Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Receptors, Gonadotropin: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Choriocarcinoma: A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Gonadotrophs: Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyPituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Trophoblastic Neoplasms: Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Puberty, Precocious: Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.Kisspeptins: Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hydatidiform Mole: Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone: A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Follicular Atresia: The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.Reproductive Control Agents: Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A: A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Diestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: A group of diseases arising from pregnancy that are commonly associated with hyperplasia of trophoblasts (TROPHOBLAST) and markedly elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. They include HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, invasive mole (HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, INVASIVE), placental-site trophoblastic tumor (TROPHOBLASTIC TUMOR, PLACENTAL SITE), and CHORIOCARCINOMA. These neoplasms have varying propensities for invasion and spread.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Oocyte Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.Puberty, Delayed: The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Triptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Thecoma: A gonadal stromal neoplasm composed only of THECA CELLS, occurring mostly in the postmenopausal OVARY. It is filled with lipid-containing spindle cells and produces ESTROGENS that can lead to ENDOMETRIAL HYPERPLASIA; UTERINE HEMORRHAGE; or other malignancies in postmenopausal women and sexual precocity in girls. When tumors containing theca cells also contain FIBROBLASTS, they are identified as thecoma-fibroma tumors with less active hormone production.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate: A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Luteal Cells: PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Oncorhynchus kisutch: An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Spermatogenesis-Blocking Agents: Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Neurokinin B: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Pregnancy Tests, Immunologic: Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Metestrus: The period following ESTRUS during which the phenomena of estrus subside in those animals in which pregnancy or pseudopregnancy does not occur.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.20-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 184.108.40.206) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 220.127.116.11).Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Norprogesterones: Progesterones which have undergone ring contraction or which are lacking carbon 18 or 19.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Vitellogenesis: The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone: A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Hypothalamus, Middle: Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Prolactin replacement fails to inhibit reactivation of gonadotropin secretion in rams treated with melatonin under long days. (1/872)This study tested the hypothesis that prolactin (PRL) inhibits gonadotropin secretion in rams maintained under long days and that treatment with melatonin (s.c. continuous-release implant; MEL-IMP) reactivates the reproductive axis by suppressing PRL secretion. Adult Soay rams were maintained under long days (16L:8D) and received 1) no further treatment (control, C); 2) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and injections of saline/vehicle for the first 8 wk (M); 3) MEL-IMP for 16 wk and exogenous PRL (s.c. 5 mg ovine PRL 3x daily) for the first 8 wk (M+P). The treatment with melatonin induced a rapid increase in the blood concentrations of FSH and testosterone, rapid growth of the testes, an increase in the frequency of LH pulses, and a decrease in the LH response to N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid. The concomitant treatment with exogenous PRL had no effect on these reproductive responses but caused a significant delay in the timing of the sexual skin color and growth of the winter pelage. These results do not support the hypothesis and suggest that PRL at physiological long-day concentrations, while being totally ineffective as an inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion, acts in the peripheral tissues and skin to maintain summer characteristics. (+info)
Why is the retention of gonadotrophin secretion common in children with panhypopituitarism due to septo-optic dysplasia? (2/872)Septo-optic dysplasia (De Morsier syndrome) is a developmental anomaly of mid-line brain structures and includes optic nerve hypoplasia, absence of the septum pellucidum and hypothalamo-pituitary abnormalities. We describe seven patients (four female, three male) who had at least two out of the three features necessary for the diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia. Four patients had hypopituitarism and yet normal gonadotrophin secretion: one of these also had anti-diuretic hormone insufficiency; three had isolated GH deficiency and yet had premature puberty, with the onset of puberty at least a year earlier than would have been expected for their bone age. In any progressive and evolving anterior pituitary lesion it is extremely unusual to lose corticotrophin-releasing hormone/ACTH and TRH/TSH secretion and yet to retain gonadotrophin secretion. GnRH neurons develop in the nasal mucosa and migrate to the hypothalamus in early fetal life. We hypothesise that the arrival of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus after the development of a midline hypothalamic defect may explain these phenomena. Progress in spontaneous/premature puberty in children with De Morsier syndrome may have important implications for management. The combination of GH deficiency and premature puberty may allow an apparently normal growth rate but with an inappropriately advanced bone age resulting in impaired final stature. GnRH analogues may be a therapeutic option. In conclusion, some patients with De Morsier syndrome appear to retain the ability to secrete gonadotrophins in the face of loss of other hypothalamic releasing factors. The migration of GnRH neurons after the development of the midline defect may be an explanation. (+info)
Hormonal and genetic control of germ cell apoptosis in the testis. (3/872)Programmed cell death is an evolutionarily conserved cell death process that plays a major role during normal development and homeostasis. In many cases, the ordered execution of this internal death programme leads to typical morphological and biochemical changes that have been termed apoptosis. The crucial role of this mode of cell death in the pathogenesis of diverse human diseases including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, neurodegeneratives disorders, atherosclerosis and cardiomyopathy is now supported by a wealth of data. In adult mammals, including humans, germ cell death is conspicuous during normal spermatogenesis and plays a pivotal role in sperm output. Withdrawal of gonadotrophins and testosterone further enhances the degeneration of germ cells in the testis. The availability of a quantitative method for analysing the testicular DNA fragmentation and in situ methods to localize specific germ cells undergoing apoptosis, either spontaneously or in response to a variety of death triggering signals, opens new avenues in the understanding of the significance of germ cell apoptosis during normal and abnormal states of spermatogenesis. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that both spontaneous (during normal spermatogenesis) and accelerated germ cell death triggered by deprivation of the gonadotrophic support or moderately increased scrotal temperature in adult rats occur almost exclusively via apoptosis. Although there has been spectacular progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis in various systems other than spermatogenesis, elucidation of the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which germ cell apoptosis is regulated has only just begun. It is likely that germ cell apoptosis is controlled in a cell-type specific fashion, but the basic elements of the death machinery may be universal. In addition, there is increasing evidence that homozygous disruption of a number of genes in mice results in infertility through accelerated germ cell apoptosis. Manipulation of spermatogenesis by survival factor(s) deprivation or increases in extrinsic death signals in loss-of-function or gain-of-function mouse models provides a basis for further attempts to define the intrinsic regulation of various death-related genes by external death signals. Such information is crucial for effective management of male factor infertility as well as more targeted approaches to male contraception. (+info)
Leptin and reproduction. (4/872)In the few years since leptin was identified as a satiety factor in rodents, it has been implicated in the regulation of various physiological processes. Leptin has been shown to promote sexual maturation in rodent species and a role in reproduction has been investigated at various sites within the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review considers the evidence that leptin (or alteration in amount of body fat) can affect reproduction. There is evidence that leptin plays a permissive role in the onset of puberty, probably through action on the hypothalamus, where leptin receptors are found in cells that express appetite-regulating peptides. There is little evidence that leptin has a positive effect on the pituitary gonadotrophs and the gonads. There is also very little indication that leptin acts in an acute manner to regulate reproduction in the short term. It seems more likely that leptin is a 'barometer' of body condition that sends signals to the brain. Studies in vitro have shown negative effects on ovarian steroid production and there are no reports of effects on testicular function. Leptin concentrations in plasma increase in women during pregnancy, owing to production by the placenta but the functional significance of this is unknown. A number of factors that affect the production and action of leptin have yet to be studied in detail. (+info)
Hormonal changes in thalassaemia major. (5/872)Patients with severe thalassaemia major suffer endocrine and other abnormalities before their eventual death from iron overload due to repeated blood transfusions. The endocrine status of 31 thalassaemic patients aged 2-5 to 23 years was investigated. Exact data were available on the rate and duration of blood transfusion in all of them and in many the liver iron concentration was also known. Although the patients were euthyroid, the mean serum thyroxine level was significantly lower, and the mean thyrotrophic hormone level significantly higher, compared with the values found in normal children. Forty oral glucose tolerance tests with simultaneous insulin levels were performed in 19 children, of whom 5 developed symptomatic diabetes and one had impaired tolerance. Previous tests on all 6 patients were available and some showed raised insulin levels possibly due to insulin resistance. 2 patients had clinical hypoparathyroidism and are described. The parathyroid hormone levels determined by radioimmunoassay in 25 patients were below the mean for the age group in all and outside the reference range in 16. Nonfasting plasma calcium levels were not reduced. Puberty was delayed in some patients. Concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) measured in urine from 7 girls and 5 boys showed considerable variation. In the boys there was an overall tendency for FSH and LH excretion to be low with regard to age, but with respect to puberty rating FSH exretions were normal or low and LH normal or raised. The girls showed a tendency for LH but not FSH excretion to be raised in relation to puberty rating. The severity of the endocrine changes was related to the degree of iron loading and is discussed in relation to previous work in which the iron loading has rarely been accurately indicated nor parathyroid status assessed. (+info)
A proposed sequence of hormones controlling the induction of luteal 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase and progesterone withdrawal in the late-pregnant rat. (6/872)1. The previously reported induction of luteal 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase by administration of aminoglutethimide to late-pregnant rats was shown to be unaffected by prior removal of the foetuses. Aminoglutethimide therefore does not act via the foetuses in this context. 2. The ability of injected oestrogen to prevent the above induction was lost by delaying the injection for 12h after aminoglutethimide, although the increase in enzyme activity begins only after 24h. 3. Induction of 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase by foetoplacental removal on day 18 of pregnancy was inhibited by human choriogonadotropin, lutropin (luteinizing hormone) and pregnant-mare serum gonadotropin, but not by somatotropin (growth hormone), thyrotropin or follitropin (follicle-stimulating hormone) 4. Indomethacin blocked the normal induction of 20alpha-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase in late pregnancy and that caused by aminoglutethimide. It partially blocked that caused by human choriogonadotropin given on days 19-20 and that caused by 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine on days 5-6, but failed to block that caused by human choriogonadotropin on days 15-16 or by foetoplacental removal on day 18 of pregnancy. 5. These findings, and the control of progesterone synthesis in late pregnancy, are interpreted in terms of a sequence of hormonal or enzymic syntheses, each of which is inhibited by the product of the preceding synthesis. (+info)
Differential regulation of the gonadotropin storage pattern by gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency in the ewe. (7/872)The differential control of gonadotropin secretion by GnRH pulse frequency may reflect changes in the storage of LH and FSH. To test this hypothesis, ovariectomized ewes passively immunized against GnRH received pulsatile injections of saline (group 1) or GnRH analogue: 1 pulse/6 h for group 2 or 1 pulse/h for group 3, during 48 h. Immunization against GnRH suppressed pulsatility of LH release and reduced mean FSH plasma levels (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.2 +/- 0.1 ng/ml before and 3 days after immunization, respectively). Pulsatile GnRH analogue replacement restored LH pulses but not FSH plasma levels. Low and high frequencies of GnRH analogue increased the percentage of LH-containing cells in a similar way (group 1 = 6.9 +/- 0.5% vs. group 2 = 10.5 +/- 0.8%, or vs. group 3 = 9.6 +/- 0.4%). In contrast, the rise of the percentage of FSH-containing cells was greater after administration of the analogue at low frequency than at high frequency (group 1 = 3.7 +/- 0.4% vs. group 2 = 8.4 +/- 0.2%, or vs. group 3 = 5.2 +/- 0.8%). Moreover, while GnRH pulse frequency had no differential effect on FSHbeta mRNA levels, LHbeta mRNA levels were higher under high than low frequency. These data showed that the frequency of GnRH pulses can modulate the gonadotropin storage pattern in the ewe. These changes may be a component of the differential regulation of LH and FSH secretion. (+info)
Intramuscular injection of testosterone undecanoate for the treatment of male hypogonadism: phase I studies. (8/872)OBJECTIVE: In the search for long-acting testosterone preparations suited for substitution therapy of hypogonadal men, testosterone undecanoate (TU) dissolved in either tea seed oil or castor oil was investigated. DESIGN: In study I, 1000 mg TU in tea seed oil (125 mg/ml) were injected in equal parts into the gluteal muscles of seven hypogonadal men. In study II, 1000 mg TU in castor oil (250 mg/ml) were injected into one gluteal muscle of 14 patients. RESULTS: In comparison with published data on testosterone enanthate, most widely used for i.m. injections, the kinetic profiles of both TU preparations showed extended half-lives and serum levels not exceeding the upper limit of normal. The castor oil preparation had a longer half-life than TU in tea seed oil (33.9+/-4.9 vs 20.9+/-6.0 days (mean pm S.E.M.)). CONCLUSION: The longer half-life and the smaller injection volume make TU in castor oil a strong candidate for further applications in substitution therapy and in trials for male contraception. (+info)
EFFECT OF PROGESTERONE ON GONADOTROPIN SECRETION - Augusta University Research Profiles
Significant progress has been made during the last 5 years in elucidating the complex mechanisms involved in the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of progesterone on gonadotropin secretion. From these studies, a multifactorial hypothesis explaining regulation of gonadotropin secretion by progesterone has been proposed which includes progesterone regulation of estrogen receptor dynamics, modulation of opioid tone, and modulation of GABA and glutamate neurotransmission of the positive and negative feedback effects of progesterone. This renewal application will further elucidate mechanisms involved with the initiation and termination of the gonadotropin surge and has 4 specific aims. SPECIFIC AIM 1 will determine the mechanism of an increase in estrogen receptors of the pituitary associated with the termination of the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. The study will include measurement of pituitary ER mRNA transcription and translation along with ER binding and degradation. The role of a ...
Influence of gonadotropin treatment interval on follicular maturation, in vitro fertilization, circulating steroid...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of gonadotropin treatment interval on follicular maturation, in vitro fertilization, circulating steroid concentrations, and subsequent luteal function in the domestic cat. AU - Donoghue, A. M.. AU - Johnston, L. A.. AU - Munson, L.. AU - Brown, J. L.. AU - Wildt, D. E.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0026588176&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0026588176&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 1591354. AN - SCOPUS:0026588176. VL - 46. SP - 972. EP - 980. JO - Biology of Reproduction. JF - Biology of Reproduction. SN - 0006-3363. IS - 5. ER - ...
Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist Photos | Images of Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist - Times of India
Gonadotropins | Springer for Research & Development
Gentaur Molecular :QED \ Anti Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Mono \ 19304
Structure and Function of the Gonadotropins
www.MOLUNA.de Structure and Function of the Gonadotropins  - In September of 1977 scientists from many countries met at the Asticou Inn in Maine to present and discuss papers written especially for this monograph. The presentations were informal and directed to the special interests of the audience in order to generate discussions. The authors, many of whom are pioneers
Overview of IVF Medications: Gonadotropins
Involvement of endogenous gabaergic system in the modulation of gonadotropin secretion in normal cycling women. | IRIS UNIPV
To investigate whether endogenous GABA participates in the control of gonadotropin secretion during the menstrual cycle, placebo or sodium valproate (DPA), an anticonvulsant drug which enhances endogenous GABA content by blocking GABA degradation, were administered to regularly cycling women both during early follicular and midluteal phase. In a first set of experiments, the effect of DPA administration (400 mg, orally) on basal gonadotropin secretion was evaluated in 13 subjects. During early follicular phase (n = 6), no significant changes in plasma gonadotropin levels were observed after DPA or placebo administration. Conversely, during midluteal phase (n = 7), DPA administration resulted in a significant fall (p less than 0.01) in plasma LH concentrations, with a maximal percent decrease of 41.8 +/- 6.7% after 120 min. No changes in plasma FSH levels were observed. In a second set of experiments, the effect of DPA pretreatment (400 mg, orally) on gonadotropin release stimulated by a pulse of ...
gonadotropic hormone facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about gonadotropic hormone
Gonadotropin modulation of interleukin-1 secretion.<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gonadotropin modulation of interleukin-1 secretion.. AU - Corwin, E. J.. AU - Cannon, Joseph Gerard. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of pituitary gonadotropins, which increase dramatically in concentration at ovulation and in the early years of the postmenopausal transition, on inflammatory cytokine production. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population sampling, in vitro experimentation. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy subjects, including six men, five women between the ages of 18 and 35 years, and four women who were four to 20 years past menopause. METHOD: Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with physiological concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secreted into the supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Under basal conditions, FSH stimulated IL-1 beta secretion by cells ...
Purchase Ipamorelin | buy Ipamorelin online | eagletropin.com
A comparison between chorionic gonadotrophins extracted from human, rhesus monkey and marmoset placentae
Evidence is provided to show that chorionic gonadotrophins extracted from the human, rhesus monkey and marmoset placentae have antigenic determinants in common. Similar slopes were obtained for these gonadotrophins in a radioimmunoassay for human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The biological activity of the monkey gonadotrophins was neutralized by anti-HCG serum. When the gonadotrophic activity of the monkey placental extracts was assayed biologically and immunologically, using HCG as a standard, similar results were obtained. Higher values were obtained by the immunoassay than by the bioassay when extracts of human placenta were assayed using the same HCG standard.. ...
Buy Ipamorelin online | Purchase Ipamorelin Peptides | USA Made Ipamorelin 2mg For Sale
gonadotropin - Everything2.com
Timing the Preovulatory Surge of Gonadotropin Secretion | SpringerLink
HCG)Human Chronic Gonadotropin
Gonadotropins: From Bench Side to Bedside, Volume 143 - 1st Edition
RCPA - Gonadotrophins
Chorionic gonadotropic hormone | definition of chorionic gonadotropic hormone by Medical dictionary
Pituitary gonadotropins - definition of pituitary gonadotropins by The Free Dictionary
Define pituitary gonadotropins. pituitary gonadotropins synonyms, pituitary gonadotropins pronunciation, pituitary gonadotropins translation, English dictionary definition of pituitary gonadotropins. n. pl. pi·tu·i·tar·ies 1. The pituitary gland. 2. Medicine An extract from the anterior or posterior lobes of the pituitary gland, prepared for therapeutic...
buy Human chorionic gonadotropin online,Human chorionic gonadotropin sale [2000iu/vial] - $70.00
buy Human chorionic gonadotropin online,Human chorionic gonadotropin sale,hcg cost, Human chorionic gonadotropin,hcg vial,comprar hcg,hcg weight loss,hcg injections,buy hcg online,hcg vial,hcg price,chorionic gonadotropin,cheap hcg,wholesale hcg,purchase hcg,human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the syncytiotrophoblast, a portion of the placenta following implantation.
Gonadotropins are fertility drugs that may be prescribed when you are undergoing fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI). There are several different types: human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG). follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Fertility doctors typically use a combination of hMG/hCG or FSH/hCG to stimulate ovulation. Human menopausal gonadotropins (HMGs) contain approximately equal amounts of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). hMG is administered by injection and directly stimulates the ovaries to induce the development and ovulation of one or more follicles. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is an injectable drug containing genetically engineered FSH and is used to stimulate ovulation and help the ovaries produce multiple eggs.. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) helps with the final maturation of the eggs and triggers the ovaries to release the mature eggs. Your fertility
Gonadotropin | definition of gonadotropin by Medical dictionary
Chorionic Gonadotropin Injection Ip 5000 Iu Uses - Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Buy Australia
Buy Fertigyn 10000 IU by Sun Pharmaceuticals - Legal Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Purchase
China 2mg/Vial Ipamorelin Legal Injectable Polypeptide for Build Muscle 170851-70-4 - China Ipamorelin, Ipamorelin for Sale
Chorionic Gonadotropin Injection - Aviencepharma
HCG (Human Choronic Gonadotropin)
Effects of norethindrone on gonad... preview & related info | Mendeley
Antibody to Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hCG | Molecular Depot
Buy Human Chorionic Gonadotropin HCG 5000IU l Apoxar
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hCG - All You Need to Know!
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin for Pregnant Women
Overexpression of human chorionic gonadotropin causes multiple...
Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Beta-hCG) ELISA Kit
Research and Markets - Global Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Market Analysis - Trends, Technologies &
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ELISA Kit (ab108636) References
Gonadotropins promote human ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion via a cyclooxygenase 2-dependent pathway. - literature...
Fertility Drugs: Gonadotropins<...
D-LEU<sup>6</sup>DES-GLY-NH<sub>2</sub><sup>10</sup>, pro-ethylamide<sup>9</sup>]-gonadotropin releasing hormone (leuprolide):...
TY - JOUR. T1 - [D-LEU6DES-GLY-NH210, pro-ethylamide9]-gonadotropin releasing hormone (leuprolide). T2 - a medical castration for the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. AU - Warner, B. A.. AU - Santen, R. J.. AU - Demers, L. M.. AU - Max, D. T.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019723220&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019723220&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019723220. VL - 29. SP - 666A. JO - Journal of Investigative Medicine. JF - Journal of Investigative Medicine. SN - 1081-5589. IS - 3. ER - ...
Human Reproduction Problem Set
For the first 12 days of the menstrual cycle, estrogen has a negative effect on the production of gonadotropins. Following these 12 days the negative effect changes to a positive effect on the production of gonadotropic hormones. This results in a small increase of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), but a large increase of luteinizing hormone (LH.) Ovulation ...
KAKEN - Research Projects | Study on the assesment of effective and safe protocols in ovulation induction by gonadotropin...
Role of Central Monoamines in Regulation of Gonadotropin-II Secretion | SpringerLink
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Reproductive Glands
In addition to producing egg cells, the ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, which affect many of the female characteristics and reproductive functions. The levels of secreted estrogen and progesterone are controlled by gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The ovaries also contain the egg cells necessary for reproduction.. ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Reproductive Glands
In addition to producing egg cells, the ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, which affect many of the female characteristics and reproductive functions. The levels of secreted estrogen and progesterone are controlled by gonadotropic hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The ovaries also contain the egg cells necessary for reproduction.. ...
An Elevated Value for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
Cardiovascular morbidity associated with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists and an antagonist - Abstract
DIAsource - Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
Ipamorelin Ibinebenta - Saan Upang Bumili ng Legal Peptides Online - Steroidly
Gonadal and nongonadal mechanisms contribute to the prepuberta...
3 Months HCG 5000 IU Incl. Mixing Supplies Buy HCG online safely
Buy Hucog HCG 5000IU online - Generic HCG 5000IU Injection Cheap Price
Buy Real HCG - HCGRX.com
Hucog 10000 i.u | HCG HP 10000 - Buy Online at VaccimedPharmacy
Alere Actim - Alere
Portable carbon dioxide analyser
Human chorionic gonadotropin
... (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation. The presence of hCG is ... Human chorionic gonadotropin can be used as a tumor marker, as its β subunit is secreted by some cancers including seminoma ... Human chorionic gonadotropin is a glycoprotein composed of 237 amino acids with a molecular mass of 36.7 kDa, approximately ... Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum ...
... is an aminonucleoside antibiotic, derived from the Streptomyces alboniger bacterium, that causes premature chain termination during translation taking place in the ribosome. Part of the molecule resembles the 3' end of the aminoacylated tRNA. It enters the A site and transfers to the growing chain, causing the formation of a puromycylated nascent chain and premature chain release. The exact mechanism of action is unknown at this time but the 3' position contains an amide linkage instead of the normal ester linkage of tRNA. That makes the molecule much more resistant to hydrolysis and stops the ribosome. Puromycin is selective for either prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Also of note, puromycin is critical in mRNA display. In this reaction, a puromycin molecule is chemically attached to the end of an mRNA template, which is then translated into protein. The puromycin can then form a covalent link to the growing peptide chain allowing the mRNA to be physically linked to its translational ...
... (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see Proteinogenic amino acid) in humans. GLP-2 is created by specific post-translational proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon in a process that also liberates the related glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). GLP-2 is produced by the intestinal endocrine L cell and by various neurons in the central nervous system. Intestinal GLP-2 is co-secreted along with GLP-1 upon nutrient ingestion. When externally administered, GLP-2 produces a number of effects in humans and rodents, including intestinal growth, enhancement of intestinal function, reduction in bone breakdown and neuroprotection. GLP-2 may act in an endocrine fashion to link intestinal growth and metabolism with nutrient intake. GLP-2 and related analogs may be treatments for short bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, osteoporosis and as adjuvant therapy during cancer chemotherapy. ...
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone cholecystokinin. Unlike cholecystokin which has a variety of roles in the gastrointestinal system as well as central nervous system effects, CCK-4 acts primarily in the brain as an anxiogenic, although it does retain some GI effects, but not as much as CCK-8 or the full length polypeptide CCK-58. CCK-4 reliably causes severe anxiety symptoms when administered to humans in a dose of as little as 50μg, and is commonly used in scientific research to induce panic attacks for the purpose of testing new anxiolytic drugs. Since it is a peptide, CCK-4 must be administered by injection, and is rapidly broken down once inside the body so has only a short duration of action, although numerous synthetic analogues with modified properties are known. ...
... (INN) (code name MK-0974) is a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist which was an investigational drug for the acute treatment and prevention of migraine, developed by Merck & Co.. In the acute treatment of migraine, it was found to have equal potency to rizatriptan and zolmitriptan A Phase IIa clinical trial studying telcagepant for the prophylaxis of episodic migraine was stopped on March 26, 2009 after the "identification of two patients with significant elevations in serum transaminases". A memo to study locations stated that telcagepant had preliminarily been reported to increase the hepatic liver enzyme alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in "11 out of 660 randomized (double-blinded) study participants." All study participants were told to stop taking the medication. On July 2011, Merck announced that it had discontinued development of telcagepant. ...
... , also called chorionic somatomammotropin, is a polypeptide placental hormone, part of the somatotropin family. Its structure and function is similar to that of growth hormone. It modifies the metabolic state of the mother during pregnancy to facilitate the energy supply of the fetus. For information on the human form, see human placental lactogen. Placental lactogen I and II were identified as prolactin-like molecules that can bind to prolactin receptor with high affinity and mimic the actions of prolactin. These hormones can contribute to lactogenesis, luteal maintenance and progesterone production (in rats) during the later stages of gestation. Placental lactogen I may be important in stimulating mammary cell proliferation and in stimulating some of the adaptations of the maternal lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. ...
Neurotensin receptor 1
Toy-Miou-Leong M, Cortes CL, Beaudet A, Rostène W, Forgez P (Mar 2004). "Receptor trafficking via the perinuclear recycling compartment accompanied by cell division is necessary for permanent neurotensin cell sensitization and leads to chronic mitogen-activated protein kinase activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (13): 12636-46. doi:10.1074/jbc.M303384200. PMID 14699144 ...
ProIAPP has been linked to Type 2 diabetes and the loss of islet β-cells. Islet amyloid formation, initiated by the aggregation of proIAPP, may contribute to this progressive loss of islet β-cells. It is thought that proIAPP forms the first granules that allow for IAPP to aggregate and form amyloid which may lead to amyloid-induced apoptosis of β-cells. IAPP is cosecreted with insulin. Insulin resistance in Type 2 diabetes produces a greater demand for insulin production which results in the secretion of proinsulin. ProIAPP is secreted simultaneously, however, the enzymes that convert these precursor molecules into insulin and IAPP, respectively, are not able to keep up with the high levels of secretion, ultimately leading to the accumulation of proIAPP. In particular, the impaired processing of proIAPP that occurs at the N-terminal cleavage site is a key factor in the initiation of amyloid. Post-translational modification of proIAPP occurs at both the carboxy terminus and the ...
Cholecystokinin B receptor
CCK receptors significantly influence neurotransmission in the brain, regulating anxiety, feeding, and locomotion. CCK-B expression may correlate parallel to anxiety and depression phenotypes in humans. CCK-B receptors possess a complex regulation of dopamine activity in the brain. CCK-B activation appears to possess a general inhibitory action on dopamine activity in the brain, opposing the dopamine-enhancing effects of CCK-A. However, the effects of CCK-B on dopamine activity vary depending on location. CCK-B antagonism enhances dopamine release in rat striatum. Activation enhances GABA release in rat anterior nucleus accumbens. CCK-B receptors modulate dopamine release, and influence the development of tolerance to opioids. CCK-B activation decreases amphetamine-induced DA release, and contributes to individual variability in response to amphetamine. In rats, CCK-B antagonism prevents the stress-induced reactivation of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, and ...
In industry, EDTA is mainly used to sequester metal ions in aqueous solution. In the textile industry, it prevents metal ion impurities from modifying colors of dyed products. In the pulp and paper industry, EDTA inhibits the ability of metal ions, especially Mn2+, from catalyzing the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide, which is used in chlorine-free bleaching. In a similar manner, EDTA is added to some food as a preservative or stabilizer to prevent catalytic oxidative decoloration, which is catalyzed by metal ions. In soft drinks containing ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, EDTA mitigates formation of benzene (a carcinogen). The reduction of water hardness in laundry applications and the dissolution of scale in boilers both rely on EDTA and related complexants to bind Ca2+, Mg2+, as well as other metal ions. Once bound to EDTA, these metal centers tend not to form precipitates or to interfere with the action of the soaps and detergents. For similar reasons, cleaning solutions often ...
"gonadotropin". The Free Dictionary. Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. Elsevier. 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2012.. ... This secretion is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone produced in the hypothalamus. ... "Hormones of the Hypothalamus: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)". Kimball's Biology Pages. John W. Kimball (The Saylor ...
Nuggehalli Raghuveer Moudgal
He was known for his pioneering researches on gonadotropin and was an elected fellow of the Indian Academy of Sciences and the ... He organized an International Symposium on gonadotropins which was attended by some of the major names in the field of ... He presented a research paper, Gonadotropins and Their Antibodies, at the Laurentian Hormone Research Conference (LHRC) held at ... 156-. ISBN 978-1-4684-5140-5. N Moudgal (2 December 2012). Gonadotropins and Gonadal Function. Elsevier. pp. 6-. ISBN 978-0-323 ...
Combined rapid anterior pituitary evaluation panel
... is a potent endothelium-dependent vasodilator, leading to a drop in blood pressure. It also causes contraction of non-vascular smooth muscle in the bronchus and gut, increases vascular permeability and is also involved in the mechanism of pain. Bradykinin also causes natriuresis, contributing to the drop in blood pressure. Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has only been confirmed in-vitro. Bradykinin is also thought to be the cause of the dry cough in some patients on widely prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drugs. It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme leads to increased levels of bradykinin, which causes a dry cough via bronchoconstriction. In severe cases, the elevation of bradykinin may result in angioedema, a medical emergency. People of African descent have up to 5x increased risk of ACE ...
Galanin receptor 1
In 1998, reports of the discovery of orexin/hypocretin were published nearly simultaneously. Luis de Lecea, Thomas Kilduff, and colleagues reported the discovery of the hypocretin system at the same time as Takeshi Sakurai from Masashi Yanagisawa's lab at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas reported the discovery of the orexins to reflect the orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) activity of these peptides. In their 1998 paper describing these neuropeptides, they also reported discovery of two orexin receptors, dubbed OX1R and OX2R. The two groups also took different approaches towards their discovery. One team was interested in finding new genes that were expressed in the hypothalamus. In 1996, scientists from the Scripps Research Institute reported the discovery of several genes in the rat brain, including one they dubbed "clone 35." Their work showed that clone 35 expression was limited to the lateral hypothalamus. They extracted selective DNA found in the lateral ...
Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2
The human CRHR2 gene contains 12 exons. Three major functional isoforms, alpha (411 amino acids), beta (438 amino acids), and gamma (397 amino acids), encoded by transcripts with alternative first exons, differ only in the N-terminal sequence comprising the signal peptide and part of the extracellular domain (amino acids 18-108 of CRHR2 alpha); the unique N-terminal sequence of each isoform (34 amino acids in CRHR2 alpha; 61 amino acids in Hs CRHR2 beta; 20 amino acids in CRHR2 gamma) is followed by a sequence common to all isoforms (377 amino acids) comprising most of the multi-pass transmembrane domain followed by a cytoplasmic domain of 47 amino acids. CRHR2 beta is expressed in human brain; CRHR2 alpha predominates in peripheral tissues. The N-terminal signal peptides of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 and CRHR2 beta are cleaved off in the endoplasmic reticulum to yield the mature receptors. In contrast, CRHR2 alpha contains a unique pseudo signal peptide that is not removed ...
Gonadotropin secretion is brought about and regulated by gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). GnRH leads to the release of ... The onset of puberty is marked by an increase in gonadotropin secretion, which leads to sexual maturity and the ability to ... Kisspeptin's ability to stimulate the release of GnRH and gonadotropins is the result of its effect on GnRH release at the ... In addition to this, the release of these gonadotropins has proven to be dose dependent. A greater addition of kisspeptin ...
Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor
cellular response to gonadotropin stimulus. • signal transduction. • primary ovarian follicle growth. • phospholipase C- ... GnRH and gonadotropin receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Progestogens and ... The receptor interacts with both luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropins (such as hCG in humans) and represents a ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators • GnRH and gonadotropins ...
Parathyroid hormone-related protein
PTHrP is related in function to the "normal" parathyroid hormone. When a tumor secretes PTHrP, this can lead to hypercalcemia. As this is sometimes the first sign of the malignancy, hypercalcemia caused by PTHrP is considered a paraneoplastic phenomenon. PTHR1 is responsible for most cases of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. PTHrP shares the same N-terminal end as parathyroid hormone and therefore it can bind to the same receptor, the Type I PTH receptor (PTHR1). PTHrP can simulate most of the actions of PTH including increases in bone resorption and distal tubular calcium reabsorption, and inhibition of proximal tubular phosphate transport. However, PTHrP is less likely than PTH to stimulate 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Therefore, PTHrP does not increase intestinal calcium absorption. ...
... and other forms of urinary gonadotropins. More purified forms of urinary gonadotropins may reduce the LH portion in relation to ... LH is released from the pituitary gland, and is controlled by pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. When T levels are low, ... LH acts upon the Leydig cells of the testis and is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The Leydig cells produce ... It is regulated by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. Inhibin, activin, and sex hormones do not affect ...
This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 7 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin ( ... Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (1980). "The cDNA for the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin suggests evolution of a gene by ... Morgan FJ, Birken S, Canfield RE (1975). "The amino acid sequence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The alpha subunit and beta ... 1990). "Role of disulfide bond formation in the folding of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit into an alpha beta dimer ...
Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide
The gonadotropin hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), ... Moyle WR, Bahl OP, März L (Dec 1975). "Role of carbohydrate of human chorionic gonadotropin in the mechanism of hormone action ... Morgan FJ, Birken S, Canfield RE (Jul 1975). "The amino acid sequence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The alpha subunit and ... Matzuk MM, Keene JL, Boime I (Feb 1989). "Site specificity of the chorionic gonadotropin N-linked oligosaccharides in signal ...
Gonadotropins | Springer for Research & Development
Thehistory of the gonadotropins covers an amazingly short period of time considering the important role they play in basic ... Roos, P. Purification and characterization of human postmenopausal GONADOTROPINS gonadotropins. In: Gonadotropins, edited by B ... Rowlands, I. W. Levels of gonadotropins in tissues and fluids. In: Gonadotropins,edited by H. H. Cole. San Francisco, CA: ... Geschwind, I. I. The chemistry and immunology of gonadotropins. In: Gonadotropins, edited by H. H. Cole. San Francisco, CA: ...
Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist Photos | Images of Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist - Times of India
... recent images of Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist at Times of India ... Check out for the latest photos of Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist along with Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist ... You have searched for Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist. in the Photos , LAST UPDATED : Oct 23, 2017, 03.43PM IST ...
EFFECT OF PROGESTERONE ON GONADOTROPIN SECRETION - Augusta University Research Profiles
SPECIFIC AIM 3 will determine the role of GABA in progesterone-induced inhibition and stimulation of gonadotropin secretion in ... This renewal application will further elucidate mechanisms involved with the initiation and termination of the gonadotropin ... From these studies, a multifactorial hypothesis explaining regulation of gonadotropin secretion by progesterone has been ... These studies will provide new information on the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion by progesterone. ...
Overview of IVF Medications: Gonadotropins
Gonadotropins are administered to infertile women at the very start of an IVF treatment cycle. A baseline dose is calculated by ... The gonadotropins provide the body with the hormone FSH or follicle-stimulating hormone. As long as youre not suffering from ... Brand name gonadotropins include Repronex, Bravelle, Menopur and Follistim. Your IVF prescriptions will come with instructions ... Your doctor will let you know how often you need to take the gonadotropins, although typically youll inject the fertility drug ...
Influence of gonadotropin treatment interval on follicular maturation, in vitro fertilization, circulating steroid...
Donoghue, A. M. ; Johnston, L. A. ; Munson, L. ; Brown, J. L. ; Wildt, D. E. / Influence of gonadotropin treatment interval on ... Donoghue, A. M., Johnston, L. A., Munson, L., Brown, J. L., & Wildt, D. E. (1992). Influence of gonadotropin treatment interval ... title = "Influence of gonadotropin treatment interval on follicular maturation, in vitro fertilization, circulating steroid ... T1 - Influence of gonadotropin treatment interval on follicular maturation, in vitro fertilization, circulating steroid ...
Structure and Function of the Gonadotropins
www.MOLUNA.de Structure and Function of the Gonadotropins  - In September of 1977 scientists from many countries met ... Abnormal Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Production.- 5. Ubiquity of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.- Discussion.- References.- 16 ... Purification and Biological Properties of Fish Gonadotropins.- 3. Biochemistry of Fish Gonadotropins and Their Subunits.- 4. ... Structure and Function of the Gonadotropins (Englisch). Biochemical Endocrinology. 83,95 €. inkl. MwSt.. Artikel zur Zeit nicht ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist - Wikipedia
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes. ... They are agonists of the GnRH receptor and work by increasing or decreasing the release of gonadotropins and the production of ... GnRH and gonadotropin receptor modulators. Androgens and antiandrogens. Estrogens and antiestrogens. Progestogens and ...
Gonadotropin - Wikipedia
Another human gonadotropin is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced by the placenta during pregnancy. Gonadotropin ... and placental/chorionic gonadotropins human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), as well as at ... The gonadotropins act on the gonads, controlling gamete and sex hormone production. Gonadotropin is sometimes abbreviated Gn. ... Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic ...
Gonadotropin preparations - Wikipedia
Gonadotropin preparations are drugs that mimic the physiological effects of gonadotropins, used therapeutically mainly as ... Generic (human) chorionic gonadotropin for injection, USP Brands Pregnyl (Merck/Schering-Plough) Follutein Profasi Novarel ... Generic choriogonadotropin alfa for injection (recombinant human Chorionic Gonadotropin, r-hCG). Brands Ovidrel Menotropins at ...
gonadotropin - Everything2.com
Released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus. Lutei... ... Released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus. ... gonadotropin: a hormone that stimulates the gonads (ovaries or testicles) to secrete their own hormones, namely, progesterone, ...
Pituitary gonadotropins - definition of pituitary gonadotropins by The Free Dictionary
pituitary gonadotropins synonyms, pituitary gonadotropins pronunciation, pituitary gonadotropins translation, English ... dictionary definition of pituitary gonadotropins. n. pl. pi·tu·i·tar·ies 1. The pituitary gland. 2. Medicine An extract from ... redirected from pituitary gonadotropins). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to pituitary gonadotropins ... human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pituitary gonadotropins. The ovaries in HL are symmetrical with uniform sized theca ...
Gonadotropins: From Bench Side to Bedside, Volume 143 - 1st Edition
Purchase Gonadotropins: From Bench Side to Bedside, Volume 143 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128010587, ... 5. Pharmacokinetics of Gonadotropins *6. Gonadotropin Formulations Available for Treating Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and ... Gonadotropins: From Bench Side to Bedside, Volume 143 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... Gonadotropins: From Bench Side to Bedside, the latest volume in the Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science ...
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) | biochemistry | Britannica.com
GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins... ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): GnRH a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, a neurohormone consisting of 10 ... The neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone have connections to an area of the brain known as the limbic system, ...
Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson - Drugs.com
A list of US medications equivalent to Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg). Chorionic Gonadotrophin is reported as an ingredient of Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson in the ... Chorionic Gonadotropin Watson. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
human chorionic gonadotropin - Everything2.com
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin in Breast Cancer Prevention | SpringerLink
Breast Cancer Mammary Gland Chorionic Gonadotropin Mammary Carcinogenesis Programme Cell Death Gene These keywords were added ... Human chorionic gonadotropin inhibits proliferation and induces expression of inhibin in human breast epithelial cells in vitro ... Russo IH, Russo J. Role of pregnancy and chorionic gonadotropin in breast cancer prevention. In: Birkhauser MH, Rozenbaum H, ... Russo IH, Koszalka M, Russo J. Protective effect of chorionic gonadotropin on DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer ...
... human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG). follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Fertility ... Human menopausal gonadotropins (HMGs) contain approximately equal amounts of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing ... Ask your fertility doctor questions about types of gonadotropins, how you take them and pregnancy success rates with the ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) helps with the final maturation of the eggs and triggers the ovaries to release the mature ...
Gonadotropin - Wikipedia
... chorionic gonadotropins, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), as well as at least two ... Main article: Gonadotropin preparations. There are various preparations of gonadotropins for therapeutic use, mainly as ... Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic ... Another human gonadotropin is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced by the placenta during pregnancy. ...
What is Gonadotropin? (with pictures)
A gonadotropin is a type of protein hormone thats related to human reproduction. Its commonly used as a supplement for both ... A gonadotropin is one of a group of protein hormones considered vital to human reproduction. Gonadotropins are produced by ... Human chorionic gonadotropin, which triggers home pregnancy tests, is one kind of gonadotropin.. ... Gonadotropin injection therapy is sometimes used as a fertility treatment, acting directly on the ovaries of women who wish to ...
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin, Urine Qualitative
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH): discovery, progress and prospect. - PubMed - NCBI
A hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), is the primary factor regulating gonadotropin secretion. An ... Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH): discovery, progress and prospect.. Tsutsui K1, Ubuka T, Bentley GE, Kriegsfeld LJ. ... GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release by directly acting on the pituitary or by inhibiting the activity of GnRH ... with gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) playing a key role in the inhibition of reproduction. GnIH was originally ...
Chorionic gonadotropin - definition of chorionic gonadotropin by The Free Dictionary
chorionic gonadotropin synonyms, chorionic gonadotropin pronunciation, chorionic gonadotropin translation, English dictionary ... n. gonadotropin produced and secreted by the chorion. Compare human chorionic gonadotropin. Random House Kernerman Websters ... chorion′ic gonadotro′pin. n. gonadotropin produced and secreted by the chorion. Compare human chorionic gonadotropin. ... Progesterone, estradiol, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), or gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) have been ...
List of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists - Drugs.com
Compare gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. What are Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists?. *Gonadotropin-releasing ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists bind to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors and decrease the effect of ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists are used to treat prostate cancer as by reducing the levels of testosterone the size ...
Timing the Preovulatory Surge of Gonadotropin Secretion | SpringerLink
Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist
... , GnRH agonist, Nafarelin Acetate, Synarel. ... Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist Aka: Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist, ... Search other sites for Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist NLM Pubmed Google Websites Google Images QuackWatch Drugstore. ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist." Click on the image ...
CGB3 chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
chorionic gonadotropin beta 3 subunit. chorionic gonadotropin beta chain. chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3. chorionic ... CGB3 chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3 [Homo sapiens] CGB3 chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID: ... chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 3provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:1886 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000104827 MIM: ... Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit promoted the migration and invasion of CRC in vitro and in vivo but had no effect on the ...
Multiple Pregnancy after Gonadotropin-Intrauterine Insemination: An Unavoidable Event?
... Shirley A. Fong,1 Vidya Palta,1 ... "Reducing the risk of high-order multiple pregnancy after ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins," New England Journal of ... "Ovulation induction with gonadotropins and intrauterine insemination compared with in vitro fertilization and no therapy: a ... and other factors to clinical pregnancy rate in gonadotropin-induced intrauterine insemination cycles," Archives of Gynecology ...
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Adults: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. Pulsatile ... The midcycle gonadotropin surge in normal women occurs in the face of an unchanging gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse ... Role of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Stimulation Test in Diagnosing Gonadotropin Deficiency in Both Males and Females with ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. The decapeptide GnRH is derived from ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist - Wikipedia
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin- ... a b Van Poppel H, Nilsson S (June 2008). Testosterone surge: rationale for gonadotropin-releasing hormone blockers? Urology 71 ... Broqua P, Riviere PJ, Conn PM, et al (April 2002). Pharmacological profile of a new, potent, and long-acting gonadotropin- ... Anderson J (May 2009). Degarelix: a novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone blocker for the treatment of prostate cancer. Future ...
Chorionic Gonadotropin (Human): Pediatric Medication | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or b-hCG) - Canadian Cancer Society
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or b-HCG) is a hormone normally produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It is also ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or b-hCG). Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or b-hCG) is a hormone that the placenta makes ... Cancer information / Diagnosis and treatment / Tests and procedures / Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG or b-HCG) ...
Frontiers | Regulation of gonadotropins by corticotropin-releasing factor and urocortin | Endocrinology
In this review, we focus on the regulation of gonadotropins by CRF and Ucn2 in pituitary gonadotrophs and of gonadotropin- ... Thus, complicated regulation of GnRH in the hypothalamus and gonadotropins in the pituitary via CRF receptors contributes to ... Thus, complicated regulation of GnRH in the hypothalamus and gonadotropins in the pituitary via CRF receptors contributes to ... In corticotrophs, stress-induced increases in CRF stimulate Ucn2 production, which leads to the inhibition of gonadotropin ...
Chorionic Gonadotropin - Other Protein/Peptide Hormones | Sigma-Aldrich
The β-chain is unique to gonadotropin. Signaling through its receptor, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) maintains the corpus ... Gonadotropin from pregnant mare serum can be used to induce super-ovulation in mammals. ... We also offer recombinant HCG, HCG purified from menopausal urine, and gonadotropin purified from pregnant mare′s serum. ... The placenta secretes chorionic gonadotropin beginning just after implantation. This glycoprotein consists of two chains. The α ...
HCG Human Chorionic Gonadotropin: uses & side-effects | PatientsLikeMe
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) : Laurence A. Cole : 9780123849076
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) by Laurence A. Cole, 9780123849076, available at Book Depository with free delivery ... Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is produced during pregnancy by the embryo. It promotes progesterone production by corpus ... Chapter 2: HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (hCG): ONE NAME FOR AT LEAST THREE INDEPENDENT MOLECULES ...
Chorionic gonadotropinPreovulatory gonadotropin surgeProgesteroneSecretionOvaryTrophoblastOvariesCorrelationImmunologyNaturallyIncludeRoleProvideCycleGnRHFollicle-stimulaMenopausalHormonesSubunitReceptorNeuronsReceptorsPregnancyAgonistEquine chorionic gonadotropinInjectionPlacentaGonadsPeptideTumorsAntagonistsStimulationPregnantFertilityInfertilityMaternalSynthesisAnalogsUrine5,000Human pituitaryUrinaryCorpus luteumPlacentalEndocrinologyEmbryo transferPreparations
- Studies on the disappearance of equine chorionic gonadotropin from the circulation in rat: tissue uptake and degradation. (springer.com)
- Bahl , O. P. The chemistry and biology of human chorionic gonadotropin Endocrinology and its subunits. (springer.com)
- Luteinizing hormone and human chorionic gonadotropin: structure and activity. (springer.com)
Preovulatory gonadotropin surge1
- Significant progress has been made during the last 5 years in elucidating the complex mechanisms involved in the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of progesterone on gonadotropin secretion. (elsevier.com)
- From these studies, a multifactorial hypothesis explaining regulation of gonadotropin secretion by progesterone has been proposed which includes progesterone regulation of estrogen receptor dynamics, modulation of opioid tone, and modulation of GABA and glutamate neurotransmission of the positive and negative feedback effects of progesterone. (elsevier.com)
- SPECIFIC AIM 2 will determine the role of estrogens and progesterone on the regulation of the opioid tone during the gonadotropin surge. (elsevier.com)
- SPECIFIC AIM 3 will determine the role of GABA in progesterone-induced inhibition and stimulation of gonadotropin secretion in the hypothalamus and the pituitary. (elsevier.com)
- SPECIFIC AIM 4 will determine the role of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in the stimulation and suppression of gonadotropin secretion by progesterone. (elsevier.com)
- The study will include measurement of hypothalamic GnRH, GABA, glutamic acid, GAD activity and GAD mRNA levels during progesterone induced stimulation and suppression of gonadotropin secretion. (elsevier.com)
- These studies will provide new information on the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion by progesterone. (elsevier.com)
- A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ( GnRH agonist ) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones . (wikipedia.org)
- They are agonists of the GnRH receptor and work by increasing or decreasing the release of gonadotropins and the production of sex hormones by the gonads . (wikipedia.org)
- When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
- Typically, after GnRH agonists have induced a state of hypoestrogenism, exogenous FSH is given to stimulate ovarian follicle, followed by human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG) to trigger oocyte release . (wikipedia.org)
- Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic area of the hypothalamus . (wikipedia.org)
- Although gonadotropins are secreted in a pulsatile manner (as a result of pulsatile GnRH release), unlike the case of GnRH and GnRH agonists , constant/non-pulsatile activation of the gonadotropin receptors by the gonadotropins does not produce functional inhibition. (wikipedia.org)
- Released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to GnRH ( gonadotropin releasing hormone ) from the hypothalamus . (everything2.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) , also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone , a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus . (britannica.com)
- GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins - luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-by the anterior pituitary gland . (britannica.com)
- In order to increase serum gonadotropin concentrations in patients with GnRH deficiency, the releasing hormone must be administered in pulses. (britannica.com)
- In contrast, constant administration of GnRH suppresses gonadotropin secretion, which has therapeutic benefits in certain patients, such as children with precocious puberty and men with prostate cancer . (britannica.com)
- Both FSH and LH production are controlled by another hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wisegeek.com)
- GnRH, FSH, and hCG can all be used to treat infertility, as can another type of hormone called human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG). (wisegeek.com)
- A hypothalamic neuropeptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), is the primary factor regulating gonadotropin secretion. (nih.gov)
- Findings from the last decade, however, indicate that GnRH is not the sole hypothalamic regulatory neuropeptide of vertebrate reproduction, with gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) playing a key role in the inhibition of reproduction. (nih.gov)
- GnIH inhibits gonadotropin synthesis and release by directly acting on the pituitary or by inhibiting the activity of GnRH neurons. (nih.gov)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists are synthetic analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which is produced by the hypothalamus and controls the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the anterior pituitary. (drugs.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. (medscape.com)
- Mutated GnRH receptors (GnRH-R), as predicted by the biochemistry, could result in the clinical manifestations of isolated gonadotropin deficiency. (medscape.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists ( GnRH antagonists ) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikipedia.org)
- In this review, we focus on the regulation of gonadotropins by CRF and Ucn2 in pituitary gonadotrophs and of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) via CRF receptors in the hypothalamus. (frontiersin.org)
- Thus, complicated regulation of GnRH in the hypothalamus and gonadotropins in the pituitary via CRF receptors contributes to stress responses and adaptation of gonadal functions. (frontiersin.org)
- Appropriate expression of the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) in gonadotrophs is critical for GnRH signaling and hence for gonadotropin secretion and sexual development. (bioone.org)
- In addition, the role of the endogenous GnRH on the maturational changes of GnRH-R and gonadotropin subunit gene expression was investigated. (bioone.org)
- Individuals with an inherited deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have impaired sexual reproduction. (jci.org)
- In addition, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists downregulate GnRH receptors in the anterior pituitary leading to a hypoestrogenic state. (hindawi.com)
- Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) comes in several forms, such as surgical castration or medical castration using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or GnRH antagonist therapy. (cancernetwork.com)
- Chemical castration consists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or orally. (cancernetwork.com)
- GnRH mediates stimulation of gonadotropin (ie, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) secretion. (cancernetwork.com)
- Unlike GnRH agonists, the GnRH antagonists do not cause an initial surge of gonadotropins. (cancernetwork.com)
- Fertility options include either GnRH (gonadorelin [no longer commercially available in the US]) or gonadotropin-based regimens. (medscape.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( GnRH ) is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary . (wikidoc.org)
- In all vertebrates, GnRH regulates gonadotropin secretion through binding to a specific receptor on the surface of pituitary gonadotropes. (bioone.org)
- Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline Insight, 2018" report by DelveInsight offers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across "Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist development. (reportlinker.com)
- Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for "Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details. (reportlinker.com)
- The report assesses the active Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (reportlinker.com)
- Offers detailed therapeutic product profiles of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist with key coverage of developmental activities including licensing & collaboration deals, patent details. (reportlinker.com)
- Release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH)/median eminence region (S-ME) is essential for normal reproductive function. (jneurosci.org)
- Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus is released into the pituitary portal circulation and controls pituitary-gonadal function. (jneurosci.org)
- To determine whether cardiovascular morbidity differs following initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists compared with an antagonist. (urotoday.com)
- The electrophysiological characteristics of unmodified, postnatal gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the female mouse were studied using whole-cell recordings and single-cell RT-PCR methodology. (jneurosci.org)
- The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are thought to represent a functionally discrete population of cells that control mammalian fertility by regulating the secretion of gonadotropic hormones from the pituitary gland. (jneurosci.org)
- Administration of a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist [Nac-L-Ala1,pCl-D-Phe2,D-Trp3,u>GnRH as a single subcutaneous injection to castrated adult male rats reduced, by more than 90 percent, both serum luteinizing hormone concentrations and specific pituitary GnRH receptor binding. (sciencemag.org)
- Through their suppressive effect on gonadotropin secretion, GnRH antagonists inhibit both testosterone (T) production and spermatogenesis in animals. (washington.edu)
- The two principal gonadotropins in vertebrates are luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), although primates produce a third gonadotropin called chorionic gonadotropin (CG). (wikipedia.org)
- The pituitary gland controls the release of several hormones, including the gonadotropins FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). (medlineplus.gov)
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) . (fertilityauthority.com)
- Human menopausal gonadotropins (HMGs) contain approximately equal amounts of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). (fertilityauthority.com)
- The two principal types of gonadotropin are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). (wisegeek.com)
- The alpha subunit is essentially identical to the alpha subunits of the human pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as to the alpha subunit of human thyroid -stimulating hormone (TSH). (rxlist.com)
- 4 Subsequently, gonadotropins were extracted from the human pituitary glands that contained both follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). (glowm.com)
- Urinary human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) preparations were also produced, with subsequent improvements in purification techniques enabling development of products with standardized proportions of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) activity. (frontiersin.org)
- These hormones were described as gonadotropins and subsequently named follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), according to their specific actions. (frontiersin.org)
- They include hMG (human menopausal gonadotropin, Menopur) and FSH (follicle stimulating hormone, Follistim, Bravelle, or Gonal-F). During the use of these drugs, careful monitoring is required to minimize the side effects, discussed below. (sdfertility.com)
- While named for their effects on the ovaries, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are also major gonadotropins in the testes, causing the Leydig cells to secrete testosterone and facilitating spermatogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Penny, R., Olambiwonnu, N. O., and Frasier, S. D.: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (LH-HCG) concentrations in paired maternal and cord sera. (aappublications.org)
- There was no evidence of a significant difference in any outcome between the users of urinary gonadotropins versus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone. (dovepress.com)
- For example, the so-called menotropins (also called human menopausal gonadotropins) consist of LH and FSH extracted from the urine of menopausal women. (wikipedia.org)
- We also offer recombinant HCG, HCG purified from menopausal urine, and gonadotropin purified from pregnant mare′s serum. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- By the early 1960s, common techniques for extracting gonadotropins from the urine of menopausal women (human menopausal gonadotropins [hMG]) were developed, thus providing a plentiful source of this substance. (glowm.com)
- The techniques involved in gonadotropin production originated in 1954, using kaolin extracts from pooled menopausal urine. (glowm.com)
- human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) menotropins . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Gonadotropins are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
- A gonadotropin is one of a group of protein hormones considered vital to human reproduction. (wisegeek.com)
- As these hormones are an important part of the reproductive process, gonadotropins are often used as a treatment for infertility in both men and women. (wisegeek.com)
- It has long been assumed that the pregnancy hormones, human chorionic gonadotropin or estrogen, were the likely culprits of extreme nausea and vomiting, but our study found no evidence to support this," Fejzo, the author of the study said. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The released gonadotropins stimulate the gonads to produce steroid hormones, and in the testes, to produce sperm or in the ovaries, to release oocytes. (medscape.com)
- Gonadotropins are prescribed to induce ovulation in infertility that is caused by inadequate stimulation of the ovary by endogenous gonadotropic hormones. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Gonadotropins are hormones which are naturally produced by the pituitary gland. (pronatal.cz)
- Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN). (curehunter.com)
- This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 3 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG). (nih.gov)
- B Subunit of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Promotes Tumor Invasion and Predicts Poor Prognosis of Early-Stage Colorectal Cancer. (nih.gov)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a polypeptide hormone produced by the human placenta, is composed of an alpha and a beta subunit. (rxlist.com)
- Developmental changes of gonadotropin subunit (α, FSHβ, and LHβ) mRNA levels were also assessed. (bioone.org)
- Your search returned 1 chorionic gonadotropin subunit beta 5 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit (CGB) is a marker of pregnancy as well as trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic tumors. (mdpi.com)
- Gonadotropin receptors are embedded in the surface of the target cell membranes and coupled to the G-protein system. (wikipedia.org)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists bind to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors and decrease the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (drugs.com)
- The results can demonstrate that leptin regulates gonadotropins and steroid receptors, which could suggest that the ovarian leptin role could be secondary to the changes in these receptorse expression in rats. (isciii.es)
- The characteristics of gonadotropin receptors for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-luteinizing hormone on cells from these tumors of varying size, age, and morphology have been determined. (aacrjournals.org)
- Another human gonadotropin is human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), produced by the placenta during pregnancy . (wikipedia.org)
- Ask your fertility doctor questions about types of gonadotropins, how you take them and pregnancy success rates with the fertility drugs. (fertilityauthority.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin ( hCG ) is a third type that is produced during pregnancy. (wisegeek.com)
- Gonadotropin injections do not always result in a successful pregnancy, with women who take the injections becoming pregnant 20% to 60% of the time. (wisegeek.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin has been known for decades as pregnancy related hormone that can help clinicians in early detection of pregnancy, it acts as a tumor marker in gestational trophoblastic tumors as well. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin potentially affects pregnancy outcome in women with recurrent implantation failure by regulating the homing preference of regulatory T cells. (nih.gov)
- Multiple Pregnancy after Gonadotropin-Intrauterine Insemination: An Unavoidable Event? (hindawi.com)
- Relationship of follicle number, serum estradiol level, and other factors to clinical pregnancy rate in gonadotropin-induced intrauterine insemination cycles," Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics , vol. 266, no. 1, pp. 18-20, 2002. (hindawi.com)
- Chorionic Gonadotropin is a water soluble glycoprotein derived from human pregnancy urine. (rxlist.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a peptide hormone produced in pregnancy, that is made by the embryosoon after conception and later by the syncytiotrophoblast(part of the placenta). (prospecbio.com)
- While research is underway to help clarify this issue, the careful use of gonadotropins is still reasonable, especially considering that pregnancy and breast-feeding reduce cancer risk. (sdfertility.com)
- A molecular model of human chorionic gonadotropin, a glycoprotein hormone produced by the placenta during early pregnancy. (sciencephoto.com)
- In early pregnancy, human chorionic gonadotropin is produced by the placenta (basis for early pregnancy detection). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been regarded as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pregnancy and some cancers. (mdpi.com)
- Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. (curehunter.com)
- Experimental observations suggest that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a major hormone of pregnancy, could play a role in this association. (diva-portal.org)
- It seems that clinical pregnancy rate after FET is not influenced by the type of gonadotropins used. (dovepress.com)
- These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist. (fpnotebook.com)
- We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of hormonal chemoprevention with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHA) with low-dose add-back steroids in BRCA1(mut) carriers. (nih.gov)
Equine chorionic gonadotropin2
- Equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) is a gonadotropic hormone produced in the chorion of pregnant mares, previously known as pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin, which was found in 40 to 130 days pregnant mare serum, first reported by Cole et al . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Studies on the disappearance of equine chorionic gonadotropin from the circulation in rat: tissue uptake and degradation. (springer.com)
- Generic (human) chorionic gonadotropin for injection, USP Brands Pregnyl (Merck/Schering-Plough) Follutein Profasi Novarel Generic choriogonadotropin alfa for injection (recombinant human Chorionic Gonadotropin, r-hCG). (wikipedia.org)
- Gonadotropin injection therapy is sometimes used as a fertility treatment, acting directly on the ovaries of women who wish to become pregnant. (wisegeek.com)
- With the addition of Ganirelix, Ferring continues to offer the most complete reproductive medicine portfolio available, which includes Menopur (menotropins for injection), NOVAREL ( chorionic gonadotropin for injection, USP) and Endometrin (progesterone) Vaginal Insert. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is given as an injection under the skin or into a muscle. (cigna.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin or HCG is a naturally occurring hormone that the body creates to protect and nourish the fetus, by taking the stored fat reserves and transforming them into nutrition for the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or b-hCG) is a hormone that the placenta makes when a woman is pregnant. (cancer.ca)
- The placenta secretes chorionic gonadotropin beginning just after implantation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family . (wikidoc.org)
- Each Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Peptide and Gonadotropin Inducible Transcription Repressor 1 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
- In men, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists inhibit the release of luteinizing hormone, and consequently less testosterone is produced. (drugs.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists are used to treat prostate cancer as by reducing the levels of testosterone the size of prostate cancer is reduced. (drugs.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists are used to treat women undergoing fertility treatment. (drugs.com)
- It was observed in 1927, by Ascheim and Zondek, that the blood and urine of pregnant women contained a gonad-stimulating substance, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Human Chorionic Gonadotropin is produced from a sterile preparation of placental glucoprotein urine of pregnant women having a total molecular mass of 36,700 Dalton. (prospecbio.com)
- If you want to become pregnant in the near future, or if you are nursing a baby at the present time, you need to discuss using chorionic gonadotropin with your doctor. (sharecare.com)
- There are various preparations of gonadotropins for therapeutic use, mainly as fertility medication . (wikipedia.org)
- Gonadotropin preparations are drugs that mimic the physiological effects of gonadotropins, used therapeutically mainly as fertility medication for ovarian hyperstimulation and reversal of anovulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Gonadotropins are fertility drugs that may be prescribed when you are undergoing fertility treatment such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination (IUI). (fertilityauthority.com)
- Gonadotropin deficiency due to pituitary disease results in hypogonadism , which can lead to infertility . (wikipedia.org)
- NOVAREL should be prescribed in conjunction with gonadotropins only by physicians who are experienced with infertility treatment and have adequate monitoring facilities. (ferringfertility.com)
- GnIH decreases gonadotropin synthesis and release, inhibiting gonadal development and maintenance. (nih.gov)
- The report has been prepared based on the synthesis, analysis, and interpretation of information about the global Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) market collected from specialized sources. (marketwatch.com)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs revolutionized the treatment of central precocious puberty. (aappublications.org)
- The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology convened a consensus conference to review the clinical use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
- Other key areas, such as the psychosocial effects of central precocious puberty and their alteration by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, need additional study. (aappublications.org)
- Few controlled prospective studies have been performed with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children, and many conclusions rely in part on collective expert opinion. (aappublications.org)
- The conference did not endorse commonly voiced concerns regarding the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, such as promotion of weight gain or long-term diminution of bone mineral density. (aappublications.org)
- Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs for conditions other than central precocious puberty requires additional investigation and cannot be suggested routinely. (aappublications.org)
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas) are standard of care for treatment of central precocious puberty (CPP). (aappublications.org)
- The researchers also concluded that: "These data may prove useful to women who must decide between tamoxifen and an effective, essentially non-thrombogenic, alternative adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, such as aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs or oophorectomy for premenopausal women. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Can some growth hormone (GH)-deficient children benefit from combined therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and GH? (thefreedictionary.com)
- The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test is done to check for the hormone hCG in blood or urine. (uwhealth.org)
- Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) may be measured in a sample of blood or urine. (uwhealth.org)
- Ongoing issues with gonadotropins derived from urine donations, including batch-to-batch variability and a finite donor supply, were overcome by the development of recombinant gonadotropin products. (frontiersin.org)
- Chorionic Gonadotropin 5,000 USP Units, Mannitol 100 mg, Dibasic Sodium Phosphate 16 mg, and Monobasic Sodium Phosphate 4 mg. (rxlist.com)
- Synergy Rx Pharmacy is voluntarily recalling all lots of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) 5,000 units/vial and 11,000 units/vial to the retail level due to a lack of sterility assurance. (fda.gov)
- 8 Urinary gonadotropins have also been available from Organon and Ferring Pharmaceuticals (Menopur) for 40 years. (glowm.com)
- The demand for urinary gonadotropin has increased steadily, resulting in temporary shortages of urinary gonadotropins. (glowm.com)
- In addition to the recombinant technology for developing the gonadotropins, Ares-Serono has developed a highly purified urinary FSH preparation, Fertinex. (glowm.com)