Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Hormones produced in the testis.
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Absence of menstruation.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.

Expression pattern of integrin adhesion molecules in endometriosis and human endometrium. (1/3712)

Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that undergo cell-specific dynamic changes during the normal menstrual cycle in the human endometrium. Here, using immunohistochemistry, we have investigated the expression pattern of the integrins alphav, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, alpha3, alpha6, beta1, beta2 and beta3 in the human ectopic endometrium of 30 patients and in nine cases in the corresponding eutopic endometrium. The biopsies were obtained during the early or late follicular phase (25 cases), during the corpus luteum phase (four cases) and in one case after 6 months' treatment with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. The integrin expression was independent of the ovarian steroid situation at the time of biopsy. The integrin alpha6 was expressed in all endometriotic and endometrium samples. The integrin alpha3 was absent in all endometrium tissues of patients with endometriosis. However, the corresponding endometriotic lesions re-expressed this adhesion molecule in 15 cases. No change in integrin beta3 expression pattern could be demonstrated in either endometriotic lesions or endometrium samples, regardless of the menstrual cycle phase. A correlation between serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations and the expression of the investigated integrins was not observed, thus indicating that these two hormones play a minor role in the regulation of the cell adhesion molecules examined. Our investigation suggests that endometriosis is a dedifferentiated disease as it expressed different integrins in comparison with the eutopic endometrium, and independently of the hormonal situation. The ability of endometriotic tissues to express integrins may explain the high recurrence rates in patients with endometriosis, as these samples retain their adhesion potency after retrograde menstruation and are thus able to establish cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions with the surrounding peritoneum.  (+info)

Paracrine changes in the peritoneal environment of women with endometriosis. (2/3712)

During the past decade, macrophage-derived substances such as prostanoids, cytokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors have been detected in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. In particular, growth-promoting and angiogenic factors are considered to be substantially involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In this study, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), substances recently detected in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, were assessed with regard to their concentrations in different stages of endometriosis and changes of the peritoneal paracrine activity after medical treatment with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). Peritoneal fluid was obtained from patients with endometriosis during laparoscopy before and after a 4-month treatment with a GnRHa. VEGF, TGF-beta and ICAM-1 could be detected in all women presenting with various stages of active endometriosis. After GnRHa therapy, all patients showed significant decreases in mean concentrations of VEGF (194+/-77 pg/ml), TGF-beta (902+/-273 pg/ml) and ICAM-1 (157+/-52 ng/ml). Patients with stage III and IV endometriosis (according to the rAFS score) had much higher concentrations of VEGF and TGF-beta before treatment compared with those patients with mild endometriosis (rAFS stages I and II). The most striking decrease in concentration was for TGF-beta, from 902 pg/ml before to 273 pg/ml after therapy. These results indicate an important role for paracrine activity in the establishment and maintenance of endometriosis. Indeed, treatment with a GnRHa may reduce paracrine activity in the peritoneal cavity via hypo-oestrogenism and provide proof of successful therapy.  (+info)

Characterization of K+ currents underlying pacemaker potentials of fish gonadotropin-releasing hormone cells. (3/3712)

Endogenous pacemaker activities are important for the putative neuromodulator functions of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive terminal nerve (TN) cells. We analyzed several types of voltage-dependent K+ currents to investigate the ionic mechanisms underlying the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells by using the whole brain in vitro preparation of fish (dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia). TN-GnRH cells have at least four types of voltage-dependent K+ currents: 1) 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-sensitive K+ current, 2) tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ current, and 3) and 4) two types of TEA- and 4AP-resistant K+ currents. A transient, low-threshold K+ current, which was 4AP sensitive and showed significant steady-state inactivation in the physiological membrane potential range (-40 to -60 mV), was evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV. This current thus cannot contribute to the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. TEA-sensitive K+ current evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV was slowly activating, long lasting, and showed comparatively low threshold of activation. This current was only partially inactivated at steady state of -60 to -40 mV, which is equivalent to the resting membrane potential. TEA- and 4AP-resistant sustained K+ currents were evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV and were suggested to consist of two types, based on the analysis of activation curves. From the inactivation and activation curves, it was suggested that one of them with low threshold of activation may be partly involved in the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. Bath application of TEA together with tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked the pacemaker potentials in current-clamp recordings. We conclude that the TEA-sensitive K+ current is the most likely candidate that contributes to the repolarizing phase of the pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (4/3712)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

Ovarian follicular responses in dairy cows treated with GnRH and cloprostenol. (5/3712)

Lactating, nonpregnant (with a corpus luteum) Holsteins were given 100 ug GnRH (n = 12) or saline (n = 12) and 500 ug cloprostenol 6 d later. Following luteolysis, ovulation occurred 10.1 +/- 0.2 d (range, 9-12 d) after GnRH and 8.6 +/- 1.0 d (range, 3-12 d) after saline (differences between groups: means, P > 0.05; variability, P < 0.001). Treatment with GnRH and cloprostenol resulted in a relatively synchronous ovulation.  (+info)

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (6/3712)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone improves reproductive performance of dairy cows with slow involution of the reproductive tract. (7/3712)

Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive either 100 microg of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows' reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as normal cows. Last milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs. 67 d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs. 64%), and number of days open was greater (121 vs. 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant (P<.05). Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.  (+info)

GABA- and glutamate-activated channels in green fluorescent protein-tagged gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in transgenic mice. (8/3712)

Mice were generated expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) promoter. Green fluorescence was observed in, and restricted to, GnRH-immunopositive neuronal somata in the olfactory bulb, ganglion terminale, septal nuclei, diagonal band of Broca (DBB), preoptic area (POA), and caudal hypothalamus, as well as GnRH neuronal dendrites and axons, including axon terminals in the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Whole-cell recordings from GFP-expressing GnRH neurons in the OVLT-POA-DBB region revealed a firing pattern among GFP-expressing GnRH neurons distinct from that of nonfluorescent neurons. Nucleated patches of GFP-expressing GnRH neurons exhibited pronounced responses to fast application of GABA and smaller responses to L-glutamate and AMPA. One-fifth of the nucleated patches responded to NMDA. The GABA-A, AMPA, and NMDA receptor channels on GnRH neurons mediating these responses may play a role in the modulation of GnRH secretory oscillations.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of N-methyl-D,L-aspartate (NMA) on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene expression in male mice. AU - Wu, T. J.. AU - Gibson, Marie J.. AU - Roberts, James L.. N1 - Funding Information: This project was supported by DK39029 (JLR), NS20335 (MJG) and T32-DK07645 (TJW). The authors wish to thank Dr. Areta Dobrjansky for assistance with the LH RIA, and Dr. Yuhua Sun for helpful discussions and Ms. Alice Elste for reading the manuscript.. PY - 2000/4/17. Y1 - 2000/4/17. N2 - The glutamate analog N-methyl-D,L-aspartate (NMA) affects the regulation of GnRH and LH release in mammals. Several laboratories have reported a rapid and transient increase in GnRH mRNA levels of male rats after NMA injection. Studies employing the simultaneous measurements of nuclear GnRH primary transcript RNA, a reflection of gene transcription, and GnRH mRNA suggest that NMAs effect on GnRH gene expression in the rat is likely due to post-transcriptional regulation. Despite the increasingly ...
The review work is based on analyzing and recording the effects of the application of ovulation synchronization protocols based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and insulin for the increase of the pregnancy rate in crossbred Holstein cows in research published between 2013 and 2017. The study was conducted through the integrated search of relevant authors research using key criteria of both inclusion and exclusion, with results from 244 articles analyzed, where 118 analyzed the interaction of energy balance and ovulation of dairy cows. Fifty-three articles relate the effective ovulation synchronization protocol for the luteal process and 73 articles analyze the effect of insulin in the luteal process; and finally 18 articles are important to address the problem; insulin can be altered as a metabolic hormone by the increase of fat components of the feed ration consumed by cows, thus influencing ovarian function; ovulation synchronization is necessary, which can be based on GnRH and insulin.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Some are similar in structure to natural GnRH (a hormone made by neurons in the hypothalamus) but that have an antagonistic effect. These GnRH antagonists are peptide molecules that are made up multiple, often synthetically produced amino acids. Others are small-molecule, non-peptide compounds. GnRH antagonists compete with natural GnRH for binding to GnRH receptors, thus decreasing or blocking GnRH action in the body. Testosterone promotes growth of many prostate tumors and therefore reducing circulating testosterone to very low (castration) levels is often the treatment goal in the management of men with advanced prostate cancer. GnRH antagonists are used to provide fast suppression of testosterone without the surge in testosterone levels that is seen when treating ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of headless myosin X in the motility of immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells. AU - Wang, Jun Jie. AU - Fu, Xiu Qing. AU - Guo, Yu Guang. AU - Yuan, Lin. AU - Gao, Qian Qian. AU - Yu, Hua Li. AU - Shi, Heng Liang. AU - Wang, Xing Zhi. AU - Xiong, Wen Cheng. AU - Zhu, Xiao Juan. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30670689) and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-07-0173), Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of High Education (20060200008) and Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars from the Ministry of Education of China.. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. N2 - Myosin X (Myo X), an unconventional myosin with a tail homology 4-band 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin (MyTH4-FERM) tail, is expressed ubiquitously in various mammalian tissues. In addition to the full-length Myo X (Myo X FL), a headless form is synthesized in ...
Feedback regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons by estradiol plays important roles in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Recently, we found that the majority of LHRH neurons in the rat contain estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) mRNA, whereas, they seemed to lack ER …
Although epidemiologic evidence for the ability of combined oral contraception (OC) to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer (OvCa) is convincing, the biological mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. We conducted the present study to determine if OC also influences ovarian carcinogenesis in a genetic mouse model and, if so, to investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effect. LSL-K-rasG12D/+PtenloxP/loxP mice were treated with ethinyl estradiol plus norethindrone, contraceptive hormones commonly used in combined OC, or norethindrone alone, or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. The combined OC had a 29% reduction in mean total tumor weight compared with placebo (epithelial tumor weight, −80%). Norethindrone alone reduced mean total tumor weight by 42% (epithelial tumor weight, −46%), and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist increased mean total tumor weight by 71% (epithelial tumor weight, +150%). Large variations in tumor size affected the P values for ...
NMDA and nitric oxide act through the cGMP signal transduction pathway to repress hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary self-priming actions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Kinetics of estradiols potentiating effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-facilitated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone release in healthy postmenopausal women. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. AU - Evans, W. S.. AU - Rogol, A. D.. AU - Kolp, L.. AU - Thorner, M. O.. AU - Stumpf, P.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - We examined the kinetically distinct characteristics of estradiols effects upon pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release in response to pulses of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy postmenopausal individuals. The putative self-priming actions of GnRH on LH and FSH release were tested by intravenous injections of equal paired doses of GnRH (10 μg) before and after 1, 5, 10, and 30 d of pure estradiol-17β delivery via an intravaginal silastic ring. Self-priming actions of GnRH, as defined by heightened gonadotropin release in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of apoptosis by AN-152, a cytotoxic analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), in LHRH-R positive human breast cancer cells is independent of multidrug resistance-1 (MDR-1) system. AU - Günthert, Andreas R.. AU - Gründker, Carsten. AU - Bongertz, Till. AU - Nagy, Attila. AU - Schally, Andrew V.. AU - Emons, Günter. PY - 2004/10/1. Y1 - 2004/10/1. N2 - Objective. More than 50% of human breast cancers express receptors for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH-R). These receptors can be used for targeted chemotherapy with agents like AN-152, in which doxorubicin is linked to analog [D-Lys 6]LHRH. We compared the effects of AN-152 and doxorubicin in human breast cancer cells. Methods. MCF-7, T47D, HCC-70 and ZR-75-1 cells were analysed for expression of LHRH-R using RT-PCR, immunostaining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis and expression of MDR-1 gene product Pgp were measured by flow cytometry. Cleavage of doxorubicin from AN-152 by serum carboxylesterase ...
Background The differential efficacy between long GnRH agonist with antagonist can partly be due to the preexisting differences in the early antral follicles before ovarian stimulation.Objective To compare the effect of pretreatment by estradiol with GnRH antagonist on antral follicular size coordination and basal hormone levels in GNRH antagonist protocol. Materials And Methods On cycle day 3 (control/day 3), women underwent measurements of early antral follicles by ultrasound and serum FSH and ovarian hormones then were randomized to receive oral estradiol 4mg/day (n=15) or 3mg cetrorelix acetate (n=15) in luteal phase before subsequent antagonist protocol. Participants were re-evaluated as on control/day 3. Results There was a significant reduction of mean follicular sizes in each group after medical intervention (7.63±2.11 Vs. 4.30±0.92 in group A and 8.73±1.96 Vs. 4.13±1.11 in group B) (p=0.0001). The magnitude of follicular size reduction was significantly higher in group B (-4.60±2.04 Vs. -3
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of A-type γ-aminobutyric acid receptors excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. AU - DeFazio, R. Anthony. AU - Heger, Sabine. AU - Ojeda, Sergio R.. AU - Moenter, Suzanne M.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - γ,-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABAA receptors (GABAAR), is hypothesized to suppress reproduction by inhibiting GnRH secretion, but GABA actions directly on GnRH neurons are not well established. In green fluorescent protein-identified adult mouse GnRH neurons in brain slices, gramicidin-perforated-patch-clamp experiments revealed the reversal potential (EGABA) for current through GABAARs was depolarized relative to the resting potential. Furthermore, rapid GABA application elicited action potentials in GnRH neurons but not controls. The consequence of GABAAR activation depends on intracellular chloride levels, which are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms. Membrane proteins that typically extrude chloride (KCC-2 cotransporter, CLC-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of some CNS effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and progesterone. AU - Tennent, Barbra J.. AU - Smith, Erla R.. AU - Dorsa, Daniel. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) has been reported to facilitate lordotic behavior in estrogen-primed ovariectomized (OVX) female rats in a manner similar to progesterone (P). This study compared P and LHRH with respect to their behavioral effects and site of action within the brain. The hormones were compared using two different components of sexual behavior, receptivity and proceptivity. To test for receptivity, OVX females were given behaviorally ineffective estradiol benzoate (EB) injections sc 48 hr before testing. They were then treated with either P, LHRH, or vehicle by various routes. Two and/or four hours later, receptivity (LQ) was measured. Treatments for the proceptivity test were similar except that a larger EP-priming dose, which facilitates preceptive behavior, was used. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Exploring Dynamics and Noise in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Signaling. AU - Voliotis, Margaritis. AU - Garner, Kathryn L. AU - Alobaid, Hussah. AU - Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira. AU - McArdle, Craig A. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) acts via G-protein coupled receptors on pituitary gonadotropes. These are Gq-coupled receptors that mediate acute effects of GnRH on the exocytotic secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as the chronic regulation of their synthesis. FSH and LH control steroidogenesis and gametogenesis in the gonads so GnRH mediates control of reproduction by the central nervous system. GnRH is secreted in short pulses and the effects of GnRH on its target cells are dependent on the dynamics of these pulses. Here we provide a brief overview of the signaling network activated by GnRH with emphasis on the use of high content imaging for their examination. We also describe ...
Although both laparoscopic ablation and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are treatments for endometriosis, there are no studies that directly compare these two treatment options. METHODS: This study compares the use of GnRHa therapy and laparoscopic ablation concerning symptom relief, recurrence of symptoms, safety, side effects of treatment and improvement of quality of life in women ages 18-50 with diagnosed endometriosis. The study design is an evidence-based literature review, assessing each study for its research design, inclusion and exclusion criteria, treatment results, adverse affects and conclusions. RESULTS: All but one research study showed that GnRHa are effective at improving quality of life by relieving endometriosis symptoms up to one year post treatment. Side effects were consistent with hypoestrogenemia and were non-life threatening. Laparoscopic ablation was found to successfully treat endometriosis symptoms, but fertility rates were not consistently improved. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is the postovulatory release of follicle-stimulating hormone in the rabbit mediated by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone?. AU - Mills, T. M.. AU - Copland, J. A.. AU - Coy, D. H.. AU - Schally, A. V.. PY - 1983/9. Y1 - 1983/9. N2 - Studies were performed to determine whether the postovulatory secretion of FSH in the rabbit is an LHRH-mediated event. Does were mated and then injected at 12 and 18 h postcoitum with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg BW), an agent known to block endogenous LHRH release. The injecton of this barbiturate had no measurable effect on the postovulatory FSH secretion pattern. Administration of the LHRH antagomist [Ac-D-p-Cl-Phe1,2, Phe3, D-Arg6, D-Ala10]LHRH (0.5 mg/doe) prevented all gonadotropin release in response to LHRH injection (10 μg/kg BW). When this same dose of the antagonist was injected at 18 h postcoitum, the postovulatory FSH secretion pattern was unaffected. Finally, to prove that the pituitary was sensitive to LHRH at 18-h postcoitum, LHRH (10 ...
Luteal phase support indicated in assisted reproductive technology can be administered with the use of different progesterone preparations or alternate new options such as microdose human chorionic gonadotropin or gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased potency and sustained suppressive actions of a new gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist peptide in man.. AU - Urban, R. J.. AU - Pavlou, S. N.. AU - Rivier, J. E.. AU - Vale, W. W.. AU - Dufau, M. L.. AU - Veldhuis, J. D.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - We have used a new potent GnRH antagonist to assess the efficacy of suppression of gonadotropin secretion in healthy postmenopausal women at three different doses. The Nal-Glu antagonist produced significant suppression of immunoactive and bioactive LH at a 300 micrograms/kg dose throughout the 30-hr sampling interval with only minimal local (skin) histamine release. This increased potency and decreased skin reactivity of the Nal-Glu antagonist make it a drug with potential clinical use similar to the GnRH agonist, but with the advantage of immediate gonadotropin suppression.. AB - We have used a new potent GnRH antagonist to assess the efficacy of suppression of gonadotropin secretion in healthy postmenopausal ...
Apalutamide with or without Abiraterone Acetate, Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog, and Prednisone in Treating Patients with High-Risk Prostate Cancer Undergoing Surgery
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist, GnRH agonist, Nafarelin Acetate, Synarel.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The estrogen myth. T2 - Potential use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of Alzheimers disease. AU - Casadesus, Gemma. AU - Garrett, Matthew R.. AU - Webber, Kate M.. AU - Hartzler, Anthony W.. AU - Atwood, Craig S.. AU - Perry, George. AU - Bowen, Richard L.. AU - Smith, Mark A.. PY - 2006/6/21. Y1 - 2006/6/21. N2 - Estrogen and other sex hormones have received a great deal of attention for their speculative role in Alzheimers disease (AD), but at present a direct connection between estrogen and the pathogenesis of AD remains elusive and somewhat contradictory. For example, on one hand there is a large body of evidence suggesting that estrogen is neuroprotective and improves cognition, and that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at the onset of menopause reduces the risk of developing AD decades later. However, on the other hand, studies such as the Womens Health Initiative demonstrate that HRT initiated in elderly women increases the risk of ...
Demeestere, Isabelle ; Brice, Pauline ; Peccatori, Fedro A ; Kentos, Alain ; Dupuis, Jehan ; et. al. No Evidence for the Benefit of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist in Preserving Ovarian Function and Fertility in Lymphoma Survivors Treated With Chemotherapy: Final Long-Term Report of a Prospective Randomized Trial.. In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 34, no.22, p. 2568-2574 (2016 ...
Buy anti-GnRH antibody, Mouse anti-Rat Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Monoclonal Antibody (Clone D4)-NP_036899.1 (MBS2001271) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Primary Antibodies. Application: WB; ICC; IHC-P; IHC-F; ELISA; IP; IF; FCM
Background: This retrospective study evaluated the effect of profound pituitary suppression with oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment in gonadotropin-releasing horm..
During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase). The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons
170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway NJ 08854. Summary: The precise coordinated expression and release of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus is critical for establishing and maintaining reproduction. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of GnRH gene expression and regulation is thus vitally important for a complete understanding of mammalian reproduction. The goal of our studies is to provide in vitro and in vivo characterization of the signals and cell-specific proteins that mediate hypothalamic GnRH gene expression during puberty and reproduction. We use both GnRH-neuronal cell lines to probe detailed molecular mechanisms complemented with in vivo expression studies in mice to permit a critical physiological assessment of the relevance of each finding.. Kisspeptin, a protein controlling GnRH-mediated pubertal maturation and reproduction is expressed in specific neurons located in the arcuate (ARC) and anteroventral periventicular (AVPV) nuclei of the hypothalamus and ...
China Gonadorelin Acetate 99%Purity Peptide, Gonadorelin Price, Find details about China Peptides, Sarms from Gonadorelin Acetate 99%Purity Peptide, Gonadorelin Price - Zhengzhou Filter Biotechnology Co., Ltd.
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, GnRH) is a 10-amino acid peptide produced in the brain that regulates the release of LH from the pituitary gland. LH is crucial for initiating the successful ovulation of mature ovarian follicles (Graafian follicles) and transforming the ovulated follicle into a steroid-secreting corpus luteum. In the male, LH causes Leydig cells in the testis to secrete testosterone, a hormone essential for male sexual behavior secretory activity of accessory glands of the reproductive tract, muscle accretion, and spermatogenesis. The focus of this study was to determine the prepubertal ontogeny of LHRH-like immunoreactivity (LHRH-IR) in the male Chinese Meishan pig. The Meishan breed is known for reproductive traits, including increased litter size and precocious puberty, but slow growth and obesity. Brains of animals from gestational day (g) 30, 50, 70, 90, and 110 and postnatal day (pn) 1, 10, 20, and 50 (duration of pregnancy averages 114 days) were processed by a
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone definition is - a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins (such as luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) -abbreviation GnRH-called also luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is considered to stimulate LH secretion from the pituitary. This antibody is raised against an GnRH analog (GnRHa).
Research is lacking to define precisely the mechanism of this relationship. The effects of a particular hormone may be mediated directly by the hormone or indirectly through effects on other systems such as the HPA axis. Thus, sex hormones can exert their positive or negative feedback on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary depending on the levels of these hormones in the blood. The hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones affect immune responses directly (Whitacre, 1999). Thus, this bidirectional regulation of the immune response exists - there are sex hormone receptors on the surfaces of immune cells, and cytokine receptors (IL-1R, IL-18R) have been discovered on hormone-producing tissues. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1B) stimulate the release of glucocorticoids from the HPA axis, which regulates the inflammatory process (Bijlsma, 1999).. The ...
in Regulatory Peptides (2000), 92(1-3), 17-24. Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the hypothalamic control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript ... [more ▼]. Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the hypothalamic control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). We aimed at studying the effects of leptin, CART and NPY on the hypothalamic control of the pituitary-gonadal system. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion was studied in vitro using retrochiasmatic hypothalamic explants from adult rats. In the female, GnRH pulse amplitude was significantly increased by leptin (10(-7) M) and CART (10(-6) M) irrespective of the estrus cycle phase while no such effects were seen in the male. The GnRH interpulse interval was not affected in both sexes. Passive ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary αt3-1 cell line is mediated by protein kinase C, c-Src, and CDC42. AU - Levi, N. L.. AU - Hanoch, T.. AU - Benard, Outhiriaradjou. AU - Rozenblat, M.. AU - Harris, D.. AU - Reiss, N.. AU - Naor, Z.. AU - Seger, R.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The signaling of ligands operating via heterotrimeric G proteins is mediated by a complex network that involves sequential phosphorylation events. Signaling by the G protein-coupled receptor GnRH was shown to include elevation of Ca2+ and activation of phospholipases, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In this study, GnRH was shown to activate Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK)/SAPK in αT3-1 cells in a PKC- and tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. GnRH as well as tumor-promoting agent (TPA) also increased c-Src activity, which peaked at 2 min after GnRH stimulation and was sensitive both to PKC and to tyrosine kinase ...
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): GnRH a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins...
Complementar Deoxyribonucleic Acid Cloning, Gene Expression, and Ligand Selectivity of a Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Expressed in the Pituitary and Midbrain of ,I,Xenopus Laevis,/I ...
Reproduction is influenced by the physiological and environmental modulation of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal network. GnRH hypothalamic activity is reflected in the systemic circulation by its downstream effector, luteinising hormone (LH). During stress, the GnRH-dependent LH activity that is required for adequate gonadal development and function is suppressed by glucocorticoids secreted by the adrenal glands. Emerging research in the field of stress-induced infertility show glucocorticoids do not directly inhibit GnRH activity and instead may act via the inhibitory RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) neurons, which suppress GnRH secretion. Thus far, this intermediary inhibitory role of RFRP neurons between the stress and reproductive axes is mainly supported by the upregulated expression of hypothalamic RFRP activity with stress in both sexes. Using a transgenic mouse model, the experiments in this thesis examine whether hypothalamic RFRP neuronal signalling is ...
MURATA TAKUYA , TAKIZAWA TOSHIO , FUNABA MASAYUKI , FUJIMURA HISAKO , MURATA ERI , TAKAHASHI MICHIO , TORII KUNIO Endocrine journal 44(1), 35-42, 1997-02-01 参考文献31件 ...
Estradiol (E(2)) acts as a potent feedback molecule between the ovary and hypothalamic GnRH neurons, and exerts both positive and negative regulatory actions on GnRH synthesis and secretion. However, the extent to which these actions are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed in GnRH neurons …
Ozarelix (developmental code names D-63153, SPI-153) is a peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) which is under development by AEterna Zentaris Inc. and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals as a long-acting injection formulation for the treatment of prostate cancer. It has also been under investigation for the treatment of endometriosis, but no development has been reported. The drug was previously under investigation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and Alzheimers disease as well, but development for these indications was discontinued. As of December 2017, it is in phase II clinical trials for prostate cancer. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists List of investigational hormonal agents § GnRH/gonadotropins http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800013299 Festuccia C, Dondi D, Piccolella M, Locatelli A, Gravina GL, Tombolini V, Motta M (2010). Ozarelix, a fourth generation GnRH antagonist, induces apoptosis in hormone refractory androgen ...
Find quality suppliers and manufacturers of 71447-49-9(Gonadorelin diacetate) for price inquiry. where to buy 71447-49-9(Gonadorelin diacetate).Also offer free database of 71447-49-9(Gonadorelin diacetate) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards and safety),chemical properties,Formula, density and structure, solution etc.
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final output neurons of a hypothalamic network controlling fertility in mammals. They release GnRH from axon terminals into the portal blood circulation of the pituitary, where GnRH triggers the secretion of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones. GnRH neuron anatomy, morphology and physiology have been studied extensively at the levels of the cell bodies and dendrites in the basal forebrain and axons in the median eminence. However little is known about the subcellular origin of the axon and the physiological role of the dense GnRH fiber innervation of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Using a cell-filling approach in acute brain slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice, GnRH neuron morphology was analyzed with a confocal microscope. The vast majority (83%) of GnRH neurons were found to extend long dendrites in the direction of the median eminence. When these dendrites were analyzed in a novel brain slice ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
Objective: Is a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger to induce final oocyte maturation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol sufficient to provide optimal oocyte maturity? Design: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept study. Setting: This study was carried out at a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: A total of 125 patients diagnosed with PCOS defined as per the ESHRE/ASRM Rotterdam criteria (2003) undergoing IVF in antagonist protocol were randomized into two groups. Group A: single dose of GnRHa 0.2 mg, 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval, and Group B: 0.2 mg GnRHa 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval + repeat dose of 0.1 mg 12 h following the 1st dose. 12 h post-trigger, luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P4), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were estimated. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard ...
Wojniusz, Slawomir; Vögele, Claus; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Sütterlin, Stefan; Erhard, Hans W.; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Olberg, Dag Erlend & Haraldsen, Ira Hebold (2011). Prepubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog leads to exaggerated behavioral and emotional sex differences in sheep. Hormones and Behavior. ISSN 0018-506X. 59, s 22- 27 . doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.09.010 Show summary In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of the brains sex specificity and that changes in GnRH action during critical periods of brain development, such as puberty, will result in altered sex-specific behavioral and physiological patterns. We blocked puberty in half of the 48 same-sex Scottish mule Texel cross sheep twins with GnRH ...
Wojniusz, Slawomir; Vögele, Claus; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Sütterlin, Stefan; Erhard, Hans W.; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Olberg, Dag Erlend & Haraldsen, Ira Hebold (2011). Prepubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog leads to exaggerated behavioral and emotional sex differences in sheep. Hormones and Behavior. ISSN 0018-506X. 59, s 22- 27 . doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.09.010 Vis sammendrag In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of the brains sex specificity and that changes in GnRH action during critical periods of brain development, such as puberty, will result in altered sex-specific behavioral and physiological patterns. We blocked puberty in half of the 48 same-sex Scottish mule Texel cross sheep twins with GnRH ...
The origin of GnRH-1 neurons and OECs has been a matter of debate for several decades. Both cell types are associated with the olfactory/nasal placode (Schwanzel-Fukuda and Pfaff, 1989; Wray et al., 1989; Wewetzer et al., 2002; Barnett, 2004; Murdoch et al., 2010). During early development, the nasal placode and cranial neural crest cells share a common border, originating from ectoderm near the neural plate. Mixing of NC and olfactory placode cells has been suggested (Couly and Le Douarin, 1985; Whitlock, 2004; Schlosser, 2010). Thus, we used both NC and ectodermal-specific Cre-lox fate tracing strategies to determine the origin of nasal placode derivates. Here we show that early multipotent cranial NC cells mingle with ectodermally derived cells in the developing nasal placode where they generate (1) unique cell types such as the OECs and (2) neurons with similar features to those of ectodermal origin (Nagoshi et al., 2008, 2009) including a population of GnRH-1-expressing neurons.. The ...
Buy Gonadorelin. Convenient payment methods are accepted.Application of Gonadorelin, Course Duratrion Peptide and Dosage, Side effects
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH). GnRH is an injected used to stimulate the production of FSH and LH, which is secreted from the pituitary gland. Factrel and Lutrepulse are name brands of GnRH. Side effects and risks of these drugs include nausea, headaches, multiple births, abdominal pain, and bloating.. GnRH Antagonist. Antagon and Cetrotide are fertility drugs known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. These medications work against the hormones FSH and LH in the body, which suppresses ovulation. GnRH antagonist will prevent eggs from being lost inside the body before they are retrieved for IVF cycles.. GnRH Agonists. Synarel, Lupron, and Zoladex are fertility drugs known as GnRH agonists. These drugs cause an initial surge in LH and FSH production and then cause the body to stop production of LH and FSH. Used for IVF treatment, GnRH agonist prevent ovulation and limit the amount of estrogen. Potential side effects include headaches, hot flashes, insomnia, mood swings, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the impact of concurrent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist administration on GnRH agonist-induced gonadotrope desensitization. AU - Illions, E. H.. AU - Scott, R. T.. AU - Carey, K. D.. AU - Navot, D.. N1 - Funding Information: Received December 16, 1994; revised and accepted May 3, 1995. * The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not reflect the official policy of the Department of Defense or other Departments of the U.S. Government. t Nal-Lys was synthesized at the Salk Institute (under contract N01-1HD-0-2906 with National Institutes of Health) and made available by the Contraceptive Development Branch, Center for Population Research, of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. :j: Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wilford Hall Medical Center. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Objective: To evaluate ...
Administration of a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist [Nac-L-Ala1,pCl-D-Phe2,D-Trp3,6]GnRH as a single subcutaneous injection to castrated adult male rats reduced, by more than 90 percent, both serum luteinizing hormone concentrations and specific pituitary GnRH receptor binding. This effect persisted for 24 hours. The dissociation rate of the antagonist from pituitary membrane homogenates was fourfold slower than the dissociation rate of a potent agonist. The prolonged in vivo inhibition of pituitary GnRH receptor binding and luteinizing hormone secretion by the GnRH antagonist may be mediated by the slower dissociation rate of the antagonist from its specific pituitary membrane receptor site. ...
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of combined use of stanazolol (ST) on the final adult height (FAH) in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) and apparently decreased linear growth during gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRHa) therapy.. METHOD: Sixty-three girls with ICPP and decreased velocity of growth of height (HV,4 cm/yr) during GnRHa therapy were divided into 3 groups based on the following types of interventions:group 1 (n = 20), GnRHa+ST [25-30 µg/(kg·d) every 3-month followed by 3-month discontinuation], group 2 (n = 21), GnRHa+recombinant human growth hormone [rhGH, 1-1.1 U/(kg·w)], group 3 (n = 22), GnRHa alone.HV, the advancement of bone age (BA) for chronological age (CA) (ΔBA/ΔCA) and FAH were compared among groups.. RESULT: (1)Total duration of ST combination therapy was (12.22 ± 3.62) months, while total duration of combination of rhGH was (13.22 ± 6.80) months. (2)HV increased significantly in both group 1 [ (2.79 ± 0.60) cm/yr vs. (6.27 ± 1.98) ...
Author(s): Zhao, Yali; Lin, Meng-Chin A; Mock, Allan; Yang, Ming; Wayne, Nancy L | Abstract: Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene) is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r) are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins
Flare phenomenon after initial luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist administration is a widely approved concept in the treatment of prostate cancer. In most guidelines, concomitant therapy with anti-androgens is recommended to prevent this flare phenomenon. However, there are few reports describing serum prostate-specific antigen transitions after hormonal therapy. Here, we present a case of a man who experienced the biochemical and clinical flare phenomenon despite prior anti-androgen use and who has detailed data. A 70-year-old Asian man with metastatic prostate cancer (multiple bone) was referred to our hospital. He was treated with prior anti-androgens and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. Regardless of prior use of anti-androgens, his low back pain caused by bone metastases was deteriorated and serum prostate-specific antigen level was raised from 974.8 ng/mL to 2,555.5 ng/mL within 3 weeks. Then, his serum prostate specific antigen level started to decrease along with the
Many women diagnosed with breast cancer, especially younger women, are concerned about their ability to have children after treatment. Some breast cancer treatments can cause temporary infertility or make it harder to get pregnant after treatment ends. Other treatments, especially certain chemotherapy regimens, can cause early menopause and infertility. A meta-analysis suggests that women diagnosed with breast cancer who are treated with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist in addition to chemotherapy may be more likely to become pregnant after chemotherapy ends. The research was presented on Sept. 28, 2015 at the 2015 European Cancer Congress and published online on Sept. 7, 2015 by the Annals of Oncology. Read the abstract of Ovarian suppression using luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists during chemotherapy to preserve ovarian function and fertility of breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis of randomized studies. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone hypogonadism on insulin action as assessed by hyperglycemic clamp studies in men. AU - Chauhan, Subodhsingh. AU - Collins, Karen. AU - Kruger, Michael. AU - Diamond, Michael P.. PY - 2004/4. Y1 - 2004/4. N2 - Objective To investigate the effects of decreasing androgen levels on insulin action, in view of the relationship between hyperandrogenism and impaired insulin action in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Design Prospective, clinical study. Setting University hospital. Patient(s) Ten normal healthy men. Intervention(s) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, 3. 75 mg, administered monthly for 3 months. Main outcome measure(s) Insulin action (M/I ratio). Result(s) The M/I ratio decreased from 0.24 ± 0.04 to 0.17 ± 0.04 after GnRH agonist therapy. Conclusion(s) In normal men, administration of a GnRH analogue was associated with a decrease in both testosterone levels and insulin action.. AB - Objective To investigate the ...
Mechanisms regulating gonadotropin surges and gonadotropin requirements for follicle emergence and selection were studied in heifers. Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. Treatments included control (n = 6), steroid-depleted bovine follicular fluid (bFF) at Hour -4 (n = 6), and bFF at Hour 6 (n = 6). Gonadotropins in blood were assessed hourly from Hours -6 to 36, and follicle growth tracked by ultrasound. Consistent with inhibin independence, bFF at Hour -4 did not impact the GnRH-induced preovulatory FSH surge, whereas treatment at Hour 6 delayed onset of the periovulatory FSH surge and impeded growth of a new follicular wave. Experiment 2 examined GnRH and estradiol (E2) regulation of the periovulatory FSH surge. Treatment groups were control (n = 8), GnRH-receptor ...
Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details ...
Looking for online definition of Gonadotropin-releasing horomone in the Medical Dictionary? Gonadotropin-releasing horomone explanation free. What is Gonadotropin-releasing horomone? Meaning of Gonadotropin-releasing horomone medical term. What does Gonadotropin-releasing horomone mean?
Testosterone promotes growth of many prostate tumors and therefore reducing circulating testosterone to very low (castration) levels is often the treatment goal in the management of men with advanced prostate cancer. GnRH antagonists are used to provide fast suppression of testosterone without the surge in testosterone levels that is seen when treating patients with GnRH agonists.[1] In patients with advanced disease, this surge in testosterone can lead to a flare-up of the tumour, which can precipitate a range of clinical symptoms such as bone pain, urethral obstruction, and spinal cord compression. Drug agencies have issued warnings regarding this phenomenon in the prescribing information for GnRH agonists. As testosterone surge does not occur with GnRH antagonists, there is no need for patients to receive an antiandrogen as flare protection during prostate cancer treatment. GnRH agonists also induce an increase in testosterone levels after each reinjection of the drug - a phenomenon that does ...
The treatment options for high-risk prostate cancer are either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy/brachytherapy depending on the patients prognosis. In older men with multiple comorbidities, radiotherapy with androgen deprivation therapy is an attractive option.
Crook J, OCallaghan CJ, Ding K et al. A phase III randomized trial of intermittent versus continuous androgen suppression for PSA progression after radical therapy (NCIC CTG PR.7/SWOG JPR.7/CTSU JPR.7/UK Intercontinental Trial CRUKE/01/013). J Clin Oncol 2011; Supplement ASCO meeting abstracts, Vol 29 issue 15S (part 1 of 2) p2925, abstr# 4514. Chicago; 2011. p. abstr ...
We asked whether specific mesenchymal/epithelial (M/E) induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). To assess specificity of M/E-mediated neurogenesis, we compared the influence of frontonasal mesenchyme on frontonasal epithelium, which becomes the OE, with that of the forelimb bud. Despite differences in position, morphogenetic and cytogenic capacity, both mesenchymal tissues support neurogenesis, expression of several signaling molecules and neurogenic transcription factors in the frontonasal epithelium. Only frontonasal mesenchyme, however, supports OE-specific patterning and activity of a subset of signals and factors associated with OE differentiation. Moreover, only appropriate pairing of frontonasal epithelial and mesenchymal partners yields ORNs, VRNs, and GnRH neurons. Accordingly, the position and molecular identity of ...
The highly conserved DRY motif located at the end of the third transmembrane of G-protein-coupled receptors has been described as a key motif for several aspects of GPCR functions. However, in the case of the vertebrate gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), the amino acid in the third position in the DRY motif is variable. In the lamprey, a most basal vertebrate, the third amino acid of the DRY in lamprey (lGnRHR-1) is His, while it is most often His/Gln in the type II GnRHR. To investigate the functional significance of the substitution of DRY to DRH in the GnRHR-1, second messenger signaling, ligand binding and internalization of the wild-type and mutant lGnRH receptors were characterized with site-directed mutagenesis. Treatment of the DRE151 and DRS151 mutant receptors with lamprey GnRH-I significantly reduced inositol phosphate compared to wild-type (DRH151) and DRY151 receptors. The Log IC50 of wild-type receptor (-9.554 +/- 0.049) was similar to the Log IC50 of DRE151, DRS151 and
Dopamine regulates reproduction in part by modulating neuronal activity within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Previous studies suggested numerous mechanisms by which dopamine exerts inhibitory control over the HPG axis, ultimately changing the levels of sex steroids that regulate reproductive behaviors. However, it is not known whether these mechanisms are conserved across vertebrate species. In particular, it is unknown whether mechanisms underlying dopaminergic control of reproduction are shared between mammals and teleost fish. In mammals, dopamine directly inhibits GnRH1 hypothalamic neurons, the gatekeepers for activation of the HPG axis. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time in teleost fish, dopaminergic control of GnRH1 neurons via direct dopamine receptor type-2 (D2R) mediated inhibition within the hypothalamus. These results suggest that direct dopaminergic control of GnRH1 neurons via interactions in the hypothalamus is not exclusive to tetrapod reproductive control, ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. Pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus is key in establishing and maintaining normal gonadal function.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. Pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus is key in establishing and maintaining normal gonadal function.
Phase IIIb Randomized Trial Comparing Irradiation Plus Long Term Adjuvant Androgen Deprivation With GnRH Antagonist Versus GnRH Agonist Plus Flare Protection in Patients With Very High Risk Localized or Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer. A Joint Study of t
Despite variability in the triggers, timing, and pace of sexual maturity between species, all species utilize the final pathway of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to initiate and maintain the reproductive axis. Thus, GnRH is required for reproductive competence in the human. The classic studies from the 1970s clearly demonstrate that pulsatile release of GnRH from the hypothalamus is a prerequisite for physiologic gonadotrope function. Absence, decreased frequency or decreased amplitude of pulsatile GnRH release results in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The phenotypic expression of GnRH deficiency in the human demonstrates considerable heterogeneity. Defining the physiology of GnRH is critical to understanding the clinical heterogeneity of isolated GnRH deficiency and its comparison to other conditions resulting in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). The overall goal of this protocol is to investigate the neuroendocrine control of ...
Aim: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are used to treat men with prostate cancer (PCa). To date, no study has fully assessed patterns of adherence to GnRH agonists. We investigated patterns of adherence to GnRH agonists using data from Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe).Methods: PCBaSe links the National Prostate Cancer Register (NPCR) Sweden to other healthcare registers and demographic databases. Men on primary or secondary GnRH agonists between 2006-2013 entered the study 45 days after GnRH agonists initiation (run-in period) and exited at 3 years. Medication possession ratio quantified adherents (≥80%). Multivariable logistic regression models included age, injection interval, PCa risk categories, Charlson Comorbidity Index, prior PCa treatment, civil status and year of GnRH initiation. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) expressed odds of adherence.Results: Men on primary GnRH agonists (n = 8,105) were more adherent with increasing age (75-84 years ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the pituitary-gonadal axis (1). Embryological studies in various vertebrate species have shown that neuroendocrine GnRH cells (i.e., GnRH1-synthesizing neurons) migrate from the medial part of the nasal epithelium up to the forebrain. In mammals, they migrate in close association with fibers of the vomeronasal and terminal nerves (2, 3). Upon reaching the base of the telencephalon, they penetrate the brain together with the central processes of the terminal nerves, just caudal to the olfactory bulb anlage, and make their way along the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere to the preoptic/hypothalamic region, where they ultimately settle. Migration of these cells begins during the sixth embryonic week in humans (3). This is also when fibers of the olfactory and terminal nerves first come into contact with the brain, shortly before the emergence of the olfactory bulbs. Kallmann syndrome (KS) is a developmental disorder that combines hypogonadotropic ...
All structured data from the main and property namespace is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; text in the other namespaces is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apoptotic Effects of Drug Targeting Conjugates Containing Different GnRH Analogs on Colon Carcinoma Cells. AU - Lajkó, Eszter. AU - Hegedüs, Rózsa. AU - Mező, G.. AU - Kőhidai, L.. PY - 2019/9/8. Y1 - 2019/9/8. N2 - The wide range of cellular target reactions (e.g., antitumor) of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) variants provides the possibility to develop multifunctional GnRH conjugates. The aim of our work was to compare the cytotoxic/apoptotic activity of different GnRH-based, daunorubicin (Dau)-linked conjugates with or without butyrated Lys in position 4 (4Lys(Bu)) at a molecular level in a human colorectal carcinoma cell line. Cell viability was measured by impedimetry, cellular uptake and apoptosis were studied by flow cytometry, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR. The modification with 4Lys(Bu) resulted in an increased cytotoxic and apoptotic effects and cellular uptake of the GnRH-I and GnRH-III conjugates. Depending on the ...
The aim of this study is to assess the oocyte yield of infertile women with suspected or known poor ovarian reserve (POR) undergoing a GnRH antagonist protocol for IVF with Merional® starting either with a low (150 IU) or a high dose (450 IU) and adding 100mg of CC (Serophene®) in the early follicular phase of the stimulation (day 3 to 7). To date no RCT has been conducted to compare the reproductive outcome of patients with POR as defined by the ESHRE Bologna criteria after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with HMG in an GnRH antagonist protocol using low doses versus high doses of HMG and adding CC versus placebo. We hypothesize that adding 100 mg of CC on day 3-7 to a HMG antagonist protocol will lead to an additional increment of endogenous GT thus increasing the oocytes yield after controlled ovarian stimulation due to higher endogenous gonadotropin secretion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequence analysis of the turkey LH β subunit and its regulation by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and prolactin in cultured pituitary cells. AU - You, Seungkwon. AU - Foster, L. K.. AU - Silsby, J. L.. AU - El Halawani, M. E.. AU - Foster, D. N.. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - cDNAs encoding the precursor molecule of the turkey LH β subunit (tLHβ) were cloned from a turkey pituitary cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the longest of two different tLHβ cDNA clones contained 592 bp, and included 23 bp of the 5 untranslated region (UTR) and 92 bp of the 3 UTR in addition to a 477 bp open reading frame that encoded a 39 amino acid leader polypeptide and a 120 amino acid mature apoprotein. Turkey and chicken LHβ sequences shared approximately 92 and 93% nucleotide and amino acid sequence similarities respectively. Northern blot analysis of total cellular anterior pituitary RNA showed that an approximate 800 base transcript hybridized to a 32P-labelled tLHβ cDNA ...
Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the synaptotagmin-1 gene in the hypothalamus and pituitary of Huoyan goose during different stages of the egg-laying cycle.. Science.gov (United States). Luan, Xinhong; Luo, Lina; Cao, Zhongzan; Li, Rongrong; Liu, Dawei; Gao, Ming; Liu, Mei; Wang, Laiyou. 2014-08-21. Synaptotagmin-1 (Syt1) is an abundant, evolutionarily conserved integral membrane protein that plays essential roles in neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion. Neurotransmitters secreted by hypothalamic neurons can alter GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormones) neuronal activity by binding to and activating specific membrane receptors in pituitary cells and, in turn, control the release of gonadotropin hormones from the pituitary gland. To reveal the influence of Syt1 on the process of goose egg-laying, we cloned and characterized the cDNA of goose Syt1 originating from hypothalamus and pituitary tissues of Huoyan goose and investigated the mRNA expression profiles during different ...
Currently, the best standard treatment for men with this type of prostate cancer includes radiation therapy combined with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). ADT blocks the function of hormones including testosterone which prostate cancer uses to grow and spread. All participants in this study will receive the main standard form of ADT called a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHA). Physicians often also use another drug called bicalutamide to help the LHRHA block hormone function. The investigators are testing whether using two newer anti-hormonal drugs called abiraterone acetate and apalutamide with LHRHA can improve cure rates compared to using bicalutamide plus LHRHA. These two drugs work together to suppress both testosterone and the receptor where testosterone binds thereby providing more potent hormone suppression ...
The patient initiated a regimen of combined androgen blockade involving an luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist plus a p.o. antiandrogen (i.e., Lupron and Casodex, respectively). After 2 months of androgen ablation-hormone therapy, the number of lung nodules on chest radiography decreased and his T-PSA reached a nadir of 3.6 ng/mL. Two months later, however, a brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of an intrasellar pituitary mass. Trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy revealed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma (Fig. 1E). The patient subsequently received palliative radiation therapy and salvage chemotherapy. He was alive at last follow-up but suffered from widely metastatic disease.. The patients history was unusual. The patient mentioned that he began taking a HHDS product (brand name not mentioned due to legal reasons) purchased via the Internet 10 months before the onset of his symptoms. He sought to develop stronger muscles and enhanced sexual performance. He took two ...
in 2 brothers with Kallmann syndrome (KS), which causes inherited GnRH deficiency. Recombinant wild-type SEMA3E protected maturing GnRH neurons from cell death by triggering a plexin D1-dependent (PLXND1-dependent) activation of PI3K-mediated survival signaling. In contrast, recombinant SEMA3E carrying the KS-associated mutation did not protect GnRH neurons from death. In murine models, lack of either SEMA3E or PLXND1 increased apoptosis of GnRH neurons in the developing brain, reducing innervation of the adult median eminence by GnRH-positive neurites. GnRH neuron deficiency in male mice was accompanied by impaired testes growth, a characteristic feature of KS. Together, these results identify ...
INTRODUCTION: GnRH analogues (GnRHa) are the treatment of choice in idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP) thought the real benefit on height gain is unclear. Hence, defining their effect on near adult height (NAH) in girls with idiopathic CPP is the main studys aim. METHODS: An observational longitudinal prospective descriptive study of a cohort formed by 500 girls included in the Spanish register diagnosed of idiopathic CPP between January 2008 and January 2019 has been carried out. Triptorelin 3.75mg have been monthly administered and the gap between NAH and TH is the primary outcome. RESULTS: Data at treatments cessation from 283 girls and at NAH from 132 girls is reported. The primary outcomes mean and 95% confidence interval have been -1,033±6.362 cm and -2.293-0.277 cm respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GnRHa are helpful in preserving the genetic growth potential as a non-insignificant quantity of patients has reached a NAH close to their TH. INTRODUCCIÓ: Els anàlegs de la GnRH (aGnRH) són el
DeFranco DB, Attardi B, Chandran UR. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated repression of GnRH gene expression in a hypothalamic GnRH-secreting neuronal cell line. IN Brain Corticosteroid Receptors, Studies on the Mechanism Function, and Neurotoxicity of Corticosteroid Action. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1994;746(0):473-475 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exposure to alcohol in utero alters the adult patterns of luteinizing hormone secretion in male and female rats. AU - Handa, Robert J.. AU - McGivern, Robert F.. AU - Noble, Ernest SP. AU - Gorski, Roger A.. PY - 1985/11/4. Y1 - 1985/11/4. N2 - Luteinizing hormone (LH) secretory patterns were characterized in adult male and female rats exposed to ethanol during the last week of fetal life. Gonadectomized fetal alcohol exposed (FAE) males and females had significantly reduced plasma LH titers as compared to those of pair-fed (PF) controls. The phasic afternoon LH secretory response to estrogen and progesterone priming was also significantly reduced in FAE females. These differences do not appear to be a result of altered pituitary sensitivity to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), since the infusion of LHRH resulted in an equal response in PF and FAE females. Subsequent characterization of the episodic pattern of LH secretion in FAe males revealed significantly reduced ...
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Thermo Scientific Lab Vision GnRH Receptor/LH-RH Receptor Ab-3, Mouse Monoclonal 1mL; Unlabeled; Ready-to-use format.
In addition to its lack of efficacy, it is concerning that the hCG dosage administered to obese patients is sufficiently high to cause certain physiological responses, and the quality of hCG used by many obesity clinics is unknown. A typical dosage used for weight loss programs is the daily dosage of 150 IU for six times per week or weekly dosage of 1000 IU. In a clinical trial of oocyte production, a daily dose of 200 IU has been successfully used for maintaining late follicular phase as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist.5 The likelihood that hCG administered for weight loss is having reproductive effects is further suggested by the finding of luteinizing hormone/hCG receptors on various tissues.6, 7 Preliminary studies showed that hCG facilitated decidualization of stromal cells of human endometrium,8 which raises concern of possible leiomyoma formation and exacerbation of endometriosis. For males, animal prostate cells expressed HCG receptor gene upon stimulation, and the authors ...
4843 Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-induced transcriptional factor that belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. It regulates the expression of multiple prostate-specific proteins that may be involved in growth and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Initially, most prostate cancer patients will respond to androgen ablation therapy involving either orchiectomy or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, often in combination with competitive AR antagonists to block the action of residual circulating androgens. Eventually however a proportion of these cancers will recur. Among the molecular mechanisms implicated in the progression of prostate cancer to this androgen refractory state, most involve AR, which continues to be functionally expressed and appears to be an important survival signal in androgen refractory cancer cells. Thus, down regulation of AR is a potentially useful strategy to overcome prostate cancer progression. The objective of our ongoing studies is to design ...
Data Availability StatementAll datasets generated because of this research are contained in the content/supplementary material. assessed bodyweight and performed behavioral checks to look for the ramifications of fluoxetine and pressure on depressive-like behaviors. Real-time PCR and traditional western blotting were utilized to gauge the mRNA and proteins manifestation degrees of GRPR in the hypothalamus. After that, Flag-tagged proteins (pcmv-Flag-5HT2aR) and Myc-tagged proteins (pcmv-Myc-GRPR) manifestation vectors were built, determined, and transfected into human being embryo kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. The interaction between 5-HT2aR and GRPR was recognized by double-label and coimmunoprecipitation immunofluorescence. Outcomes The rats put through four weeks of CUMS demonstrated depressive-like behaviors, including reduced bodyweight, sucrose choice, and distance journeyed, rearing rate of recurrence and speed on view field ensure that you improved immobility amount of time in the pressured ...
CD8+ T cell responses are thought to play an important role during HIV infection, particularly in HIV controllers (HIC) in whom viral replication is spontaneously controlled without any treatment. of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells were observed only in a subset of HLA-B*57+ subjects. They were tightly associated with the ability to suppress viral replication to kill virally infected autologous CD4+ T cells and therefore suppress viral replication (15, 16). However, this CD8+ T cell viral suppression activity is not present in all HIC (17). Most studies have been performed with HLA-B*57+ or HLA-B*27+ patients, since they represent a large. ...
William R. Berry, MD, discusses luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists versus antagonists as treatment options for patients and highlights the novel techniques for prostate cancer imaging.
The brain regulates fertility via GnRH release. For most of the mammalian reproductive cycle, GnRH release is pulsatile and estradiol feedback suppresses GnRH and LH release. At the end of the follicular phase, high sustained estradiol levels initiate a surge of continuous GnRH release culminating in ovulation (Sarkar et al., 1976; Moenter et al., 1991). This shift in estradiol feedback is associated with changes in both intrinsic properties of, and synaptic inputs to, these cells. Here we show that, during positive feedback, GnRH neurons integrate changes in their intrinsic properties with changes to fast-synaptic transmission to increase firing rate.. This work supports findings demonstrating increased GABAergic drive to GnRH neurons is correlated with increased firing rate in several animal models (Sullivan and Moenter, 2004, 2005; Christian et al., 2005; Pielecka et al., 2006; Christian and Moenter, 2007; Roland and Moenter, 2011; Adams et al., 2018a). Past conclusions have been limited to ...
Search for information on a specific species or issue related to wildlife fertility control. Articles are added on a rolling basis. If you would like your work to be included in the repository, please contact [email protected] ...
en] During the last 10 years, the conference on Steroids and Nervous System held in Torino (Italy) has been an important international point of discussion for scientists involved in this exciting and expanding research field. The present review aims to recapitulate the main topics that have been presented through the various meetings. Two broad areas have been explored: the impact of gonadal hormones on brain circuits and behaviour, as well as the mechanism of action of neuroactive steroids. Relationships among steroids, brain and behaviour, the sexual differentiation of the brain and the impact of gonadal hormones, the interactions of exogenous steroidal molecules (endocrine disrupters) with neural circuits and behaviour, and how gonadal steroids modulate the behaviour of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones, have been the topics of several lectures and symposia during this series of meetings. At the same time, many contributions have been dedicated to the biosynthetic pathways, the ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy is associated with increased risks of numerous clinically relevant adverse events compared with orchiectomy.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Idiopatisk pubertas praecox hos piger. AU - Senning, Dorte Lydum. AU - Rix, Mariane. AU - Andersen, Graziella. AU - Leunbach, Tina Lund. PY - 2019/7/15. Y1 - 2019/7/15. N2 - Precocious puberty (PP) in girls is common and mostly idiopathic due to precocious activation of the gonadotropic axis. In this review, we find it important to distinguish the normal variant of slightly early puberty from rapidly progressive cases. Abnormal harmony of puberty more likely warrants a pathological condition. In girls aged about eight years with confirmed idiopathic PP, observation for 3-6 months is reasonable in order to identify clinically progressive cases, who will benefit from intervention with an gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist.. AB - Precocious puberty (PP) in girls is common and mostly idiopathic due to precocious activation of the gonadotropic axis. In this review, we find it important to distinguish the normal variant of slightly early puberty from rapidly progressive cases. ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus by GnRH-expressing neurons. The anterior portion of the ... In addition, leptin and insulin have stimulatory effects and ghrelin has inhibitory effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( ... "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors". Endocr. Rev. 25 (2): 235-75. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0002. PMID 15082521. Charlton H ( ... Hormone replacement can be used to initiate puberty and continue if the gene mutation occurs in the gene coding for the hormone ...
... or an antagonist of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), the biological target of the hypothalamic hormone ... Elagolix, sold under the brand name Orilissa, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) medication which ... Huirne JA, Lambalk CB (November 2001). "Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor antagonists". Lancet. 358 (9295): 1793-803. doi ... of gonadotropins and estradiol in premenopausal women by oral administration of the nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone ...
The underlying cause is a failure in the correct production or activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus. ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Balasubramanian R, Crowley WF (March 2, 2017). "Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone ... Balasubramanian R, Crowley WF Jr (2017). "Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency". SourceGeneReviews. PMID ... in the production of the gonadotropin hormones normally released by the anterior pituitary gland known as luteinising hormone ( ...
Buck, Cassandra; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Crowley, Jr, William F (2013-07-18). Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171316 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000041235 - Ensembl, May ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Orgalutran". European Medicines Agency. Retrieved 11 May 2012. Oberyé J ... Ganierlix is a synthetic peptide that works as an antagonist against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ("Ganirelix acetate ... is an injectable competitive gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist). It is primarily used in assisted ... When such premature ovulation occurs, the eggs released by the ovaries may be too immature to be used in in-vitro fertilization ...
Boccon-Gibod L, van der Meulen E, Persson BE (June 2011). "An update on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Abarelix". PubChem. 2017-07-29. "Abarelix". Drugs.com. ... Abarelix, sold under the brand name Plenaxis, is an injectable gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) ...
White, SA; Nguyen, T; Fernald, RD (1 September 2002). "Social regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone". J Exp Biol. 205 ( ... The male releases sperm and fertilizes the eggs in the female's mouth. This pecking and fertilizing behavior repeats until the ... Following brood release, after several more weeks have passed, the female cichlids will have recovered physiologically enough ... This may be potentially due to levels of circulating hormones. Intra- and inter-sexual social communications in males can also ...
"Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor-coupled gene network organization". J Biol Chem. 276 (50): 47195-201. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Microtranscriptome regulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone". Mol Cell Endocrinol. 302 (1): 12-7. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2008.12 ... Cloning and Expression of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1999, U.S. #5,985,583, Applications of GnRH Receptor Partial ... "Cloning and functional expression of a mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor". Mol Endocrinol. 6 (7): 1163-9. doi: ...
... is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) and works by preventing the production of sex hormones by ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists Chrisp P, Goa KL (April 1990). "Nafarelin. A review of its pharmacodynamic ... Nafarelin, sold under the brand name Synarel among others, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) ... Magon N (October 2011). "Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas". Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 15 (4): 261-7. ...
Limonta P, Moretti RM, Marelli MM, Motta M (2004). "The biology of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone: role in the control ... The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000125787 - Ensembl, May 2017 " ... 2005). "Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-I (GnRH-I) and type-II (GnRH-II) in human peripheral blood ... White RB, Eisen JA, Kasten TL, Fernald RD (Feb 1998). "Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans". Proc Natl ...
... prior to down-regulation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone receptors, thereby reducing the release of gonadotropins in the ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists "gonadorelin analogue , Encyclopedia.com". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved ... and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) used as the acetate or pamoate salts. Primary indications include ... is a medication that acts as an agonist analog of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thus reversibly repressing expression of ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Elsevier Science. 29 June 2018. pp. 554-556. ... Azagly-nafarelin, sold under the brand name Gonazon, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) medication ... "Signaling events associated with gonadotropin releasing hormone-agonist-induced hormonal castration and its reversal in canines ...
White, S. A.; Kasten, T. L.; Bond, C. T.; Adelman, J. P.; Fernald, R. D. (1995). "Three gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes in ... White, R. B.; Eisen, J. A.; Kasten, T. L.; Fernald, R. D. (1998). "Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans". ... White, Richard B.; Fernald, Russell D. (1998). "Genomic Structure and Expression Sites of Three Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone ... In his research on the control of reproduction, Fernald's research showed neurons containing gonadotropin releasing hormone ( ...
John W. Kimball (12 February 2011). "Hormones of the Hypothalamus: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)". Kimball's Biology ... This secretion is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone produced in the hypothalamus. Gonads start developing as a common ... The gonads are controlled by luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, produced and secreted by gonadotropes or ... A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an ...
The anterior pituitary releases the gonadotropins luteunizing hormone (LH) into the ovaries, which produce estrogen, and ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretes from the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic GnRH pulse influences the pulsatile ... Activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) initiates puberty by secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( ... Chemicals and hormones found in the environment and plastics such as Bisphenol A (BPA) have been thought to affect sexual ...
Landgren V, Malki K, Bottai M, Arver S, Rahm C (April 2020). "Effect of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist on Risk of ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Degarelix (Firmagon) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 3 February 2020. ... Degarelix has an immediate onset of action, binding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the pituitary gland ... van Poppel H, Nilsson S (June 2008). "Testosterone surge: rationale for gonadotropin-releasing hormone blockers?". Urology. 71 ...
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). *thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The gland's response is assessed by measuring the ... rises in prolactin and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) caused by TRH and rises in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle- ... Three hormones[2] (usually synthetic analogues) are injected as a bolus into the patient's vein to stimulate the anterior ... stimulating hormone (FSH) caused by GnRH. Blood glucose levels are also monitored to ensure appropriate levels of hypoglycemia ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Surgery[edit]. *Dilation and curettage (D&C) is not recommended for cases of simple ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone dosage to rule out hypothyroidism [13] ... Kaunitz AM, Meredith S, Inki P, Kubba A, Sanchez-Ramos L (May 2009). "Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and ... Stewart A, Cummins C, Gold L, Jordan R, Phillips W (January 2001). "The effectiveness of the levonorgestrel-releasing ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Cetrotide® 0.25 mg" (PDF). emdserono.com. Archived from the original ( ... is an injectable gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist. A synthetic decapeptide, it is used in assisted reproduction ... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In addition, cetrorelix can be used to treat hormone-sensitive cancers of the prostate[ ... The duration of the 3 mg single dose is four days; if human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is not administered within four days, ...
... is in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue family of medications. It works by decreasing gonadotropin ... As of July 2018, it is in phase II clinical trials for endometriosis.[needs update] Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § ... Leuprorelin is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue acting as an agonist at pituitary GnRH receptors. Agonism of ... Leuprorelin may be used in the treatment of hormone-responsive cancers such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. It may also ...
Blum JJ, Conn PM (December 1982). "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of luteinizing hormone release: A ligand-receptor ... Conn PM, Rogers DC, Stewart JM, Niedel J, Sheffield T (April 1982). "Conversion of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist ... Bivalent ligands were also reported early on by Micheal Conn and coworkers for the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical ... Fertirelin, or fertirelin acetate, sold under the brand name Ovalyse, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist ... It may have been used in the treatment of sex hormone-dependent conditions and infertility in women. The drug was first ...
It is an injectable gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist). Structurally, it is a decapeptide. It is the natural ... Memory complaints: a side effect of continued exposure to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa). Paper presented at: ... Goserelin is a synthetic analogue of a naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Bioavailability is almost ... Endocrine treatment of male-to-female transsexuals using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ...
Human chorionic gonadotropin and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive functions. The team led by him has carried out ... Gupta's research covered the field of reproductive biology and he is known to have made studies on the effect of human hormones ...
"Human myometrium and leiomyomas express gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2 receptor". Fertil ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000211451 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference ... Putative gonadotropin-releasing hormone II receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNRHR2 gene. The receptor for ... "Entrez Gene: GNRHR2 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (type 2) receptor 2". Neill JD (2002). "GnRH and GnRH receptor genes in the ...
To regulate reproductive functions, Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is released. This helps with maturation of the sex ... BPA can be released into the environment by both pre-consumer and post-consumer leaching. Common routes of introduction from ... The report, released in 2008, noted that "the possibility that bisphenol A may alter human development cannot be dismissed". ... This release of oxygen, another strong oxidant, also causes BPA disintegration in aqueous conditions to produce carbon dioxide ...
... has inhibitory effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. It may cause decreased fertility. Ghrelin is ... The hormone name is based on its role as a growth hormone-releasing peptide, with reference to the Proto-Indo-European root ... Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K (December 1999). "Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated ... August 1996). "A receptor in pituitary and hypothalamus that functions in growth hormone release". Science. 273 (5277): 974-7. ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000109163 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ... Limonta P, Moretti RM, Marelli MM, Motta M (2004). "The biology of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone: role in the control ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNRHR gene. This gene encodes the ... "Entrez Gene: GNRHR gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor". Michel U, Farnworth P, Findlay JK (1993). "Follistatins: more than ...
... insulin normally suppresses glucose release. However, in the setting of insulin resistance, the liver inappropriately releases ... 2011). "Chapter 17: Pancreatic hormones & diabetes mellitus". Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: ... gonadotropin *Kallmann syndrome. *Adiposogenital dystrophy. *CRH (Tertiary adrenal insufficiency). *vasopressin (Neurogenic ...
... releases the hormones important for regulating growth, brain development, and metabolism. Also functions in very early ... cellular response to gonadotropin stimulus. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • thyroid- ... a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000125618 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000026976 ... thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor activity. • protein binding. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA ...
Antigonadotropins: drugs that suppress the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced release of gonadotropins and ... Gonadotropins include luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and are peptide hormones that signal the ... Msaouel P, Diamanti E, Tzanela M, Koutsilieris M (2007). "Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone antagonists in prostate cancer ... and antigonadotropins can be further divided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRH analogues), progestogens, and ...
The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis comprises hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the anterior pituitary ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... Vasopressin can be thought of as "water conservation hormone" and is also known as "antidiuretic hormone." It is released when ... Schematic of the HPA axis (CRH, corticotropin-releasing hormone; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone). ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ... a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163251 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000045005 ...
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes.[2][3][4][5] ... See also: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists. GnRH agonists are synthetically modeled after the natural GnRH ...
The polypeptide hormones luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone are usually not ... are steroid hormones that interact with vertebrate steroid hormone receptors.[1] The sex hormones include the androgens, ... "Hormone Research. 71 (4): 194-200. doi:10.1159/000201107. PMID 19258710.. *^ Brook, CG (1999). "Mechanism of puberty". Hormone ... Production rates, secretion rates, clearance rates, and blood levels of major sex hormones Sex Sex hormone Reproductive. phase ...
Kakar SS, Jennes L (1996). "Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNAs in ... Gonadotropin-oslobađajući hormon (GnRH), takođe poznat kao LHRH (engl. Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone) i luliberin, je ... Limonta P, Moretti RM, Marelli MM, Motta M (2004). "The biology of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone: role in the control ... "Isolation of the gene and hypothalamic cDNA for the common precursor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and prolactin release- ...
... was to prove a new autopharmacological principle, i.e., a substance that is released in the body by a metabolic ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ... Bradykinin raises internal calcium levels in neocortical astrocytes causing them to release glutamate, though this finding has ... Bradykinin dilates blood vessels via the release of prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ... a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000186188 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000054200 ... hormone secretion. • negative regulation of apoptotic process. • response to peptide. • cellular response to hormone stimulus. ...
... causing the formation of a puromycylated nascent chain and premature chain release.[2] The exact mechanism of action is unknown ... Agonists: Growth hormone. *Human placental lactogen. *Placental growth hormone (growth hormone variant) ...
... follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, LHRH. gamolenic acid, gonadotropin release inhibitor, progestogen, dopamine ... androgens, antiandrogens, estrogens, gonadotropin, corticosteroids, human growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetics (sulfonylureas ... The 1991 launch of Pravachol (pravastatin), the second available in the United States, and the release of Zocor (simvastatin) ... NSAIDs, anticholinergics, haemostatic drugs, antifibrinolytics, Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), bone regulators, beta- ...
a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167244 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000048583 ... together with luteinizing hormone (LH). Thus, IGF2 acts as a co-hormone together with both FSH and LH.[10] ... hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • insulin-like growth factor receptor binding. • ... Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. The MeSH ...
Hyperprolactinemia can suppress the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, in turn ... The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the ... and luteinizing hormone (LH) and resulting in hypogonadism (low sex hormone (e.g., testosterone, estradiol) levels).[36] As ... It blocks dopamine receptors in the anterior pituitary gland increasing release of prolactin which in turn increases lactation. ...
Bradykinin is a peptide-based hormone that is formed locally in tissues, very often in response to a trauma. It increases ... "Jerini Receives European Commission Approval for Firazyr (Icatibant) in the Treatment of HAE" (Press release). Jerini AG. 15 ... "FDA Approves Shire's FIRAZYR (icatibant injection) for Acute Attacks of Hereditary Angioedema (HAE)" (Press release). Shire. ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ... a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171659 - Ensembl, May 2017 *^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040229 ...
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) are very important galactopoietic hormones whose ... Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), through control of ... The release of the hormone oxytocin leads to the milk ejection or let-down reflex. Oxytocin stimulates the muscles surrounding ... Human placental lactogen (HPL) - from the second month of pregnancy, the placenta releases large amounts of HPL. This hormone ...
A decapeptide has ten amino acids (e.g., gonadotropin-releasing hormone & angiotensin I). ... A peptide hormone is a peptide that acts as a hormone.. *A proteose is a mixture of peptides produced by the hydrolysis of ... The term peptide has been used to mean secretagogue peptides and peptide hormones in sports doping matters: secretagogue ... "Hormone (androgen deprivation) therapy for prostate cancer". cancer.org. Retrieved 3 October 2013.. ...
For males during puberty, testosterone, along with gonadotropins released by the pituitary gland, stimulates spermatogenesis. ... Sex hormones. In mammals, the hormones that influence sexual differentiation and development are androgens (mainly testosterone ... Another significant hormone in sexual differentiation is the anti-Müllerian hormone, which inhibits the development of the ... During puberty, hormones which stimulate androgen production result in the development of secondary sexual characteristics, ...
The role of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in reproduction was determined by Andrzej W. Schally and Roger Guillemin ... "Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists". Proc ... Most hormone dependent cancers become resistant to treatment after one to three years and resume growth despite hormone therapy ... Schally AV, Kastin AJ, Arimura A (November 1971). "Hypothalamic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH ...
Corticotropin releasing hormone. *Sauvagine. *Stressin I. *Urocortin. *Antagonists: Antalarmin. *Astressin-B. *CP-154,526 ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (1. *2). *Ghrelin. * Kisspeptin. *Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin. *MAS (1 ... Also recently discovered A2B has Gq → DAG and IP3 → Release calcium → activate calmodulin → activate myosin light chain kinase ... Presynaptically, it reduces synaptic vesicle release while post synaptically it has been found to stabilize the magnesium on ... regulating the release of other neurotransmitters such as dopamine and glutamate,[6][7][8] while the A2B and A3 receptors are ...
Cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4, Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH2) is a peptide fragment derived from the larger peptide hormone ...
At puberty, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted in a pulsatile manner from the hypothalamus.[2][3] GnRH induces ... and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine (and by extension thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ( ... Hormones[edit]. The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary gland.[2][3] The secreted gonadotropins ...
They release ova (or eggs) and female hormones. Ovaries and testicles are sometimes called "gonads". ... If a man takes hormones from the pituitary gland, (called gonadotropins), it can make testicles bigger. Gonadtropins are the ... One substance made by the testicles is a type of substance known as a hormone. It is the hormone testosterone. Testosterone is ... Making hormonesEdit. Testicles are a type of organ called glands. (This makes them part of the body's endocrine system.) The ...
GnRH (Gonadotropin releasing hormone): secreted by the hypothalamus, causes the pituitary to release two gonadotrophins: LH and ... eCG - equine chorionic gonadotropin - also called PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotropin): chorionic gonadotropins secreted if ... Hormones involved in the estrous cycle, during foaling, and after birthEdit. The cycle is controlled by several hormones which ... LH (Luteinizing hormone): levels are highest 2 days following ovulation, then slowly decrease over 4-5 days, dipping to their ...
The first of these factors to be identified are thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). ... It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), released ... For example, the secretion of growth hormone is controlled by two neuroendocrine systems: the growth hormone-releasing hormone ... also called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) stimulates the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating ...
... releasing hormone + arginine as provocative tests for the diagnosis of GH deficiency in adults". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 83 ... However, prenatal and congenital deficiency can reduce the size of a male's penis, especially when gonadotropins are also ... "Consensus Guidelines for Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency 2007".. *^ a b c d e "The Use of Growth Hormone Replacement in Adult ... "Human Growth Hormone Deficiency". HGH. Retrieved 20 January 2012.. *^ a b c d "Human growth hormone (somatropin) in adults with ...
"Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and ... Gonadotropin-oslobađajući hormon (1, 2) • Grelin • Kispeptin • Luteinizirajući hormon/horiogonadotropin • MAS (1, 1L, D, E, F, ... Current status of the nomenclature for receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor and their ligands". Pharmacol. Rev. 55 (1 ... "Receptor-mediated actions of corticotropin-releasing factor in pituitary gland and nervous system". Neuroendocrinology 43 (1): ...
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes.[2][3][4][5] ... See also: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists. GnRH agonists are synthetically modeled after the natural GnRH ...
GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins... ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): GnRH a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, a neurohormone consisting of 10 ... The neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone have connections to an area of the brain known as the limbic system, ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ... Gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF, GRF); Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, GRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing ... Kakar SS, Jennes L (November 1995). "Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor ... Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH, LHRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (FSH/LH ...
Compare gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists. What are Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists?. *Gonadotropin-releasing ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists bind to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors and decrease the effect of ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone.. In men, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists inhibit the release of luteinizing hormone ...
... , GnRH agonist, Nafarelin Acetate, Synarel. ... Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist Aka: Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist, ... Search other sites for Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist NLM Pubmed Google Websites Google Images QuackWatch Drugstore. ... These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist." Click on the image ...
... is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. Pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. The decapeptide GnRH is derived from ... encoded search term (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Adults) and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in ... Decreased release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone during the preovulatory midcycle luteinizing hormone surge in normal women ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin- ... releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). They are used in the ... a b Van Poppel H, Nilsson S (June 2008). Testosterone surge: rationale for gonadotropin-releasing hormone blockers? Urology 71 ... Anderson J (May 2009). Degarelix: a novel gonadotropin-releasing hormone blocker for the treatment of prostate cancer. Future ...
MalaCards for isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency - The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards ... Expanding the Spectrum of Founder Mutations Causing Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency.. Choi JH1, ... Expanding the Spectrum of Founder Mutations Causing Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency ... Expanding the Spectrum of Founder Mutations Causing Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency ...
Can High Frequency Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Release Occur in Response to Lack of Inhibition by Gonadotropin-Inhibitory ... Can High Frequency Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Release Occur in Response to Lack of Inhibition by Gonadotropin-Inhibitory ... 2009) Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone inhibits basal forebrain vGluT2-gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons via a direct ... 2009) RFamide-related peptide-3, a mammalian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone ortholog, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone ...
Evidence that Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) II Stimulates Luteinizing Hormone... Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle ... No Evidence for Pituitary Priming to Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone in... A Nongenomic Action of Estradiol as the Mechanism ... Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Expression During Pubertal Development of Female Rats. ... "Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene Expression During Pubertal Development of Female Rats," Biology of Reproduction 70 ...
... is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. Pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus ... encoded search term (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Adults) and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in ... Decreased release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone during the preovulatory midcycle luteinizing hormone surge in normal women ... Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus: XIX: The effect of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist on gonadotropin ...
In addition, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists downregulate GnRH receptors in the anterior pituitary leading to a ... C. Burke and K. Hickey, "Treatment of endometrial stromal sarcoma with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue," Obstetrics ... Recurrent Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma: Treatment with a Progestin and Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonist. Nefertiti Chianti ... Patients with retained ovaries after a hysterectomy or those who receive estrogen hormone replacement have high recurrence ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists in prostate cancer treatment were initially considered to be a substantial ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone blockers and cardiovascular disease risk: analysis of prospective clinical trials of degarelix. ... Conteduca V, Di Lorenzo G, Tartarone A, Aieta M. The cardiovascular risk of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists in men with ... Dixit VD, Yang H, Udhayakumar V, Sridaran R. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone alters the T helper cytokine balance in the ...
Effects of combined gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist and growth hormone therapy on adult height in precocious puberty: a ... The KIGS experience with the addition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists to growth hormone (GH) treatment of children ... Final height outcome after three years of growth hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment in short ... Treatment with growth hormone and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog improves final adult height in children with ...
Cloning and Expression of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor in the... Evidence for Different Gonadotropin Releasing ... Mamiko Shimizu and Grégoy Y. Bédécarrats "Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone ... Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor and Its Splice Variants. ... Mamiko Shimizu, Grégoy Y. Bédécarrats "Identification of a Novel Pituitary-Specific Chicken Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone ...
Regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression in the rat during the luteinizing hormone surge GORE AC. ... Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons express Fos protein during the proestrous surge of luteinizing hormone LEE W-S. ... Hypothalamic Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Gene Expression during Rat Estrous Cycle * * SUZUKI Masatoshi ... Regulation of galanin gene expression in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during the estrus cycle of the rat MARK DL. ...
1985) In vivo gonadotropin-releasing hormone release and serum luteinizing hormone measurements in ovariectomized, estrogen- ... Release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH)/median eminence region (S-ME) is ... Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus is released into the pituitary portal circulation and controls ... Neuroestradiol in the Hypothalamus Contributes to the Regulation of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Release. Brian P. Kenealy, ...
... J Clin Endocrinol Metab. ...
A hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), both agonists and antagonists, may make ovaries less sensitive to the ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for women with ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Review question. This is the ... The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, both agonists and antagonists, may have a protective effect on the ... Chen H, Xiao L, Li J, Cui L, Huang W. Adjuvant gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for the prevention of chemotherapy- ...
AIDSAntiretroviral drugCenters for Disease Control and PreventionFollicle-stimulating hormoneGonadotropin-releasing hormone ... Health CarehivHIV-positive peopleHuman chorionic gonadotropinSexually transmitted disease ...
... of the gonadotropes by hypothalamic neurons through episodic release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone. ... differential synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins LH and FSH and changes in the expression of their respective hormone ... differential synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins LH and FSH and changes in the expression of their respective hormone ... Central to this axis is the pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes by hypothalamic neurons through episodic release of the ...
If you are a society or association member and require assistance with obtaining online access instructions please contact our Journal Customer Services team ...
What is Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog? Meaning of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog as a legal term. What does ... Definition of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog legal definition of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog https://legal-dictionary. ... Can some growth hormone (GH)-deficient children benefit from combined therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and ...
Administration of a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist [Nac-L-Ala1,pCl-D-Phe2,D-Trp3,6]GnRH as a single ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ... Pituitary receptor site blockade by a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vivo: mechanism of action ...
Through their suppressive effect on gonadotropin secretion, GnRH antagonists inhibit both testosterone (T) production and ...
... lack a hormone called gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). This hormone is important for starting puberty, maintaining ... Free alpha-subunit is superior to luteinizing hormone as a marker of gonadotropin-releasing hormone despite desensitization at ... The temporal relationship between gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in ... Studying the Effects of 7 Days of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Treatment in Men With Hypogonadism. The safety and ...
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog, and Prednisone in Treating Patients with High-Risk Prostate Cancer Undergoing Surgery ... Hormone therapy using apalutamide, abiraterone acetate, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRH agonist) may fight ... Apalutamide with or without Abiraterone Acetate, Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog, and Prednisone in Treating Patients ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and prednisone in treating patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing surgery. ...
MENOPUR® in a Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Antagonist Cycle With Single-Blastocyst Transfer in a High Responder ...
... syndrome remains a serious complication during in vitro fertilization cycles if high dose human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is ... Low dose human chorionic gonadotropin administration at the time of gonadotropin releasing-hormone agonist trigger versus 35 h ... Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth ... Induction of oocyte maturation using gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist instead of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG ...
  • A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ( GnRH agonist ) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones . (wikipedia.org)
  • Side effects of GnRH agonists are related to sex hormone deficiency and include symptoms of low testosterone levels and low estrogen levels such as hot flashes , sexual dysfunction , vaginal atrophy , osteoporosis , infertility , and diminished sex-specific physical characteristics . (wikipedia.org)
  • They are agonists of the GnRH receptor and work by increasing or decreasing the release of gonadotropins and the production of sex hormones by the gonads . (wikipedia.org)
  • When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, after GnRH agonists have induced a state of hypoestrogenism, exogenous FSH is given to stimulate ovarian follicle, followed by human chorionic gonadotropins (hCG) to trigger oocyte release . (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) , also known as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone , a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus . (britannica.com)
  • GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins - luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-by the anterior pituitary gland . (britannica.com)
  • The effects of GnRH on the secretion of LH and FSH are not exactly parallel, and the variations are probably due to other modulating factors such as the serum concentrations of steroid hormones (substances secreted by the adrenal cortex, testes , and ovaries ). (britannica.com)
  • Characteristic of all releasing hormones and most striking in the case of GnRH is the phenomenon of pulsatile secretion. (britannica.com)
  • Under normal circumstances, GnRH is released in pulses at intervals of about 90 to 120 minutes. (britannica.com)
  • In order to increase serum gonadotropin concentrations in patients with GnRH deficiency, the releasing hormone must be administered in pulses. (britannica.com)
  • In contrast, constant administration of GnRH suppresses gonadotropin secretion, which has therapeutic benefits in certain patients, such as children with precocious puberty and men with prostate cancer . (britannica.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH is a tropic peptide hormone synthesized and released from GnRH neurons within the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The portal blood carries the GnRH to the pituitary gland, which contains the gonadotrope cells, where GnRH activates its own receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor that stimulates the beta isoform of Phosphoinositide phospholipase C, which goes on to mobilize calcium and protein kinase C. This results in the activation of proteins involved in the synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins LH and FSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-frequency GnRH pulses are required for FSH release, whereas high-frequency GnRH pulses stimulate LH pulses in a one-to-one manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH is considered a neurohormone, a hormone produced in a specific neural cell and released at its neural terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bundle together so they receive shared synaptic input, a process that allows them to synchronize their GnRH release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kisspeptin appears to be an important regulator of GnRH release. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH release can also be regulated by estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists are synthetic analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which is produced by the hypothalamus and controls the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the anterior pituitary. (drugs.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. (medscape.com)
  • Failure of this release results in isolated GnRH deficiency that can be distinguished by partial or complete lack of GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses, normalization with pulsatile GnRH replacement therapy, and otherwise normal hypothalamic-pituitary neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. (medscape.com)
  • GnRH binds with high affinity to cell surface LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors located on the pituitary gonadotrophs. (medscape.com)
  • Mutated GnRH receptors (GnRH-R), as predicted by the biochemistry, could result in the clinical manifestations of isolated gonadotropin deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists ( GnRH antagonists ) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some GnRH antagonists, such as cetrorelix , are similar in structure to natural GnRH (a hormone made by neurons in the hypothalamus) but that have an antagonistic effect, while other GnRH antagonists, such as elagolix and relugolix , are non-peptide and small-molecule compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degarelix is a GnRH antagonist that is approved for use in patients with advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer throughout Europe and also in the United States. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH antagonists are being investigated in the treatment of women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • [10] GnRH antagonists are also used as puberty blockers in transgender youth and to suppress sex hormone levels in transgender adolescents and adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquisition of a mature pattern of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the CNS is a hallmark of the pubertal process. (jneurosci.org)
  • Little is known about GnRH release during sexual maturation, but it is assumed to be minimal before later stages of puberty. (jneurosci.org)
  • There was good correspondence between the frequency of GnRH release detected by FSCV in the median eminence of slices from adults with previous reports of in vivo luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency. (jneurosci.org)
  • The frequency of GnRH release in the late embryonic stage was surprisingly high, reaching a maximum in newborns and remaining elevated in 1-week-old animals despite low LH levels. (jneurosci.org)
  • Early high-frequency GnRH release was similar in wild-type and kisspeptin knock-out mice indicating that this release is independent of kisspeptin-mediated excitation. (jneurosci.org)
  • In vivo treatment with testosterone or in vitro treatment with gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) reduced GnRH release frequency in slices from 1-week-old mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • RF9, a putative GnIH antagonist, restored GnRH release in slices from testosterone-treated mice, suggesting that testosterone inhibition may be GnIH-dependent. (jneurosci.org)
  • At 2-3 weeks, GnRH release is suppressed before attaining adult patterns. (jneurosci.org)
  • Reduction in early life spontaneous GnRH release frequency coincides with the onset of the ability of exogenous GnRH to induce pituitary LH secretion. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings suggest that lack of pituitary secretory response, not lack of GnRH release, initially blocks downstream activation of the reproductive system. (jneurosci.org)
  • in primates, this network is reactivated at puberty following a neonatal elevation in pituitary gonadotropin levels (and presumably GnRH release) that is subsequently suppressed during the juvenile period ( Plant and Witchel, 2006 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Appropriate expression of the GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) in gonadotrophs is critical for GnRH signaling and hence for gonadotropin secretion and sexual development. (bioone.org)
  • In addition, the role of the endogenous GnRH on the maturational changes of GnRH-R and gonadotropin subunit gene expression was investigated. (bioone.org)
  • Individuals with an inherited deficiency in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) have impaired sexual reproduction. (jci.org)
  • In addition, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists downregulate GnRH receptors in the anterior pituitary leading to a hypoestrogenic state. (hindawi.com)
  • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) comes in several forms, such as surgical castration or medical castration using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist or GnRH antagonist therapy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Chemical castration consists of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or orally. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Notably, the GnRH is sometimes called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). (cancernetwork.com)
  • 4] GnRH mediates stimulation of gonadotropin (ie, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) secretion. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Unlike GnRH agonists, the GnRH antagonists do not cause an initial surge of gonadotropins. (cancernetwork.com)
  • In all vertebrates, GnRH regulates gonadotropin secretion through binding to a specific receptor on the surface of pituitary gonadotropes. (bioone.org)
  • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline Insight, 2018" report by DelveInsight offers comprehensive insights of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across "Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist development. (reportlinker.com)
  • Descriptive coverage of pipeline development activities for "Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist - Pipeline therapeutics development coverage provides descriptive product profiles including (but not limited to) drug description, product development and R&D activities encompassing clinical and pre-clinical studies, designations, collaborations, licensing deals, grants, technologies and patent details. (reportlinker.com)
  • The report assesses the active Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist pipeline products by developmental stage, product type, molecule type, and administration route. (reportlinker.com)
  • Offers detailed therapeutic product profiles of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Receptor (LHRH Receptor) Antagonist with key coverage of developmental activities including licensing & collaboration deals, patent details. (reportlinker.com)
  • Release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH)/median eminence region (S-ME) is essential for normal reproductive function. (jneurosci.org)
  • GnRH release is profoundly regulated by the negative and positive feedback effects of ovarian estradiol (E 2 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we report that neuroestradiol, released in the S-ME, also directly influences GnRH release in ovariectomized female monkeys, in which the ovarian source of E 2 is removed. (jneurosci.org)
  • These findings reveal the importance of neuroestradiol as a neurotransmitter in regulation of GnRH release. (jneurosci.org)
  • How circulating ovarian E 2 interacts with hypothalamic neuroestrogens in the control of GnRH release remains to be investigated. (jneurosci.org)
  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamus is released into the pituitary portal circulation and controls pituitary-gonadal function. (jneurosci.org)
  • This rapid excitatory response of GnRH neurons to a brief E 2 exposure distinctively differs from the classical negative and positive feedback actions of circulating ovarian E 2 on GnRH release. (jneurosci.org)
  • While neuroestrogens are better characterized in these behavioral contexts, it is unknown whether neuroestrogens also play a role in regulation of GnRH release. (jneurosci.org)
  • We hypothesized that the rapid excitatory action of E 2 observed in GnRH neurons in vitro is indicative of E 2 as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator of GnRH release in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we used a microdialysis method to examine whether a brief direct infusion of estradiol benzoate (EB), mimicking neuroestradiol in the stalk-median eminence region (S-ME), induces rapid GnRH release in ovariectomized (OVX) female rhesus monkeys in vivo . (jneurosci.org)
  • We next examined whether excitation of the S-ME by electrical stimulation (ES) induces release of E 2 in microdialysate samples with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Subsequently, we examined whether brief infusion of EB stimulates release of GnRH and E 2 . (jneurosci.org)
  • A hormone called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), both agonists and antagonists, may make ovaries less sensitive to the effects of chemotherapy drugs. (cochrane.org)
  • The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, both agonists and antagonists, may have a protective effect on the ovaries. (cochrane.org)
  • The primary mechanism of action of GnRH analogues is to suppress the gonadotropin levels to simulate pre-pubertal hormonal milieu and subsequently prevent primordial follicles from maturation and therefore decrease the number of follicles that are more vulnerable to chemotherapy. (cochrane.org)
  • To determine whether cardiovascular morbidity differs following initiation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists compared with an antagonist. (urotoday.com)
  • The requirement to amplify signals arising from activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor and to rapidly quench the resultant signal to preserve an adaptive response suggests the need for rapid activation and feedback control operating at the level of intracellular signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • The fundamental role of pulsatile stimulation of gonadotropes by the hypothalamic neuropeptide GnRH, or GnRH-I in maintaining function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis is one of the earliest principal findings after discovery of the hormone ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Gonadal steroids exert a powerful regulatory influence upon the functioning of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons despite the apparent absence of gonadal steroid receptors in these cells. (nih.gov)
  • The study investigated the impact of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) on coagulation and fibrinolytic activities and its effectiveness in the prevention of pelvic adhesion after myomectomy. (springer.com)
  • We therefore estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of hospital codes for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist treatment and orchiectomies in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). (dovepress.com)
  • Administration of a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist [Nac-L-Ala1,pCl-D-Phe2,D-Trp3,6]GnRH as a single subcutaneous injection to castrated adult male rats reduced, by more than 90 percent, both serum luteinizing hormone concentrations and specific pituitary GnRH receptor binding. (sciencemag.org)
  • The prolonged in vivo inhibition of pituitary GnRH receptor binding and luteinizing hormone secretion by the GnRH antagonist may be mediated by the slower dissociation rate of the antagonist from its specific pituitary membrane receptor site. (sciencemag.org)
  • Through their suppressive effect on gonadotropin secretion, GnRH antagonists inhibit both testosterone (T) production and spermatogenesis in animals. (washington.edu)
  • Men with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH) lack a hormone called gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Despite variability in the triggers, timing, and pace of sexual maturity between species, all species utilize the final pathway of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to initiate and maintain the reproductive axis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The classic studies from the 1970s clearly demonstrate that pulsatile release of GnRH from the hypothalamus is a prerequisite for physiologic gonadotrope function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Absence, decreased frequency or decreased amplitude of pulsatile GnRH release results in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hormone therapy using apalutamide, abiraterone acetate, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (GnRH agonist) may fight prostate cancer by lowering the levels of androgen the body makes. (cancer.gov)
  • Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone agonist (GnRHa) triggering is used as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in GnRH antagonist protocol to eliminate the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). (centerwatch.com)
  • Several hypotheses were suggested including promoting corpus luteum maintenance by secretion of LH from pituitary gonadotropin cells, a direct effect on the endometrium and the embryo through GnRH receptors and regulatory effect on hCG secretion by the placenta at the preimplantation phase. (centerwatch.com)
  • Two hormones can be used to trigger oocyte maturation: human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which is the standard treatment, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist). (cochrane.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists present an alternative to HCG in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) treatment regimens in which the cycle has been down-regulated with a GnRH antagonist. (cochrane.org)
  • We searched databases including the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and trial registers for published and unpublished articles (in any language) on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists versus HCG for oocyte triggering in GnRH antagonist IVF/ICSI treatment cycles. (cochrane.org)
  • The FDA has notified healthcare professionals and patients of a preliminary and ongoing review which suggests an increase in the risk of diabetes and certain cardiovascular diseases in men treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists for the treatment of prostate cancer. (empr.com)
  • We asked whether specific mesenchymal/epithelial (M/E) induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). (harvard.edu)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists used in prostate cancer treatment can induce testosterone deficiency but its effects on bone in preclinical male osteoporosis model are less studied. (medsci.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is produced pulsatively from the hypothalamic area of the brain to signal the pituitary gland to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). (medsci.org)
  • Studies were conducted to compare continuous vs pulsatile i.v. infusion of GnRH on serum gonadotropin concentrations and ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares and in cycling mares. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • ORGOVYX, approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 18, 2020, is an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist that blocks the GnRH receptor and reduces production of testicular testosterone, a hormone known to stimulate the growth of prostate cancer. (mckesson.com)
  • some are more potent than GnRH in stimulating gonadotropin release Examples Leuprolide, histrelin, administered in a pulsatile fashion to restore lost GnRH, normalize pituitary-gonadal function, as in congenital GnRH deficiencies-eg, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with Kallmann syndrome or without anosmia, or in acquired GnRH deficiency secondary to RT of the CNS, pituitary tumors, or panhypopituitarism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • She added that the clinical trials that have been made involving women living with endometriosis for up to 15 months at a low dose found that the new drug that contains the active ingredient, Dienogest, can effectively reduce the pain and is as effective in treating the disease as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-analogue). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cessation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) upon downregulation versus conventional long GnRH-a protocol in poor responders undergoing in vitro fertilization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subsequently, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate induces the release of intracellular calcium, and diacylglycerol activates PKC, resulting in multiple cellular responses to GnRH. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The review work is based on analyzing and recording the effects of the application of ovulation synchronization protocols based on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and insulin for the increase of the pregnancy rate in crossbred Holstein cows in research published between 2013 and 2017. (intechopen.com)
  • Many of the investigations carried out in the field of the application of the ovulation synchronization protocol, gonadotropin release (GnRH), and insulin use to increase the pregnancy rate of dairy cattle tend to use literature in English in their bibliographical references, with the convinced that this gives more prestige to work. (intechopen.com)
  • The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce oocyte maturation after cotreatment with GnRH antagonist in high-risk patients undergoing in vitro fertilization prevents the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a prospective randomized controlled study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In conclusion, the morphological evidence of contacts between TH- and GnRH-IR nerve structures may be the basis of catecholaminergic control of GnRH release in the preoptic area of the male guinea pig. (medworm.com)
  • As gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) is an essential regulator of the HPG axis, agonist and antagonist analogs are efficacious in the treatment of these conditions. (minervamedica.it)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Proper sexual maturation and fertility are dependent upon the correct function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, initiated by a small, yet critical population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) 1 neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • and estrogen and GnRH together increased the co-expression of leptin mRNA and gonadotropins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • With her post-pubertal status and the possibility of CYC induced gonadal toxicity, the question was raised as to whether she should be put on gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) therapy for ovarian protection. (bestbets.org)
  • All cell lines showed expression of receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) I and II, and analogs of GnRH-I/II restored OHT sensitivity in both resistant cell lines by inhibition of erbB and AKT signalling. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are two endocrine factors that have been found to regulate food intake in fish and other vertebrates . (mun.ca)
  • Background: This retrospective study evaluated the effect of profound pituitary suppression with oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist cycles stimulated with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone plus highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin. (omicsonline.org)
  • Compared with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist protocols, GnRH antagonist protocols provide the advantages of a shorter stimulation period and the use of lower gonadotropin exposure, which decreases the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) due to the ability to use a GnRH agonist trigger [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Galanin is a cotransmitter in GnRH neurons and is thought to play a role in the control of gonadotropin secretion. (washington.edu)
  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor protein (GnRH.cntdot.RP) purified to homogeneity has several binding sites for its effector hormone, as evidenced from the concentration dependence binding curve. (eurekamag.com)
  • Each cell type released GnRH during both static culture and perifusion, albeit in lesser amounts than cultured hypothalamic cells and GT1-7 neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In perifused pituitary cells, exposure to a GnRH agonist stimulated the release of GnRH as well as LH. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) modulates odorant responses in the peripheral olfactory system of axolotls. (semanticscholar.org)
  • GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates through interaction with a specific receptor. (biochemj.org)
  • These results suggest that oct-GnRH, like its vertebrate counterparts, acts as a multifunctional neurotransmitter, neuromodulator and hormone-like factor, both in Octopus central nervous system and peripheral tissues, and that both structure and functions of the GnRH family are, at least partially, evolutionarily conserved between octopuses and chordates. (biochemj.org)
  • Addition of synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to the incubation medium was followed by a dose-dependent increase in release and synthesis of both LH and FSH. (eurekamag.com)
  • The possible role of sex steroid hormones in regulating in vitro secretion of gonadotropins and pituitary sensitivity to exogenous GnRH is discussed. (eurekamag.com)
  • Our purpose was to find the differences in granulosa-luteal cells obtained from gonadotropin- versus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist/gonadotropin-treated follicles in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. (springer.com)
  • Granulosa-luteal cells were obtained from 45 follicles of women undergoing IVF-ET with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and from 45 follicles of women with hMG IVF-ET cycles. (springer.com)
  • Phumsatitpong, Chayarndorn;Moenter, Suzanne M 2018-01-01 00:00:00 Abstract Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final central regulators of reproduction, integrating various inputs that modulate fertility. (deepdyve.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are crucial regulators of the reproductive system. (deepdyve.com)
  • GnRH pulses stimulate secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone, which then induce the gonads to activate gametogenesis and steroidogenesis. (deepdyve.com)
  • GnRH release at the median eminence typically requires action potential firing (1). (deepdyve.com)
  • Immunisering mot gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) har visat sig vara effektivt mot att hämma galtlukt på griskött och oönskat aggressivt beteende bland hangrisar. (slu.se)
  • Immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is effective in reducing boar taint in pork and unwanted aggressive behavior in male pigs. (slu.se)
  • The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonist degarelix has several unique characteristics compared to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs used in the management of prostate cancer. (canjurol.com)
  • Notable differences of GnRH receptor antagonists include no flare reaction, and a more rapid suppression of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) compared to LHRH analogs. (canjurol.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are critical to controlling fertility. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vivo, estradiol can inhibit or stimulate GnRH release depending on concentration and physiological state. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In view of the abundant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) messenger RNA expression in the hippocampus and the direct effect of GnRH on estradiol (E2) synthesis in gonadal cells, we asked whether GnRH serves as a regulator of hippocampal E2 synthesis. (rupress.org)
  • As we found estrus cyclicity of spine density in the hippocampus but not in the neocortex and GnRH-R expression to be fivefold higher in the hippocampus compared with the neocortex, our data strongly suggest that estrus cycle-dependent synaptogenesis in the female hippocampus results from cyclic release of GnRH. (rupress.org)
  • In mammals, reproduction is dependent on specific neurons secreting the neuropeptide gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1). (rupress.org)
  • Studies of pituitary plasma membrane gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors using [125I]-iodo-GnRH suffer major disadvantages. (mysciencework.com)
  • Analogs of GnRH, including agonists (GnRH-a) and antagonists (GnRH-ant), have been widely used to inhibit gonadotropin pituitary release. (edu.au)
  • Experiment 1 evaluated whether follicular inhibins regulate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) surges elicited by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection (Hour = 0) and the subsequent periovulatory FSH surge. (psu.edu)
  • Prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a), oxytocin and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) have been used in bulls, rams, boars, stallions or rodents to increase sperm numbers in the ejaculate. (vt.edu)
  • Receptor for gonadotropin releasing hormone II (GnRH II). (cusabio.com)
  • Kallmann's syndrome is caused by the failure of olfactory axons and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons to enter the embryonic forebrain, resulting in anosmia and sterility. (edu.au)
  • The neurons that secrete gonadotropin-releasing hormone have connections to an area of the brain known as the limbic system, which is heavily involved in the control of emotions and sexual activity. (britannica.com)
  • Genetic targeting of green fluorescent protein to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons: characterization of whole-cell electrophysiological properties and morphology. (medscape.com)
  • Central to this axis is the pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes by hypothalamic neurons through episodic release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (frontiersin.org)
  • Autocrine regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in cultured hypothalamic neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) in cultured LHRH neurons derived from the embryonic olfactory placode of the rhesus monkey. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Estradiol directly attenuates sodium currents and depolarizing afterpotentials in isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The role of cAMP response element-binding protein in estrogen negative feedback control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rapid action of estrogens on intracellular calcium oscillations in primate luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-1 neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) triggering, as an alternative to hCG triggering for final oocyte maturation in antagonist protocols, enables substantial decrease of this complication in high responders. (centerwatch.com)
  • Vela G, Ruman J, Luna M, Sandler B, Copperman AB (2017) Profound Pituitary Suppression Following Oral Contraceptive Pretreatment in Gonadotropinreleasing Hormone Antagonist Cycles Does Not Impact Outcome: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (omicsonline.org)
  • This study aimed at comparing the survival outcomes and the incidence of treatment-induced early menopause (defined as amenorrhea and postmenopausal levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol 1 year after the last GnRHa dose) between patients who received GnRHa for a duration of at least 2 years concurrently or sequentially to (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Eight weeks treatment with Unkei-to induced a significant increase in plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol levels in hyper- (robust) and hypo- (asthen. (encognitive.com)
  • Estradiol-Dependent Stimulation and Suppression of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neuron Firing. (deepdyve.com)
  • Differential regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron activity and membrane properties by acutely applied estradiol: dependence on dose and estrogen receptor subtype. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Direct action of estradiol on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 neuronal activity via a transcription-dependent mechanism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists bind to gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors and decrease the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (drugs.com)
  • In men, gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists inhibit the release of luteinizing hormone, and consequently less testosterone is produced. (drugs.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists are used to treat prostate cancer as by reducing the levels of testosterone the size of prostate cancer is reduced. (drugs.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists are used to treat women undergoing fertility treatment. (drugs.com)
  • Zhang Y, Ji Y, Li J et al (2018) Sequential versus simultaneous use of chemotherapy and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) among estrogen receptor (ER)-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients: effects on ovarian function, disease-free survival, and overall survival. (springer.com)
  • We evaluated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of hormonal chemoprevention with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHA) with low-dose add-back steroids in BRCA1(mut) carriers. (nih.gov)
  • Although gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) have been used in the therapy of the endocrine-dependent cancers, their biological mechanism remained obscure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Purpose Our aim was to determine whether cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) differs between those who receive androgen-deprivation therapy by surgical castration and those who receive gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy. (urotoday.com)
  • Pellicer A, Tarin JJ, Miro F, Sampaio M, De los Santos MJ, Remohi J: The use of gonadotrophin releasing-hormone analogues(GnRHa), in in-vitro fertilization: Some clinical and experimental investigations of a direct effect on the human ovary. (springer.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are used as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to trigger ovulation and decrease the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. (escholarship.org)
  • We assigned female mice to three groups: natural mating or mating following injection with equine chorionic gonadotropin and trigger with GnRHa or hCG trigger. (escholarship.org)
  • Alterations in pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes result in differential synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins LH and FSH and changes in the expression of their respective hormone subunit genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Age in men does not determine gonadotropin-releasing hormone's dose-dependent stimulation of luteinizing hormone secretion under an exogenous testosterone clamp. (druglib.com)
  • Local regulation of gonadotroph function by pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Radioiodinated nondegradable gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: new probes for the investigation of pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (mysciencework.com)
  • In mice, luteinizing hormone (LH) in females and testosterone in males is elevated during the first 4 h after birth ( Poling and Kauffman, 2012 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • This hormone is important for starting puberty, maintaining testosterone levels, and fertility. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • body weight and testis size were measured and serum was isolated and assayed for testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations. (unl.edu)
  • Our recent studies have targeted this regulation to the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • mRNAs encoding several forms of both hormones were identified and shown to be expressed in tissues previously found to be involved in appetite regulation , including the brain (telencephalon , optic tectum , and hypothalamus) and midgut . (mun.ca)
  • Lambertini M, Moore HCF, Leonard RCF et al (2018) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists during chemotherapy for preservation of ovarian function and fertility in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient-level data. (springer.com)
  • Patients with this type of hypogonadism typically respond to pulsatile treatment with the hormone. (britannica.com)
  • Wildt L, Schwilden H, Wesner G. The pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion and follicular development during the menstrual cycle and in women with hypothalamic and hypoandrogenic amenorrhea. (medscape.com)
  • These rats show losses in both the growth hormone (GH) and the reproductive system axes and are morbidly obese. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) is a key regulator of the reproductive neuroendocrine system in vertebrates. (uwo.ca)
  • The topics include the secular trend of timing of puberty, the adrenal function of low-birthweight children, the molecular genetics of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue treatment for precocious puberty, polycycstic ovary syndrome in adolescence, and present and future options for preserving fertility in female adolescents with cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Effectiveness of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at Days 11, 14 or 15 after anticipated ovulation for increasing fertility of lactating dairy cows and non-lactating heifers. (molecularstation.com)
  • Grant and Affiliation Information for Effectiveness of administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at Days 11, 14 or 15 after anticipated ovulation for increasing fertility of lactating dairy cows and non-lactating heifers. (molecularstation.com)
  • It prevents early release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and premature ovulation in women being administered follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) when preparing for in-vitro fertilization. (drugs.com)
  • Stouffer RL, Hodgen GD, Graves PE, Danforth DR, Eyster KM, Ottobre JS: Characterization of corpora lutea in monkeys after superovulation with human menopausal gonadotropin or follicle-stimulating hormone. (springer.com)
  • it stimulates the secretion of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones. (mybiosource.com)
  • Gonadotropins in blood were assessed hourly from Hours -6 to 36, and follicle growth tracked by ultrasound. (psu.edu)
  • Background: Estrogen and hormone replacement therapies to reduce Alzheimer's disease (AD) have yielded conflicting results. (thinklab.com)
  • Dysfunctional SEMA3E signaling underlies gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron deficiency in Kallmann syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • Both hormones exhibited maximum concentrations in tissue and medium on proestrus afternoon. (eurekamag.com)
  • The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology convened a consensus conference to review the clinical use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • A comparative study of the patterns of LH [luteinizing hormone] and FSH released and synthesized during the normal estrous cycle of the rat was performed in vitro. (eurekamag.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue has been used in the treatment of CPP for more than 20 years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Use of new drug delivery formulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue deslorelin for reversible long-term contraception in male dogs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They received Mirena for one year along with monthly injections of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue for six months. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All patients underwent surgery and radiation therapy, if needed, plus treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue goserelin 3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All of the women received 6 months of postoperative treatment with the gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue , triptorelin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The relative success of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue , clomiphene citrate, and gonadotropin in 1,009 cycles of in vitro fertilization. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • BestBets: Should gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue be administered to prevent premature ovarian failure in young women with systemic lupus erythematosus on cyclophosphamide therapy? (bestbets.org)
  • The released gonadotropins stimulate the gonads to produce steroid hormones, and in the testes, to produce sperm or in the ovaries, to release oocytes. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of buserelin on the development of follicles, apoptosis index, and steroid hormones level. (uwi.edu)
  • Low dose oral contraceptive pill (OC), progesterone-only agents, gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs are different options for ovulation suppression (4, 5). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Whitman GF, Luciano AA, Maier DB, Peluso JJ: Human chorionic gonadotropin localization and morphometric characterization of human granulosa-luteal cells obtained during in vitro fertilization cycles. (springer.com)
  • Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and the self-priming effect of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. (semanticscholar.org)
  • dopamine may inhibit LH release in ovariectomized females. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for final oocyte maturation is an accepted practice in in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. (centerwatch.com)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is routinely used for final oocyte maturation triggering in in vitro fertilisation (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, but the use of HCG for this purpose may have drawbacks. (cochrane.org)
  • The article provides an answer to a question regarding the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) diet in reducing weight. (encognitive.com)
  • Subpopulations of granulosa-luteal cells were observed by computerized image analysis in which human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was localized using immunoperoxidase staining. (springer.com)
  • Gersak K, Seppälä M, Us-Krasovec M: The same luteinized granulosa-luteal cells from normal and superovulated chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated cycles contain chorionic gonadotropin and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. (springer.com)
  • The researchers also concluded that: "These data may prove useful to women who must decide between tamoxifen and an effective, essentially non-thrombogenic, alternative adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, such as aromatase inhibitors for postmenopausal women and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs or oophorectomy for premenopausal women. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released during the stress response may suppress reproduction independent of downstream glucocorticoids. (deepdyve.com)
  • Stress initiates hypothalamic release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary and thereby increased glucocorticoid production by the adrenal cortex. (deepdyve.com)
  • This randomized phase II trial studies how well apalutamide works with or without abiraterone acetate, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and prednisone in treating patients with high-risk prostate cancer undergoing surgery. (cancer.gov)
  • Effect of a gonadotropin‐releasing hormone analog for ovarian function preservation after. (deepdyve.com)
  • The result is the synthesis and release of FSH and LH from the pituitary gonadotrophs. (medscape.com)
  • However, in high-responder patients, it increases the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) due to its longer half-life compared to the naturally secreted Luteinizing Hormone (LH) as well as increased synthesis and secretion of vasoactive substances. (centerwatch.com)
  • When release and synthesis of LH and FSH were expressed as percentages of hormone concentration at the beginning of the incubation period, the percentages of FSH were greater than those of LH at all stages of the cycle. (eurekamag.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy reduces postoperative adhesion formation and reformation after adhesiolysis in rat models for adhesion formation and endometriosis. (springer.com)
  • Imai A, Sugiyama M, Furui T, Takahashi S, Tamaya T. Gonadotropin-releasing hormones agonist therapy increases peritoneal fibrinolytic activity and prevents adhesion formation after myomectomy. (springer.com)
  • Can some growth hormone (GH)-deficient children benefit from combined therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and GH? (thefreedictionary.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate which add-back hormone replacement therapy would be most beneficial in terms of mood effects for patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder who are receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist therapy. (diva-portal.org)