Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of diseases arising from pregnancy that are commonly associated with hyperplasia of trophoblasts (TROPHOBLAST) and markedly elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. They include HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, invasive mole (HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, INVASIVE), placental-site trophoblastic tumor (TROPHOBLASTIC TUMOR, PLACENTAL SITE), and CHORIOCARCINOMA. These neoplasms have varying propensities for invasion and spread.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
A gonadal stromal neoplasm composed only of THECA CELLS, occurring mostly in the postmenopausal OVARY. It is filled with lipid-containing spindle cells and produces ESTROGENS that can lead to ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA; UTERINE HEMORRHAGE; or other malignancies in postmenopausal women and sexual precocity in girls. When tumors containing theca cells also contain FIBROBLASTS, they are identified as thecoma-fibroma tumors with less active hormone production.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.
A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.
A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Absence of menstruation.
The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Pathological processes of the OVARY.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Precocious estrus and reproductive ability induced by PG 600 in prepuberal gilts. (1/514)

A total of 29 SPF Large White prepuberal gilts (mean age 152 days at treatment) were examined for estrous and ovulatory responses after PG 600 treatment. After treatment, 85.2% of the gilts showed standing estrus within 6 days. Whereas the treatment-to-estrus interval and duration were 3.7 and 1.9 days respectively. As ovulation occurred on Day 5 to 6, appropriate timing of artificial insemination would be about 4 days after treatment. Fertility of gilts revealed to be excellent, giving rise to a high percentage of normal embryos, 85.3%. Meanwhile, development and growth of fetuses were mostly normal. Other reproductive performances recorded were: mean litter size 6.8; mean birth weight 1.26 kg; weaning-to-return estrus interval 5 to 8 days. In conclusion, PG 600 was found to be useful in inducing fertile estrus in prepuberal gilts, a result which will be of interest for commercial pig farms.  (+info)

Synchronization of estrus in beef cattle with norgestomet and estradiol valerate. (2/514)

Fifty-six cows received a norgestomet implant and an injection of norgestomet and estradiol valerate; half (n = 28) received 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) at implant removal, 9 d later. A third group (n = 25) received 2 doses of cloprostenol (500 micrograms) 11 d apart. Estrous rate was higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol plus 500 IU eCG (75.0%) than for those receiving cloprostenol (44.0%); for those receiving norgestomet and estradiol alone, it was intermediate (67.8%). Pregnancy rates to artificial insemination (after estrus or timed) were higher (P < 0.05) for cows given norgestomet and estradiol than for those given cloprostenol (23 of 28, 82.1% vs 13 of 25, 52.0%), and intermediate (67.8%) for those given norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG. In a second experiment, for heifers treated with norgestomet and estradiol plus eCG (n = 15) or with 2 doses of cloprostenol (n = 16), estrous rates were 66.7% vs 56.2% (P > 0.5), ovulation rates were 100.0% vs 81.2% (P = 0.08), intervals from implant removal or cloprostenol treatment to estrus were 48.0 +/- 4.4 hours vs 61.3 +/- 7.0 hours (P = 0.12) and to ovulation were 70.4 +/- 4.4 hours vs 93.2 +/- 7.5 hours (P < 0.01), respectively; pregnancy rates were 41.7 and 35.7%, respectively (P > 0.5). Norgestomet and estradiol were as good as (heifers) or superior to (cows) a 2-dose cloprostenol regimen. In cows given norgestomet and estradiol, injecting eCG at implant removal did not significantly improve estrous or pregnancy rates.  (+info)

A stimulatory effect of the fluid from preimplantation rabbit blastocysts upon luteinization of monkey granulosa cell cultures. (3/514)

Blastocyst fluid was aspirated from Day 6 1/2--7 rabbit blastocysts and was added to cultures of granulosa cells obtained from preovulatory follicles of untreated rhesus monkeys or from follicles of monkeys or from follicles of monkeys treated with PMSG. The stimulation of progesterone secretion was measured and equated with that produced by hCG. The hCG-like activity was also measured in a radioreceptor assay using 125I-labelled hCG and porcine granulosa cells. In 8 out of 10 experiments with cultured cells from untreated monkeys, addition of 20% blastocyst fluid from Days 6--9 of culture stimulated progesterone secretion by 2- to 6-fold. Similar findings were obtained in 5 experiments with cultures from PMSG-treated monkeys except that the blastocyst fluid was added from Days 0 to 6 of culture. The granulosa cells in such cultures underwent morphological luteinization. Compared to a standard of purified hCG the blastocyst fluid contained about 0.76--2.5 ng hCG-like activity/ml which was non-dialysable. The radioreceptor assay indicated the presence of 0.5--2.5 ng hCG-like material/ml.  (+info)

Analyses of oviductal pars recta-induced fertilizability of coelomic eggs in Xenopus laevis. (4/514)

The acquisition of fertilizability in coelomic eggs of Xenopus laevis has been shown to be correlated with the physical, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations of the egg envelope [coelomic envelope (CE)] induced during the passage of eggs through the pars recta portion of the oviduct. However, no direct evidence that the pars recta renders eggs fertilizable has yet been presented. In this study, we show that coelomic eggs are highly fertilizable when they are incubated with continuous shaking for 4 h at 15 degrees C in pars recta extract (PRE) derived from females prestimulated by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin. The PRE from pituitary-stimulated Bufo japonicus was as potent as homologous PRE in rendering Xenopus eggs fertilizable. Incubation of coelomic eggs in PRE for 30 min induced a dramatic increase in the rates of sperm binding to the envelope to a level equivalent to that exhibited by the envelope from uterine eggs (VEs). The CE-to-VE ultrastructural conversion and a 43k-to-41k hydrolysis of the envelope glycoprotein component started 5 min after, and were completed by 15 min after, the start of incubation in PRE and were accompanied by an exposure of a new N-terminal sequence typical to gp41. Thus, the biochemical and ultrastructural conversions and the sperm-binding activity of the envelope induced by PREs, although being prerequisite, were not sufficient to render coelomic eggs fully accessible to fertilizing sperm.  (+info)

Evidence for an inverse relationship between apoptosis and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat granulosa cells: a possible role of nitric oxide in ovarian follicle atresia. (5/514)

Ovarian follicle atresia is thought to be induced through apoptosis of granulosa cells. This study was designed to investigate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in granulosa cell apoptosis. In immature rat ovaries obtained 48 h after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin administration, immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), a method to detect apoptotic cells, revealed that inducible NO synthase (iNOS) was predominantly localized in granulosa cells in most healthy immature follicles with TUNEL-negative granulosa cells. In contrast, all atretic follicles with TUNEL-positive granulosa cells were iNOS-negative whatever the developmental stage of the follicle. In cultured granulosa cells, the addition of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), an NO generator, directly inhibited spontaneously occurring apoptosis. These results suggest that NO produced by iNOS in granulosa cells of immature follicles may prevent ovarian follicle atresia by inhibiting granulosa cell apoptosis in an autocrine/paracrine manner.  (+info)

The influence of superovulation preparations on the levels of catecholamines in eminentia mediana, the pituitary and pineal gland of the sheep. (6/514)

The influence of hormonal superovulation preparations of FSH (450 IU) or PMSG (1500 IU), on the levels of catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine) was studied in the oestrus period using radioenzymatic methods. The administration of FSH caused a significant increase in the concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (EPI) in eminentia mediana (EM) of sheep (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively). The pituitary gland exhibited an increase in the level of norepinephrine after administration PMSG while no marked changes were recorded for epinephrine and dopamine (DA). The administration of FSH affected the increase in pituitary epinephrine (p<0.01). The hormonal stimulation by FSH resulted in a marked decrease of dopamine (p<0.05) as well as in a significant increase of norepinephrine (p<0.05) and epinephrine (p<0.05) in the epiphysis. The comparison of the effect of hormonal preparations on the changes in catecholamine levels showed that the effect of FSH was observed mostly in eminentia mediana and the pituitary gland while that of PMSG was recorded in the epiphysis.  (+info)

Adaptation of pancreatic islet B-cells during the last third of pregnancy: regulation of B-cell function and proliferation by lactogenic hormones in rats. (7/514)

In rodents, placental lactogen (PL)-I is considered to be the first trigger to enhance pancreatic islet B-cell function, and after its secretion is diminished at mid-pregnancy, PL-II takes over this role. However, little information is available on the regulation of islet B-cell function and proliferation by lactogenic hormones during the last third of pregnancy. This was the focus of the present study using rats in which pregnancy was forcibly prolonged. This rat possesses unique characteristics in that PL-I is re-secreted during the prolonged period of pregnancy and the peak concentrations in maternal circulation are comparable with those observed during mid-pregnancy in normal-pregnancy rats. Pregnancy was prolonged by successive administration of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (30IU/rat, s.c. on day 12) and human chorionic gonadotropin (10IU/rat, i.v. on day 14). When the insulin secretory responses to 10mmol/l glucose in islets obtained from normal-pregnancy and prolonged-pregnancy rats were tested, each insulin secretory response correlated well with the values of plasma lactogenic activity throughout the period of pregnancy and lactation. Examination of B-cell proliferation in normal-pregnancy rats showed that 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into dividing B-cells reached a maximum on day 15 and then decreased markedly towards term. No increase in B-cell proliferation was observed on day 19 when plasma lactogenic activity reached the maximum. In prolonged-pregnancy rats, BrdU incorporation also continued to decrease as observed in normal-pregnancy rats after day 15, and then no enhancement in B-cell proliferation was observed even when the plasma lactogenic activity, including re-secreted PL-I, reached maximum. These results suggest that, in the last third of pregnancy, B-cell proliferation is no longer stimulated by lactogenic hormones in contrast to the insulin secretory response which is sustained.  (+info)

Effects of thymulin on spontaneous puberty and gonadotrophin-induced ovulation in prepubertal normal and hypothymic mice. (8/514)

The effects of thymulin administration beginning on days 19 or 24 of age on spontaneous puberty and gonadotrophin-induced ovulation were analysed in female normal and hypothymic mice. In normal and hypothymic mice, the daily administration of thymulin at 24 days of age resulted in a delay in the age of vaginal opening, with an increase in serum progesterone levels. Normal mice treated with 200 ng thymulin beginning on day 19 of age and injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) 24 h later had an increase in ovulation rate, number of ova shed and weight of the ovaries. None of the hypothymic mice treated with thymulin on day 19 and PMSG on day 20 ovulated. PMSG treatment on day 25 induced ovulation in hypothymic mice. When these animals were injected previously with 200 ng thymulin, the number of ova shed by ovulating animals was lower than in PMSG-treated animals. Administration of thymulin and sequential injection of PMSG and human chorionic gonadotrophin 54 h later resulted in an increase in ovulatory response in comparison with those receiving only PMSG. The results suggest that thymulin plays a role in the regulation of spontaneous puberty through its effects on adrenal and ovarian endocrine functions. The increase in the ovarian PMSG response-treated animals, previously given thymulin, showed that this thymic hormone participates in the regulation of gonadotrophin secretion mechanisms and seems to be dose- and age-dependent. In hypothymic mice, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating puberty are different from those of normal mice.  (+info)

Thirty-six domestic cats received 100 iu hCG (i.m.) on day 1, 2 or 3 of a natural, behavioural oestrus. Twenty-two anoestrous cats were injected with 150 iu pregnant mares serum gonadotrophin (PMSG; i.m.) followed 84 h later by 100 iu hCG. Twenty-four to 26 h after hCG, all cats were examined laparoscopically to determine the number of ovarian follicles and to recover follicular eggs. Mature eggs were cultured with conspecific spermatozoa and examined 30 h later for cleavage. Within the natural oestrus group, cats on day 1 produced fewer (P | 0.05) follicles and total eggs than females on day 2 or 3, and 88.9% of the day 1 eggs were degenerate or immature and unsuitable for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Although only 54.5% of the cats in the PMSG/hCG group exhibited overt oestrus, mean (± SEM) numbers of follicles (9.7 ± 0.8) and oocytes recovered (8.7 ± 0.8) were at least twofold greater (P | 0.001) than those measured in the natural oestrus group (3.7 ± 0.6; 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively) or subgroups
The hypothesis that pregnancy success could be improved in early postpartum ewes by prolonging the lifespan of the corpus luteum via active immunization against prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) was tested. Further experiments in ewes immunized against PGF2α investigated the effects of exogenous PGF2α on the preovulatory follicle and the effects of PGF2α and oestradiol benzoate on corpus luteum function. Four weeks prepartum, 39 ewes bred to lamb during seasonal anoestrus received either 5 mg PGF2α-ovalbumin conjugate (n = 20; immunized) or ovalbumin (n = 19; control) in Freunds complete adjuvant. Treatments were repeated on day 5 post partum with reagents emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant. On day 17 post partum, ewes received 500 iu pregnant mares serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and 48 h later 50 μg gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Laparoscopy was performed 36 h after GnRH to assess ovarian activity and ewes with recent ovulations were inseminated into the uterus. No immunized ewes ...
Consequences of eight consecutive applications of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicle development and ovulation in bos indicus cows . Isaac Santos Gil ; Tracy Ferreira Lacerda ; Mauricio Gomes Favoreto ; Bárbara Loureiro ;Ciência Rural 2016, 46 (11). Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The Garole is a prolific breed of microsheep that possesses the FecB gene, which increases ovulation rate. The purpose of this study was to compare embryo production by multiple ovulation in seven Garole ewes with that in seven normal size, non-prolific Malpura ewes, and assess the influence of the large body size of Awassi crossbred recipient ewes on the birth-weight of Garole lambs. Oestrus was synchronised with two intramuscular injections of 7.5 mg prostaglandin F(2alpha) administered 10 days apart. The donor ewes were superovulated by the use of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin and follicle-stimulating hormone. The onset and duration of oestrus were similar in both breeds. The Garole donors had higher total mean (se) ovarian responses (15.6 [3.6] v 9.1 [2.3]), ovulation rate (13.6 [3.1] v 8.4 [2.2]) and produced more transferable embryos (6.0 [3.5] v 4.0 [0.9]) than the Malpura donors, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Garole lambs produced by embryo transfer were on
Earlier studies have demonstrated that phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity is up-regulated by pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in rat ovary, but not liver. This phenomenon was investigated in more detail in the present study. Ovaries and livers of immature rats, rats synchronized with respect to their preovulatory and corpus lutealphases by treatment with PMSG, and mature rats hyperstimulated with PMSG were compared. Under all of these conditions, only one immunoreactive band of UGT, shown to be phenol UGT, was detected in the rat ovary. The effects of oestradiol, progesterone and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the level of phenol UGT in immature rat ovary were also examined. Partial up-regulation was caused by progesterone or oestradiol, together with hCG, whereas progesterone or oestradiol alone had no up-regulating effect. Follicle-stimulating hormone also seemed to be required for the up-regulation in ovaries enriched in corpus luteum. The present findings ...
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies ...
Prepubertal Swiss albino mice of both sex were administered with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATDs) viz; rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, streptomycin and ethambutol intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks. Two weeks after the completion of treatment, male mice were sacrificed to collect caudal spermatozoa and female mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to collect metaphase II (MII) oocytes from oviduct. Administration of ATDs not only decreased the count, motility and, nuclear maturity and also, increased the head abnormalities, mitochondrial damage and DNA damage in epididymal spermatozoa. Reduction in number of ovulated oocytes, increased degeneration rate and altered distribution pattern of cytoplasmic organelles was observed in oocytes of female mice. Presence of ATDs in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium increased abnormalities in meiotic resulted in abnormal spindle organization (except ethambutol) without affecting ...
FR] Le but de cette étude est de comparar leffet de p/usieurs doses de PMSG injectées a des lapines de race Néo-zélandais Blanc, sur la réponse ovarienne, le taux dembryons récupérés et /eur croissance in vitro. Trente neuf lapines primipares, non allaitantes, ont regu le 2~me jour post partum une injection intramusculaire du traitement suivant: Lot 1 (n=13) O, 1 mi deau distillée; Lot 2 (n=13): 20 Uf de PMSG; Lot 3 (n=13): 100 U/ de PMSG. Soixante douze heures apres, les lapines ont regu 0,8 μg de GnRH et ont été artificiellement inséminées. Les lapines ont été sacrifiées 48 heures apres linsémination ; le tractus génital pré/evé a été conservé dans la solution tampon phosphato-sa/ine de Dulbecco. Les ovaires ont été pesés et les follicu/es normaux non ovulés , 1mm (AF), les fo/Jicules hémorragiques (HF) et les corps jaunes ont été comptés. Les oviductes ont été lavés avec du TCM199 et on a évalué la morpho/ogie des embryons. Les zygotes ont été ...
1) The great good fortune to sneak my way by accident into Roger Shorts laboratory in Cambridge and be able to do a PhD on equine reproduction under his inspiring supervision.. 2) The equal good fortune to post-doc at the Animal Research Station in Cambridge, a veritable Animal reproduction scientific powerhouse, under the supervision and tutelage of Tim Rowson.. There to carry out the first embryo transfers in horses and donkeys with Tim and to discover when collaborating with Dr Bob Moor FRS that the chorionic girdle portion of the fetal membranes is the progenitor tissue of the unique equine endometrial cups in the pregnant mare and is therefore the source of the equine-unique protein hormone, equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin (eCG), which is present in large quantities in the blood of early pregnant mares and other equids (Days 40-120 of gestation) and which stimulates the development of secondary or accessory corpora lutea in the mares ovaries to maintain the pregnancy state until the ...
The Pregnant Mare Urine or PMU Industry produces pharmaceuticals containing the urine of impregnated horses. Many consumers are unaware of the cruel and inhumane treatment these horses often endure.
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Two commercially available progestogen products for cattle, melengestrol acetate (MGA) and norgestomet (SMB) , were evaluated for their ability to induce synchronized estrus in anovulatory ewes. Seasonally anestrous ewes (n=232; determined by blood serum progesterone concentration) of mixed breeding were randomly assigned within broad age groups to one of seven treatments: 1) control (C); 2) MGA only (OMGA); 3) MGA + zeranol (RMGA); 4) MGA + PG-600 (PMGA; 400 IU pregnant mares serum gonadotropin + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin in a 5 mL dose); 5) 5MB only (OSMB); 6) 5MB + zeranol (RSMB); and 7) 5MB + PG-600 (PSMB). Beginning 10 d before breeding, OMGA, RMGA, and PMGA ewes were fed .3 mg MGA/d provided through a mixture of shelled com and a commercially prepared pelleted supplement containing MGA. Concomitantly, OSMB, RSMB, and PSMB ewes were given a 3 mg norgestomet implant inserted subcutaneously on the back of the ear. Immediately preceding initiation of the MGA and 5MB treatments, RMGA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The in vitro perifused rat ovary. T2 - V. The significance of the follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone ratio on steroid release. AU - Soendoro, T.. AU - Diamond, M. P.. AU - Pepperell, J. R.. AU - Naftolin, F.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by NIH grant HD 22970.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - In these studies, an in vitro perifusion model was used to compare stimulation of ovarian tissue with either human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), which is an equal mixture of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), or with hMG plus added human FSH. Eight-hour perifusion studies were conducted on either whole, or dissected clusters of follicles from pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG)-treated rats. In the two groups, similar stimulatory protocols were used, consisting of a ramp stimulation over 60 min with either hMG (0-8 mlU/ml) or hMG plus FSH (0-8 mlU/ml hMG + 0-8 mlU/ml FSH), followed by hourly pulse stimulation with hMG (8-18 ...
Generation and culture of PSCs. We induced superovulation in 6- to 8-week-old (C57BL/6J × DBA/2J)F1 (B6D2F1) mice by i.p. injection of 7.5 U pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and, 48 hours later, 7.5 U human choriogonadotropin (hCG). We harvested oviducts and collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) 16 hours after hCG injection. Cumulus cells were removed with hyaluronidase (1 mg/ml for 10 minutes at room temperature). We subsequently activated oocytes with strontium chloride (10 mmol/l in Ca2+-free CZB medium in mmol/l: NaCl 82.7, KCl 4.68, KH2PO4 1.17, MgSO4 1.18, D-glucose 5.6, Na-lactate 30.1, EDTA2Na 0.1, NaHCO3 25, Na-pyruvate 0.62, glutamine 1; supplemented with 5 mg/ml BSA, and 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin [100 P/S]) for 6 hours and prevented second polar body extrusion with cytochalasin B (5 μg/ml). Blastocysts formed during culture in mineral oil-covered Ca2+-containing (1.71 mmol/l) CZB medium for 6 days. We transferred blastocysts onto mitomycin C (10 ...
The effects of embryo number and incubation volume on the development of mouse embryos were evaluated. The growth rate of two-cell mouse embryos to attached blastocyst stage and the growth rate of blastocysts to early somite stage were assessed after culture in different incubation volumes and embryo densities. Embryos were collected from ICR female mice superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin and mated by ICR males. In experiment 1, groups of one, five, ten, twenty 2-cell embryos were cultured in 10-, 50-, 500-, 1000-microliter drops of BWW media under mineral oil at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 and 95% air. As the incubation volume decreased, significantly ( ...
To directly assess the biological role of oligosaccharides in recombinant equine chorionic gonadotropin (rec-eCG) functioning, cDNA encoding the full-length eCGβ-subunit was fused with the mature protein part of the α-subunit, and we examined the expression levels of deglycosylated eCG mutants, the ovulation rate for deglycosylated mutants in C57BL/6 mice. The characterizations of heterodimeric and tethered mutants were studied following their respective secretions in culture medium, molecular weight and ovulation in vivo. Rec-eCG variants containing mutations at glycosylation sites at Asn82 of the α-subunit (eCGβ/αΔ82) and Asn13 of the β-subunit (eCGβΔ13/α) were not efficiently secreted into the culture medium from transfected cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the rec-eCGβ/α proteins have an approximate broad range of molecular weights of 40-46 kDa. Three rec-eCG mutants-a deglycosylated site at Asn56 of the α-subunit (eCGβ/αΔ56), a deletion of the C-terminal region of the β
This experiment was carried out on 123 Farahani ewes from a herd in Delijan city in Markazi province of Iran to determine the best short-term method for oestrus synchronization. Ewes were divided into five experimental groups randomly: group 1) use of controlled intervaginal drug release devices (CIDR) for 7 days with intramuscular (IM) injection of PGF2α on zero day and IM injection of 500 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) at the time of CIDR removal; group 2) use of CIDR for 7 days and IM injection of PGF2α on the 6th day and IM injection of 500 IU eCG at the time of CIDR removal; group 3) use of intravaginal sponge for 7 days with IM injection of PGF2α on zero day and IM injection of 500 IU eCG at the time of sponge removal; group 4) use of intravaginal sponge for 7 days with IM injection of PGF2α on the 6th day and IM injection of 500 IU eCG at the time of sponge removal and group 5) control, without any treatment. Results showed that parturition percentage on expected date was almost
My soon to be 17 year old pregnant mare now has lots of edema on either side of her belly kinda underneath..it is pitting and has been there for two days, she is 251 days in foal/8 1/2 months. Her udder is fine with no changes, but I am really worried and she is a little stiff in the back legs. Talked to the vet on the phone and he said it should resolve but if it didnt we could put her on anti-inflammatories. Should I be worried about this? This has not been an easy pregnancy with 2 bad reactions to her rhino vaccines which we are no longer giving per vets recommendation. I gave her 1/2 dose of banamine yesterday and today and we are hand walking her...I can still feel the baby kicking and moving but not as much as before it seems..any advice Jos ...
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As Horses breeders of horses know, the key to producing a healthy foal is treating mama right, beginning with proper nutrition. Providing she is in good physical condition when she is bred -which she most certainly should be most mares do well on a quality maintenance diet until their third trimester. It is during this stage that most of the foals growth will occur and alterations will need to be made in the mares diet to maintain her condition and promote a healthy foal. In months 9, 10 and 11, a pregnant mares energy needs increase by 11, 13 and 20 percent respectively ...
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Iti impartasim pasiunea pentru bucatarit, de aceea suntem bucurosi sa iti putem oferi cea mai mare varietate de vase si instrumente de gatit. ...
CNBCs Maria Bartiromo shares her observation today on the ongoing battle for Fed chairmanship and the campaign against Larry Summers.
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Mres are usually consistent in their foaling pattern from year to year. Horse owners and managers should become familiar with each mare and record their observations on the mares record.
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Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh, Maria Tavakoli Ardakani, Ebrahim Salehifar, Atabak Najafi, Mohammad Reza Khajavi, Majid Moeini, Sima Sadray ...
The objective of the present study was to compare estradiol/progesterone ratios of different age categories of red deer hinds and use it as a predictor of estrus synchronization success and consequently conception rate. To accomplish this we used 38 red deer hinds to establish serum progesterone and estradiol levels in young (21 animals), mature (10 animals) and old (7 animals) hinds during the estrus synchronization procedure (transvaginal/cervical AI). The following estrus synchronization was used: at the start of the experiment each hind received a controlled intravaginal drug-releasing device (CIDR, Pharmacia&Upjohn, New Zealand) containing 0.3 g of progesterone. The device was removed on day 11, simultaneously with an application of 250 IU of Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG, Folligon® Intervet International, Boxmeer, Holland). Transvaginal/ cervical AI (artificial insemination) was performed 48 hours after CIDR withdrawal (day 13). Blood samples were obtained from the jugul...ar ...
The purpose of this paper was to assess the effect of supplementation of royal jelly on the morphometry of the genital tract, superovulatory response and embryonic quality in adult rabbits. 36 rabbits were distributed in four groups (G), as follows: G1 (n=9): no supplementation with royal jelly, G2, 3 and 4 (n=9): supplementation with 10, 20 and 40mg/day of royal jelly. The superovulatory protocol consisted in the application of a dose of 40UI of Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin, followed by a dose of UI of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin, intramuscularly, 48 hours later, and submitted to natural cover. The animals were euthanasiated and the embryos collected 72 hours after copulation. There was no statistical difference for the analyzed variables (P,0.05). The average weight for the female genital tract was 10.89±0.38g; the average weight of right and left ovaries was 0.28±0.02g and the average gonadosomatic index rate was 0.02±0.0g. The number of total recovered structures was 9.2±1.4. The ...
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A variety of problems can cause swelling at the lowest part of the belly. The most common cause in late pregnancy results from the weight of the pregnancy interfering with the mares circulation, causing fluid to seep out into the tissue planes (edema). It is a more common finding in the last weeks of pregnancy in large mares with very pendulous bellies. Ventral edema in late pregnancy is usually not painful, and will indent and retain its form momentarily if you push your thumb into it. It has the texture of closed-cell foam. Ventral edema usually resolves quickly after a mare foals. Rarely, however, rupture of the abdominal wall can cause excessive swelling here too. WHAT TO DO Assess the horses general health using the Whole Horse Exam on Late-Term Mare (WHE), paying particular attention to the mares attitude and appetite. If the mare appears healthy, then this sign may not be a cause for concern. However, if the mare shows any other signs of illness or abnormalities, contact your vet with ...
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Date Published: May 22, 2018 Publisher: Impact Journals Author(s): Jinjin Zhang, Zhiwen Lai, Liangyan Shi, Yong Tian, Aiyue Luo, Zheyuan Xu, Xiangyi Ma, Shixuan Wang. http://doi.org/10.18632/aging.101449 Abstract Superovulation procedures and assisted reproductive technologies have been widely used to treat couples who have infertility problems. Although generally safe, the superovulation procedures are associated with a series…
The effect of different eCG concentrations on the efficiency of superovulation in Formosan sambar dose. Hsin-Hung Lin, Chih-Hua Wang, Shann-Ren Kang, Wen-Lin Song, Chin-Hui Tseng, Mu-Jung Cheng, Shyh-Shyan Liu, and Perng-Chih Shen. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different eCG concentrations on the efficacy of superovulation in Formosan Sambar does. All the does were implanted with CIDR for 12 days and superovulation was induced by intramuscularly injection with different concentrations of eCG at day 10. Embryos were collected by flushing the oviduct through midventral laparotomy at day 4 after mating. Results showed that the corpus luteum (CL) numbers of dose superovulated with 1500 (7.3), 2000 (10.6), 3000 (8.5) IU of eCG were significantly higher than that superovulated with 1000 IU of eCG (3.5). However, the embryo recovery rates of dose superovulated with 1000 (85.7%) and 1500 (62.0%) IU of eCG were significantly higher than those superovulated with 2000 (25.5%) and 3000 ...
Whether its your first foal or youve been in the business over 50 years, as the clock winds down toward foaling day, the anticipation rises. You wouldnt be
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What could be HCG? What is HCG? Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a hormone that supports the normal growth and development of an egg within a womans ovary, and stimulates the launch of the egg during ovulation. HCG is used to result in ovulation also to treat infertility in women, and to increase…
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PRESTONSBURG, Ky. (AP) - A third horse has been rescued from a strip mine site in Kentucky where 20 horses were found fatally shot. The filly was captured by Dumas Rescue on Saturday and taken to the Kentucky Humane Society, news outlets reported. The horse is believed to be the daughter of the pregnant mare […]
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Of uncertain origin. Theres a story, not very convincing, that when stuck in such a region of calm with little wind to get them across, sailors threw their cargo of horses overboard to save on rations and to lighten the load. Another conjecture is that the term is derived from Spanish golfo de las yeguas, literally, mares gulf, alluding to the unpredictable nature of the mares. A related term is doldrums, the calm area in an ocean around the equator ...
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Datele dumneavoastra personale sunt prelucrate (preluate, prelucrate, stocate) de catre Laboratoarele Sfanta Maria.ro, in conformitate cu prevederile Regulamentului UE 679/2016 si Legile din domeniul sanatatii in vigoare, in scopul efectuarii de servicii medicale. Va puteti exercita drepturile de acces , de interventie si de opozitie in conditiile prevazute de Regulamentului UE 679/2016 si/sau dupa caz Legea nr. 677/2001, printr-o cerere scrisa, semnata si datata, depusa personal in receptiile Laboratoarele Sfanta Maria. In cazul in care indicati o adresa de e-mail in cadrul cererii, raspunsul il puteti primi la adresa indicata in cererea dv. Avand in vedere intrarea in vigoare a Regulamentului (UE) 2016/679 privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal si privind libera circulatie a acestor date si de abrogare a Directivei 95/46/CE (Regulamentul general privind protectia datelor) este necesara confirmarea dv in cazul in care doriti ca adresa ...
Datele dumneavoastra personale sunt prelucrate (preluate, prelucrate, stocate) de catre Laboratoarele Sfanta Maria.ro, in conformitate cu prevederile Regulamentului UE 679/2016 si Legile din domeniul sanatatii in vigoare, in scopul efectuarii de servicii medicale. Va puteti exercita drepturile de acces , de interventie si de opozitie in conditiile prevazute de Regulamentului UE 679/2016 si/sau dupa caz Legea nr. 677/2001, printr-o cerere scrisa, semnata si datata, depusa personal in receptiile Laboratoarele Sfanta Maria. In cazul in care indicati o adresa de e-mail in cadrul cererii, raspunsul il puteti primi la adresa indicata in cererea dv. Avand in vedere intrarea in vigoare a Regulamentului (UE) 2016/679 privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal si privind libera circulatie a acestor date si de abrogare a Directivei 95/46/CE (Regulamentul general privind protectia datelor) este necesara confirmarea dv in cazul in care doriti ca adresa ...
Maria once brought up the issue to Mike one night. Mike simply brushed the matter aside. He was content being left alone with Maria. He did not feel the need to interact with any strangers. Maria felt otherwise. She suggested the idea of going to their neighbors house one day and knocking on their front door. Mike thought this was a terrible idea. He did not want to intrude on anybodys time. Maria tried convincing him that a friendly greeting is not intrusive.. After much effort, Mike finally budged. He agreed to go meet the neighbors one day. It was that sunny afternoon on a Sunday that Maria remembered Mikes promise. She reminded Mike of the promise he had made. Since they were not doing anything that day, she told him now would be a good time to go meet the neighbors.. Mike had completely forgotten about the conversation and let out a reluctant groan. Do we have to, Maria? How about we do it next week? he said. No, we could do it today, right now, she replied. Maria went to the bedroom ...
Here are some of the things that you probably do not know about HCG drops. This diet product comes from a hormone, a bodily hormone from females. High amounts of this hormone are secreted in the body when the female is pregnant and its presence is detected through urine test. This is why when a woman suspects that she is pregnant, she undergoes a urine test. It is actually the amount of HCG in her urine that is measured. A few drops of urine are…. Continue reading » ...
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Pe Radio Whisper se difuzează toate genurile de muzică, exceptând manele şi piese necenzurate. Avem şi câteva emisiuni, ştiri etc. Ne-am propus să realizăm un proiect mare, iar pentru asta avem nevoie de susţinerea şi ajutorul tău şi al celorlalţi colegi bloggeri. Dorim să creăm o echipă cât mai complexă de oameni cu un talent aparte şi m-am gândit că poate ai vrea sa ni te alături şi să colaborăm (binenţeles, pe unul dintre domeniile care îţi place). Dorim de asemenea să îţi acordăm un scurt interviu. Pentru noi sunt importante ideile şi modul de a gândi al bloggerilor şi al ascultatorilor noştri ...
Pe Radio Whisper se difuzează toate genurile de muzică, exceptând manele şi piese necenzurate. Avem şi câteva emisiuni, ştiri etc. Ne-am propus să realizăm un proiect mare, iar pentru asta avem nevoie de susţinerea şi ajutorul tău şi al celorlalţi colegi bloggeri. Dorim să creăm o echipă cât mai complexă de oameni cu un talent aparte şi m-am gândit că poate ai vrea sa ni te alături şi să colaborăm (binenţeles, pe unul dintre domeniile care îţi place). Dorim de asemenea să îţi acordăm un scurt interviu. Pentru noi sunt importante ideile şi modul de a gândi al bloggerilor şi al ascultatorilor noştri ...
18 years old, Maria came with the promise to get the best treatment from Transparent Hands and Transparent Hands made it possible with our donors help. Maria thanked everyone who contributed for saving her life. Now she can breathe properly and can continue her studies. ...
Maria has travelled the country giving author talks and this is the start of a series of Anzac Hero talks planned to children across the country. I want to get the message across that these soldiers thought they were going on a big adventure but that was far from the truth. They had to face a lot of hardship and it was quite an achievement to make it home, said Maria. ...
Datele dumneavoastra personale sunt prelucrate (preluate, prelucrate, stocate) de catre Laboratoarele Sfanta Maria.ro, in conformitate cu prevederile Regulamentului UE 679/2016 si Legile din domeniul sanatatii in vigoare, in scopul efectuarii de servicii medicale. Va puteti exercita drepturile de acces , de interventie si de opozitie in conditiile prevazute de Regulamentului UE 679/2016 si/sau dupa caz Legea nr. 677/2001, printr-o cerere scrisa, semnata si datata, depusa personal in receptiile Laboratoarele Sfanta Maria. In cazul in care indicati o adresa de e-mail in cadrul cererii, raspunsul il puteti primi la adresa indicata in cererea dv. Avand in vedere intrarea in vigoare a Regulamentului (UE) 2016/679 privind protectia persoanelor fizice in ceea ce priveste prelucrarea datelor cu caracter personal si privind libera circulatie a acestor date si de abrogare a Directivei 95/46/CE (Regulamentul general privind protectia datelor) este necesara confirmarea dv in cazul in care doriti ca adresa ...
An overview of Mariapolis Santa Maria near Igarassu - one of the oldest cities of Brazil - where Maria Voce and Giancarlo Faletti have been guests from March
Is it possible to conceive up to a week after signs of ovulation and/or your predicted ovulation date? Has anyone ever experienced this?
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What is the meaning of ovulation? How is it defined? What is ovulation time? What is its significance? What triggers it? All facts explained
After ruling out Regumate and uterine implants, Amanda Moretz decided to have her marish mare, Gracie, spayed. Two years later Gracie is happy and pain-f...
by Marias Last Diet Can your body and your brain learn what to expect and when whats expected (e.g., food) is missing, conspire against you...
Maria S Sepulveda is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Helminth Collection and Identification from Wildlife
Even the best fall down sometimes. Maria Sharapova is no exception. Nine years ago on the lawns of Wimbledon, Sharapova announced herself to the world when she took out Serena Williams in straight sets in the final at the age of 17...
Mapei contributed to the \Escola ensino básico\ project (Santa Maria da Feira). Find out the intervention we carried out, the solutions adopted, products used and much more
Sean has always been very fit and healthy, and in the blink of an eye that al… Maria Alejandra Giraldo needs your support for PLEASE HELP US HELP SEAN RECOVER
After 2 rounds of Clomid 50 mg and no ovulation, I was put on 100 mg. I ovulated on Day 19 on my last round of Clomid 100mg. In everyones experience, do you generally ovulate about the same day of y...
I have been TTC for 13 months and have only been tracking with a OPK for 2 months. I have very irregular periods as I have only had it twice in the 13 months. I have Od once and Im wondering what everyone elses ovulation cycles are
Conceiving a boy should be pretty easy provided you are able to track the ovulation dates properly. You can read the details here and download free Ebook.
While in pigs, equine chorionic gonadotropin is preferred. However, this is not commonly done in the swine industry because ... The hormones used are typically gonadotropin-like, meaning they stimulate the gonads. Follicle stimulating hormone is the ...
They produce high concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), also called pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, in the ... Endometrial cups form during pregnancy in mares and are the source of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and a placenta- ... "Endometrial Cups and Secretion of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin". Colorado State University. Retrieved 17 April 2016. CS1 maint ... eCG is actually an equine luteinizing hormone. Endometrial cups behave somewhat like cells from metastatic tumors, in that they ...
Upon "Sucromate Equine" receiving FDA-approval, the compounded products were no longer legally available within the U.S., ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists Peptech official Ovuplant site Thorne BioScience official Sucromate site FDA ... Another form is available in the United States, Sucromate Equine, which was FDA-approved for use in horses in November 2010. ... In Europe, it was approved for use in equine assisted reproduction. Ovuplant was withdrawn from the U.S. market following ...
"A single gene encodes the beta-subunits of equine luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin". Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (6): 951- ... Talmadge K, Vamvakopoulos NC, Fiddes JC (1984). "Evolution of the genes for the beta subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin ... 1994). "Eutopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCG beta) and luteinizing hormone beta (hLH beta) in the human ... In equids the beta subunit polypeptides of luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin are identical in sequence, differing ...
"The Use of Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone to Increase Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin in the Pregnant Mare". Journal of ... eFSH is a follicle-stimulating hormone obtained from equine species, used to stimulate fertility. The effects of eFSH on mares ... The application of utilizing eFSH to increase the efficiency of equine embryo transfer was tested at the University of ... McCue, PM (June 4, 2017). "eFSH in clinical equine practice". Theriogenology. 68: 429-33. doi:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.04. ...
Her death came during her work on the Fifth International Equine Reproduction Symposium; she edited and produced the preceding ... but that a regimen of exogenous gonadotropins can induce estrus and ovulation in chinchillas. Weir joined the Journal of ... The journal produced more than 50 volumes during that period, including many significant editions on equine reproduction. ...
eCG - equine chorionic gonadotropin - also called PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin): chorionic gonadotropins secreted if ... Equine Behaviour - A Guide For Veterinarians and Equine Scientists.[full citation needed] ... David, Woodside Equine Clinic, Ashland, VA *^ Section V, Rule 1, Part D, The American Stud Book Principal Rules and ... Illustrated Atlas of Clinical Equine Anatomy and Common Disorders of the Horse Vol. II. Equistar Publication, Limited. ...
"A single gene encodes the beta-subunits of equine luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin". Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (6): 951- ... Berger P, Kranewitter W, Madersbacher S, et al. (1994). "Eutopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCG beta) and ... Talmadge K, Vamvakopoulos NC, Fiddes JC (1984). "Evolution of the genes for the beta subunits of human chorionic gonadotropin ... "Evolution of different transcriptional start sites in the human luteinizing hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit ...
... interaction with LH and chorionic gonadotropin from human but not equine, rat, and ovine species". Molecular Endocrinology. 5 ( ... cellular response to gonadotropin stimulus. • signal transduction. • primary ovarian follicle growth. • phospholipase C- ... GnRH and gonadotropin receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Progestogens and ... The receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a ...
... equine gonadotropin - erbA gene - erbB gene - erbB-2 gene - erbB-2 receptor - erythropoietin - erythropoietin receptor - ... chorionic gonadotropin - chromatid - chromatin - ciclosporin - Chromatography - Chromosomal crossover - chromosome - chromosome ...
If pregnancy occurs in equine, the placental hormone equine chorionic gonadotropin released by endometrial cup acts like LH and ... In humans, the placental hormone human chorionic gonadotropin continues to maintain the corpus luteum. This is the hormone ...
... or anaerobic bacteria equine chorionic gonadotropin - gonadotropic hormone used to induce ovulation in livestock prior to ...
... gonadotropins, equine MeSH D06.472.351.576 - gonadotropins, pituitary MeSH D06.472.351.576.288 - follicle stimulating hormone ... gonadotropins, equine MeSH D06.472.759.692 - placental lactogen MeSH D06.472.910.750 - thymic factor, circulating MeSH D06.472. ... gonadotropins, equine MeSH D06.472.699.649.692 - placental lactogen MeSH D06.472.699.715 - relaxin MeSH D06.472.699.762 - ... chorionic gonadotropin MeSH D06.472.699.649.367.125 - chorionic gonadotropin, beta subunit, human MeSH D06.472.699.649.367.562 ...
... gonadotropins, equine MeSH D12.644.548.726.692 - placental lactogen MeSH D12.644.548.762 - relaxin MeSH D12.644.548.786 - ... chorionic gonadotropin MeSH D12.644.548.726.367.125 - chorionic gonadotropin, beta subunit, human MeSH D12.644.548.726.367.562 ... gonadotropins, pituitary MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.343.288 - follicle stimulating hormone MeSH D12.644.548.691.525.343.288.500 ...
ECG may refer to: Electrocardiogram Electrocardiography Epicatechin gallate Equine chorionic gonadotropin The Early College at ...
... equine chorionic gonadotropin - also called PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin): chorionic gonadotropins secreted if the ... Equine Behaviour - A Guide For Veterinarians and Equine Scientists.[full citation needed] McGreevy, Paul (2012). Equine ... David, Woodside Equine Clinic, Ashland, VA Section V, Rule 1, Part D, The American Stud Book Principal Rules and Requirements. ... In 2010, the first lived equine cloned of a Criollo horse was born in Argentina, and was the first horse clone produced in ...
The use of equine chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of anestrous dairy cows in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/ ... estradiol benzoate program with or without inclusion of equine chorionic gonadotropin inanestrous dairy cows. Reproduction ... 92:4421-4431). Journal of Dairy Science 92(11):5765-5765, November 2009 M A Bryan, G A Bó, C Heuer, F R Emslie, Use of equine ...
... interaction with LH and chorionic gonadotropin from human but not equine, rat, and ovine species.". Mol. Endocrinol. 5 (6): 759 ... Amsterdam A, Hanoch T, Dantes A, et al. (2003). "Mechanisms of gonadotropin desensitization.". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 187 (1-2 ... Gonadotropin-oslobađajući hormon (1, 2) • Grelin • Kispeptin • Luteinizirajući hormon/horiogonadotropin • MAS (1, 1L, D, E, F, ... "A novel mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor gene causing male gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty.". J. Clin. ...
... human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), as well as at least two forms of fish gonadotropins ... Another human gonadotropin is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced by the placenta during pregnancy. Gonadotropin ... The gonadotropins act on the gonads, controlling gamete and sex hormone production. Gonadotropin is sometimes abbreviated Gn. ... Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic ...
In veterinary medicine, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) extracted from pregnant mare serum is used instead on a variety of ... Gonadotropin preparations are drugs that mimic the physiological effects of gonadotropins, used therapeutically mainly as ... Generic (human) chorionic gonadotropin for injection, USP Brands Pregnyl (Merck/Schering-Plough) Follutein Profasi Novarel ... Generic lutropin alfa for injection Brands Luveris Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) can be recovered from the urine of ...
... (acronym given as eCG but not to be confused with ECG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the ... Previously referred to as pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG), the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen ... Equine CG, like all glycoprotein hormones, is composed of two dissimilar subunits named alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin Gonadotropin preparations Human placental lactogen Triple test - a screening test in pregnancy ... Like any other gonadotropins, it can be extracted from the urine of pregnant women or produced from cultures of genetically ... Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum ... Gonadotropin preparations of hCG can be produced for pharmaceutical use from animal or synthetic sources. Some of these are ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin. *Gonadotropin preparations. *Human placental lactogen. *Triple test - a screening test in ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.[1][2] The presence of hCG is ... Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker,[26] as its β subunit is secreted by some cancers including seminoma ... Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately ...
Antigonadotropins: Drugs that suppress the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced release of gonadotropins and ... conjugated equine estrogens, ethinylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol (no longer widely used), and bifluranol.[129][130] ... Holland FJ (March 1991). "Gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty". Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 20 (1): 191-210. ... Antigonadotropins are drugs that suppress the GnRH-mediated secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland.[72] ...
McDonnell, S. M. "Specific Normal Behaviors of Domestic Horses That Are Misunderstood as Abnormal". Equine Behavior Laboratory ... "Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Affects Precopulatory Behavior in Testosterone-Treated Geldings" (PDF). Physiology & ...
Antigonadotropins: drugs that suppress the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced release of gonadotropins and ... conjugated equine estrogens, ethinylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol (no longer widely used), and bifluranol.[118][119] ... Antigonadotropins are drugs that suppress the GnRH-mediated secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland.[64] ... By suppressing gonadotropin secretion, antigonadotropins suppress gonadal sex hormone production and by extension circulating ...
... chorionic gonadotropins, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG),[4] as well as at least two ... Main article: Gonadotropin preparations. There are various preparations of gonadotropins for therapeutic use, mainly as ... Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic ... Another human gonadotropin is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced by the placenta during pregnancy. ...
Squires EL (April 1996). "Maturation and fertilization of equine oocytes". The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine ... Wang X, Tsai T, Qiao J, Zhang Z, Feng HL (June 2014). "Impact of gonadotropins on oocyte maturation, fertilisation and ... 2014), gonadotropins affect oocyte maturation, fertilisation and developmental competence in vitro. The responsiveness of ... Follicular development is directly under gonadotropins control, LH and FSH. These use cAMP as an intracellular second messenger ...
In secondary hypogonadism (where the cause is hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction) serum levels of gonadotropins may be low. ... HRT for the vasomotor symptoms of hypoestrogenism include different forms of estrogen, such as conjugated equine estrogens, 17β ... In primary hypogonadism, elevated serum gonadotropins are detected on at least two occasions several weeks apart, indicating ... Other causes include certain medications, gonadotropin insensitivity, inborn errors of steroid metabolism (for example, ...
Elliott J (1997). "Alpha-adrenoceptors in equine digital veins: evidence for the presence of both α1 and α2-receptors mediating ... Gonadotropin-oslobađajući hormon (1, 2) • Grelin • Kispeptin • Luteinizirajući hormon/horiogonadotropin • MAS (1, 1L, D, E, F, ...
2006). "Effects of conjugated equine estrogens on breast cancer and mammography screening in postmenopausal women with ... "Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women with Hysterectomy: The Women's Health Initiative Randomized ... most commonly with a combination of conjugated equine estrogen (Premarin) and medroxyprogesterone (Provera).[52] ... "Conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer relative to ...
GnRH(英语:Template:Gonadotropins and GnRH). *催乳素(英语:Template:Prolactin inhibitors and anti-inflammatory products for vaginal ...
"Journal of Equine Science. 24 (3): 31-6. doi:10.1294/jes.24.31. PMC 4013985 . PMID 24833999.. ...
The first hormone released by the placenta is called the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone. This is responsible for stopping ... For example, human, bovine, equine and canine placentae are very different at the both gross and the microscopic levels. ...
List of estrogens § Equine estrogens. References[edit]. *^ Marc A. Fritz; Leon Speroff (28 March 2012). Clinical Gynecologic ... Bhavnani BR (January 1998). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of conjugated equine estrogens: chemistry and metabolism". ...
Bhavnani BR, Nisker JA, Martin J, Aletebi F, Watson L, Milne JK (2000). "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of a conjugated equine ... In addition, estrogens play an important role in regulation of gonadotropin secretion. For these reasons, estrogens are ...
It works both by strongly suppressing gonadotropin secretion and gonadal testosterone production and via direct effects on the ... is a mixture of natural estrogens including estrone sulfate and equine estrogens such as equilin sulfate and 17β-dihydroequilin ... It works by suppressing testosterone levels, similarly to high-dose progestogen therapy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... "Esterified estrogens and conjugated equine estrogens and the risk of venous thrombosis". JAMA. 292 (13): 1581-7. doi:10.1001/ ...
... the gelding's gonadotropins will be incredibly heightened. The gonadotropins alter the sensitivity of the trigeminal nerve, ... Beaver, Bonnie V. (2019). Equine Behavioral Medicine. London, UK: Elsevier Inc. pp. 311-345. ISBN 978-0-12-812106-1. Lane, J. ... Carr, Elizabeth A.; Maher, Omar (2014). Equine Sports Medicine and Surgery (Second ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Elsevier Ltd. pp. 503- ... Aleman, Monica; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S.; Reed, Stephen M. (2018). Equine Internal Medicine (Fourth ed.). Missouri, USA: Elsevier ...
This estrogen-mediated gonadotropin surge effect has also been found to occur with exogenous estrogen, including in transgender ... Because humans are not adapted to efficiently metabolize conjugated estrogens (which are equine (horse) estrogens) and ... Generally, estrogens are antigonadotropic and inhibit gonadotropin secretion. However, in women, a sharp increase in estradiol ... 201-. ISBN 978-0-313-39175-0. Herbison AE (June 1998). "Multimodal influence of estrogen upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone ...
ISBN 978-981-283-585-7. "Equine Artificial Insemination". www.equine-reproduction.com. Retrieved 2018-03-01. "Is Your Food a ... Harris, I.; Missmer, S.; Hornstein, M. (2010). "Poor success of gonadotropin-induced controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and ... A small number of equine associations in North America accept only horses that have been conceived by "natural cover" or " ... States state court rules sperm donor is not liable for children UK Sperm Donors Lose Anonymity AI technique in the equine ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (acronym given as eCG but not to be confused with ECG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the ... Previously referred to as pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG), the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen ... Equine CG, like all glycoprotein hormones, is composed of two dissimilar subunits named alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and equine pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG) are produced in placenta by the specific ... Primate and equine species are thought to be unique among mammals in synthesizing placental gonadotropin glycoprotein hormones ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and equine pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG) are produced in placenta by the specific ... Primate and equine species are thought to be unique among mammals in synthesizing placental gonadotropin glycoprotein hormones ...
BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are ... Equine" by people in this website by year, and whether "Gonadotropins, Equine" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Gonadotropins, Equine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC ...
... untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels ... untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels. ... Equine chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone enhance fertility in a norgestomet-based, timed artificial ... Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares, previously known as ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Chorionic Gonadotropin beta Chain (hCG beta) Antibody (HCGb/54) [Alexa Fluor® 488]. Pregnancy & ... Equine. RM. =. Rhesus Macaque. Fe. =. Feline. Sh. =. Sheep. Ft. =. Ferret. Vb. =. Vertebrate. ... Chorionic Gonadotropin beta Chain (hCG beta) Antibody (HCGb/54) [Alexa Fluor® 488] Summary. Immunogen. Chorionic Gonadotropin ... Blogs on Chorionic Gonadotropin beta Chain (hCG beta). There are no specific blogs for Chorionic Gonadotropin beta Chain (hCG ...
Browse our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... Equine. RM. =. Rhesus Macaque. Fe. =. Feline. Sh. =. Sheep. Ft. =. Ferret. Vb. =. Vertebrate. ... Choose from our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Proteins.. Alternate Names for Gonadotropin ...
To directly assess the biological role of oligosaccharides in recombinant equine chorionic gonadotropin (rec-eCG) functioning, ... Equine CG (eCG) is a unique member of the gonadotropin family because it exhibits both LH- and FSH-like activities in non-equid ... Equine lutropin and chorionic gonadotropin bear oligosaccharides terminating with SO4-4-GalNAc and Siaα2,3Gal, respectively. J ... Characterization of tethered equine chorionic gonadotropin and its deglycosylated mutants by ovulation stimulation in mice. * ...
The testis as a major source of circulating inhibins in the male equine fetus during the second half of gestation TANAKA Y ... Localization and secretion of inhibins in the equine fetal ovaries TANAKA Y ... Profiles of Circulating Steroid Hormones, Gonadotropins, Immunoreactive Inhibin and Prolactin During Pregnancy in Goats and ... Ovarian dynamics and their associations with peripheral concentrations of gonadotropins, ovarian steroids, and inhibin during ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) has been used in FTAI protocols to improve follicular growth and thereby to produce larger ... All cows were enrolled in a 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol which included 100 μg gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) at CIDR ... The use of equine chorionic gonadotropin in the treatment of anestrous dairy cows in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/ ... Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) has been used in FTAI protocols to improve follicular growth and thereby to produce larger ...
... and chorionic gonadotropin. These heterodimeric hormones share a common alpha subunit and differ in their hormone-specific beta ... Chorionic Gonadotropin * Gonadotropins, Equine * Follicle Stimulating Hormone Grant support * CA60651/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United ... Minimal data has been accumulated so far involving human mutations in the FSH beta, LH beta, or the gonadotropin receptor genes ... To generate animal models for human diseases involving the gonadotropin signal transduction pathway, we produced mice deficient ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are composed of α- and β-subunits with an identical amino acid sequence ... N2 - Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are composed of α- and β-subunits with an identical amino acid ... AB - Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are composed of α- and β-subunits with an identical amino acid ... abstract = "Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are composed of α- and β-subunits with an identical amino ...
GonaCon - Equine; EPA Reg. No 56228-41. RODENTICIDES. Brodifacoum: Two formulations of brodifacoum are available for ... Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH): Immunocontraceptive vaccines (GonaCon) containing GnRH are for fertility control in ...
P L Smith, G R Bousfield, S Kumar, D Fiete, J U Baenziger; Equine lutropin and chorionic gonadotropin bear oligosaccharides ... Equine lutropin and chorionic gonadotropin bear oligosaccharides terminating with SO4-4-GalNAc and Sia alpha 2,3Gal, ... Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones which are synthesized in the ...
Antioxidants Reduce Ovulation Rate in Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG)/Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)-Treated Mice in ... 2000) Expression of tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 in the rat ovary in response to an ovulatory dose of gonadotropin. ... 1979) Maturational effects of gonadotropins on the cumulus-oocyte complex of the rat. Biol Reprod 20:191-197. ... 1994) Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist suppresses human chorionic gonadotropin-induced ovulation in the rat. Biol Reprod 51: ...
chorionic gonadotropin synonyms, chorionic gonadotropin pronunciation, chorionic gonadotropin translation, English dictionary ... n. gonadotropin produced and secreted by the chorion. Compare human chorionic gonadotropin. Random House Kernerman Websters ... untranslated regions of equine chorionic gonadotropin genes and serum equine chorionic gonadotropin levels ... chorion′ic gonadotro′pin. n. gonadotropin produced and secreted by the chorion. Compare human chorionic gonadotropin. ...
Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropin. Estrone sulfate for greater than 90 days pregnant; PMSG for 45-100 days pregnant; ... This PCR panel tests for equine herpesvirus 1 and 4, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine rhinitis viruses A and B, influenza A ... This PCR panel tests for equine herpesvirus 1 and 4, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine rhinitis viruses A and B, influenza A ... Equine Rhinitis Virus A PCR. Included at a reduced price in the Equine Fever of Unknown Origin PCR Panel ERHA * Nasal swab or ...
Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef ... Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnanc ...
Consequences of eight consecutive applications of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicle development and ovulation ... Consequences of eight consecutive applications of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicle development and ovulation ... Consequences of eight consecutive applications of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicle development and ovulation ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) induces super-ovulation in laboratory animals. Notwithstanding its extensive usage, limited ... From: Comparative gene expression profiling of mouse ovaries upon stimulation with natural equine chorionic gonadotropin (N-eCG ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin increases estradiol levels in the bovine oviduct and drives the transcription of genes related to ... Equine chorionic gonadotropin increases estradiol levels in the bovine oviduct and drives the transcription of genes related to ... or FSH combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin [eCG]) on the oviductal levels of E2 and P4 and its outcome on oviductal ...
Gonadotropins, Equine / administration & dosage*. Ovarian Follicle / drug effects, physiology. Ovary / drug effects*, ... 0/Gonadotropins, Equine; 0/Progestins; 50-28-2/Estradiol; 57-83-0/Progesterone; 9002-68-0/Follicle Stimulating Hormone ...
Horse Welfare During Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) Production. Xavier Manteca Vilanova, Nancy De Briyne, Bonnie Beaver, ... Ten years of the horse reference genome: insights into equine biology, domestication and population dynamics in the post‐genome ...
While in pigs, equine chorionic gonadotropin is preferred. However, this is not commonly done in the swine industry because ... The hormones used are typically gonadotropin-like, meaning they stimulate the gonads. Follicle stimulating hormone is the ...
Collection of blood from pregnant mares for extraction of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a critical but relatively ... Horse welfare during equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) production. Animals 9(12), 1053. ...
Horse Welfare During Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) Production. Next Article in Special Issue. Activity Rhythms of ...
Thehistory of the gonadotropins covers an amazingly short period of time considering the important role they play in basic ... Studies on the disappearance of equine chorionic gonadotropin from the circulation in rat: tissue uptake and degradation. ... Roos, P. Purification and characterization of human postmenopausal GONADOTROPINS gonadotropins. In: Gonadotropins, edited by B ... Rowlands, I. W. Levels of gonadotropins in tissues and fluids. In: Gonadotropins,edited by H. H. Cole. San Francisco, CA: ...
Equine chorionic gonadotropin. Murphy, B.D., Martinuk, S.D. Endocr. Rev. (1991) [Pubmed] ...
Injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG; 100-500 IU) at the end of treatment increases synchronization of ovulation or ... During the nonbreeding season, a source of gonadotropin is also required. The most common gonadotropin used is eCG, ...
RDv24n1Ab225225 ADDITION OF EQUINE CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN TO A TRADITIONAL FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE PROTOCOL FOR ... RDv24n1Ab1414 EQUINE CLONING AND EMBRYO AGGREGATION: EFFECT OF BOVINE, PORCINE, FELINE AND EQUINE OOPLAST. A. Gambini, J. ... RDv24n1Ab203203 EQUINE EMBRYO IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT AFTER INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION FOLLOWED BY CHEMICAL ACTIVATION. J. ... RDv24n1Ab1212 FERTILITY OF FROZEN EQUINE SPERM IN SYSTEMS FOR CRYOPRESERVATION. R. R. D. Maziero, P. N. Guasti, I. D. P. Blanco ...
Uterine responses and equine chorionic gonadotropin concentrations after two intrauterine infusions with kerosene post early ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, a neuropeptide of efferent projections to the teleost retina induces light-adaptive spinule ... Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 1992 Apr;8(1):237-49. Review. ...
  • The alpha subunit (eCGα) is the same as its counterparts of all other glycoprotein hormones (equine luteinizing hormone, equine follicle-stimulating hormone, equine thyroid stimulating hormone). (ajas.info)
  • Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone family that includes luteinzing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone, and chorionic gonadotropin. (nih.gov)
  • In mammals, a common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPA1) pairs with unique beta-subunits that establish receptor specificity, forming thyroid stimulating hormone (GPA1/TSHβ) and the gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (GPA1/LHβ), follicle stimulating hormone (GPA1/FSHβ), choriogonadotropin (GPA1/CGβ). (plos.org)
  • In mammals, classic heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones include the pituitary and placental gonadotropins luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and choriogonadotropin (CG) along with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) [1] . (plos.org)
  • Dr Pat McCue from Colorado State University presented results of a study evaluating the effectiveness of a recombinant equine follicle-stimulating hormone (reFSH, AspenBio Pharma, Castle Rock, CO - not yet commercially available) for stimulating follicular development and advancing the first ovulation of the year in seasonally anestrous mares. (selectbreeders.com)
  • Equine CG, like all glycoprotein hormones, is composed of two dissimilar subunits named alpha and beta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primate and equine species are thought to be unique among mammals in synthesizing placental gonadotropin glycoprotein hormones. (nih.gov)
  • Gonadotropins are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones, consisting of dissimilar α- and β-subunits that are noncovalently complexed [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones which are synthesized in the placenta and pituitary, respectively. (wichita.edu)
  • It has long been assumed that the pregnancy hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin or estrogen, were the likely culprits of extreme nausea and vomiting, but our study found no evidence to support this," Fejzo, the author of the study said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Expression and secretion of the mature hormones are regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is itself secreted from the hypothalamus. (asm.org)
  • One of the hormones of pregnancy her group studies, Chorionic gonadotropin, is produced by the placenta of both horses and humans during pregnancy, but not by most other species used experimentally. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN). (harvard.edu)
  • Previously referred to as pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG), the hormone is commonly used in concert with progestogen to induce ovulation in livestock prior to artificial insemination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (CG) and equine pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) are produced in placenta by the specific activation of a glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene and a corresponding beta-subunit gene. (nih.gov)
  • Their function is to produce equine gonadotropin, formerly PMSG. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transgenic and nontransgenic mice have similar circulating LH and FSH concentrations at dioestrus, after castration, 46 h after equine CG administration, or 15 min after GnRH injection. (nih.gov)
  • The GonaCon-Equine vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies that bind to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in an animal's body. (usda.gov)
  • SucroMate Equine is a sterile, synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog (deslorelin acetate) suspension. (valleyvet.com)
  • GnRH stimulation of gonadotropin expression and secretion occurs through the G-protein-linked phospholipase C/inositol triphosphate intracellular signaling pathway, which ultimately leads to protein kinase C (PKC) activation and increased intracellular calcium levels. (asm.org)
  • Transcription factors mediating the effects of GnRH-induced signals on transcription of gonadotropin genes have not yet been identified. (asm.org)
  • Neuropeptidergic SCN efferents pass temporal cues from the retina to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the preoptic area of the basal forebrain ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • GnRH stimulates gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland via the portal vasculature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is dependent on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH)-stimulated synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary gonadotroph. (asm.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) is produced by hypothalamic neurosecretory cells and released in a pulsatile manner into the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation, through which the hormone is transported to the anterior pituitary gland. (asm.org)
  • Expression of POR mRNA, as well as Cyp19 mRNA, in the rat ovary were induced by equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The evolutionary mechanisms for the apparently independent acquisition of tissue specificity were investigated by cloning the 5' flanking region of the equine alpha-subunit gene and comparing the DNA elements and trans-acting factors involved in placental expression. (nih.gov)
  • Instead, an additional factor (alpha-ACT) is found which binds to the equine and human, but not the murine, alpha-subunit genes in a region between the positions of the CRE and TSE and confers cAMP responsiveness. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. (ucdenver.edu)
  • To directly assess the biological role of oligosaccharides in recombinant equine chorionic gonadotropin (rec-eCG) functioning, cDNA encoding the full-length eCGβ-subunit was fused with the mature protein part of the α-subunit, and we examined the expression levels of deglycosylated eCG mutants, the ovulation rate for deglycosylated mutants in C57BL/6 mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To generate animal models for human diseases involving the gonadotropin signal transduction pathway, we produced mice deficient in the FSH beta subunit and therefore in FSH using ES cell technology. (nih.gov)
  • To elucidate the molecular difference between these gonadotropins, the structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides of each β-subunit was determined. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The β-subunit of hCG gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) contains 145 amino acids, encoded by six highly homologous genes that are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q 13.3 - CGB ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 7 , 8 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In a previous study we demonstrated that in the ovariectomized estrogen-primed immature rat, progesterone induced a gonadotropin surge while the gonadotropin mRNA subunit levels were either suppressed or unaltered. (elsevier.com)
  • In pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin-primed immature rats, LH-β, FSH-β and α-subunit mRNA levels were significantly elevated at 1800 and 2000 h, paralleling the serum LH and FSH surge. (elsevier.com)
  • Different doses of equine chorionic gonadotropin on ovarian follicular growth and pregnancy rate of suckled Bos taurus beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination protocol. (bvsalud.org)
  • Decreasing photoperiod after the summer solstice causes secretion of melatonin, which triggers the hypothalamus to produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Knobil , E. On the control of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. (springer.com)
  • The central circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a critical component of the neuroendocrine circuit controlling gonadotropin secretion from the pituitary gland. (frontiersin.org)
  • It has been suggested that, rather then being singularly driven by the SCN, the timing of gonadotropin secretion depends on the activity of multiple hypothalamic oscillators. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this review is to highlight the current evidence for molecular clock function in the peripheral components of the female hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis as it relates to the timing of gonadotropin secretion, ovulation, and parturition. (frontiersin.org)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa , approximately 14.5 αhCG and 22.2kDa βhCG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal of Equine Veterinary Science (JEVS) is an international publication designed for the practicing equine veterinarian, equine researcher, and other equine health care specialist. (elsevier.com)
  • The most downloaded articles from Journal of Equine Veterinary Science in the last 90 days. (elsevier.com)
  • Double ovulations, hemorrhagic anovulatory follicles Investigators on one study published in the Journal of Equine Veterinary Science ( JEVS ) found mares were more likely to have double ovulations after receiving prostaglandin (PGF2-alpha), which is often used to manage a mare's estrous cycle. (thehorse.com)
  • Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Clulow J, Clulow S, Guo J, French AJ, Mahony MJ, Archer M. Optimisation of an oviposition protocol employing human chorionic and pregnant mare serum gonadotropins in the barred frog Mixophyes fasciolatus (Myobatrachidae). (ucdenver.edu)
  • An experiment was conducted to study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5′-untranslated regions (5′-UTR) of equine chorionic gonadotropin ( eCG ) genes and the serum eCG levels. (ajas.info)
  • Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares, previously known as pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, which was found in 40 to 130 days pregnant mare serum, first reported by Cole et al [ 1 ]. (ajas.info)
  • Serum gonadotropin levels display robust diurnal variation ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The release of 3H2O was not significantly altered by luteinizing hormone, FSH or pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin. (eurekamag.com)
  • Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were cultured in a control defined medium supplemented with eFSH (0 to 5 micrograms/ml), Fetal Calf Serum (FCS), precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis or glutamine according to the experiments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • equine chorionic gonadotropin in serum) as these methods are useful when examination by ultrasound ( per rectum or transabdominally) is not possible or feasible. (selectbreeders.com)
  • We offer Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins for use in common research applications: ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptides and Proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Results indicate that previously reported regulation of connexin 43 and COX-2 proteins during equine COC maturation may involve post-transcriptional mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin or HCG is a naturally occurring hormone that the body creates to protect and nourish the fetus, by taking the stored fat reserves and transforming them into nutrition for the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin ( hCG ) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation . (wikipedia.org)
  • With an interest in equine reproduction, Dr. Frank Bristol (1973) began studies on the characteristics and effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin and conjugated estrogens from pregnant mare urine. (usask.ca)
  • Minimal data has been accumulated so far involving human mutations in the FSH beta, LH beta, or the gonadotropin receptor genes. (nih.gov)
  • This lower responsiveness of ovaries from transgenic mice to gonadotropins was not associated with a decrease in FSH-, LH- or IGF-I receptor expression. (nih.gov)
  • The receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • As its name implies, thyrostimulin activates the TSH receptor, but does not act upon gonadotropin receptors [3] . (plos.org)
  • Recent studies have identified key factors involved in luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) gonadotropin gene transcription: the nuclear receptor SF-1, the bicoid -related homeoprotein Ptx1 (Pitx1), and the immediate-early Egr-1 gene. (asm.org)
  • 1991). "Expression of human luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor: interaction with LH and chorionic gonadotropin from human but not equine, rat, and ovine species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and expression of connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 and FSH receptor transcripts in equine cumuli oophori during in vivo and in vitro maturation in the presence of equine FSH (eFSH) and precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and FSH receptor (FSHr) mRNA were detected in equine cumulus cells before and after maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin: structure and activity. (springer.com)
  • In the pituitary of knockout mice, the absence of Egr-1 results in a lack of the gonadotropin luteinizing hormone β (LHβ) gene expression in gonadotrope cells despite the presence of other gonadotrope markers ( 29 , 55 ). (asm.org)
  • Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. (harvard.edu)
  • We find that though the equine gene is expressed and induced by cAMP, it does not contain the elements known to confer tissue-specific expression to the human gene, the cAMP response element (CRE) and the trophoblast-specific element (TSE), nor does it bind to the trans-acting factors CREB and TSEB. (nih.gov)
  • Antioxidants Reduce Ovulation Rate in Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG)/Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)-Treated Mice in Vivo. (pnas.org)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin has been known for decades as pregnancy related hormone that can help clinicians in early detection of pregnancy, it acts as a tumor marker in gestational trophoblastic tumors as well. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She was found to have endometrial thickening and an elevated B human chorionic gonadotropin level. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Circulating tumor markers (TMs) have a crucial role in decision-making for a limited number of malignancies, including testicular cancer in which human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a-fetoprotein, and lactate dehydrogenase have an established clinical application (4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The tissue was positive for an intrasellar pituitary germinoma, confirmed by positive human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) staining, C-kit, and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) (Figure 2). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, beta human chorionic gonadotropin ([beta]-hCG) was found to be the most predictive marker (9-13). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It remains unclear whether the introduction of human chorionic gonadotropin (r-hCG) as a method of triggering ovulation for IUI timing results in a higher clinical pregnancy rate when compared to IUI timed according to spontaneous LH surge. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bahl , O. P. The chemistry and biology of human chorionic gonadotropin Endocrinology and its subunits. (springer.com)
  • 2008). In humans, DiGlycFSH involves expression of recombinant hFSH[beta], separation, purification from soluble and insoluble fractions, folding, and re-association with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGa) (Tran et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This means that results gained from their studies in the horse may also be valuable beyond equine health to provide new knowledge relevant and applicable to human reproduction. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) has been used successfully to encourage ovulation in many mares for years, but there are a few that will not respond. (equine-reproduction.com)
  • The initiation of final maturation is present in antral-dominant follicles and is based on the mid-cyclic LH surge or administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Researchers on another study, this one from Theriogenology , investigated the incidence of HAF formation in mares given either cloprostenol (another form of prostaglandin) or human chorionic gonadotropin, or both. (thehorse.com)
  • They showed mares treated with cloprostenol had a slightly higher risk of HAF (8%) than mares given human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (thehorse.com)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin also plays a role in cellular differentiation/proliferation and may activate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first group was induced to ovulate with the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), while the others had saline, and the third had acupuncture. (tcmstudent.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are used as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to trigger ovulation and decrease the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. (escholarship.org)
  • Follow this up 48 hours later with a 7.5IU i.p. injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). (2bscientific.com)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is commonly used to induce ovulation in cycling mares and is often used to synchronize ovulation in mares being inseminated with frozen semen. (selectbreeders.com)
  • False-Negative Urine Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Testing in the Clinical Laboratory. (harvard.edu)
  • Considering Changes in the Recommended Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Monitoring After Molar Evacuation. (harvard.edu)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin and risk of pre-eclampsia: prospective population-based cohort study. (harvard.edu)
  • Hyperglycosylated human chorionic gonadotropin as a predictor of ongoing pregnancy. (harvard.edu)
  • Stimulation of ovaries by exogenous gonadotropins revealed that ovaries from transgenic mice ovulated less oocytes than nontransgenic mice. (nih.gov)
  • It is also unclear whether any differences in outcomes are due to the process of ovarian stimulation (OS) with high doses of gonadotropins prior to oocyte collection and/or the process of in vitro embryo culture. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • During the popular Kester News Hour session at the annual American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) Convention, three top veterinarians (who focus on equine reproduction, internal medicine, and lameness/surgery) summarized the top news topics and the most significant research reports of the year for a record crowd of equine veterinarians. (thehorse.com)
  • The 57th Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners was held November 18-22 in San Antonio, Texas. (selectbreeders.com)
  • With the addition of Ganirelix, Ferring continues to offer the most complete reproductive medicine portfolio available, which includes Menopur (menotropins for injection), NOVAREL ( chorionic gonadotropin for injection, USP) and Endometrin (progesterone) Vaginal Insert. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that preovulatory progesterone plays an important role in the increase in FSH-β mRNA levels as well as the release of LH and FSH during the normal preovulatory gonadotropin surge. (elsevier.com)
  • SucroMate Equine is indicated for inducing ovulation within 48 hours of treatment in cyclic estrous mares with an ovarian follicle between 30 and 40 mm in diameter. (valleyvet.com)
  • SucroMate Equine is a sustained release formulation that forms an in situ gel upon intramuscular injection. (valleyvet.com)
  • We assigned female mice to three groups: natural mating or mating following injection with equine chorionic gonadotropin and trigger with GnRHa or hCG trigger. (escholarship.org)
  • eCG is secreted from binucleate trophoblastic cells in endometrial cups, into maternal blood plasma during the first half of equine gestation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is synthesized by endometrial cups in pregnant mares and induces the formation of accessory corpora lutea. (ac.ir)
  • The history of the gonadotropins covers an amazingly short period of time considering the important role they play in basic physiology throughout the vertebrate animal kingdom. (springer.com)
  • Unlike most other aspects of physiology, the gonadotropins have no links to the ancient world or the omniscient observers of those times, such as Aristotle, Hippocrates, and Galen-not even to the all-encompassing cognition of the great Renaissance man Leonardo Da Vinci. (springer.com)
  • Physiology of the gonadotropins. (springer.com)
  • Although the effects of Gonadotropin on ovarian physiology have been known for many decades, its action on glucose uptake in the rat ovary remained poorly understood. (jove.com)
  • She teaches graduate, undergraduate veterinary and bioveterinary students in reproductive anatomy and physiology and equine stud medicine. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Chorionic gonadotropin (CG) is a placental hormone that maintains the corpus luteum (CL) during pregnancy [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, eCG may be an ideal model for studying the structure-function relations of gonadotropins because it possesses properties of both its pituitary and placental counterparts [ 8 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A full outline of a particular mare should include a year by year account of previous foals, incidence of early embryonic loss Abortion: early embryonic / fetal death , twinning Twinning , abortion Abortion: overview , cycling idiosyncrasies, eg silent heats Female: anestrus during ovulatory season and previous uterine infections Uterus: endometritis - bacterial especially venereal diseases Uterus: contagious equine metritis . (vetstream.com)
  • They spend from two to five years in intenstive training in such specialties as food animal production medicine, small animal surgery, imaging, ophthalmology, cardiology, equine medicine, pathology, oncology, nutrition and other fields that prepare residents for specialty practice or academic careers. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Changes in mRNA and protein expression of POR in the rat ovary or in granulosa cells induced by gonadotropin treatment were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we examined the rat ovary for the presence of Glut1-4 and blood glucose level after eCG (equine chorionic gonadotropin) and anti-eCG antiserum treatment. (jove.com)
  • We demonstrated that the expression of POR, together with that of aromatase, was regulated by gonadotropins, and that its induction could up-regulate aromatase activity in the ovary, resulting in a coordinated increase in estrogen production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The basic research studies presented here are important because of the essential role of gonadotropins in regulating the ovary and testis. (moluna.de)
  • Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) has been used in FTAI protocols to improve follicular growth and thereby to produce larger, more responsive follicles for ovulation with increased pregnancy rates. (ac.ir)
  • Examination of ovarian follicular population revealed a marked decrease in the number of corpora lutea and gonadotropin-dependent follicles, suggesting an alteration of terminal follicular growth and ovulation. (nih.gov)
  • Equine chorionic gonadotropin (acronym given as eCG but not to be confused with ECG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collection of blood from pregnant mares for extraction of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a critical but relatively unknown and poorly regulated practice in the countries in which it occurs. (awionline.org)
  • Uterine responses and equine chorionic gonadotropin concentrations after two intrauterine infusions with kerosene post early fetal loss in mares. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Ed Squiresof the University of Kentucky presented results of a study evaluating the effectiveness of a new sustained release deslorelin acetate product (SucroMate,TM Equine, CreoSalus, Inc., Louisville, KY) for the induction of ovulation in mares. (selectbreeders.com)
  • Purification and characterization of the gonadotropin secreted by cultured horse trophoblast cells. (springer.com)
  • In this context we examined the regulation of POR expression in ovarian granulosa cells by gonadotropins, and its possible role in steroidogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Effect of Administering Equine Chorionic Gonadotropins (eCG) on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows with a CO-Synch + CIDR Protocol and Insemination at a Fixed Time', Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science , 6(3), pp. 557-562. (ac.ir)
  • Manshadi, M., Rastegarnia, A., Esmaeili Sani, S. The Effect of Administering Equine Chorionic Gonadotropins (eCG) on Reproductive Performance of Dairy Cows with a CO-Synch + CIDR Protocol and Insemination at a Fixed Time. (ac.ir)
  • When considering common causes of infertility in the mare, the oviduct is one of the last places an equine reproductive specialist looks. (selectbreeders.com)
  • Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and lutropin (eLH) are composed of α- and β-subunits with an identical amino acid sequence but show different biological activities. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Stimulates release of pituitary gonadotropins. (medscape.com)
  • Like any other gonadotropins , it can be extracted from the urine of pregnant women or produced from cultures of genetically modified cells using recombinant DNA technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following graduation, she worked as a veterinarian in equine specialist practice in Scone, Australia and Newmarket, United Kingdom furthering her interest in equine reproduction and neonatology. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Effect of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) administration and proestrus length on ovarian response, uterine functionality and pregnancy rate in beef heifers inseminated at a fixed-time. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The LHCGR is present on granulosa cells , theca cells, luteal cells, and interstitial cells [6] The LCGR is restimulated by increasing levels of chorionic gonadotropins in case a pregnancy is developing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her studies, which are primarily in the horse, address fundamental questions that aim to result in the development of novel therapies to treat and clincially manage conditions of equine pregnancy and infertility (e.g. abortion). (rvc.ac.uk)
  • In 2001, Mandi started a PhD in Biomedical Sciences at the John Curtin School of Medical Research ( JCSMR Website ), Australian National University, whilst continuing work part-time as an equine veterinarian. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Based on the assumption that the release of 3H2O represents total aromatization, these data suggest that the equine granulosa cells have a very active aromatizing enzyme system. (eurekamag.com)
  • Her interest in research begun as a veterinary student during which time she spent two summers in the U.S.A in the laboratories of Professor Douglas Antczak (Cornell University) and Dr. Craig Altier (North Carolina State University) working on projects in the fields of equine genomics and reproduction. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • She currently is an Associate Editor for Frontiers in Reproduction and a member of the International Symposium of Equine Reproduction Committee and Local Organising Committee for ISER 2018. (rvc.ac.uk)
  • Please note that opinions, product information, advice or suggestions posted on this bulletin board are not necessarily those of the management at Equine-Reproduction.com nor does the maintenance of the post position indicate an implicit or any endorsement of that information, opinion or product. (equine-reproduction.com)
  • In the equine breeding industry, many different assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) are widely used to aid the management of equine reproduction. (selectbreeders.com)
  • Paul Loomis attending the conference and prepared this brief summary of a few of the interesting papers presented in the area of equine reproduction. (selectbreeders.com)
  • 2019. Horse welfare during equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) production. (awionline.org)
  • The SCN conveys photic information to hypothalamic targets including the gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons. (frontiersin.org)