bounce constantly and you can ground-pound to attack enemies or bounce higher than normal. Unfortunately, the first boss battle of the game doesnt feel fair at all because there is almost no margin for error which is a problem because the first boss is literally the entire game (after a few introductory rooms). In the first part of the boss in particular, I felt like I could have timed my jumps better if it didnt depend on how close I was to my next bounce compared to where the boss was, and sometimes it just didnt line up to where I could really and a hit on him. The rest of the game continues to be painfully hard (pun intended) to the point that you have to basically memorize all the sequences. This kind of ruins the experience since the ...
Gonads and Strife) Ok I dont care if this is albinoblacksheep the reason posted cause found it on youtube remembered when first ... Gonads and Strife). Ok I dont care if this is albinoblacksheep the reason I posted is cause I found it on youtube and ...
A documentary filmmaker tells the story of John Brinkley, a fake doctor who was shut down due to his ineffective method of curing impotence.
... his lack of embarrassment and his greed are all so great that it is now possible to imagine him ending up munching gonads on ...
Programming book reviews, programming tutorials,programming news, C#, Ruby, Python,C, C++, PHP, Visual Basic, Computer book reviews, computer history, programming history, joomla, theory, spreadsheets and more.
Make research projects and school reports about gonad easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... go·nad / ˈgōnad/ • n. Physiol. & Zool. an organ that produces gametes; a testis or ovary. DERIVATIVES: go·nad·al / gōˈnadl/ adj ... gonad Primary reproductive organ of male and female animals, in which develop the gametes or sex cells. Thus, the gonad in the ... gonad Any of the usually paired organs in animals that produce reproductive cells (gametes). The most important gonads are the ...
Shielding the male gonads using a type of lead capsule previously only used in X-ray imaging also reduces indirect radiation to ... gonad shield is an inexpensive and easy-to-use method to protect the male gonads during MDCT," said Dr. Hohl. "In the beginning ... Shielding the male gonads using a type of lead capsule previously only used in X-ray imaging also reduces indirect radiation to ... The researchers found that the radiation dose to the testicles of the 34 who used the gonad capsule during MDCT was reduced by ...
The Endocrine System: Gonads The gonads, the primary reproductive organs, are the testes in the male and the ovaries in the ...
In this paper, we describe the immunofluorescence-binding pattern of the antibody to the gonads. A bright sheath of ... Differentiation within the gonads of Drosophila revealed by immunofluorescence J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1981 Jun;63:233-42. ... In this paper, we describe the immunofluorescence-binding pattern of the antibody to the gonads. A bright sheath of ...
Buster Gonads inspires unfeasibly large Itanic CPU. Youll need a wheelbarrow for this 9MB cache. ... For American readers, Buster Gonads was a character blessed with "unfeasibly large testicles", which he was obliged to carry ...
... somatic gonad). The bile acid-like dafachronic acid (DA) steroids have been identified as life-extending signals from the ... the increase in life span induced by removal of the germ line requires the presence of the somatic components of the gonad ( ... A steroid receptor-microRNA switch regulates life span in response to signals from the gonad. Science 338, 1472-1476 (2012). [ ... somatic gonad, but the germline factors that antagonize these signals have not been identified. C. elegans hermaphrodites ...
This in turn not only allows for proper somatic development of the gonad cortex but also permits the proliferation and ... We have found that pitx2 regulates cell adhesion, affinity, and cell recognition events in the developing gonad primordium ... During female chick embryogenesis, and in contrast to males where both testes develop symmetrically, asymmetrical gonad ... We illustrate how Pitx2 activity directs asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis by controlling mitotic spindle orientation of the ...
Gonad-chomping bacteria to be unleashed on dengue virus. A team of Indian researchers is importing larvae from Australia ... Although Wolbachia can grow in a variety of tissues, it has a particular attachment to gonads and reproduces itself through ... Wolbachia effectively sterilizes mosquitoes gonads, or reproductive organs. When male mosquitoes infected with Wolbachia mate ...
(1990) Anderson et al. Fertility and Sterility. Norethindrone (NET) has been used for cycle programming and may result in attenuated responses to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. The effects of NET on gonadotropin secretion, its bioavailabil...
Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which ... Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which ... Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. ... Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. ...
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Lesions_of_the_gonads.html?id=po5rAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-share ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Lesions_of_the_gonads.html?id=po5rAAAAMAAJ ...
Once youve established which gonads youre going to have, the gonad is going to be the source of hormone, which is going to ... Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad Axis. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ... Keep in mind that what we are going to be focusing on is the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad Axis. So, a lot of this is going to ... In this slide, we have a view through the testes, which is going to be the male gonad thats going to form sperm. And here, you ...
  • The female gonad, the ovary , produces egg cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During female chick embryogenesis, and in contrast to males where both testes develop symmetrically, asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis results in only one functional ovary. (pnas.org)
  • The most important gonads are the male testis , which produces spermatozoa, and the female ovary, which produces ova (egg cells). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, the gonad in the male is a testis and in the female an ovary. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ovary-sparing hysterectomy (OSH) is a gonad-sparing sterilization technique first described in the literature over 40 years ago ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gonad development and germ cell related genes were identified from SBT gonads and their expression patterns in ovary and testis cells were determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • But as the possibility could not be excluded that some part of the gonad had not really been totally eradicated by the operation, this alternative to the regeneration of an ovary was still left open. (gluedideas.com)
  • The gonad is an ideal place to study this process, because it originates as a bipotential primordium where multiple distinct lineages acquire sex-specific fates as the organ differentiates as a testis or an ovary. (prolekare.cz)
  • Despite their distinct origins, cells of each lineage in the early gonad are bipotential progenitors capable of adopting either a male or female fate, which they do in a coordinated manner to form a functional testis or ovary [7] - [9] . (prolekare.cz)
  • This in turn not only allows for proper somatic development of the gonad cortex but also permits the proliferation and differentiation of primordial germ cells. (pnas.org)
  • This book presents the current state of knowledge on the origin and differentiation of cell lines involved in the development of the vertebrate male and female gonads with particular emphasis on the mouse. (ebooks.com)
  • These results demonstrate an in vitro method to knockdown endogenous genes in gonads from a sea turtle, which represents a novel approach to investigate the roles of important genes involved in sex determination or differentiation pathways in species with temperature-dependent sex determination. (mdpi.com)
  • no signs of differentiation can be observed in the control females (c) and Sry knock-down (pSilencer4.1/Sry565 treated) male gonad (b). (hindawi.com)
  • At 13.5 dpc, clearly visible testis cords appeared in control male gonads (d), whereas in Sry knocked-down male gonad no sign of differentiation was found (e), just like the control females (f). (hindawi.com)
  • To obtain basic information on the endocrine mechanisms underlying sex change in the protandrous anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii , we examined the immunolocalization of the steroidogenic enzyme cytochrome 11β-hydroxylase (P45011β), which is involved in 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) production, and analyzed the ability of gonads to produce steroid hormones throughout the sex differentiation process and at the breeding stage. (bioone.org)
  • The number of immunopositive cells continued to increase during ovarian differentiation (from 60 to 180 dph) and throughout the formation of ambisexual gonads with both ovarian and testicular tissue until 270 dph. (bioone.org)
  • In-vitro 11-KT production in the gonads gradually increased with testicular differentiation (before, during, and after differentiation). (bioone.org)
  • Production of 11-KT in the gonads was higher in the male phase than during testicular differentiation or in the female phase. (bioone.org)
  • The Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonad differs greatly between the two sexes in its pattern of cell divisions, migration, and differentiation. (g3journal.org)
  • About 10% of male-biased transcripts had orthologs with male-biased expression in the early mouse gonad, suggesting possible conservation of gonad sex differentiation. (g3journal.org)
  • Our data illustrate the power of cell-specific transcriptome analysis and suggest that early sex differentiation in the gonad is controlled by a relatively small suite of differentially expressed genes, even after dimorphism has become apparent. (g3journal.org)
  • In vitro corticosterone production by embryonic adrenals also occurred, with greater production occurring when tissues were incubated at 24 degrees C. Testosterone was produced in vitro by both adrenals and kidney-gonads in March (late autumn when embryonic development was complete, but prior to parturition the following spring), with greater production at 16 degrees C. This peak in testosterone production coincided with differentiation and continuing growth of the hemipenes. (edu.au)
  • To gain a more detailed understanding of the process of gonadal differentiation at the level of the individual cell populations, we conducted microarrays on sorted cells from XX and XY mouse gonads at three time points spanning the period when the gonadal cells transition from sexually undifferentiated progenitors to their respective sex-specific fates. (prolekare.cz)
  • 3 in fetal gonads render embryos insensitive to deleterious effects of BPA in reproductive functions and 2) study whether over expression of ER increases the susceptibility of embryos to in utero exposure of BPA. (epa.gov)
  • Gonads were dissected as soon as the embryos entered the TSP and were maintained in organ culture. (mdpi.com)
  • At 15.5 dpc, testis cords can be observed clearly in control males (g), While unorganized and no visible testis cords were found in Sry knocked-down male embryos' gonads (h), developing like the control female gonad (h). (hindawi.com)
  • Many of these genes are involved in the development of gonadal mesoderm, the tissue that associates with germ cells to form the embryonic gonad. (biologists.org)
  • A sex-specific number of germ cells in embryonic gonads of Drosophila. (uzh.ch)
  • In vitro steroid production by adrenals and kidney-gonads from embryonic southern snow skinks (Niveoscincus microlepidotus): Implications for the control of the timing of parturition? (edu.au)
  • In this study, we determined how in vitro steroid hormone production by embryonic adrenals (progesterone, corticosterone, and testosterone) and mesonephric kidney-gonads (oestradiol and testosterone) varied during the later stages of gestation. (edu.au)
  • We hypothesised that embryonic adrenals and kidney-gonads were capable of producing steroid hormones in vitro, and that the pattern of production would change as parturition approached, would be influenced by temperature, and would increase in the presence of corticotropin (ACTH) or pregnenolone, respectively. (edu.au)
  • Embryonic adrenals and kidney-gonads were incubated with or without ACTH or the steroid precursor pregnenolone, respectively. (edu.au)
  • Low levels of oestradiol were produced in vitro by embryonic kidney-gonads in March. (edu.au)
  • In mice, the gonads arise around embryonic day 10 (E10.0). (prolekare.cz)
  • Gonads start developing as a common primordium (an organ in the earliest stage of development), in the form of gonadal ridges , [6] and only later are differentiated to male or female sex organs . (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the gonads is a part of the development of the urinary and reproductive organs . (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of the gonads is part of the prenatal development of the reproductive system and ultimately forms the testes in males and the ovaries in females. (wikipedia.org)
  • We illustrate how Pitx2 activity directs asymmetrical gonad morphogenesis by controlling mitotic spindle orientation of the developing gonad cortex and how, by modulating cyclinD1 expression during asymmetric ovarian development, Pitx2 appears to control gonad organ size. (pnas.org)
  • showed that biological processes disrupted after contamination are at two levels: 1/ generic (oxidative stress) and 2/ more specific to gonad (oocyte development and maturation). (irsn.fr)
  • Genetic and embryological experiments have established the Caenorhabditis elegans adult hermaphrodite gonad as a paradigm for studying the control of germline development and the role of soma-germline interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Male-specific expression of Aldh1a1 in mouse and chicken fetal testes: implications for retinoid balance in gonad development. (nih.gov)
  • The basis for a correct identification is studying the different factors that influence the gonad development. (hindawi.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the gonads of fetal and neonatal mice homozygous for a null mutation in the Gja1 gene encoding Cx43 to determine whether the absence of this connexin has any consequences for gonadal development. (ovid.com)
  • Ebert TA, Hernández JC, Russell MP (2012) Ocean conditions and bottom-up modifications of gonad development in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus over space and time. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Viktorovskaya, G. 2007-07-12 00:00:00 The oocytes at different stages of development were characterized morphometrically, and seasonal changes in female gonads of the Far-eastern edible holothurian Cucumaria japonica (Semper, 1868) from the Peter the Great Bay were described. (deepdyve.com)
  • Groups of oocytes and categories of sexual tubules corresponding to different stages of development of gonads were distinguished. (deepdyve.com)
  • All the stages of development were observable simultaneously in the gonads of each individual of this species during the reproductive cycle, and the stage of fast growth prevailed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gonad morphology and oocyte development in Pseudocalanus spp. (awi.de)
  • Key genes involved in the reproductive molecular pathway and specifically, germ cell development in gonads, were identified using analysis of RNA-Seq transcriptomes of male and female SBT gonad cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The species is believed to be an income breeder which attains maturity upon reaching a sufficient condition level, then channelling energy directly from food to gonad development. (csic.es)
  • Moreover, we underline the impact of maternal chemical exposure on connexin expression during fetal gonad development and we link this effect to future offspring fertility. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Despite decades of study, the genetic pathways directing early gonadal development and establishing sexual dimorphism in the gonad remain largely unknown. (g3journal.org)
  • We identified several hundred gonad-enriched transcripts, including the majority of known regulators of early gonadal development, and transgenic reporter analysis confirmed the effectiveness of this approach. (g3journal.org)
  • P\0.001), only in bestfed individuals, indicating that food availability influences individual ability for gonad development. (csic.es)
  • During gonadal development, the gonad may be transiently intersexual where there is a parallel presence of both oocytes and spermatocytes. (zfin.org)
  • The feeding intensity was quite low during the autumn and early winter period of gonad development but increased gradually during the spawning and postspawning season (February-April). (nafo.int)
  • The bipotential gonad is a unique system for studying cell fate decisions during mammalian organ development. (prolekare.cz)
  • [2] The male gonad, the testicle , produces sperm in the form of spermatozoa . (wikipedia.org)
  • In some invertebrates, such as oligochaete worms and leeches, both male and female gonads exist in a single organism. (britannica.com)
  • Some, such as both male and female adult cyclostomes, have only one gonad. (britannica.com)
  • Most female birds, a few female teleost and elasmobranch fishes, some male lizards and female crocodiles, and the female platypus and a few female bats also have only one gonad. (britannica.com)
  • gonad Primary reproductive organ of male and female animals, in which develop the gametes or sex cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Shielding the male gonads using a type of lead capsule previously only used in X-ray imaging also reduces indirect radiation to the testes during MDCT of the abdomen and pelvis, according to a new study by researchers from the University of Technology of Aachen in Germany. (news-medical.net)
  • The aim of this study was to prove that the 'old-fashioned' gonad shield is an inexpensive and easy-to-use method to protect the male gonads during MDCT," said Dr. Hohl. (news-medical.net)
  • The gonads, the primary reproductive organs, are the testes in the male and the ovaries in the female. (rochester.edu)
  • In this slide, we have a view through the testes, which is going to be the male gonad that's going to form sperm. (coursera.org)
  • Wolbachia comes in several flavors--almost all of which manifest themselves in the gonads as well as other organs--but the particular one researchers have identified here has a unique property: when an infected male mates with an uninfected female, the female dies. (popsci.com)
  • It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This expression pattern is conserved in the developing male gonad of the chicken and is dependent on the testis-specific transcription factor SOX9. (nih.gov)
  • The cyp17a1 , ar , dmrt1 , and sox9 genes have a significant higher expression in male gonads than in female gonads, while the data shows no significant differences in the expression of the investigated genes in the other organs. (hindawi.com)
  • Fish species have complex patterns of sex determination which range from hermaphroditism, with individuals presenting both female and male gonads, and gonochorism, where each individual presents only female or male gonads, to TSD. (hindawi.com)
  • Whereas the parental male puts all his energy into a big, strong body, the sneaker male puts all the energy into giant gonads. (nature.org)
  • In several reptiles, Sox9 is differentially expressed in gonads, showing a significant upregulation during the thermo-sensitive period (TSP) at the male-promoting temperature, consistent with the idea that SOX9 plays a central role in the male pathway. (mdpi.com)
  • Feminization of male gonads following knock-down of Sry. (hindawi.com)
  • Male first instar larvae possess more germ cells in their gonads than female larvae of the same stage. (uzh.ch)
  • It was suggested that further studies be carried out to investigate if there is similar existence of GFSKLYFamide neuropeptide in male gonad of H. scabra and also to know the structure or activity of the peptide(s) producing GFSKLYFamide-like immunoreactivity in H. scabra gonads. (academicjournals.org)
  • 1. Why are the male gonads not found in the abdominal cavity? (transtutors.com)
  • Kropotov, A. 2004-10-12 00:00:00 In experiments on male rats it was established that native and lyophilized gonads of sea urchins have a stimulating effect on sexual behavior. (deepdyve.com)
  • This study utilized RNA-Seq to identify key genes expressed in the gonads of Southern bluefin tuna ( Thunnus maccoyii , SBT) and their specific expression patterns in male and female gonad cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In male Illex argentinus, as in the female, the energy and nutrient resources for maturation are derived from the squid's food and during the course of maturation there is an increasing shift of emphasis from somatic growth to production of gonad and accessory reproductive organs. (bas.ac.uk)
  • When this latter is removed from an in fected male spider-crab, Inachus, a new gonad regenerates, but of a hermaphrodite or female type, producing eggs. (gluedideas.com)
  • Although sexual reproduction has probably not occurred in this all-male population for a long time, the ability to yearly produce mature gonads is retained by some individuals, indicating that potential to reproduce sexually may be preserved, even in the case of strictly asexual populations. (csic.es)
  • In echinoderms ( e.g ., starfish), the gonads are usually suspended from the radiating arms directly into the sea. (britannica.com)
  • When the arms of starfish are cut off, the new bud will enclose new gonads too, which do not seem to originate from the old ones situated in the remaining intact arms. (gluedideas.com)
  • In starfish, oocyte maturation and spawning are first triggered by a peptide hormone (gonad-stimulating substance, GSS) present in nervous tissue. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The result suggests that neural networks distributed in gonads maybe involved in the regulation of gametogenesis and gamete shedding in starfish. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The basic organs of sexual reproduction are the gonads, which are ovaries in females and testes in males. (britannica.com)
  • We analysed the gene expression of the selected genes for gonads, anal fin, liver, body kidney, and white muscle. (hindawi.com)
  • The researchers found that the radiation dose to the testicles of the 34 who used the gonad capsule during MDCT was reduced by 87% compared to the other group. (news-medical.net)
  • For American readers, Buster Gonads was a character blessed with "unfeasibly large testicles", which he was obliged to carry around in a wheelbarrow. (theregister.com)
  • Germ cells are not required to establish the female pathway in mouse fetal gonads. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Ultrastructural features of the adult hermaphrodite gonad of Caenorhabditis elegans: relations between the germ line and soma. (nih.gov)
  • We use the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite gonad as a model to probe the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain tissue architecture. (rupress.org)
  • The process by which the bipotential gonad adopts the ovarian or testicular fate is known as primary sex determination, and involves a binary fate decision within cells of each gonadal lineage. (prolekare.cz)
  • The results showed that the concentrations of astaxanthin in the gonads of the sea urchins fed these experimental diets ranged from 0.15 to 3.01 mg/kg dry gonad weight. (mdpi.com)
  • The higher astaxanthin levels (>2.90 mg/kg) were found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diets HP1 (containing 380 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly mono- and diesters) and AST1 (containing 385 mg/kg of synthetic astaxanthin). (mdpi.com)
  • The lowest astaxanthin level (0.15 mg/kg) was detected in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ2 (containing 98 mg/kg of astaxanthins, mostly diesters). (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, the highest canthaxanthin level (7.48 mg/kg) was found in the gonads of the sea urchins fed the diet CZ1 (containing 387 mg/kg of astaxanthins and 142 mg/kg of canthaxanthin), suggesting that astaxanthins, especially astaxanthin esters, might not be assimilated as easily as canthaxanthin by the sea urchins. (mdpi.com)
  • Gonads of Sea Urchins as the Source of Medication Stimulating Sexual Behavior Yur'eva, M. (deepdyve.com)
  • An effective amount and optimal duration of a dose of the gonads of sea urchins were determined. (deepdyve.com)
  • Data showed that the highest dietary protein content significantly improved somatic growth, whereas higher lipid content increased gonadal index (GI) consistent with the use of gonads as nutrient storage in sea urchins. (stir.ac.uk)
  • In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , the increase in life span induced by removal of the germ line requires the presence of the somatic components of the gonad (somatic gonad). (sciencemag.org)
  • The gonads, testes and ovaries, play a huge role in how the endocrine system works. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The first appearance of the gonad is essentially the same in the two sexes, and consists in a thickening of the mesothelial layer of the peritoneum. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that in both sexes at the time of birth, the gonads of homozygous mutants were unusually small. (ovid.com)
  • Some annulate worms will, after amputation of the an terior body-region carrying ovaries and testes, grow a few seg ments which bear these gonads of both sexes. (gluedideas.com)
  • Curiously enough, in these regenerated anterior segments gonads and accessory sexual organs are regenerated in excess of the normal number, those of both sexes frequently appearing in the same segment, al though they normally should be located in different segments. (gluedideas.com)
  • The usually paired gonads of vertebrates produce both gametes and hormones necessary for reproduction . (britannica.com)
  • This article focuses on "neuropeptides" in the gonads of vertebrates, with special emphasis on what we can learn from pharmacological experiments on gonadal tissue and then apply to our understanding of an animal's ecology in the wild. (frontiersin.org)
  • Only a short while ago the vertebrates were thought totally incapable of replacing lost gonads. (gluedideas.com)
  • Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meager. (frontiersin.org)
  • Investigating the presence of neuropeptides in the gonads of a diverse array of species will provide us with information as to the possible evolutionary origins, adaptations, interactions and functions of what we are choosing to term "gonadal neuropeptide" systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study was aimed at determining the expression of GFSKLYFamide-like neuropeptide in the female gonad of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra . (academicjournals.org)
  • This is the first report providing evidence of GFSKLYFamide neuropeptide existence in the female gonad of H. scabra . (academicjournals.org)
  • 2002). Gonad maturation can also be apprehended through gamete shape, size, and stage of gametogenesis, using gonad biopsy (Braley 1984) and histology (Juhel et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland [1] is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonad , in zoology, primary reproductive gland that produces reproductive cells (gametes). (britannica.com)
  • gonad Any of the usually paired organs in animals that produce reproductive cells (gametes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carboni S, Hughes AD, Atack T, Tocher DR & Migaud H (2015) Influence of broodstock diet on somatic growth, fecundity, gonad carotenoids and larval survival of sea urchin, Aquaculture Research, 46 (4), pp. 969-976. (stir.ac.uk)
  • We have found that pitx2 regulates cell adhesion, affinity, and cell recognition events in the developing gonad primordium epithelia. (pnas.org)
  • Y. Shen, J. Wollam, D. Magner, O. Karalay, A. Antebi, A steroid receptor-microRNA switch regulates life span in response to signals from the gonad. (sciencemag.org)
  • We find, however, that males have significantly more germ cells than females as soon as the germ cells are near the places where the gonads are formed and in all later stages. (uzh.ch)
  • In one species, larvae moult into an individual with no gonads. (deepseanews.com)
  • This video from Jim Priess, Howard Hughes Investigator at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research, shows the photoactivation of GFP (green fluorescent protein) in multiple regions of interests in P-granules in a C-elegans gonad. (azooptics.com)
  • The gonads also produce hormones that control secondary sexual characteristics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The gonads are dormant until they are activated by hormones at sexual maturity. (britannica.com)
  • According to Backyard Poultry magazine, female chickens are born with two ovaries, or gonads, but only the left one is active and produces estrogen and eggs, the other remains dormant. (mpnnow.com)
  • Morphometric characteristic of sex cells and seasonal changes of female gonads of Cucumaria. (deepdyve.com)
  • ABSTRACT The gonads develop as the metameric mesodermal structures at the ventral surface of the mesonephroi. (ehu.es)
  • This Friday comes the news that a new jellyfish has been named "City of gonads" . (deepseanews.com)
  • Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, we elaborate further on the expression of Egr3 in gonads and its role in oocyte maturation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Identifying robust proxies of gonad maturation for the protandrous Hermaphrodite Tridacna maxima (Roding, 1798, bivalvia) from individual to population scale. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here, the relevance of the widely used gonadosomatic index (GSI) as proxy of giant clam gonad maturation is tested with a large dataset (n = 265). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Gonad maturation can be used as a proxy of reproductive activity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In practice, gonad maturation can be assessed using a variety of tools. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The simplest proxy of gonad maturation is the gonadosomatic index (GSI), usually defined as the ratio between gonad weight and flesh biomass (Shelley & Southgate 1988, Pouvreau et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For gonad quality, the same bio-indicators were used to identify differences with maturation. (csic.es)
  • In this study, we investigate ZYG-12 function and microtubule organization before embryo formation in the gonad. (rupress.org)
  • In vitro experiments have suggested that BPA, similar to other estrogenic compounds, could bind to classical nuclear estrogen receptors (ERa or p), which are present in fetal mouse gonads. (epa.gov)
  • In the present work, we developed an RNAi-based method for silencing Sox9 in an in vitro gonad culture system for the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea . (mdpi.com)
  • The gonad consists of an orderly arrangement of nuclei within a large syncytium that is surrounded by somatic gonad sheath cells ( Fig. 1 A ). The global architecture of the gonad as well as the cell cycle state of the nuclei changes as nuclei progress from the distal gonad tips to the proximal region. (rupress.org)
  • Depending on what species it is, the pearlfish initiates one of two relationships once inside: a commensal one , in which it simply takes up space without either helping or adversely affecting the sea cucumber, or a rather more parasitic one, in which it chows down on its host's gonads. (wired.com)
  • Childhood gonadoblastoma and seminoma in a dysgenetic cryptorchid gonad. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is suggested that sexual behavior is connected with the influence of the components of gonads on the adrenoreceptors of the reproductive system of animals. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pathology - This is a problem with the stimulation of the gonads. (brainscape.com)