Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Trophoblastic growth, which may be gestational or nongestational in origin. Trophoblastic neoplasia resulting from pregnancy is often described as gestational trophoblastic disease to distinguish it from germ cell tumors which frequently show trophoblastic elements, and from the trophoblastic differentiation which sometimes occurs in a wide variety of epithelial cancers. Gestational trophoblastic growth has several forms, including HYDATIDIFORM MOLE and CHORIOCARCINOMA. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1691)
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Hormones produced in the testis.
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
The degeneration and resorption of an OVARIAN FOLLICLE before it reaches maturity and ruptures.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Absence of menstruation.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An anadromous species of SALMON ranging from the Arctic and Pacific Oceans to Monterey Bay, California and inhabiting ocean and coastal streams. It is familiarly known as the coho or silver salmon. It is relatively small but its light-colored flesh is of good flavor.
PROGESTERONE-producing cells in the CORPUS LUTEUM. The large luteal cells derive from the GRANULOSA CELLS. The small luteal cells derive from the THECA CELLS.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.

Expression pattern of integrin adhesion molecules in endometriosis and human endometrium. (1/3712)

Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that undergo cell-specific dynamic changes during the normal menstrual cycle in the human endometrium. Here, using immunohistochemistry, we have investigated the expression pattern of the integrins alphav, alpha2beta1, alpha3beta1, alpha3, alpha6, beta1, beta2 and beta3 in the human ectopic endometrium of 30 patients and in nine cases in the corresponding eutopic endometrium. The biopsies were obtained during the early or late follicular phase (25 cases), during the corpus luteum phase (four cases) and in one case after 6 months' treatment with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist. The integrin expression was independent of the ovarian steroid situation at the time of biopsy. The integrin alpha6 was expressed in all endometriotic and endometrium samples. The integrin alpha3 was absent in all endometrium tissues of patients with endometriosis. However, the corresponding endometriotic lesions re-expressed this adhesion molecule in 15 cases. No change in integrin beta3 expression pattern could be demonstrated in either endometriotic lesions or endometrium samples, regardless of the menstrual cycle phase. A correlation between serum oestradiol and progesterone concentrations and the expression of the investigated integrins was not observed, thus indicating that these two hormones play a minor role in the regulation of the cell adhesion molecules examined. Our investigation suggests that endometriosis is a dedifferentiated disease as it expressed different integrins in comparison with the eutopic endometrium, and independently of the hormonal situation. The ability of endometriotic tissues to express integrins may explain the high recurrence rates in patients with endometriosis, as these samples retain their adhesion potency after retrograde menstruation and are thus able to establish cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions with the surrounding peritoneum.  (+info)

Paracrine changes in the peritoneal environment of women with endometriosis. (2/3712)

During the past decade, macrophage-derived substances such as prostanoids, cytokines, growth factors and angiogenic factors have been detected in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. In particular, growth-promoting and angiogenic factors are considered to be substantially involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In this study, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), substances recently detected in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis, were assessed with regard to their concentrations in different stages of endometriosis and changes of the peritoneal paracrine activity after medical treatment with a gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa). Peritoneal fluid was obtained from patients with endometriosis during laparoscopy before and after a 4-month treatment with a GnRHa. VEGF, TGF-beta and ICAM-1 could be detected in all women presenting with various stages of active endometriosis. After GnRHa therapy, all patients showed significant decreases in mean concentrations of VEGF (194+/-77 pg/ml), TGF-beta (902+/-273 pg/ml) and ICAM-1 (157+/-52 ng/ml). Patients with stage III and IV endometriosis (according to the rAFS score) had much higher concentrations of VEGF and TGF-beta before treatment compared with those patients with mild endometriosis (rAFS stages I and II). The most striking decrease in concentration was for TGF-beta, from 902 pg/ml before to 273 pg/ml after therapy. These results indicate an important role for paracrine activity in the establishment and maintenance of endometriosis. Indeed, treatment with a GnRHa may reduce paracrine activity in the peritoneal cavity via hypo-oestrogenism and provide proof of successful therapy.  (+info)

Characterization of K+ currents underlying pacemaker potentials of fish gonadotropin-releasing hormone cells. (3/3712)

Endogenous pacemaker activities are important for the putative neuromodulator functions of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive terminal nerve (TN) cells. We analyzed several types of voltage-dependent K+ currents to investigate the ionic mechanisms underlying the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells by using the whole brain in vitro preparation of fish (dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia). TN-GnRH cells have at least four types of voltage-dependent K+ currents: 1) 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-sensitive K+ current, 2) tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ current, and 3) and 4) two types of TEA- and 4AP-resistant K+ currents. A transient, low-threshold K+ current, which was 4AP sensitive and showed significant steady-state inactivation in the physiological membrane potential range (-40 to -60 mV), was evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV. This current thus cannot contribute to the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. TEA-sensitive K+ current evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV was slowly activating, long lasting, and showed comparatively low threshold of activation. This current was only partially inactivated at steady state of -60 to -40 mV, which is equivalent to the resting membrane potential. TEA- and 4AP-resistant sustained K+ currents were evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV and were suggested to consist of two types, based on the analysis of activation curves. From the inactivation and activation curves, it was suggested that one of them with low threshold of activation may be partly involved in the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. Bath application of TEA together with tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked the pacemaker potentials in current-clamp recordings. We conclude that the TEA-sensitive K+ current is the most likely candidate that contributes to the repolarizing phase of the pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue conjugates with strong selective antitumor activity. (4/3712)

Conjugation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues GnRH-III, MI-1544, and MI-1892 through lysyl side chains and a tetrapeptide spacer, Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly (X) to a copolymer, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) (P) caused increased antiproliferative activity toward MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast, PC3 and LNCaP prostate, and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines in culture and against tumor development by xenografts of the breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice. MCF-7 cells treated with P-X-1544 and P-X-1892 displayed characteristic signs of apoptosis, including vacuoles in the cytoplasm, rounding up, apoptotic bodies, bleb formation, and DNA fragmentation. Conjugates, but not free peptides, inhibited cdc25 phosphatase and caused accumulation of Ishikawa and PC3 cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 24 h at lower doses and in the G1 and G2 phases after 48 h. Since P-X-peptides appear to be internalized, the increased cytotoxicity of the conjugates is attributed to protection of peptides from proteolysis, enhanced interaction of the peptides with the GnRH receptors, and/or internalization of P-X-peptide receptor complexes so that P can exert toxic effects inside, possibly by inhibiting enzymes involved in the cell cycle. The additional specificity of P-X-peptides compared with free peptides for direct antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells but not for interactions in the pituitary indicates the therapeutic potential of the conjugates.  (+info)

Ovarian follicular responses in dairy cows treated with GnRH and cloprostenol. (5/3712)

Lactating, nonpregnant (with a corpus luteum) Holsteins were given 100 ug GnRH (n = 12) or saline (n = 12) and 500 ug cloprostenol 6 d later. Following luteolysis, ovulation occurred 10.1 +/- 0.2 d (range, 9-12 d) after GnRH and 8.6 +/- 1.0 d (range, 3-12 d) after saline (differences between groups: means, P > 0.05; variability, P < 0.001). Treatment with GnRH and cloprostenol resulted in a relatively synchronous ovulation.  (+info)

Melatonin inhibits release of luteinizing hormone (LH) via decrease of [Ca2+]i and cyclic AMP. (6/3712)

The role of [Ca2+]i and cAMP in transduction of the melatonin inhibitory effect on GnRH-induced LH release from neonatal rat gonadotrophs has been studied, because melatonin inhibits the increase of both intracellular messengers. Treatments increasing Ca2+ influx (S(-) Bay K8644 or KCI) or cAMP concentration (8-bromo-cAMP or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) potentiated the GnRH-induced LH release and partially diminished the inhibitory effect of melatonin. Combination of the treatments increasing cAMP and calcium concentrations blocked completely the melatonin inhibition of LH release. The combined treatment with 8-bromo-cAMP and S(-) Bay K8644 also blocked the melatonin inhibition of GnRH-induced [Ca2+]i increase in 89 % of the gonadotrophs, while any of the treatments alone blocked the melatonin effect in about 25 % of these cells. These observations suggest that a cAMP-dependent pathway is involved in regulation of Ca2+ influx by melatonin and melatonin inhibition of LH release may be mediated by the decrease of both messengers.  (+info)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone improves reproductive performance of dairy cows with slow involution of the reproductive tract. (7/3712)

Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive either 100 microg of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows' reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as normal cows. Last milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs. 67 d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs. 64%), and number of days open was greater (121 vs. 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant (P<.05). Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.  (+info)

GABA- and glutamate-activated channels in green fluorescent protein-tagged gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in transgenic mice. (8/3712)

Mice were generated expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) promoter. Green fluorescence was observed in, and restricted to, GnRH-immunopositive neuronal somata in the olfactory bulb, ganglion terminale, septal nuclei, diagonal band of Broca (DBB), preoptic area (POA), and caudal hypothalamus, as well as GnRH neuronal dendrites and axons, including axon terminals in the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Whole-cell recordings from GFP-expressing GnRH neurons in the OVLT-POA-DBB region revealed a firing pattern among GFP-expressing GnRH neurons distinct from that of nonfluorescent neurons. Nucleated patches of GFP-expressing GnRH neurons exhibited pronounced responses to fast application of GABA and smaller responses to L-glutamate and AMPA. One-fifth of the nucleated patches responded to NMDA. The GABA-A, AMPA, and NMDA receptor channels on GnRH neurons mediating these responses may play a role in the modulation of GnRH secretory oscillations.  (+info)

Gonadotropins are hormones that are produced by the anterior pituitary gland and regulate the function of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females). There are two main types of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH stimulates the production of testosterone in males and estrogen and progesterone in females. It also triggers ovulation in females. FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle in females. Gonadotropins are often used in medical treatments to stimulate ovulation in women who are having difficulty conceiving or to treat infertility. They may also be used to treat certain hormone imbalances, such as hypogonadism (low levels of sex hormones) or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It is responsible for maintaining the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone to support the pregnancy. hCG is also used as a diagnostic tool in medicine to detect pregnancy, as well as to monitor the progress of the pregnancy and detect any potential complications. In some cases, hCG may also be used to treat certain medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. In females, FSH stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles mature, they release estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the levels of estrogen and FSH decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and the start of a new menstrual cycle. In males, FSH stimulates the production of sperm in the testes. It also plays a role in the development of the prostate gland and the regulation of testosterone levels. FSH levels can be measured in the blood to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism.

Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system in both males and females. In females, LH stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone, which are essential for the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It also triggers ovulation, the release of a mature egg from the ovary. In males, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics and the production of sperm. LH levels can be measured in the blood or urine to diagnose and monitor various reproductive disorders, such as infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism. It is also used in fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), to stimulate ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human (hCG beta) is a hormone that is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It is a subunit of the larger hormone chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is responsible for maintaining the corpus luteum and supporting pregnancy. In the medical field, hCG beta is often used as a diagnostic tool to confirm pregnancy. It is typically measured in a blood or urine sample using a pregnancy test. A high level of hCG beta in the blood or urine indicates that a woman is pregnant. hCG beta is also used in some fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), to stimulate ovulation and support the growth of the embryo. It is also used in some cancer treatments, such as in the treatment of testicular cancer, to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment and to detect any recurrence of the cancer. Overall, hCG beta is an important hormone in the field of reproductive medicine and is used in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

Receptors, Gonadotropin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the gonads (ovaries and testes) that bind to and respond to hormones produced by the pituitary gland. These hormones, called gonadotropins, include luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). When these hormones bind to their respective receptors, they trigger a series of events that regulate the growth and development of the gonads, as well as the production of sex hormones and the maturation of eggs and sperm. The receptors, Gonadotropin play a crucial role in the reproductive system and are the target of many medications used to treat fertility problems and other reproductive disorders.

Gonadotropins, Pituitary are hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland that regulate the function of the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females). These hormones are responsible for controlling the production of sex hormones and the development of secondary sexual characteristics. There are two main types of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). LH stimulates the production of testosterone in males and estrogen and progesterone in females. It also triggers ovulation in females. FSH, on the other hand, stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in females and sperm production in males. Gonadotropins, Pituitary are often used in medical treatments to stimulate ovulation in women who are having difficulty conceiving or to treat infertility. They may also be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer or breast cancer.

Gonadotropins, equine are hormones that are used in veterinary medicine to stimulate the reproductive system of horses. These hormones are produced by the pituitary gland and are responsible for regulating the production of sex hormones and the development of reproductive organs. There are two main types of gonadotropins that are used in equine medicine: equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). ECG is a hormone that is produced by the placenta in pregnant mares and is used to stimulate ovulation in non-pregnant mares. FSH is a hormone that is responsible for stimulating the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles in mares. Gonadotropins are often used in veterinary medicine to treat infertility in mares, to induce ovulation in mares that are not cycling naturally, and to synchronize the estrous cycle in mares for breeding purposes. They may also be used to treat other reproductive disorders in horses, such as anovulation and ovarian cysts. It is important to note that the use of gonadotropins in horses should be done under the guidance of a veterinarian, as they can have side effects and may not be appropriate for all horses.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates various bodily functions, including reproductive processes. GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating the production of sex hormones by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). In females, GnRH stimulates the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are essential for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. In males, GnRH stimulates the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. Testosterone is responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics, sperm production, and muscle mass. GnRH is also used in medical treatments, such as infertility, menopause, and prostate cancer. It is administered as a medication to stimulate the production of FSH and LH, which can help to induce ovulation in women or stimulate sperm production in men. In menopause, GnRH is used to reduce the production of estrogen and testosterone, which can help to alleviate symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. In prostate cancer, GnRH is used to reduce the production of testosterone, which can slow the growth of cancer cells.

Hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in the endocrine system that regulate various bodily functions. They are transported through the bloodstream to target cells or organs, where they bind to specific receptors and trigger a response. Hormones play a crucial role in regulating growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and other essential processes in the body. Examples of hormones include insulin, thyroid hormones, estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol. Imbalances in hormone levels can lead to a range of medical conditions, including diabetes, thyroid disorders, infertility, and mood disorders.

Thyroid hormones are hormones produced by the thyroid gland, a small gland located in the neck. There are two main types of thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones play a crucial role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. Thyroxine (T4) is the primary thyroid hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It is converted into triiodothyronine (T3) in the body, which is the more active thyroid hormone. T3 and T4 are responsible for regulating the body's metabolism, which is the process by which the body converts food into energy. They also play a role in regulating the body's growth and development, as well as the function of the heart and nervous system. Thyroid hormones are regulated by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, which are located in the brain. The hypothalamus produces a hormone called thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH then stimulates the thyroid gland to produce T4 and T3. Abnormal levels of thyroid hormones can lead to a variety of health problems, including hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone), hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone), and thyroid nodules or cancer. Treatment for thyroid disorders typically involves medication to regulate the levels of thyroid hormones in the body.

Glycoprotein hormones, alpha subunit are a group of hormones that are composed of two subunits: an alpha subunit and a hormone-specific beta subunit. The alpha subunit is a common component of several different glycoprotein hormones, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The alpha subunit is encoded by a single gene and is synthesized in the pituitary gland. It is then cleaved from the larger glycoprotein hormone molecule, leaving behind the hormone-specific beta subunit. The alpha subunit is responsible for binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, allowing the hormone-specific beta subunit to exert its effects. Glycoprotein hormones, alpha subunit are important regulators of various physiological processes, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction. They are often used as diagnostic markers in medical testing and are also used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as infertility and thyroid disorders.

Receptors, LH (Luteinizing Hormone Receptors) are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone luteinizing hormone (LH). LH is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and plays a key role in regulating the menstrual cycle in women and sperm production in men. In women, LH receptors are found on the cells of the ovaries, where they help to stimulate the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles and the production of estrogen and progesterone. In men, LH receptors are found on the cells of the testes, where they help to stimulate the production of testosterone. LH receptors are also found in other parts of the body, including the placenta, adrenal gland, and brain. In these locations, LH receptors may play a role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including metabolism, immune function, and mood.

Estradiol is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the ovaries in females and by the testes in males. It is a type of estrogen, which is a group of hormones that play a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in both males and females. Estradiol is a potent estrogen and is one of the most biologically active forms of estrogen in the body. It is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. Estradiol also plays a role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, the brain, and the immune system. Estradiol is used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and gels, and is typically administered by mouth or applied to the skin. It is important to note that estradiol can have side effects, and its use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare provider.

Testosterone is a hormone that is primarily produced in the testicles in males and in smaller amounts in the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. It is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in bone density, red blood cell production, and the regulation of the body's metabolism. In the medical field, testosterone is often used to treat conditions related to low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism (a condition in which the body does not produce enough testosterone), delayed puberty, and certain types of breast cancer in men. It can also be used to treat conditions related to low estrogen levels in women, such as osteoporosis and menopause symptoms. Testosterone therapy can be administered in various forms, including injections, gels, patches, and pellets. However, it is important to note that testosterone therapy can have side effects, such as acne, hair loss, and an increased risk of blood clots, and should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional.

Gonadal steroid hormones are hormones produced by the gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) that regulate sexual development and reproductive function. These hormones include testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone. Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice. Estrogen is the primary female sex hormone and is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breast development and a wider pelvis. Progesterone is a hormone that helps regulate the menstrual cycle and prepare the uterus for pregnancy. Gonadal steroid hormones also play a role in other bodily functions, such as bone health, mood regulation, and immune system function. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to a variety of health problems, including infertility, menstrual disorders, and sexual dysfunction.

Progesterone is a hormone that plays a crucial role in the female reproductive system. It is produced by the ovaries and the placenta during pregnancy and is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining the pregnancy. Progesterone also helps to regulate the menstrual cycle and can be used as a contraceptive. In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone has a number of other effects on the body. It can help to reduce inflammation, promote bone density, and regulate mood. Progesterone is also used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including menopause, osteoporosis, and certain types of breast cancer. Progesterone is available as a medication in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, injections, and creams. It is important to note that progesterone can have side effects, including nausea, dizziness, and mood changes. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of using progesterone with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle, sperm production, and the development of ovarian follicles. The beta subunit of FSH is a protein that is common to all glycoprotein hormones, including FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The beta subunit is responsible for binding to the specific receptors on the target cells, allowing the hormone to exert its effects.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands, which are four small glands located in the neck, near the thyroid gland. PTH plays a crucial role in regulating the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body. PTH acts on the bones, kidneys, and intestines to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. It stimulates the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream, increases the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys, and promotes the absorption of calcium from the intestines. PTH also plays a role in regulating the levels of phosphorus in the body. It stimulates the kidneys to excrete phosphorus in the urine, which helps to maintain the proper balance of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Abnormal levels of PTH can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hyperparathyroidism (too much PTH), hypoparathyroidism (too little PTH), and parathyroid cancer. Hyperparathyroidism can cause osteoporosis, kidney stones, and other complications, while hypoparathyroidism can lead to muscle cramps, seizures, and other symptoms.

Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit (LH beta) is a protein subunit that is a component of the luteinizing hormone (LH) molecule. LH is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that plays a key role in regulating the reproductive system in both males and females. In males, LH stimulates the production of testosterone by the Leydig cells of the testes. In females, LH triggers ovulation and stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries. LH beta is one of two subunits that make up the LH molecule, the other being the alpha subunit. The beta subunit is responsible for binding to receptors on the target cells and initiating the signaling cascade that leads to the physiological effects of LH. LH beta is also used as a diagnostic marker in various medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

Receptors, FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and plays a key role in regulating the menstrual cycle and male fertility. FSH receptors are found in the ovaries, testes, and other parts of the body, and they help to control the growth and development of follicles in the ovaries and the production of sperm in the testes. When FSH binds to its receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that ultimately lead to the production of eggs or sperm.

Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones (PRHs) are a group of hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that controls many of the body's hormonal and metabolic processes. These hormones stimulate the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain, to produce and release other hormones that regulate various bodily functions. There are several different types of PRHs, including thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and somatostatin-releasing hormone (SRH). Each of these hormones has a specific target hormone that it stimulates the pituitary gland to produce. For example, TRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. CRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. GnRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are important for reproductive function. GHRH stimulates the pituitary gland to produce growth hormone (GH), which is important for growth and development. SRH inhibits the production of several hormones, including GH and TSH. PRHs play a critical role in regulating many bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. Imbalances in the production or function of PRHs can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, hypogonadism, dwarfism, and acromegaly.

Pituitary hormones are a group of hormones produced by the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls the function of many other endocrine glands in the body. There are several types of pituitary hormones, including: 1. Growth hormone (GH): This hormone stimulates growth and cell reproduction in the body. 2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): This hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism. 3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): This hormone stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress. 4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH): These hormones regulate the function of the ovaries and testes, including the production of sex hormones and the development of eggs and sperm. 5. Prolactin: This hormone stimulates milk production in the mammary glands. 6. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): This hormone regulates the body's water balance by controlling the amount of water that is reabsorbed by the kidneys. 7. Oxytocin: This hormone stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding. Pituitary hormones play a critical role in regulating many bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, stress response, reproduction, and water balance. Imbalances in pituitary hormone levels can lead to a variety of health problems, including dwarfism, thyroid disorders, adrenal insufficiency, infertility, and diabetes insipidus.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It stimulates the adrenal glands to produce and release cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress and regulates metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. ACTH is also involved in the regulation of other hormones, such as aldosterone, which helps regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance, and androgens, which are male sex hormones. In the medical field, ACTH is often used to diagnose and treat disorders related to the adrenal glands, such as Cushing's disease, which is caused by an overproduction of cortisol, and Addison's disease, which is caused by a deficiency of cortisol. ACTH is also used to stimulate the adrenal glands to produce cortisol in cases where the glands are not producing enough of the hormone on their own.

Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in children and adolescents, as well as maintaining various bodily functions in adults. In children, HGH stimulates the growth of bones, muscles, and other tissues, and helps to regulate metabolism. It also plays a role in the development of the brain and the immune system. In adults, HGH is involved in maintaining muscle mass, bone density, and overall body composition. It also plays a role in regulating metabolism and energy levels, and may help to improve cognitive function and mood. HGH deficiency can occur due to various factors, including genetic disorders, pituitary gland tumors, and aging. Treatment for HGH deficiency typically involves hormone replacement therapy, which involves administering synthetic HGH to replace the naturally occurring hormone in the body.

Receptors, Thyroid Hormone are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to thyroid hormones, such as thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones are produced by the thyroid gland and play a crucial role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development. When thyroid hormones bind to their receptors, they trigger a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that ultimately leads to changes in gene expression and cellular function. There are two main types of thyroid hormone receptors: alpha (α) and beta (β). The α receptor is found primarily in the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle, while the β receptor is found in almost all tissues in the body. Thyroid hormone receptors can be activated by both T4 and T3, but T3 is generally more potent than T4. In addition, thyroid hormones can also bind to other receptors, such as the nuclear receptor superfamily, which can modulate their effects on gene expression. Abnormalities in thyroid hormone receptor function can lead to a variety of health problems, including thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, as well as other conditions such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in the development and function of the mammary glands in both males and females, but it is particularly important for lactation in females. In females, prolactin stimulates the production of milk in the mammary glands after childbirth. It also plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and fertility. In males, prolactin helps to regulate the production of sperm and testosterone. Prolactin levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, sleep, and certain medications. Abnormal levels of prolactin can lead to a condition called hyperprolactinemia, which can cause a range of symptoms including breast tenderness, infertility, and sexual dysfunction.

Receptors, LHRH (Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone Receptors) are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), also known as Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH). These receptors are primarily located in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (ovaries and testes) and play a crucial role in regulating the production and release of hormones in the endocrine system. LHRH is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the pituitary gland to release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which in turn regulate the reproductive system. When LHRH binds to its receptors on these cells, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the production and release of LH and FSH. Receptors, LHRH are also found in other tissues throughout the body, including the breast, prostate, and uterus, where they may play a role in regulating other physiological processes. Disruptions in the function or expression of LHRH receptors can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, menstrual disorders, and prostate cancer.

Hypogonadism is a medical condition characterized by a deficiency in the production of sex hormones, such as testosterone in males and estrogen and progesterone in females, by the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males). This deficiency can result in a range of symptoms, including decreased libido, infertility, fatigue, weight gain, and osteoporosis. Hypogonadism can be primary, meaning that the gonads themselves are not functioning properly, or secondary, meaning that the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, which control the production of sex hormones, are not functioning properly. Causes of primary hypogonadism include genetic disorders, such as Klinefelter syndrome in males and Turner syndrome in females, as well as damage to the gonads due to injury, infection, or cancer treatment. Causes of secondary hypogonadism include pituitary tumors, chronic illnesses, and certain medications. Treatment for hypogonadism depends on the underlying cause and may include hormone replacement therapy, fertility treatments, or surgery.

Choriocarcinoma is a rare type of cancer that develops in the placenta, which is the tissue that nourishes a developing fetus during pregnancy. It is a highly aggressive form of cancer that can spread quickly to other parts of the body, including the lungs, brain, and liver. Choriocarcinoma is most commonly diagnosed in women who have had a molar pregnancy, which is a pregnancy in which the placenta produces too much of a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). It can also occur in women who have had previous pregnancies or who have certain genetic conditions. Treatment for choriocarcinoma typically involves chemotherapy, which is used to kill cancer cells. In some cases, surgery or radiation therapy may also be used. The prognosis for choriocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer at diagnosis, the patient's overall health, and the response to treatment. With early detection and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for choriocarcinoma is generally good.

Inhibins are a group of hormones produced by the ovaries and testes in humans and other animals. They play a role in regulating the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland. Inhibins are primarily produced by the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles and the Sertoli cells of the testes. Inhibins act as negative feedback regulators of FSH and LH production. When the levels of FSH and LH are high, inhibins are produced and released into the bloodstream, which then inhibits the production of FSH and LH by the pituitary gland. This feedback mechanism helps to maintain a balance between the production of FSH and LH and the development of ovarian follicles and sperm production. Inhibins are also involved in the regulation of pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy, the levels of inhibins increase, which helps to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the development of additional ovarian follicles and ovulation. In lactating women, inhibins help to suppress the production of FSH and LH, preventing the return of the menstrual cycle until after lactation has ended. Abnormal levels of inhibins can be associated with various medical conditions, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and testicular cancer.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine gland that forms in the ovary after ovulation. It is responsible for producing the hormones progesterone and estrogen, which help to prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will eventually degenerate and be replaced by scar tissue. In some cases, the corpus luteum may continue to produce hormones even if pregnancy does not occur, leading to a condition called luteal phase defect.

Hypothalamic hormones are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus, a small region of the brain that plays a critical role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, growth, and reproduction. The hypothalamus produces several hormones that are involved in regulating the endocrine system, which is responsible for producing and secreting hormones throughout the body. Some of the most well-known hypothalamic hormones include: 1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. 2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. 3. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which are involved in regulating the reproductive system. 4. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): This hormone stimulates the pituitary gland to produce growth hormone (GH), which is involved in regulating growth and development. 5. Somatostatin: This hormone inhibits the production of several hormones, including GH, TSH, and ACTH. Hypothalamic hormones play a critical role in regulating various bodily functions, and imbalances in these hormones can lead to a range of health problems, including metabolic disorders, reproductive disorders, and endocrine disorders.

Hormone antagonists are medications that block or inhibit the effects of hormones in the body. They are often used in medical treatments to counteract the effects of hormones that are either overactive or underactive. Examples of hormone antagonists include: 1. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): These medications block the effects of estrogen in some tissues but not others. They are used to treat conditions such as breast cancer and osteoporosis. 2. Progestins: These medications mimic the effects of the hormone progesterone and are used to treat conditions such as menopause symptoms and endometriosis. 3. Androgens: These medications block the effects of testosterone and are used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women). 4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists: These medications block the release of gonadotropins, hormones that stimulate the ovaries and testes to produce sex hormones. They are used to treat conditions such as endometriosis and prostate cancer. Overall, hormone antagonists are an important tool in the medical field for treating a variety of conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

Leuprolide is a medication that is used to treat various conditions related to the endocrine system, particularly in men. It is a synthetic version of the hormone luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which is produced by the hypothalamus and regulates the production of other hormones in the body. Leuprolide is commonly used to treat prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. It works by blocking the production of testosterone, which can help slow the growth of prostate cancer cells and reduce the size of uterine fibroids. It can also be used to treat precocious puberty in children. Leuprolide is usually administered as an injection, either under the skin or into a muscle. The dosage and frequency of the injections will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication. Common side effects of leuprolide include hot flashes, decreased sex drive, breast tenderness, and injection site reactions.

Thyrotropin, also known as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating the function of the thyroid gland, which is responsible for producing hormones that control metabolism in the body. TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and release thyroid hormones, including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones regulate the body's metabolism, affecting how the body uses energy and how quickly it burns calories. In the medical field, TSH is often measured as part of routine blood tests to assess thyroid function. Abnormal levels of TSH can indicate a variety of thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid). TSH levels can also be affected by other medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or certain medications.

Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. T3 is synthesized from thyroxine (T4), another thyroid hormone, by removing an iodine atom from each of the three iodine atoms in T4. In the medical field, T3 is often measured as a diagnostic tool to evaluate thyroid function. Abnormal levels of T3 can indicate a variety of thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels) and hyperthyroidism (high thyroid hormone levels). T3 levels may also be monitored in patients with certain conditions, such as heart disease, to assess their overall health and response to treatment.

The anterior pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain, and it is responsible for producing and secreting several hormones that play important roles in regulating various bodily functions. The hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland include: 1. Growth hormone (GH): This hormone stimulates growth and cell reproduction in the body. 2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): This hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism. 3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): This hormone stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol, which helps the body respond to stress. 4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): This hormone stimulates the ovaries or testes to produce sex hormones and eggs or sperm. 5. Luteinizing hormone (LH): This hormone stimulates the ovaries or testes to produce sex hormones and trigger ovulation or sperm production. 6. Prolactin (PRL): This hormone stimulates milk production in the mammary glands. These hormones are essential for maintaining normal bodily functions, and imbalances in their production or secretion can lead to various health problems.

Menotropins are a group of hormones that are produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. They are also known as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones play a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle and the production of eggs in women, as well as the production of testosterone in men. In the medical field, menotropins are often used to treat fertility problems in both men and women. For example, they may be used to stimulate the ovaries to produce more eggs in women who are undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. In men, they may be used to stimulate the production of sperm. Menotropins are typically administered as injections, and the dosage and frequency of the injections will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the treatment. It is important to note that menotropins can have side effects, including headaches, nausea, and bloating, and they may also increase the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in women undergoing IVF treatment.

Gonadal hormones are hormones produced by the gonads, which are the testes in males and the ovaries in females. These hormones play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of reproductive function in both males and females. In males, the primary gonadal hormone is testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. Testosterone also plays a role in sperm production and sexual desire. In females, the primary gonadal hormones are estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is responsible for the development of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is responsible for preparing the uterus for pregnancy and maintaining pregnancy. Gonadal hormones also play a role in other bodily functions such as bone health, mood regulation, and immune function. Imbalances in gonadal hormones can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, osteoporosis, and mood disorders.

Juvenile hormones are a class of hormones that are produced by the endocrine glands of insects. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating the development and growth of insects, particularly during their larval stage. In insects, juvenile hormones are produced by the corpora allata, a gland located in the head of the insect. These hormones are transported to the target tissues, where they bind to specific receptors and initiate a cascade of signaling events that regulate various aspects of insect development, including growth, molting, and metamorphosis. Juvenile hormones are also involved in regulating the reproductive development of insects. In some species, they can stimulate the development of reproductive organs and the production of sex hormones, while in others, they can inhibit these processes. In the medical field, juvenile hormones have been studied for their potential use in controlling insect populations and as a source of therapeutic compounds. For example, some juvenile hormones have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for these conditions.

Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a hormone produced by granulosa cells in the ovaries. It plays a crucial role in the development and function of the female reproductive system. AMH levels are highest during fetal development and gradually decrease after birth. In women, AMH levels fluctuate throughout the menstrual cycle and are highest during the follicular phase, when the ovaries are preparing to release an egg. AMH is often used as a marker of ovarian reserve, which refers to the number and quality of eggs remaining in the ovaries. High levels of AMH are associated with a larger number of eggs, while low levels may indicate a lower ovarian reserve. AMH levels can also be used to diagnose conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to monitor the effectiveness of fertility treatments.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Castration is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the testicles in males or the ovaries in females. In males, castration is often performed to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or advanced prostate enlargement. In females, castration is typically performed to treat conditions such as ovarian cancer or endometriosis. There are two main types of castration: surgical castration and chemical castration. Surgical castration involves the removal of the testicles or ovaries through surgery. Chemical castration involves the administration of drugs that suppress the production of hormones by the testicles or ovaries. Castration can have a number of effects on the body, including changes in hormone levels, sexual function, and mood. In males, castration can lead to a decrease in testosterone levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, energy levels, and muscle mass. In females, castration can lead to a decrease in estrogen levels, which can cause changes in sexual desire, bone density, and mood.

In the medical field, steroids refer to a class of drugs that are derived from the natural hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal gland. Steroids are used to treat a wide range of medical conditions, including inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, allergies, and certain types of cancer. There are two main types of steroids: corticosteroids and anabolic steroids. Corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, while anabolic steroids are used to build muscle mass and increase strength. Steroids can be administered in various forms, including oral tablets, injections, creams, and inhalers. They can have a range of side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, high blood pressure, and increased risk of infections. It is important to note that the use of steroids is closely monitored by healthcare professionals, and they are typically prescribed only for specific medical conditions and under the guidance of a doctor.。

Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH) is a peptide hormone that is produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates various bodily functions, including growth and metabolism. GHRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to produce and release growth hormone (GH), which is responsible for promoting growth and development in children and maintaining muscle mass and bone density in adults. GHRH is a 44-amino acid peptide that is synthesized and secreted by the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. It acts on the pituitary gland by binding to specific receptors on the surface of the somatotroph cells, which are responsible for producing GH. Once bound to the receptors, GHRH triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the synthesis and release of GH from the pituitary gland. GHRH is also involved in regulating other hormones, such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which are also produced by the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, GHRH has been shown to have effects on appetite, metabolism, and body composition. Abnormalities in GHRH production or signaling can lead to various medical conditions, including growth hormone deficiency, acromegaly, and gigantism. Treatment for these conditions may involve the use of GH replacement therapy or medications that target the GHRH signaling pathway.

Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) is a peptide hormone that is produced by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the brain. It plays a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is responsible for the body's response to stress. CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol. Cortisol is a stress hormone that helps the body respond to physical and emotional stress by increasing blood sugar levels, suppressing the immune system, and increasing blood pressure. CRH is also involved in other physiological processes, such as the regulation of appetite, metabolism, and the sleep-wake cycle. It is synthesized and secreted in response to stress, both physical and psychological, and plays a role in the body's response to trauma, illness, and other stressful events. In the medical field, CRH is used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the function of the HPA axis and to diagnose certain disorders, such as Cushing's disease, which is characterized by excessive cortisol production. It is also used in research to study the effects of stress on the body and to develop new treatments for stress-related disorders.

Thyroxine, also known as T4, is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland in the neck. It plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. In the medical field, thyroxine is often prescribed to treat hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. In this case, thyroxine is given to replace the missing hormone and help restore normal metabolic function. Thyroxine is also used to treat certain types of thyroid cancer, as well as to prevent the recurrence of thyroid cancer after surgery. In some cases, thyroxine may be used to treat other conditions, such as Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects females. Thyroxine is typically taken orally in the form of a tablet or liquid, and the dosage is adjusted based on the patient's individual needs and response to treatment. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare provider when taking thyroxine, as taking too much or too little can have serious consequences.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone that are composed of chains of amino acids. They are synthesized in the endocrine glands and are released into the bloodstream to regulate various bodily functions. Peptide hormones are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth and development, metabolism, reproduction, and the regulation of the body's response to stress. Examples of peptide hormones include insulin, growth hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. These hormones act on specific receptors in target cells to produce their effects, and they are often regulated by feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Trophoblastic neoplasms are a group of rare tumors that arise from the cells that form the placenta during pregnancy. These tumors can be either benign or malignant, and they can occur in women of any age, although they are most common in women who are pregnant or have recently given birth. There are two main types of trophoblastic neoplasms: hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma. Hydatidiform mole is a benign tumor that is caused by the abnormal development of the placenta. Choriocarcinoma, on the other hand, is a malignant tumor that can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Trophoblastic neoplasms are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and blood tests. Treatment options for these tumors depend on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the woman's overall health. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the tumor, while in other cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumor or kill cancer cells.

Androstenedione is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands and gonads (testes and ovaries) in both males and females. It is a precursor to other hormones such as testosterone and estrogen, and plays a role in the development of sexual characteristics and the regulation of the menstrual cycle in females. In the medical field, androstenedione is sometimes used as a supplement to increase muscle mass and strength, and to enhance athletic performance. However, the use of androstenedione as a supplement is controversial, as it can have side effects and may be banned by some sports organizations. Additionally, the safety and effectiveness of androstenedione as a supplement have not been well studied, and it is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use as a dietary supplement.

In the medical field, the term "cattle" refers to large domesticated animals that are raised for their meat, milk, or other products. Cattle are a common source of food and are also used for labor in agriculture, such as plowing fields or pulling carts. In veterinary medicine, cattle are often referred to as "livestock" and may be treated for a variety of medical conditions, including diseases, injuries, and parasites. Some common medical issues that may affect cattle include respiratory infections, digestive problems, and musculoskeletal disorders. Cattle may also be used in medical research, particularly in the fields of genetics and agriculture. For example, scientists may study the genetics of cattle to develop new breeds with desirable traits, such as increased milk production or resistance to disease.

Puberty, precocious refers to the early onset of puberty, which is defined as the onset of puberty before the age of 8 for girls and before the age of 9 for boys. Precocious puberty is a medical condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, exposure to certain hormones or environmental factors, and certain medical conditions such as tumors or hormonal imbalances. The symptoms of precocious puberty may include the development of breast tissue in girls, the growth of pubic hair and underarm hair, and the onset of menstruation. In boys, precocious puberty may be indicated by the growth of pubic hair, the development of testicles, and an increase in muscle mass and height. Treatment for precocious puberty may involve the use of medications to suppress or delay puberty, as well as monitoring and management of any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the early onset of puberty. It is important to note that precocious puberty can have significant psychological and social impacts on affected individuals, and appropriate support and counseling may be necessary.

Androgens are a group of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male characteristics. They are produced by the testes in males and by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. The most well-known androgen is testosterone, which is responsible for the development of male sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. Other androgens include dihydrotestosterone (DHT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and androstenedione. In addition to their role in sexual development, androgens also play a role in other bodily functions such as bone density, red blood cell production, and metabolism. They are also involved in the regulation of mood and behavior. Abnormal levels of androgens can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including androgen insensitivity syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and testicular feminization syndrome. Androgens are also used in medical treatment for conditions such as hypogonadism, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta (TRβ) are a type of nuclear hormone receptor that are activated by thyroid hormones, such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These receptors are expressed in a wide range of tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, muscles, and adipose tissue. TRβ receptors play a critical role in regulating metabolism, growth, and development. When thyroid hormones bind to TRβ receptors, they can either activate or repress the expression of genes involved in these processes. This can lead to changes in the body's energy metabolism, heart rate, body temperature, and other physiological functions. In the medical field, TRβ receptors are often studied in the context of thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Abnormalities in TRβ receptor function can contribute to the development of these conditions, and targeted therapies that modulate TRβ receptor activity are being investigated as potential treatments. Additionally, TRβ receptors are also being studied in the context of other diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, as they may play a role in regulating these conditions as well.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell proliferation. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, and its levels are regulated by various hormones and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, cAMP is often studied in the context of its role in regulating cellular signaling pathways. For example, cAMP is involved in the regulation of the immune system, where it helps to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. It is also involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, where it helps to regulate heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, cAMP is often used as a tool in research to study cellular signaling pathways. For example, it is commonly used to activate or inhibit specific signaling pathways in cells, allowing researchers to study the effects of these pathways on cellular function.

Kisspeptins are a group of small peptides that play a crucial role in regulating the reproductive system, particularly in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. They are produced by neurons in the hypothalamus and act on GnRH neurons to stimulate the release of GnRH, which in turn stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland. These hormones are essential for the development and maturation of the ovaries and testes, as well as for the production of sex hormones such as estrogen and testosterone. Kisspeptins are also involved in the regulation of other physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, and stress response. They are synthesized from a larger precursor protein called preprokisspeptin, which is cleaved by proteases to produce various kisspeptin peptides with different biological activities.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a hormone that is produced in the body from testosterone, a male sex hormone. DHT is a potent androgen, meaning that it has a strong effect on the development and maintenance of male characteristics. It is involved in the development of male reproductive organs, such as the prostate gland and testicles, and plays a role in the growth and maintenance of body hair, muscle mass, and bone density. In addition, DHT is thought to play a role in the development of prostate cancer. DHT is also found in women, but in lower levels than in men.

Placental lactogen, also known as human placental lactogen (HPL), is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It is a type of growth hormone that plays a crucial role in the development and growth of the fetus. Placental lactogen is responsible for stimulating the growth of the fetus's liver, which is necessary for the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). IGF-1 is a hormone that promotes the growth and development of various tissues in the body, including bones, muscles, and organs. Placental lactogen also helps to regulate the mother's metabolism during pregnancy. It stimulates the production of insulin, which helps to regulate the mother's blood sugar levels. Additionally, placental lactogen helps to increase the mother's blood volume, which is necessary to support the growth and development of the fetus. Placental lactogen levels can be measured in the mother's blood or urine during pregnancy to monitor fetal growth and development. Abnormal levels of placental lactogen can be an indication of pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia or gestational diabetes.

In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.

Gastrointestinal hormones are chemical messengers produced by cells in the lining of the gastrointestinal tract that regulate various functions of the digestive system, including appetite, digestion, and absorption of nutrients. These hormones are secreted in response to various stimuli, such as the presence of food in the stomach or the stretching of the gut wall. Some examples of gastrointestinal hormones include gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin. Gastrin stimulates the production of stomach acid and the release of digestive enzymes, while secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate the release of bile from the liver and the movement of food through the digestive tract. Ghrelin, on the other hand, is involved in regulating appetite and energy balance. Gastrointestinal hormones play a crucial role in maintaining the normal functioning of the digestive system and are often studied in the context of various digestive disorders, such as gastrointestinal ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity.

Hydrocortisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that can help reduce inflammation, swelling, and redness in the body. Hydrocortisone is also used to treat conditions such as allergies, asthma, eczema, and psoriasis, as well as to reduce the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the hormone cortisol. It is available in a variety of forms, including oral tablets, topical creams, and injections.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which a woman's ovaries do not release an egg (ovulate) during a menstrual cycle. This can occur for a variety of reasons, including hormonal imbalances, structural problems with the ovaries or uterus, or certain medical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Anovulation can make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant, as the egg is necessary for fertilization to occur. It is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for anovulation depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate hormone levels, lifestyle changes, or assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Testicular hormones are hormones produced by the testes in males. The primary hormones produced by the testes are testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH). Testosterone is responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. LH stimulates the production of testosterone by the testes. Testicular hormones also play a role in sperm production and sexual function.

20-alpha-Dihydroprogesterone (20α-DHP) is a progestin, a type of hormone that is structurally similar to progesterone but has different biological effects. It is a synthetic derivative of progesterone that has been used in some medical treatments, particularly for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and for the prevention of osteoporosis. In the body, 20α-DHP is converted to other progestins, such as 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and 17α-hydroxy-17β-methylprogesterone, which have different biological effects. 20α-DHP has been shown to have a number of potential therapeutic effects, including the ability to reduce hot flashes and night sweats in menopausal women, to protect against bone loss, and to reduce the risk of certain types of cancer. However, 20α-DHP has also been associated with some potential side effects, including breast tenderness, mood changes, and an increased risk of blood clots. As with any medication, the potential benefits and risks of 20α-DHP should be carefully considered by a healthcare provider before it is used to treat a particular condition.

Aromatase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the production of estrogen hormones in the human body. It is primarily found in the ovaries, placenta, and adipose tissue, but it is also present in other tissues such as the brain, bone, and muscle. In the medical field, aromatase inhibitors are commonly used as a form of hormonal therapy to treat breast cancer in postmenopausal women. These drugs work by blocking the activity of the aromatase enzyme, which prevents the conversion of androgens (male hormones) into estrogens (female hormones). By reducing estrogen levels, aromatase inhibitors can slow the growth of breast cancer cells that are dependent on estrogen for their survival. Aromatase inhibitors are also used to treat other conditions, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer. In these cases, the drugs are used to reduce estrogen levels and alleviate symptoms associated with these conditions.

Infertility, female refers to the inability of a woman to conceive a child after a year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities in the reproductive organs, infections, and lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor nutrition. Infertility can also be caused by age, with fertility declining naturally as a woman gets older. Treatment options for female infertility may include medications to stimulate ovulation, surgery to correct structural abnormalities, assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), or the use of donor eggs or embryos.

Estrone (E1) is a naturally occurring estrogen hormone that is produced in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and placenta. It is one of the three major female sex hormones, along with estradiol and estriol. Estrone is responsible for a variety of physiological functions in the body, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, and the maintenance of bone density. It is also involved in the regulation of metabolism, cardiovascular function, and mood. Estrone is used in medical treatment for conditions such as menopause, osteoporosis, and breast cancer.

Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) is a protein hormone that plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in humans and other animals. It is produced by the liver, as well as by other tissues such as the kidneys, muscles, and bones. IGF-I has insulin-like effects on cells, promoting the uptake of glucose and the synthesis of proteins. It also stimulates the growth and differentiation of various cell types, including muscle cells, bone cells, and cartilage cells. In the medical field, IGF-I is often used as a diagnostic tool to measure growth hormone (GH) levels in patients with growth disorders or other conditions that affect GH production. It is also used as a treatment for certain conditions, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, and short stature. However, excessive levels of IGF-I have been linked to an increased risk of certain cancers, such as colon cancer and breast cancer, and it is therefore important to monitor IGF-I levels carefully in patients with these conditions.

Estriol is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced by the ovaries, placenta, and adrenal glands in women. It is a type of estrogen, which is a hormone that plays a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system. In the medical field, estriol is used as a medication to treat certain conditions, such as vaginal atrophy (thinning and dryness of the vaginal walls) in postmenopausal women. It is also used to prevent and treat osteoporosis (thinning and weakening of bones) in postmenopausal women. Estriol is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, and vaginal suppositories. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but like all medications, it can cause side effects. Some common side effects of estriol include nausea, breast tenderness, and vaginal bleeding. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before taking estriol to discuss the potential benefits and risks, as well as any other medications you may be taking.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of steroid hormones in the body. These enzymes are responsible for converting 3-hydroxysteroids, which are derivatives of cholesterol, into their corresponding 3-ketosteroids. There are several types of 3-HSDs, including NAD-dependent and NADP-dependent enzymes, which are found in different tissues throughout the body. For example, the NAD-dependent 3-HSD is found in the liver and is involved in the metabolism of cortisol, aldosterone, and other glucocorticoids. The NADP-dependent 3-HSD is found in the adrenal gland and is involved in the metabolism of androgens and estrogens. Disruptions in the activity of 3-HSDs can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hormonal imbalances, metabolic disorders, and reproductive problems. For example, mutations in the gene encoding the NAD-dependent 3-HSD can cause a rare genetic disorder called 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, which can lead to the accumulation of 3-hydroxysteroids in the body and cause a range of symptoms, including adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and adrenal hyperplasia.

Triptorelin pamoate is a long-acting synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist used in the medical field. It is a medication that is used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. It works by suppressing the production of hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone, which can help to shrink tumors and reduce symptoms associated with these conditions. Triptorelin pamoate is usually administered as an injection and its effects can last for several months.

Progesterone congeners are synthetic derivatives of the hormone progesterone that are used in various medical applications. These compounds are similar in structure to progesterone and have similar biological effects, but they may have different pharmacological properties and side effects. Progesterone congeners are used in a variety of medical settings, including: 1. Hormonal contraception: Some progesterone congeners are used in combination with estrogen to prevent pregnancy. These contraceptives are taken orally, as a patch, or as an injection. 2. Menopause treatment: Progesterone congeners are sometimes used to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. 3. Endometriosis treatment: Progesterone congeners may be used to treat endometriosis, a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. 4. Infertility treatment: Some progesterone congeners are used to support pregnancy in women who are having difficulty conceiving. 5. Gynecological disorders: Progesterone congeners may be used to treat gynecological disorders such as uterine fibroids and abnormal uterine bleeding. It is important to note that the use of progesterone congeners may have side effects, and they may not be suitable for everyone. It is important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of these medications with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Placental hormones are hormones that are produced by the placenta, a specialized organ that develops during pregnancy and provides nourishment and protection to the developing fetus. These hormones play important roles in regulating various physiological processes in both the mother and the fetus, including fetal growth and development, maternal metabolism, and the onset of labor. Some of the key placental hormones include human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, and human placental lactogen (hPL). hCG is produced early in pregnancy and helps to maintain the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone to support the pregnancy. Estrogen and progesterone help to prepare the uterus for pregnancy and maintain the pregnancy, while relaxin helps to soften and widen the cervix in preparation for labor. hPL is involved in regulating maternal metabolism and promoting fetal growth and development. Placental hormones play a critical role in maintaining a healthy pregnancy and ensuring the proper development of the fetus. Abnormal levels of these hormones can lead to complications such as miscarriage, preterm labor, and gestational diabetes.

Hypothyroidism is a medical condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. The thyroid gland is a small gland located in the neck that plays a crucial role in regulating the body's metabolism. When the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones, the body's metabolism slows down, leading to a range of symptoms such as fatigue, weight gain, cold intolerance, dry skin, hair loss, constipation, and depression. Hypothyroidism can be caused by a variety of factors, including autoimmune disorders, iodine deficiency, radiation therapy, surgery, and certain medications. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid hormones in the body. Treatment for hypothyroidism typically involves taking synthetic thyroid hormone medication to replace the hormones that the body is not producing enough of. With proper treatment, most people with hypothyroidism can manage their symptoms and live normal, healthy lives.

Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha (TRα) are a type of nuclear hormone receptor that are activated by thyroid hormones, such as triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These receptors are found in many tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, muscles, and bones. When thyroid hormones bind to TRα receptors, they can regulate gene expression, which can affect a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, growth and development, and body temperature regulation. In the thyroid gland, TRα receptors play a critical role in regulating the production and release of thyroid hormones. Abnormalities in TRα receptors can lead to a variety of thyroid disorders, including hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormones) and hyperthyroidism (high levels of thyroid hormones). These disorders can have a significant impact on a person's health and well-being, and may require medical treatment.

Hydroxyprogesterones are a group of hormones that are derived from progesterone, a hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and the testes in men. Hydroxyprogesterones are formed by the addition of a hydroxyl group (-OH) to the C-3 position of the progesterone molecule. There are several different hydroxyprogesterones that are known to exist, including 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17β-hydroxyprogesterone, and 17α,20β-dihydroxyprogesterone. These hormones are important in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, the maintenance of pregnancy, and the suppression of the immune system. In the medical field, hydroxyprogesterones are often used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including menstrual disorders, endometriosis, and certain types of cancer. They may also be used to prevent miscarriage and to treat certain types of breast cancer.

Insect hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various physiological processes in insects, such as growth, development, reproduction, and behavior. These hormones are produced by glands in the insect's body and are transported through the hemolymph, the insect's equivalent of blood. There are several types of insect hormones, including ecdysteroids, juvenile hormones, and sex hormones. Ecdysteroids are responsible for regulating molting and metamorphosis in insects, while juvenile hormones control the development of immature insects into adults. Sex hormones, such as pheromones, are involved in sexual behavior and reproduction. Insect hormones play a crucial role in the life cycle of insects and are often used in pest control and management strategies. For example, insecticides that mimic or block the effects of insect hormones can be used to disrupt insect development or behavior, making them less harmful to crops or humans. Additionally, researchers are studying insect hormones as potential targets for new drugs to treat human diseases, such as cancer and diabetes.

Buserelin is a synthetic hormone that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, which means that it mimics the action of a naturally occurring hormone called GnRH in the body. GnRH is produced by the hypothalamus, a part of the brain, and it stimulates the pituitary gland to release hormones that regulate the function of the ovaries and testes. Buserelin is used to treat a variety of conditions, including prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and breast cancer. It is typically administered as an injection or nasal spray, and it works by reducing the production of estrogen and testosterone, which can help to shrink tumors and alleviate symptoms. In addition to its use as a medication, buserelin is also used in research to study the effects of GnRH on the body and to develop new treatments for various medical conditions.

Clomiphene is a medication that is used to stimulate ovulation in women who are not ovulating on their own. It is typically prescribed to women who are trying to conceive but are having difficulty ovulating due to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or other hormonal imbalances. Clomiphene works by blocking the action of estrogen in the body, which can help to stimulate the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These hormones are important for ovulation, and clomiphene can help to increase their levels and promote ovulation in women who are not ovulating on their own. Clomiphene is usually taken for five days in a row, starting on the second or third day of a woman's menstrual cycle. It is usually taken in combination with other fertility medications, such as gonadotropins, to increase the chances of successful ovulation and pregnancy.

Hydatidiform mole is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs when a fertilized egg fails to develop properly and instead forms a mass of abnormal tissue. This tissue is called a mole because it is made up of small, cyst-like structures called hydatid cysts. Hydatidiform moles are usually detected during a routine ultrasound exam, and they are often referred to as "pregnancy tumors." They are not true tumors, however, but rather a type of abnormal growth that occurs in the uterus. Hydatidiform moles can be classified as complete or partial. A complete hydatidiform mole occurs when the abnormal tissue contains all four sets of chromosomes, which is the same as the number found in a normal human egg. A partial hydatidiform mole occurs when the tissue contains only two sets of chromosomes, which is half the number found in a normal human egg. Hydatidiform moles are usually treated by surgical removal of the tissue. In some cases, chemotherapy may also be used to treat the mole. It is important to note that hydatidiform moles can be associated with an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as gestational trophoblastic disease, so close follow-up with a healthcare provider is important.

In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.

Receptors, cell surface are proteins that are located on the surface of cells and are responsible for receiving signals from the environment. These signals can be chemical, electrical, or mechanical in nature and can trigger a variety of cellular responses. There are many different types of cell surface receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors. These receptors play a critical role in many physiological processes, including sensation, communication, and regulation of cellular activity. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of cell surface receptors is important for developing new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Anestrus is a term used in the medical field to describe a period of time when a female animal, such as a mare or cow, is not in heat or is not fertile. During anestrus, the animal's reproductive system is not actively preparing for pregnancy, and the hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle are not being produced. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, or environmental changes. Anestrus can be a natural part of the reproductive cycle in some animals, but it can also be a sign of a more serious underlying health issue.

Invertebrate hormones are chemical messengers produced by glands in invertebrates, such as insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, including growth and development, reproduction, metabolism, and behavior. Invertebrate hormones can be classified into different types based on their chemical structure and function. Some examples of invertebrate hormones include: * Ecdysteroids: These hormones are involved in regulating molting and metamorphosis in insects and crustaceans. * JH (Juvenile Hormone): This hormone is involved in regulating growth and development in insects. * Melatonin: This hormone is involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle in many invertebrates. * Octopamine: This hormone is involved in regulating metabolism, feeding behavior, and aggression in insects and crustaceans. * Serotonin: This hormone is involved in regulating mood, appetite, and sleep in many invertebrates. Invertebrate hormones are studied in the medical field because they can provide insights into the evolution of endocrine systems and the mechanisms underlying various physiological processes. Additionally, some invertebrate hormones have potential therapeutic applications in medicine, such as in the treatment of sleep disorders or the regulation of metabolism.

In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.

Pituitary hormones, posterior refers to a group of hormones produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain. The posterior lobe is responsible for producing and releasing two hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). ACTH stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol, a hormone that helps the body respond to stress and regulates metabolism. TSH, on the other hand, stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism, growth, and development. Abnormalities in the production or secretion of these hormones can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including Cushing's disease (caused by excessive ACTH production), Addison's disease (caused by insufficient ACTH production), and hypothyroidism (caused by insufficient TSH production).

Uterine neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the uterus, which is the female reproductive organ responsible for carrying and nourishing a developing fetus during pregnancy. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) in nature. Benign uterine neoplasms include leiomyomas (fibroids), adenomyosis, and endometrial polyps. These conditions are relatively common and often do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms such as heavy bleeding, pain, or pressure on other organs. Malignant uterine neoplasms, on the other hand, are less common but more serious. The most common type of uterine cancer is endometrial cancer, which develops in the lining of the uterus. Other types of uterine cancer include uterine sarcomas, which are rare and aggressive tumors that develop in the muscle or connective tissue of the uterus. Diagnosis of uterine neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or MRI, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Leydig cell tumor is a rare type of tumor that develops in the testicles of men. It is a type of germ cell tumor, which means it arises from cells that are involved in the development of sperm. Leydig cell tumors are usually benign, but in some cases they can be malignant (cancerous). Leydig cell tumors are most commonly found in young men, and they are often discovered when a person goes to the doctor for other reasons. The symptoms of Leydig cell tumors can include a lump or swelling in the testicle, pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum, and a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum. Leydig cell tumors are usually treated with surgery to remove the tumor. In some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be used to treat the tumor. The prognosis (outlook) for people with Leydig cell tumors depends on the size and location of the tumor, as well as whether it is benign or malignant.

A biological assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the biological activity of a substance, such as a drug or a protein. It involves exposing a biological system, such as cells or tissues, to the substance and measuring the resulting response. The response can be anything from a change in cell growth or survival to a change in gene expression or protein activity. Biological assays are used in a variety of fields, including pharmacology, toxicology, and biotechnology, to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs, to study the function of genes and proteins, and to develop new therapeutic agents.

Receptors, Somatotropin are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to and respond to growth hormone (somatotropin), a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating growth and development in animals, including humans. Activation of somatotropin receptors can stimulate cell growth, division, and differentiation, as well as regulate metabolism and body composition. Dysregulation of somatotropin receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including acromegaly and gigantism in humans.

Pituitary neoplasms are tumors that develop in the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing and regulating various hormones in the body, and when a tumor develops, it can disrupt the normal functioning of the gland and lead to a variety of symptoms. There are several types of pituitary neoplasms, including: 1. Pituitary adenomas: These are the most common type of pituitary neoplasm and are usually benign (non-cancerous). They can produce excessive amounts of hormones, leading to symptoms such as headaches, vision problems, and hormonal imbalances. 2. Pituitary carcinomas: These are rare and aggressive forms of pituitary neoplasms that can spread to other parts of the body. 3. Pituitary macroadenomas: These are larger tumors that can cause symptoms such as hormonal imbalances, headaches, and vision problems. 4. Pituitary microadenomas: These are smaller tumors that may not cause any symptoms, but can still be detected through imaging tests. Treatment for pituitary neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, and medication to manage symptoms and hormone levels. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and symptoms.

Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A) is a pregnancy-specific protein that is produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It is a protease inhibitor that plays a role in the regulation of the maternal immune system and the development of the fetus. PAPP-A is typically measured in a blood test during the first trimester of pregnancy to screen for certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome. A low level of PAPP-A in the blood can be an indicator of a higher risk of Down syndrome, while a high level can be an indicator of a higher risk of other genetic disorders. PAPP-A levels can also be used to monitor the health of the pregnancy and detect any potential complications. For example, a decrease in PAPP-A levels may indicate a problem with the placenta or the development of the fetus. Overall, PAPP-A is an important biomarker in the medical field for the diagnosis and monitoring of pregnancy-related conditions.

In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.

Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) are a group of peptides that are produced by the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in the brain. They play a role in regulating the production of melanin, a pigment that gives color to the skin, hair, and eyes. MSH also has other functions, such as regulating appetite, metabolism, and stress response. There are two main types of MSH: alpha-MSH and beta-MSH. Alpha-MSH is the more potent of the two and is responsible for stimulating the production of melanin. Beta-MSH has a weaker effect on melanin production and is primarily involved in regulating appetite and metabolism. MSH is produced by specialized cells in the brain called melanotrophs, which are located in the anterior pituitary gland. These cells release MSH into the bloodstream, where it travels to the skin and other organs to exert its effects. Abnormalities in MSH production or function can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including skin disorders, obesity, and mood disorders. For example, a deficiency in MSH can cause albinism, a genetic disorder characterized by a lack of pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes. On the other hand, an excess of MSH can lead to excessive pigmentation, which can cause skin discoloration and other skin problems.

Pregnancy, ectopic refers to a pregnancy that occurs outside of the uterus, typically in the fallopian tube. This is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment, as it can be life-threatening to the mother if left untreated. Ectopic pregnancies are relatively rare, accounting for about 1-2% of all pregnancies. The most common cause of ectopic pregnancy is damage to the fallopian tube, which can occur due to infection, surgery, or other factors. Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and shoulder pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or laparoscopy. Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy may include medication to cause the pregnancy to end (methotrexate), surgery to remove the ectopic pregnancy (laparoscopic salpingectomy), or a combination of both.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys. It is a precursor to other hormones, including testosterone and estrogen, and plays a role in a variety of bodily functions. In the medical field, DHEA is often measured in blood or saliva tests to assess adrenal function and diagnose conditions such as adrenal insufficiency or Cushing's syndrome. It is also sometimes used as a supplement to treat conditions such as low testosterone levels, osteoporosis, and depression, although the evidence for its effectiveness is mixed and more research is needed. However, it is important to note that DHEA supplements can have potential side effects and may interact with other medications, so they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Hypopituitarism is a medical condition in which the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain, fails to produce one or more of its hormones or does not produce them in sufficient quantities. The pituitary gland is responsible for producing hormones that regulate various bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, reproduction, and stress response. Hypopituitarism can be caused by a variety of factors, including tumors, head injuries, infections, radiation therapy, and certain medications. Symptoms of hypopituitarism can vary depending on which hormones are affected, but may include fatigue, weight loss, decreased appetite, cold intolerance, decreased sexual desire, infertility, and mood changes. Treatment for hypopituitarism typically involves hormone replacement therapy to replace the hormones that are not being produced by the pituitary gland. The specific hormones that need to be replaced will depend on which hormones are affected and the severity of the deficiency. In some cases, surgery or radiation therapy may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the hypopituitarism.

In the medical field, "Hormones, Ectopic" refers to the production of hormones by cells or tissues outside of their normal location in the body. This can occur when cells that normally do not produce hormones begin to produce them, or when cells that normally produce hormones begin to produce them in excess. Ectopic hormone production can lead to a variety of medical conditions, depending on the type of hormone that is being produced and the location of the cells that are producing it. For example, if cells in the pancreas begin to produce insulin in excess, this can lead to a condition called insulinoma, which can cause low blood sugar levels and other symptoms. Similarly, if cells in the ovaries begin to produce estrogen in excess, this can lead to a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which can cause irregular periods, infertility, and other symptoms. Ectopic hormone production can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment for ectopic hormone production depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate hormone levels, surgery to remove the affected cells or tissues, or other therapies.

The Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1 (PTH1R) is a protein that acts as a receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTH), a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands. PTH1R is expressed in a variety of tissues, including bone, kidney, and the small intestine, and plays a critical role in regulating calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the body. PTH1R belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, which is a large group of proteins that respond to a wide range of signaling molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and sensory stimuli. When PTH binds to PTH1R, it triggers a signaling cascade that involves the activation of intracellular G proteins, which in turn activate various downstream signaling pathways. The activation of PTH1R has been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of bone metabolism, including the stimulation of bone resorption and the inhibition of bone formation. It also plays a role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis in the kidney, where it promotes the reabsorption of calcium and the excretion of phosphate. Disruptions in the function of PTH1R can lead to a variety of disorders, including hypoparathyroidism, which is characterized by low levels of PTH and hypocalcemia, and hyperparathyroidism, which is characterized by high levels of PTH and hypercalcemia.

Pancreatic hormones are hormones produced by the pancreas that play important roles in regulating various bodily functions. The pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen, behind the stomach, and it produces both digestive enzymes and hormones. The main pancreatic hormones are: 1. Insulin: This hormone regulates blood sugar levels by promoting the uptake of glucose by cells and the storage of glucose in the liver and muscles. 2. Glucagon: This hormone raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glucose into the bloodstream. 3. Somatostatin: This hormone inhibits the release of insulin and glucagon, as well as the production of digestive enzymes. 4. Pancreatic polypeptide: This hormone regulates appetite and digestion. 5. VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide): This hormone regulates the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles in the digestive tract. Pancreatic hormones play a crucial role in maintaining normal blood sugar levels, regulating digestion, and controlling appetite. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to various medical conditions, such as diabetes, pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer.

Delayed puberty is a medical condition in which the onset of puberty is significantly later than the expected age range for the onset of puberty. In boys, this typically refers to the lack of development of secondary sexual characteristics such as facial hair, deepening of the voice, and growth of the testicles and penis. In girls, this typically refers to the lack of development of breast buds and pubic hair, and the absence of menstruation. The normal age range for the onset of puberty varies by gender and ethnicity, but in general, boys typically begin puberty between the ages of 10 and 14, while girls typically begin puberty between the ages of 8 and 13. Delayed puberty is typically diagnosed when a child has not begun puberty by the age of 16 for boys and 14 for girls. There are many potential causes of delayed puberty, including genetic factors, hormonal imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as Turner syndrome in girls and Klinefelter syndrome in boys. Treatment for delayed puberty depends on the underlying cause and may include hormone therapy or other medical interventions.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream. It helps the body's cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for later use. Insulin is essential for maintaining normal blood sugar levels and preventing conditions such as diabetes. In the medical field, insulin is used to treat diabetes and other conditions related to high blood sugar levels. It is typically administered through injections or an insulin pump.

In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.

Receptors, Thyrotropin (TSH receptors) are proteins found on the surface of thyroid cells that bind to and respond to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. TSH receptors play a critical role in regulating thyroid function by controlling the production and release of thyroid hormones, which are essential for regulating metabolism and energy production in the body. Disorders of TSH receptors can lead to a variety of thyroid conditions, including hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormones) and hypothyroidism (underproduction of thyroid hormones).

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein that is produced by the yolk sac and the fetal liver during pregnancy. It is normally present in small amounts in the blood of pregnant women, but levels can increase if there is a problem with the fetus, such as a neural tube defect or a tumor. In adults, high levels of AFP can be a sign of liver disease, cancer, or other conditions. It is often used as a tumor marker in the diagnosis and monitoring of certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer and testicular cancer.

8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) is a synthetic analog of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. In the medical field, 8-Br-cAMP is used as a tool to study the effects of cAMP on cellular signaling pathways. It is often used in cell culture experiments to increase intracellular cAMP levels and investigate the downstream effects on gene expression, protein synthesis, and cellular behavior. 8-Br-cAMP is also used in some clinical applications, such as the treatment of certain types of cancer. It has been shown to inhibit the growth of some cancer cells by blocking the activity of certain enzymes involved in cell proliferation. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of 8-Br-cAMP in medicine.

Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain, and is involved in regulating the production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. When TRH binds to its receptors on thyroid cells, it stimulates the production and release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. These hormones are important for regulating metabolism and energy production in the body.

Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to parathyroid hormone (PTH), a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands. PTH plays a crucial role in regulating calcium and phosphorus levels in the body, and its receptors are involved in this process. PTH receptors are classified into two types: membrane-bound receptors and intracellular receptors. Membrane-bound receptors are located on the surface of cells and are activated when PTH binds to them, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately affect calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Intracellular receptors, on the other hand, are located inside the cell and are activated when PTH binds to them, leading to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. PTH receptors are found in a variety of tissues throughout the body, including bone, kidney, and the gastrointestinal tract. In the bone, PTH receptors are involved in the regulation of bone resorption, or the breakdown of bone tissue, and bone formation. In the kidney, PTH receptors are involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus excretion. In the gastrointestinal tract, PTH receptors are involved in the regulation of phosphate absorption. Disruptions in PTH receptor function can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including hypoparathyroidism (low levels of PTH), hyperparathyroidism (high levels of PTH), and pseudohypoparathyroidism (a genetic disorder that affects PTH receptor function).

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be primary, meaning that a woman has never had a menstrual period, or secondary, meaning that a woman has had regular menstrual periods in the past but has stopped menstruating for three or more months. Amenorrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, certain medications, weight loss or gain, stress, and certain medical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, and Turner syndrome. In some cases, amenorrhea may be a sign of a more serious underlying medical condition, such as cancer or a reproductive system disorder, and prompt medical attention is necessary. Treatment for amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include hormonal therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human (hFSH) is a glycoprotein hormone that is produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the human body. It plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and development of ovarian follicles in women and spermatogenesis in men. In women, hFSH stimulates the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles, which contain eggs. As the follicles mature, they release estrogen, which causes the lining of the uterus to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, the levels of hFSH and estrogen decrease, and the dominant follicle undergoes atresia (rupture and death), releasing its egg. In men, hFSH stimulates the production of sperm in the testes. It also plays a role in regulating the production of testosterone, which is essential for male sexual development and function. hFSH is often measured in blood tests to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and hypogonadism (low levels of sex hormones). It is also used in fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), to stimulate the growth and maturation of ovarian follicles.

Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.

Receptors, Progesterone are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone progesterone. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle, maintaining pregnancy, and supporting the development of the fetus. When progesterone binds to its receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the type of cell and the tissue in which it is found. For example, progesterone receptors in the uterus help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a potential pregnancy, while receptors in the brain can help to regulate mood and behavior.

Bucladesine is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, including lung cancer and pancreatic cancer. It works by slowing the growth of cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and multiplying. Bucladesine is usually given as an injection into a vein, and it is typically administered in a hospital setting. It is important to note that bucladesine is not a cure for cancer, but it can help to slow the progression of the disease and improve the quality of life for people who are living with cancer.

Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in women undergoing fertility treatments, particularly in those who are undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) or other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). OHSS occurs when the ovaries become overly stimulated by the hormones used in fertility treatments, leading to the production of multiple eggs. This can cause the ovaries to become enlarged, which can lead to a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, OHSS can lead to fluid accumulation in the abdomen and lungs, which can be life-threatening. The exact cause of OHSS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the overproduction of hormones, particularly follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Risk factors for OHSS include a high number of eggs retrieved during the egg retrieval procedure, a high level of FSH in the blood, and a history of OHSS in previous cycles. Treatment for OHSS typically involves supportive care, such as fluid and electrolyte replacement, pain management, and monitoring for complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. In some cases, fertility treatments may need to be postponed or modified to reduce the risk of OHSS.

Testicular neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the testicles, which are the male reproductive organs responsible for producing sperm and testosterone. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur in either one or both testicles. Testicular neoplasms are relatively rare, but they are one of the most common types of cancer in young men between the ages of 15 and 35. The most common type of testicular cancer is germ cell tumors, which account for about 95% of all testicular cancers. Other types of testicular neoplasms include Leydig cell tumors, Sertoli cell tumors, and teratomas. Symptoms of testicular neoplasms may include a painless lump or swelling in the testicle, a feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum, or a change in the size or shape of the testicle. If left untreated, testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the lymph nodes, lungs, and liver. Diagnosis of testicular neoplasms typically involves a physical examination of the testicles, as well as imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment for testicular neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer. Options may include surgery to remove the affected testicle or part of the testicle, chemotherapy to kill cancer cells, or radiation therapy to shrink tumors. In some cases, watchful waiting may be recommended for small, slow-growing tumors that are not likely to cause harm.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of multiple small cysts on the ovaries, hormonal imbalances, and irregular menstrual cycles. PCOS can cause a range of symptoms, including acne, excessive hair growth, weight gain, infertility, and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis of PCOS typically involves a physical examination, blood tests to measure hormone levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound. Treatment for PCOS may include lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications, as well as medications to regulate menstrual cycles, reduce androgen levels, and improve insulin sensitivity. In some cases, fertility treatments may be necessary to help women with PCOS conceive.

Infertility is a medical condition that affects a person's ability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. It is typically defined as the inability to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, structural problems with the reproductive organs, genetic disorders, infections, and environmental factors. Infertility can affect both men and women, and treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

Activins are a family of signaling proteins that play important roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell differentiation, and tissue repair. They are composed of two chains, alpha and beta, that are encoded by different genes and can form either homodimers or heterodimers. Activins are secreted by cells and bind to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, triggering a signaling cascade that regulates gene expression and cellular activity. In the medical field, activins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in a variety of diseases, including infertility, cancer, and autoimmune disorders.

Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme (CYP11A1) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the human body. It is located in the mitochondria of various tissues, including the adrenal gland, gonads, and brain. The primary function of CYP11A1 is to cleave the side chain of cholesterol, which is the starting material for the synthesis of steroid hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen. This cleavage reaction generates two products: pregnenolone and side-chain fission products. Pregnenolone is the precursor for the synthesis of all other steroid hormones in the body. It is converted into other hormones through a series of enzymatic reactions that take place in various tissues. In summary, CYP11A1 is a critical enzyme in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, and its dysfunction can lead to various medical conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, polycystic ovary syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is a group of rare but potentially life-threatening conditions that occur during pregnancy or after the end of pregnancy. GTD is characterized by the abnormal growth of cells that form the placenta, called trophoblasts. There are several types of GTD, including: 1. Hydatidiform mole: This is the most common type of GTD and occurs when the fertilized egg does not develop properly, resulting in abnormal growth of the placenta. 2. Choriocarcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that develops from the trophoblast cells. 3. Placental site trophoblastic tumor: This is a rare type of GTD that occurs when the placenta does not completely detach from the uterus after birth or miscarriage. 4. Persistent trophoblastic disease: This occurs when the placenta does not completely detach from the uterus after birth or miscarriage, and the abnormal cells continue to grow and spread. GTD can cause symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, and high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood. Treatment for GTD depends on the type and stage of the disease, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Early detection and treatment are crucial for a good prognosis.

Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones in the human body. It is located in the mitochondria of various steroidogenic cells, including the adrenal cortex, gonads, and placenta. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, which is the precursor to all other steroid hormones. Specifically, it adds a hydroxyl group to the 17th carbon atom of cholesterol, forming pregnenolone. This reaction is the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. Mutations in the gene encoding steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase can lead to a deficiency in the enzyme, resulting in a rare genetic disorder called 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. This condition can cause a range of symptoms, including adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia in newborns, and infertility in adults. Treatment typically involves hormone replacement therapy to replace the deficient hormones.

Neuropeptides are small, protein-like molecules that are synthesized and secreted by neurons in the nervous system. They play a variety of roles in regulating and modulating various physiological processes, including mood, appetite, pain perception, and hormone release. Neuropeptides are typically composed of 3-50 amino acids and are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons. They are then transported to the synaptic terminals, where they are released into the synaptic cleft and bind to specific receptors on the postsynaptic neuron or on other cells in the body. There are many different types of neuropeptides, each with its own unique structure and function. Some examples of neuropeptides include dopamine, serotonin, and opioid peptides such as endorphins. Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, or hormones, and they play important roles in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, voles, and lemmings. These animals are typically small to medium-sized and have a broad, flat head and a short, thick body. They are found in a variety of habitats around the world, including grasslands, forests, and deserts. In the medical field, Cricetinae are often used as laboratory animals for research purposes, as they are easy to care for and breed, and have a relatively short lifespan. They are also used in studies of genetics, physiology, and behavior.

In the medical field, "Thecoma" refers to a type of benign tumor that develops in the skin. It is also known as a skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp. Thecoma is a common condition that affects people of all ages and genders, and it is usually harmless. It is characterized by a small, flesh-colored growth that is attached to the skin by a stalk. Thecoma can occur anywhere on the body, but it is most commonly found on the neck, armpits, groin, and eyelids. Treatment for Thecoma is usually not necessary, but it can be removed if it is causing discomfort or if it is aesthetically unappealing.

17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone is a hormone that is produced by the adrenal gland and the gonads (ovaries and testes). It is a precursor to other hormones, including progesterone and testosterone. In the medical field, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone is often used as a diagnostic tool to help identify certain conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which is a genetic disorder that affects the adrenal glands. It is also used to monitor the effectiveness of certain medications, such as corticosteroids, which are used to treat a variety of conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Receptors, Prolactin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone prolactin and initiate a response within the cell. Prolactin is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that plays a role in lactation and breast development, as well as other functions such as immune system regulation and bone metabolism. The binding of prolactin to its receptors can stimulate the production of milk in the mammary glands, as well as other cellular responses depending on the type of cell and tissue involved.

Follistatin is a protein that is produced by various cells in the body, including the liver, kidney, and placenta. It plays a role in regulating the growth and development of many tissues, including the ovaries, testes, and skeletal muscle. In the medical field, follistatin is often studied in the context of cancer research, as it has been shown to have anti-tumor properties. It has also been investigated as a potential treatment for a variety of other conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Follistatin is also being studied as a potential therapeutic agent for a number of genetic disorders, such as achondroplasia, which is a form of dwarfism. In these cases, follistatin is being investigated as a way to stimulate bone growth and improve the overall health of affected individuals.

Dinoprost is a synthetic prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) that is used in the medical field as a medication. It is primarily used to induce labor in pregnant women who are past their due date or who are at risk of complications during delivery. Dinoprost is administered as an injection into a muscle or vein, and it works by causing the muscles of the uterus to contract, which helps to initiate labor. Dinoprost is also used to treat a condition called uterine fibroids, which are noncancerous growths that can cause pain and heavy bleeding. In this case, dinoprost is used to shrink the fibroids and reduce symptoms. In addition to its use in obstetrics and gynecology, dinoprost has also been used to treat other conditions, such as bleeding disorders and certain types of cancer. However, its use for these conditions is less common and is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have been ineffective.

Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome (THR) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to respond to thyroid hormones. In individuals with THR, the thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland are not able to bind to the receptors in the body's cells, which means that the hormones are not able to stimulate the cells to function properly. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, weight gain, depression, and difficulty concentrating. THR is caused by mutations in genes that are involved in the production or function of thyroid hormone receptors. These mutations can be inherited from one or both parents, or they can occur spontaneously. There are several different types of THR, each of which is caused by a different mutation in a different gene. Diagnosis of THR typically involves a combination of blood tests to measure thyroid hormone levels and genetic testing to identify mutations in the relevant genes. Treatment for THR typically involves hormone replacement therapy with synthetic thyroid hormones, which can help to alleviate symptoms and improve overall health. However, the effectiveness of treatment can vary depending on the specific type of THR and the severity of the symptoms.

In the medical field, aging refers to the natural process of physical, biological, and psychological changes that occur over time in living organisms, including humans. These changes can affect various aspects of an individual's health and well-being, including their metabolism, immune system, cardiovascular system, skeletal system, and cognitive function. Aging is a complex process that is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. As people age, their bodies undergo a gradual decline in function, which can lead to the development of age-related diseases and conditions such as arthritis, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and dementia. In the medical field, aging is studied in the context of geriatrics, which is the branch of medicine that focuses on the health and well-being of older adults. Geriatricians work to identify and manage age-related health issues, promote healthy aging, and improve the quality of life for older adults.

Flutamide is a medication that is used to treat prostate cancer in men. It is a type of drug called an androgen receptor antagonist, which means that it blocks the effects of male hormones (androgens) on the prostate gland. Flutamide is usually used in combination with other medications or surgery to treat prostate cancer. It can help to slow the growth of cancer cells and reduce the risk of the cancer spreading to other parts of the body. Flutamide is usually taken by mouth as tablets, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's condition and response to the medication. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when taking flutamide, as it can cause side effects such as breast tenderness, breast enlargement, and hot flashes.

Neurokinin B (NKB) is a neuropeptide that is involved in various physiological processes in the body, including pain perception, mood regulation, and sexual behavior. It is produced by neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and acts on specific receptors to modulate the activity of other neurons. In the medical field, NKB has been studied for its potential role in various conditions, including chronic pain, depression, and addiction. It has also been implicated in the regulation of appetite and body weight, as well as in the development of certain types of cancer. NKB is often used as a research tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying these conditions and to develop new treatments. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of pain and other neurological disorders.

Leptin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells and plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It helps to signal the brain when the body has enough energy stores and can therefore reduce hunger and increase energy expenditure. Leptin also plays a role in regulating the body's immune system and has been linked to a number of other physiological processes, including reproduction and bone health. In the medical field, leptin is often studied in relation to obesity and other metabolic disorders, as well as in the treatment of these conditions.

Mifepristone is a medication that is used to induce abortion. It is a synthetic steroid that works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone that is necessary for a pregnancy to continue. Mifepristone is typically used in combination with another medication, such as misoprostol, to induce abortion. It is usually taken orally, but it can also be administered by injection. Mifepristone is typically used in the first trimester of pregnancy, but it can also be used later in pregnancy to induce labor. It is considered to be a safe and effective method of abortion when used under medical supervision.

Receptors, Steroid are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to and respond to steroid hormones, such as cortisol, estrogen, and testosterone. These hormones are important regulators of various physiological processes, including metabolism, growth and development, and immune function. When a steroid hormone binds to its receptor, it triggers a cascade of events within the cell that leads to changes in gene expression and ultimately alters the cell's behavior. Receptors, Steroid play a critical role in the body's response to hormones and are the target of many drugs used to treat conditions such as diabetes, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Cumulus cells are a type of cells found in the ovaries of women. They are responsible for producing and secreting hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, which are important for the development and maintenance of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. In the context of fertility testing, cumulus cells are often collected during an ovarian stimulation cycle, where medications are used to stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. The cumulus cells are then removed along with the eggs during a procedure called oocyte retrieval. Cumulus cells can also be used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) to help improve the chances of successful fertilization and pregnancy. By analyzing the health and function of cumulus cells, doctors can gain valuable information about the quality of the eggs and the overall health of the ovaries.

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum, the pouch of skin that hangs behind the penis. This can occur in newborns, infants, and children, and is more common in males than females. In some cases, the testicles may descend into the scrotum within the first few months of life, but in others, the testicles may remain in the abdomen or inguinal canal (the canal that connects the abdomen to the scrotum) throughout life. Cryptorchidism can have a number of potential health consequences, including an increased risk of testicular cancer, infertility, and problems with sexual development. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to move the testicles into the scrotum.

Receptors, estrogen are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone estrogen. Estrogen is a sex hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and by the testes in men. It plays a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the development of secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. Estrogen receptors are classified into two main types: estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). These receptors are found in a wide variety of tissues throughout the body, including the breast, uterus, bone, and brain. When estrogen binds to its receptors, it triggers a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the type of receptor and the tissue in which it is found. In the breast, for example, estrogen receptors play a role in the development and growth of breast tissue, as well as in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. In the uterus, estrogen receptors are involved in the thickening of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy. In the bone, estrogen receptors help to maintain bone density and prevent osteoporosis. In the brain, estrogen receptors are involved in a variety of functions, including mood regulation, memory, and learning. Abnormalities in estrogen receptor function or expression have been linked to a number of health conditions, including breast cancer, uterine cancer, osteoporosis, and mood disorders.

Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone (RH-RH) are a type of protein receptor found in the pituitary gland that are activated by the hormone called "Releasing Hormone" (RH). RH-RH receptors are responsible for regulating the production and release of various hormones from the pituitary gland, including growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone. These hormones play important roles in regulating various bodily functions, such as growth, metabolism, and stress response. Dysfunction of RH-RH receptors can lead to various medical conditions, including hypopituitarism and acromegaly.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a synthetic estrogen that was widely used in the past to prevent miscarriages and to promote the growth of the uterus in pregnant women. It was also given to women who had had miscarriages or premature births to help prevent future miscarriages. However, it was later discovered that DES had harmful effects on the reproductive system of both males and females who were exposed to it in the womb. DES can cause a range of health problems, including vaginal cancer, breast cancer, and reproductive problems such as infertility and miscarriages. In addition to its use in pregnant women, DES was also given to postmenopausal women to treat symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. However, this use of DES has been largely discontinued due to its harmful effects. Today, DES is no longer used in medical practice, and its use is strictly regulated and monitored to prevent its misuse and potential harm to individuals.

I'm sorry, but "Acinonyx" is not a term commonly used in the medical field. It is actually the scientific name for a genus of large cats, commonly known as cheetahs. In medicine, the term "Acinonyx" is not used to refer to any specific medical condition or disease. However, the cheetah, which belongs to the Acinonyx genus, is known to suffer from a number of health issues, including genetic disorders, dental problems, and infectious diseases. If you have a specific medical question or concern, I would be happy to try to help you further.

Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a peptide hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland and the melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) in the skin. It plays a role in regulating the production of melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color, and also has effects on appetite, mood, and the immune system. α-MSH is a 13-amino acid peptide that is derived from the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor protein. It is composed of two smaller peptides, α-MSH and β-MSH, which have different functions. α-MSH is the more potent of the two and is primarily responsible for its effects on melanin production and appetite regulation. In the medical field, α-MSH is sometimes used to treat conditions such as vitiligo, a skin disorder characterized by the loss of pigmentation, and anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by a lack of appetite and a distorted body image. It is also being studied for its potential use in the treatment of other conditions, such as depression and cancer.

Receptors, Neuropeptide are proteins found on the surface of cells in the nervous system that bind to specific neuropeptides, which are signaling molecules that transmit information between neurons. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating various physiological processes, including mood, pain, appetite, and stress response. Activation of neuropeptide receptors can lead to changes in gene expression, intracellular signaling pathways, and cellular function, ultimately resulting in changes in behavior and physiology. Dysregulation of neuropeptide receptors has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, addiction, and pain.

A follicular cyst is a type of ovarian cyst that forms when a follicle, which is a fluid-filled sac that contains an egg, fails to rupture and release the egg during ovulation. Instead, the follicle continues to grow and may eventually become a cyst. Follicular cysts are typically small and painless, and they often go away on their own without any treatment. However, in some cases, follicular cysts may cause discomfort or other symptoms, and they may require medical treatment.

Corticosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in response to stress. It plays a key role in the body's stress response and helps regulate metabolism, immune function, and blood pressure. Corticosterone is also involved in the development and maintenance of bone tissue, and it has anti-inflammatory effects. In the medical field, corticosterone is used to treat a variety of conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. It is available as a prescription medication and is typically administered orally or by injection.

Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field as an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and antipyretic agent. It is a potent corticosteroid that has a wide range of therapeutic applications, including the treatment of allergic reactions, inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. Dexamethasone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is used to treat a variety of conditions, such as asthma, COPD, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also used to treat severe cases of COVID-19, as it has been shown to reduce inflammation and improve outcomes in patients with severe illness. However, dexamethasone is a potent drug that can have significant side effects, including weight gain, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased risk of infection, and mood changes. Therefore, it is typically prescribed only when other treatments have failed or when the potential benefits outweigh the risks.

The adrenal glands are two small endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys in the human body. They are responsible for producing a variety of hormones that play important roles in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the stress response. The adrenal glands are composed of two main parts: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which help regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal medulla, on the other hand, produces hormones such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. In the medical field, the adrenal glands are often studied and monitored for a variety of conditions, including adrenal insufficiency, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and pheochromocytoma. These conditions can result from problems with the production or regulation of hormones by the adrenal glands, and can have a significant impact on a person's overall health and well-being.

Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material affects the development and function of the body, leading to a range of physical, cognitive, and medical characteristics. Individuals with Down syndrome typically have distinct facial features, such as a flattened face, small ears, and a short neck. They may also have intellectual disabilities, ranging from mild to moderate, and may experience delays in speech and language development. Other common features include an increased risk of certain medical conditions, such as heart defects, respiratory problems, and hearing loss. Down syndrome is caused by a random event during the formation of reproductive cells, and the risk of having a child with the condition increases with the age of the mother. There is currently no cure for Down syndrome, but early intervention and support can help individuals with the condition to reach their full potential and lead fulfilling lives.

Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a second messenger molecule that plays a crucial role in many cellular signaling pathways. In the medical field, adenylate cyclase is often studied in the context of its role in regulating various physiological processes, including heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose metabolism. It is also involved in the regulation of hormone signaling, particularly in the endocrine system, where hormones such as adrenaline and thyroid hormones bind to specific receptors on the cell surface and activate adenylate cyclase, leading to the production of cAMP and the activation of downstream signaling pathways. Abnormalities in adenylate cyclase activity have been implicated in a number of diseases, including diabetes, hypertension, and certain forms of heart disease. As such, understanding the regulation and function of adenylate cyclase is an important area of research in the medical field.

Inhibin-beta subunits are proteins that are produced by the granulosa cells of the ovaries in females and by the Sertoli cells of the testes in males. They are composed of two subunits, inhibin-alpha and inhibin-beta, which are linked together to form a heterodimeric protein. Inhibin-beta subunits play a role in regulating the production of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by the pituitary gland. Specifically, inhibin-beta subunits help to inhibit the production of FSH, which is necessary for the development of ovarian follicles and the production of estrogen. This helps to regulate the menstrual cycle and fertility in females. Inhibin-beta subunits have also been implicated in the development of certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by the overproduction of androgens and the development of multiple cysts in the ovaries. Inhibin-beta subunit levels may be elevated in women with PCOS, and this may contribute to the overproduction of androgens and the development of cysts.

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that is synthesized in the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus. It is a large protein that is cleaved into several smaller peptides, including α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone), β-endorphin, and ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone). In the medical field, POMC and its cleavage products are important for regulating various physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and immune function. For example, α-MSH is involved in the regulation of skin pigmentation and the body's response to stress, while β-endorphin is a natural painkiller that is involved in the body's response to stress and pain. Abnormalities in the production or function of POMC and its cleavage products can lead to various medical conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and adrenal insufficiency. Therefore, POMC and its cleavage products are the subject of ongoing research in the medical field, with the goal of developing new treatments for these conditions.

Iodide Peroxidase (also known as Thyroid Peroxidase) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland. It catalyzes the oxidation of iodide ions to form iodine, which is then incorporated into thyroglobulin, a large protein produced by thyroid cells. The iodinated thyroglobulin is then broken down into smaller thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are essential for regulating metabolism in the body. In the medical field, the measurement of thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb) is often used as a diagnostic tool for autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. In these conditions, the immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, leading to inflammation and damage to the gland's ability to produce thyroid hormones. The presence of TPOAb in the blood can indicate an autoimmune response and help guide treatment decisions.

Contraceptive agents, male refer to methods of contraception that are used by men to prevent pregnancy. These methods work by either inhibiting the production or release of sperm, or by preventing sperm from reaching the egg. Some examples of male contraceptive agents include condoms, vasectomy, and hormonal methods such as testosterone implants or injections. It is important to note that male contraceptive agents are not as widely available or effective as female contraceptive methods, and more research is needed to develop new and improved options.

Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands and the brain. It is a precursor to several other hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen. Pregnenolone plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the stress response, immune function, and mood. It is also used in some alternative medicine practices, although its effectiveness and safety have not been well-established.

Somatostatin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and the hypothalamus in the brain. It is also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone (SRIF). Somatostatin plays a role in regulating the release of other hormones, including growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and insulin. It also has a role in controlling the digestive system, as it can inhibit the release of digestive enzymes and slow down the movement of food through the digestive tract. In the medical field, somatostatin is used to treat a variety of conditions, including acromegaly (a condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone), carcinoid syndrome (a condition in which the body produces too much serotonin), and certain types of diarrhea. It is also being studied for its potential use in treating other conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and cancer.

Colforsin is a synthetic decapeptide that mimics the action of adenosine, a naturally occurring molecule that plays a role in regulating various physiological processes in the body. It is used in the medical field as a bronchodilator, which means it helps to relax and widen the airways in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. Colforsin is typically administered as an aerosol or nebulizer solution and is used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. It works by activating adenosine receptors in the lungs, which leads to the release of calcium from the cells lining the airways, causing them to relax and open up.

20-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (20-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of various hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. These enzymes are responsible for converting the active forms of these hormones into their inactive forms, which are then excreted from the body. In the medical field, 20-HSDs are often studied in the context of various diseases and disorders, including Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In Cushing's syndrome, for example, the overproduction of cortisol is often caused by a malfunction in the 20-HSD enzyme responsible for converting cortisol to its inactive form. In Addison's disease, the deficiency of this enzyme can lead to a deficiency in cortisol production. In PCOS, the activity of 20-HSD enzymes has been shown to be altered, leading to an imbalance in the levels of androgens and estrogens. This can contribute to the development of symptoms such as irregular menstrual cycles, excess hair growth, and infertility. Overall, 20-HSDs play a critical role in regulating hormone levels in the body, and their dysfunction can have significant implications for various medical conditions.

Relaxin is a hormone that is produced by the corpus luteum, a gland in the ovaries, and by the placenta during pregnancy. It plays a role in regulating the muscles and ligaments of the uterus and other connective tissues in the body, helping to prepare them for childbirth. In the medical field, relaxin is often used to treat conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth, such as preterm labor, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. It can also be used to treat conditions related to connective tissue disorders, such as osteoarthritis and scoliosis. Relaxin is typically administered through injection or intravenous infusion, and its effects can last for several hours or even days. It is generally considered safe for use during pregnancy, although it may cause some side effects, such as headache, nausea, and dizziness.

Ghrelin is a hormone produced by the stomach that plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. It is primarily produced by cells in the stomach called ghrelin cells, which are stimulated by the presence of food in the stomach. Ghrelin is released into the bloodstream in response to fasting and low blood sugar levels, and it signals the brain to increase appetite and stimulate the release of growth hormone. In addition to its role in appetite regulation, ghrelin has been shown to play a role in the regulation of energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and the body's response to stress.

Norethindrone is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in a variety of medical applications. It is a derivative of the natural hormone progesterone and is used in combination with estrogen in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. Norethindrone is also used to treat menstrual disorders, such as heavy bleeding and painful periods, and to treat endometriosis, a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus. In addition, norethindrone is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer, and to treat prostate cancer in men. It is usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules.

Blotting, Western is a laboratory technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample by transferring proteins from a gel to a membrane and then incubating the membrane with a specific antibody that binds to the protein of interest. The antibody is then detected using an enzyme or fluorescent label, which produces a visible signal that can be quantified. This technique is commonly used in molecular biology and biochemistry to study protein expression, localization, and function. It is also used in medical research to diagnose diseases and monitor treatment responses.

Blotting, Northern is a laboratory technique used to detect and quantify specific RNA molecules in a sample. It involves transferring RNA from a gel onto a membrane, which is then hybridized with a labeled complementary DNA probe. The probe binds to the specific RNA molecules on the membrane, allowing their detection and quantification through autoradiography or other imaging methods. Northern blotting is commonly used to study gene expression patterns in cells or tissues, and to compare the expression levels of different RNA molecules in different samples.

Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in humans and other animals. GH stimulates the liver to produce insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which promotes the growth of bones, muscles, and other tissues. In children, GH is essential for normal growth and development. It stimulates the growth plates in bones to lengthen, leading to increased height. In adults, GH is involved in maintaining muscle mass, bone density, and overall body composition. GH deficiency can lead to a variety of health problems, including short stature in children, decreased muscle mass and strength, increased body fat, and decreased bone density. GH replacement therapy is sometimes used to treat GH deficiency, particularly in children with growth disorders. In addition to its role in growth and development, GH has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and aging. However, the use of GH as a performance-enhancing drug is banned by most sports organizations due to its potential to increase muscle mass and strength.

Thymus hormones are hormones produced by the thymus gland, a small organ located in the upper chest. The thymus gland plays a crucial role in the development and maturation of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that is essential for the immune system. There are several types of thymus hormones, including thymosin alpha-1, thymosin beta-4, and thymulin. These hormones are involved in various processes related to the immune system, including the proliferation and differentiation of T-cells, the regulation of immune responses, and the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Thymus hormones have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in various medical conditions, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of thymus hormones in the immune system and to develop effective treatments based on their activity.

Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells of the pancreas. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels in the body. When blood glucose levels are low, such as during fasting or prolonged exercise, the pancreas releases glucagon into the bloodstream. Glucagon signals the liver to break down stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, thereby increasing blood glucose levels. In addition to its role in regulating blood glucose levels, glucagon also has other functions in the body. It can stimulate the breakdown of fats in adipose tissue and increase the release of fatty acids into the bloodstream. It can also stimulate the breakdown of proteins in muscle tissue and increase the release of amino acids into the bloodstream. Glucagon is used in medical treatment for a variety of conditions, including type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia, and certain types of liver disease. It is typically administered as an injection or infusion.

Ovarian diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs and hormones such as estrogen and progesterone. These diseases can affect women of all ages and can range from benign to life-threatening. Some common ovarian diseases include: 1. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that affects the ovaries and can cause irregular periods, infertility, and other symptoms. 2. Ovarian cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the ovaries and can spread to other parts of the body. 3. Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, often on the ovaries. 4. Ovarian cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that can develop on the ovaries and may be benign or cancerous. 5. Ovarian torsion: A condition in which the ovary twists on its stalk, cutting off blood flow and causing pain and other symptoms. 6. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS): A rare but serious condition that can occur in women undergoing fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), in which the ovaries become overly stimulated and produce too many eggs. Treatment for ovarian diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, surgery, or other interventions. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.

Biological markers, also known as biomarkers, are measurable indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to therapeutic interventions. In the medical field, biological markers are used to diagnose, monitor, and predict the progression of diseases, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. Biological markers can be found in various biological samples, such as blood, urine, tissue, or body fluids. They can be proteins, genes, enzymes, hormones, metabolites, or other molecules that are associated with a specific disease or condition. For example, in cancer, biological markers such as tumor markers can be used to detect the presence of cancer cells or to monitor the response to treatment. In cardiovascular disease, biological markers such as cholesterol levels or blood pressure can be used to assess the risk of heart attack or stroke. Overall, biological markers play a crucial role in medical research and clinical practice, as they provide valuable information about the underlying biology of diseases and help to guide diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring.

Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). This overproduction of hormones can cause an array of symptoms, including weight loss, increased heart rate, anxiety, irritability, tremors, and heat intolerance. Hyperthyroidism can be caused by a variety of factors, including Graves' disease, thyroiditis, and thyroid nodules. It can also be caused by taking too much thyroid hormone medication or by consuming excessive amounts of iodine. Treatment for hyperthyroidism typically involves medications to reduce the production of thyroid hormones, radioactive iodine therapy to destroy overactive thyroid cells, or surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. The specific treatment approach depends on the underlying cause of the condition and the severity of the symptoms.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

Prostaglandins F (PGF) are a group of lipid signaling molecules that are produced in the body from arachidonic acid. They are synthesized by various cells, including platelets, leukocytes, and smooth muscle cells, and play a role in a wide range of physiological processes, including inflammation, pain, and reproduction. PGF is particularly important in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It stimulates uterine contractions during labor and delivery, and is also involved in the production of breast milk. In addition, PGF has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects and may play a role in the development of certain types of cancer. In the medical field, PGF is sometimes used as a medication to induce labor or to treat conditions such as preterm labor, menstrual cramps, and uterine fibroids. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as osteoarthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland that plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism in the body. Reverse T3, also known as rT3, is a form of T3 that is converted from T4 (thyroxine) in the liver and kidneys. It is not as biologically active as T3 and is often considered a waste product. In some cases, levels of rT3 may be elevated in the blood, which can indicate an underlying thyroid disorder or other health issue.

Endocrine system diseases refer to disorders that affect the endocrine glands and the hormones they produce. The endocrine system is responsible for regulating various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction. Endocrine system diseases can be classified into two main categories: endocrine disorders and endocrine tumors. Endocrine disorders are conditions in which the endocrine glands produce too much or too little of a hormone, leading to imbalances in the body's chemical processes. Examples of endocrine disorders include diabetes, thyroid disorders, and Cushing's syndrome. Endocrine tumors, on the other hand, are abnormal growths of cells in the endocrine glands. These tumors can produce too much or too little of a hormone, leading to similar symptoms as endocrine disorders. Examples of endocrine tumors include pituitary adenomas, thyroid nodules, and adrenal gland tumors. Endocrine system diseases can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. Treatment options for endocrine system diseases depend on the specific condition and may include medication, surgery, or other therapies.

Growth disorders refer to conditions that affect the growth and development of an individual. These disorders can affect the rate of growth, the pattern of growth, or the final height of an individual. Growth disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, hormonal, nutritional, or environmental factors. Some common examples of growth disorders include: 1. Dwarfism: A condition characterized by short stature due to genetic or hormonal factors. 2. Turner Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females and is characterized by short stature, infertility, and other physical and developmental abnormalities. 3. Marfan Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects connective tissue and can cause tall stature, skeletal abnormalities, and cardiovascular problems. 4. Growth Hormone Deficiency: A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, which can lead to short stature and other physical and developmental abnormalities. 5. Prader-Willi Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the brain and body and is characterized by short stature, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities. Treatment for growth disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other medical interventions. In some cases, growth hormone therapy can be used to stimulate growth in individuals with growth hormone deficiency.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. In the medical field, DNA is often studied as a tool for understanding and diagnosing genetic disorders. Genetic disorders are caused by changes in the DNA sequence that can affect the function of genes, leading to a variety of health problems. By analyzing DNA, doctors and researchers can identify specific genetic mutations that may be responsible for a particular disorder, and develop targeted treatments or therapies to address the underlying cause of the condition. DNA is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their unique genetic fingerprint. This is because each person's DNA sequence is unique, and can be used to distinguish one individual from another. DNA analysis is also used in criminal investigations to help solve crimes by linking DNA evidence to suspects or victims.

Dwarfism, Pituitary is a medical condition characterized by short stature due to a deficiency of growth hormone (GH) or other hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain that plays a crucial role in regulating growth and development in the body. In individuals with dwarfism, pituitary, the pituitary gland fails to produce enough GH, which is necessary for normal growth and development. This can result in a variety of symptoms, including short stature, delayed puberty, and other physical and developmental abnormalities. Dwarfism, pituitary can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, tumors, or damage to the pituitary gland. Treatment for dwarfism, pituitary typically involves hormone replacement therapy to replace the missing hormones and promote normal growth and development. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove tumors or other abnormalities that are causing the deficiency in hormones.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.

Nafarelin is a synthetic GnRH agonist that is used in the medical field for various purposes. It is a medication that is used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. It is also used to stimulate ovulation in women who are not ovulating normally, and to treat certain types of infertility. Nafarelin is typically administered as an injection, and its effects can last for several days or weeks. It works by mimicking the action of the natural hormone GnRH, which stimulates the production of certain hormones in the body, including luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). These hormones are important for regulating the menstrual cycle and ovulation in women, and for maintaining normal testosterone levels in men.

Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH). When CRH binds to these receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects on the body. CRH receptors are found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the brain, the pituitary gland, the adrenal gland, and the immune system. In the brain, CRH receptors play a role in regulating the body's stress response, and in the pituitary gland and adrenal gland, they help to control the production of hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. Disruptions in the function of CRH receptors can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including mood disorders, sleep disorders, and disorders of the immune system. For example, some people with depression have been found to have changes in the expression or function of CRH receptors in their brains, which may contribute to their symptoms. Similarly, people with sleep disorders such as insomnia may have changes in the function of CRH receptors in their brains that affect their ability to fall asleep and stay asleep.

In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.

Cloning, molecular, in the medical field refers to the process of creating identical copies of a specific DNA sequence or gene. This is achieved through a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which amplifies a specific DNA sequence to produce multiple copies of it. Molecular cloning is commonly used in medical research to study the function of specific genes, to create genetically modified organisms for therapeutic purposes, and to develop new drugs and treatments. It is also used in forensic science to identify individuals based on their DNA. In the context of human cloning, molecular cloning is used to create identical copies of a specific gene or DNA sequence from one individual and insert it into the genome of another individual. This technique has been used to create transgenic animals, but human cloning is currently illegal in many countries due to ethical concerns.

In the medical field, "Animals, Newborn" typically refers to animals that are less than 28 days old. This age range is often used to describe the developmental stage of animals, particularly in the context of research or veterinary medicine. Newborn animals may require specialized care and attention, as they are often more vulnerable to illness and injury than older animals. They may also have unique nutritional and behavioral needs that must be addressed in order to promote their growth and development. In some cases, newborn animals may be used in medical research to study various biological processes, such as development, growth, and disease. However, the use of animals in research is highly regulated, and strict ethical guidelines must be followed to ensure the welfare and safety of the animals involved.

Corpus Luteum Maintenance refers to the process by which the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine gland in the ovaries, continues to produce hormones such as progesterone after ovulation. This process is necessary for the maintenance of pregnancy and the prevention of menstruation. If corpus luteum maintenance fails, it can lead to early miscarriage or infertility.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to disorders that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain that plays a vital role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, appetite, thirst, body temperature, and sleep. The hypothalamus is also responsible for controlling the release of hormones from the pituitary gland, which in turn regulates other endocrine glands in the body. Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, trauma, tumors, and autoimmune disorders. Some common examples of hypothalamic diseases include: 1. Hypothalamic obesity: A condition characterized by excessive weight gain due to hormonal imbalances in the hypothalamus. 2. Hypothalamic amenorrhea: A condition in which menstrual periods stop due to hormonal imbalances in the hypothalamus. 3. Hypothalamic diabetes insipidus: A condition characterized by excessive thirst and urination due to a deficiency of the hormone vasopressin, which is produced by the hypothalamus. 4. Hypothalamic hypopituitarism: A condition in which the pituitary gland fails to produce one or more of its hormones due to damage to the hypothalamus. 5. Hypothalamic tumors: Tumors that develop in the hypothalamus can cause a variety of symptoms, including hormonal imbalances, changes in appetite and weight, and neurological problems. Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms experienced by the patient. In some cases, hormone replacement therapy may be necessary to correct hormonal imbalances. In other cases, surgery or radiation therapy may be used to treat tumors or other structural abnormalities in the hypothalamus.

In the medical field, "bass" is not a commonly used term. It is possible that you may be referring to "bass reflex," which is a type of low-frequency sound that is produced when sound waves pass through a resonant chamber, such as a speaker cabinet or a hollow object. Bass reflex is often used in audio systems to enhance the low-frequency response of the speakers. Alternatively, you may be referring to "bass clef," which is a musical notation symbol that is used to represent the lowest range of notes on a musical staff. Bass clef is commonly used in music for instruments such as the bassoon, double bass, and tuba. If you have a specific medical question or concern, please provide more information so that I can better assist you.

Gonadal disorders refer to conditions that affect the gonads, which are the reproductive organs responsible for producing gametes (sperm and eggs) and sex hormones. These disorders can affect either the testes in males or the ovaries in females, and can result in a range of symptoms and complications. Some common examples of gonadal disorders include: 1. Testicular disorders: These include conditions such as testicular cancer, testicular torsion, and varicocele. 2. Ovarian disorders: These include conditions such as ovarian cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and ovarian torsion. 3. Hormonal disorders: These include conditions such as hypogonadism (low levels of sex hormones), hypergonadism (high levels of sex hormones), and disorders of sexual development (DSD). Gonadal disorders can have a significant impact on a person's fertility, sexual function, and overall health. Treatment options depend on the specific disorder and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.

I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medication called "Cortodoxone" in the medical field. It's possible that you may have misspelled the name of the medication or that it is not a commonly used medication. Can you please provide more information or clarify your question?

Trenbolone Acetate is a synthetic anabolic and androgenic steroid that is used in veterinary medicine to promote muscle growth and increase appetite in cattle. It is also used in some countries as a performance-enhancing drug in humans, particularly in bodybuilding and other forms of athletic competition. In the medical field, Trenbolone Acetate is not typically used for therapeutic purposes, as it can have serious side effects and is not approved by regulatory agencies for use in humans. However, it has been used in some research studies to investigate its potential effects on muscle growth and other physiological processes.

Circadian rhythm refers to the internal biological clock that regulates various physiological processes in the body, including sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone production, and metabolism. This rhythm is controlled by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which receives input from specialized photoreceptors in the retina that detect changes in light levels. The circadian rhythm is approximately 24 hours long and is influenced by external factors such as light exposure, meal times, and physical activity. Disruptions to the circadian rhythm, such as those caused by jet lag, shift work, or chronic sleep disorders, can have negative effects on health and well-being, including increased risk of mood disorders, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders such as diabetes.

Thymic factor, circulating, also known as thymopoietin, is a protein that is produced by the thymus gland and is involved in the development and maturation of T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the immune system. It is also known as thymosin alpha-1 (Tα1) or thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4). Circulating thymic factor is a peptide hormone that is secreted by the thymus gland and is present in the bloodstream. It is thought to play a role in the regulation of T cell development and function, and it has been shown to have immunostimulatory effects. Thymic factor has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand its role in the body and to determine its potential clinical uses.

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop on the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs. These cysts are a common occurrence in women of all ages, but are most commonly found in women of reproductive age. There are two types of ovarian cysts: functional and non-functional. Functional cysts are caused by hormonal changes in the body and usually resolve on their own within a few months. Non-functional cysts, on the other hand, are not caused by hormones and may require medical intervention. Symptoms of ovarian cysts may include abdominal pain, bloating, and discomfort during sexual intercourse. In some cases, ovarian cysts may be asymptomatic and discovered during a routine pelvic exam. Diagnosis of ovarian cysts typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment options depend on the size and type of cyst, as well as the patient's overall health. Small cysts may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger cysts or cysts that cause symptoms may require surgical removal.

An adenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops from glandular cells. It is a type of neoplasm, which is an abnormal growth of cells. Adenomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the colon, rectum, breast, thyroid gland, and prostate gland. In the colon and rectum, adenomas are commonly referred to as polyps. They can vary in size and shape and may or may not cause symptoms. However, some adenomas can develop into cancer if left untreated, which is why they are often removed during a colonoscopy or other screening tests. In other parts of the body, adenomas may cause symptoms depending on their location and size. For example, an adenoma in the thyroid gland may cause a goiter, while an adenoma in the prostate gland may cause difficulty urinating. Treatment for adenomas depends on their size, location, and whether they are causing symptoms. Small adenomas may not require treatment, while larger ones may be removed through surgery or other procedures. In some cases, medication may be used to shrink the adenoma or prevent it from growing back.

Mestranol is a synthetic estrogen medication that was previously used in oral contraceptives. It is a prodrug of estradiol, meaning that it is converted into estradiol in the body. Mestranol was used in combination with other hormones, such as progestins, to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. Mestranol was also used to treat conditions such as menopause symptoms, osteoporosis, and breast cancer. However, its use has been largely discontinued due to concerns about its potential side effects, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, and breast cancer. In the medical field, mestranol is no longer recommended for use and has been replaced by safer and more effective alternatives.

Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic estrogen hormone that is used in combination with progestin in birth control pills, patches, and vaginal rings. It is also used in hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms and in the treatment of endometriosis and uterine fibroids. Ethinyl estradiol works by preventing ovulation and thickening the cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg. It can also cause changes in the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.

Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that play a crucial role in transmitting signals from the outside of a cell to the inside. They are found in almost all types of cells and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including sensory perception, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. GPCRs are activated by a variety of molecules, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and odor. When a molecule binds to a GPCR, it causes a conformational change in the protein that activates a G protein, a small molecule that acts as a molecular switch. The activated G protein then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to a cellular response. Because GPCRs are involved in so many different physiological processes, they are an important target for drug discovery. Many drugs, including those used to treat conditions such as hypertension, depression, and allergies, work by binding to specific GPCRs and modulating their activity.

Pimozide is a medication that is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of mood, movement, and other cognitive functions. Pimozide is typically administered orally in tablet form and is usually taken once or twice a day. It can cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, and dry mouth, and it may also increase the risk of developing movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

Norprogesterones are a group of progestins (hormones that are similar to progesterone) that have a norpregnane structure, meaning that they lack the double bond at the C-17α position that is present in progesterone. Norprogesterones are used in a variety of medical applications, including as contraceptives, for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, and for the prevention of miscarriage. They are also used in some veterinary applications.

Glycoproteins are a type of protein that contains one or more carbohydrate chains covalently attached to the protein molecule. These carbohydrate chains are made up of sugars and are often referred to as glycans. Glycoproteins play important roles in many biological processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and are often used as markers for various diseases and conditions. In the medical field, glycoproteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.

In the medical field, body fluids refer to the liquids that are present within the body of an organism. These fluids include blood, plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, and amniotic fluid, among others. Body fluids play a crucial role in maintaining the homeostasis of the body, which is the state of equilibrium that allows the body to function properly. They help regulate temperature, transport nutrients and oxygen to cells, remove waste products, and protect the body from infection. In addition, body fluids are often used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, blood tests can detect various diseases and conditions, while urine tests can help identify kidney problems or infections. Analysis of other body fluids, such as CSF or pleural fluid, can also provide valuable information for diagnosing certain conditions, such as meningitis or pneumonia.

The Arcuate Nucleus is a region of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including appetite, metabolism, and stress response. The Arcuate Nucleus is located in the ventral hypothalamus, just below the thalamus, and is composed of several subnuclei. The Arcuate Nucleus is involved in the regulation of energy balance and the control of food intake. It contains neurons that produce and release the hormone leptin, which is produced by fat cells and acts as a signal to the brain that the body has enough energy stores. The Arcuate Nucleus also contains neurons that produce and release the hormone ghrelin, which stimulates appetite and food intake. In addition to its role in regulating energy balance, the Arcuate Nucleus is also involved in the regulation of stress response and the release of the stress hormone cortisol. It contains neurons that produce and release corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands. Damage or dysfunction of the Arcuate Nucleus can lead to a variety of disorders, including obesity, anorexia nervosa, and Cushing's syndrome.

Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain. It plays a role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, also known as the circadian rhythm. Melatonin levels in the body increase in the evening and decrease in the morning, helping to synchronize the body's internal clock with the external environment. In the medical field, melatonin is used as a supplement to help regulate sleep in people with sleep disorders such as insomnia, jet lag, and shift work disorder. It is also used to treat certain sleep-related conditions, such as delayed sleep phase disorder and advanced sleep phase disorder. Melatonin may also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and is being studied for its potential role in treating a variety of conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits.

I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medical term called "Estrenes." It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not commonly used in the medical field. If you could provide more context or information about where you heard or saw this term, I may be able to assist you further.

Abortifacient agents, nonsteroidal, are medications that can cause a miscarriage or termination of a pregnancy. They work by interfering with the normal functioning of the uterus and the development of the fetus. Nonsteroidal abortifacient agents include drugs such as mifepristone (RU-486) and misoprostol. These medications are typically used in combination to induce a miscarriage, and are often prescribed for early pregnancies that are not viable or that the woman does not wish to continue. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents should only be done under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have potential side effects and complications.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs and hormones. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size, shape, and location within the ovaries. Ovarian neoplasms can be classified based on their histological type, which refers to the type of cells that make up the tumor. Some common types of ovarian neoplasms include epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors, sex cord-stromal tumors, and stromal tumors. Symptoms of ovarian neoplasms may include abdominal pain, bloating, pelvic pain, and changes in menstrual patterns. However, many ovarian neoplasms are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during routine pelvic exams or imaging studies. Diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound or CT scans, and blood tests to measure levels of certain hormones and tumor markers. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type and stage of the neoplasm. Treatment for ovarian neoplasms depends on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates for patients with ovarian neoplasms.

Receptors, Pituitary Hormone are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to specific hormones produced by the pituitary gland. These hormones include growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). When these hormones bind to their respective receptors, they trigger a series of chemical reactions within the cell that ultimately lead to changes in cell function and behavior. For example, GH receptors stimulate growth and cell division, while TSH receptors stimulate the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Understanding the function and regulation of pituitary hormone receptors is important for understanding the normal functioning of the endocrine system and for diagnosing and treating disorders related to pituitary hormone imbalances.

Androsterone is a naturally occurring androgenic hormone that is produced in the human body. It is a derivative of testosterone and is found in both males and females, although it is present in higher concentrations in males. Androsterone is produced in the adrenal glands and is also synthesized in the gonads and other tissues throughout the body. In the medical field, androsterone is sometimes used as a marker of male sexual development and function. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of certain medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and polycystic ovary syndrome. Androsterone has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of certain conditions, such as osteoporosis and prostate cancer.

Gynecomastia is a medical condition characterized by the development of breast tissue in males. It can affect one or both breasts and is usually caused by an imbalance of hormones, such as an increase in estrogen and a decrease in testosterone. Gynecomastia can occur at any age, but it is most common in adolescent boys during puberty and in older men. In some cases, gynecomastia may be a side effect of certain medications or medical conditions, such as liver disease or cancer. Treatment for gynecomastia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.

In the medical field, "DNA, Complementary" refers to the property of DNA molecules to pair up with each other in a specific way. Each strand of DNA has a unique sequence of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine), and the nucleotides on one strand can only pair up with specific nucleotides on the other strand in a complementary manner. For example, adenine (A) always pairs up with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs up with cytosine (C). This complementary pairing is essential for DNA replication and transcription, as it ensures that the genetic information encoded in one strand of DNA can be accurately copied onto a new strand. The complementary nature of DNA also plays a crucial role in genetic engineering and biotechnology, as scientists can use complementary DNA strands to create specific genetic sequences or modify existing ones.

Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in a variety of medical applications. It is a derivative of progesterone, a naturally occurring hormone that plays a key role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. MPA is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, injections, and implants. It is often used in combination with estrogen in hormonal birth control pills to prevent pregnancy by thickening cervical mucus and inhibiting ovulation. It is also used to treat a variety of other conditions, including endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and abnormal uterine bleeding. In addition to its use in birth control and gynecological conditions, MPA is also used to treat prostate cancer in men and to prevent breast cancer in women who have undergone menopause. It is also used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. MPA is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as weight gain, mood changes, and acne. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking MPA and to report any side effects that occur.

In the medical field, iodine isotopes refer to different forms of the element iodine that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most commonly used iodine isotopes in medicine are iodine-123 (I-123) and iodine-131 (I-131). I-123 is a short-lived isotope with a half-life of 13.2 hours, which makes it useful for imaging the thyroid gland and other organs. It is often used in diagnostic procedures such as thyroid scans and radioiodine uptake tests. I-131, on the other hand, is a longer-lived isotope with a half-life of 8 days. It is commonly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism. In these treatments, I-131 is administered to the patient, and it is taken up by the thyroid gland, where it emits beta particles that destroy the cancerous or overactive cells. Overall, iodine isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and treatment, particularly in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

In the medical field, oligopeptides are short chains of amino acids that typically contain between two and 50 amino acids. They are often used in various medical applications due to their unique properties and potential therapeutic effects. One of the main benefits of oligopeptides is their ability to penetrate the skin and reach underlying tissues, making them useful in the development of topical treatments for a variety of conditions. For example, oligopeptides have been shown to improve skin elasticity, reduce the appearance of wrinkles, and promote the growth of new skin cells. Oligopeptides are also used in the development of medications for a variety of conditions, including osteoporosis, diabetes, and hypertension. They work by interacting with specific receptors in the body, which can help to regulate various physiological processes and improve overall health. Overall, oligopeptides are a promising area of research in the medical field, with potential applications in a wide range of therapeutic areas.

Receptors, Androgen are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to and respond to androgens, a group of hormones that play a role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics. These receptors are primarily found in the prostate gland, testes, and reproductive organs, but they are also present in other parts of the body, such as the brain, bone, and muscle. Activation of androgen receptors by androgens can lead to a variety of effects, including the growth and development of male reproductive tissues, the maintenance of bone density, and the regulation of metabolism.

In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal" refers to a group of tumors that arise from cells that are derived from the germ cells or embryonic cells. Germ cells are the cells that give rise to eggs and sperm, while embryonic cells are the cells that give rise to all the different types of cells in the body during development. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal tumors can occur in various parts of the body, including the brain, spinal cord, testes, ovaries, and other organs. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The diagnosis of a Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal tumor typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as CT scans or MRI scans, and a biopsy to examine the tissue. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health.

In the medical field, "binding, competitive" refers to a type of interaction between a ligand (a molecule that binds to a receptor) and a receptor. Competitive binding occurs when two or more ligands can bind to the same receptor, but they do so in a way that limits the maximum amount of ligand that can bind to the receptor at any given time. In other words, when a ligand binds to a receptor, it competes with other ligands that may also be trying to bind to the same receptor. The binding of one ligand can prevent or reduce the binding of other ligands, depending on the relative affinities of the ligands for the receptor. Competitive binding is an important concept in pharmacology, as it helps to explain how drugs can interact with receptors in the body and how their effects can be influenced by other drugs or substances that may also be present. It is also important in the study of biological systems, where it can help to explain how molecules interact with each other in complex biological networks.

Steroidogenic Factor 1 (SF-1) is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in the development and function of steroid-producing cells, such as the adrenal cortex and gonads. It is also known as Nur77, NR5A1, or Steroidogenic Factor 1A. SF-1 is a nuclear hormone receptor that binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes, thereby regulating their transcription. In steroid-producing cells, SF-1 is involved in the regulation of genes involved in steroidogenesis, the process by which steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol. SF-1 is also involved in the development of steroid-producing cells, as it is expressed in precursor cells that differentiate into these cells. In addition, SF-1 has been implicated in the regulation of energy metabolism and the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Mutations in the SF-1 gene can lead to various disorders, including lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, which is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the overproduction of adrenal hormones.

Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) is a protein found in the nuclei of cells in many tissues throughout the body, including the breast, uterus, and brain. It is a type of nuclear receptor that binds to the hormone estrogen and regulates the expression of genes involved in a variety of physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, metabolism, and immune function. In the context of breast cancer, ERα is an important biomarker that is used to classify tumors and predict their response to hormone therapy. Breast cancers that express ERα are called estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, and they are more likely to respond to treatments that block the effects of estrogen, such as tamoxifen. Breast cancers that do not express ERα are called estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) breast cancers, and they are less likely to respond to hormone therapy. ERα is also an important target for drug development, and there are several drugs that are designed to target ERα and treat breast cancer. These drugs include selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors, which block the production of estrogen in the body.

In the medical field, "age factors" refer to the effects of aging on the body and its various systems. As people age, their bodies undergo a variety of changes that can impact their health and well-being. These changes can include: 1. Decreased immune function: As people age, their immune system becomes less effective at fighting off infections and diseases. 2. Changes in metabolism: Aging can cause changes in the way the body processes food and uses energy, which can lead to weight gain, insulin resistance, and other metabolic disorders. 3. Cardiovascular changes: Aging can lead to changes in the heart and blood vessels, including increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. 4. Cognitive changes: Aging can affect memory, attention, and other cognitive functions, which can lead to conditions such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Joint and bone changes: Aging can cause changes in the joints and bones, including decreased bone density and increased risk of osteoporosis and arthritis. 6. Skin changes: Aging can cause changes in the skin, including wrinkles, age spots, and decreased elasticity. 7. Hormonal changes: Aging can cause changes in hormone levels, including decreased estrogen in women and decreased testosterone in men, which can lead to a variety of health issues. Overall, age factors play a significant role in the development of many health conditions and can impact a person's quality of life. It is important for individuals to be aware of these changes and to take steps to maintain their health and well-being as they age.

Protein precursors are molecules that are converted into proteins through a process called translation. In the medical field, protein precursors are often referred to as amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that can be combined in various ways to form different proteins, each with its own unique function in the body. Protein precursors are essential for the proper functioning of the body, as proteins are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including metabolism, cell signaling, and immune function. They are also important for tissue repair and growth, and for maintaining the structure and function of organs and tissues. Protein precursors can be obtained from the diet through the consumption of foods that are rich in amino acids, such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products. In some cases, protein precursors may also be administered as supplements or medications to individuals who are unable to obtain sufficient amounts of these nutrients through their diet.

In the medical field, a cyanoketone is a type of organic compound that contains a cyanide group (-CN) attached to a ketone group (-C=O). These compounds are typically colorless or light yellow solids that are highly reactive and can be toxic if ingested or inhaled. Cyanoketones are used in various industrial applications, including the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, they can also be found in some natural products, such as certain plants and fungi. In the medical field, cyanoketones are not commonly used as therapeutic agents. However, some cyanoketones have been studied for their potential use in the treatment of certain diseases, such as cancer. For example, some cyanoketones have been shown to have anti-tumor activity by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells.

Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear are proteins that are found within the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. These receptors are responsible for binding to specific molecules, such as hormones or neurotransmitters, and triggering a response within the cell. This response can include changes in gene expression, enzyme activity, or other cellular processes. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of these receptors is important for understanding how cells respond to various stimuli and for developing treatments for a wide range of diseases.

Pregnenediones are a group of steroid hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex. They include cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone, which are important for regulating various physiological processes in the body, such as metabolism, blood pressure, and the immune response. These hormones are also involved in the stress response and play a role in the development and function of the reproductive system.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element iodine that are used in medical imaging and treatment procedures. These isotopes have a nucleus that contains an odd number of neutrons, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation as they decay back to a more stable form of iodine. There are several different iodine radioisotopes that are commonly used in medical applications, including iodine-123, iodine-125, and iodine-131. Each of these isotopes has a different half-life, which is the amount of time it takes for half of the radioactive material to decay. The half-life of an iodine radioisotope determines how long it will remain in the body and how much radiation will be emitted during that time. Iodine radioisotopes are often used in diagnostic imaging procedures, such as thyroid scans, to help doctors visualize the structure and function of the thyroid gland. They may also be used in therapeutic procedures, such as radiation therapy, to treat thyroid cancer or other thyroid disorders. In these cases, the radioactive iodine is administered to the patient and selectively absorbed by the thyroid gland, where it emits radiation that damages or destroys cancerous cells.

Pregnancy, tubal refers to a type of ectopic pregnancy, which occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside of the uterus, typically in the fallopian tube. This is a serious medical condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. Symptoms of tubal pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and shoulder pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests. Treatment options may include medication to dissolve the pregnancy, surgery to remove the affected fallopian tube, or surgery to remove the pregnancy and repair any damage to the fallopian tube.

Cycloheximide is a synthetic antibiotic that is used in the medical field as an antifungal agent. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of proteins in fungal cells, which ultimately leads to their death. Cycloheximide is commonly used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and hair, as well as systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. It is usually administered orally or topically, and its effectiveness can be enhanced by combining it with other antifungal medications. However, cycloheximide can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions, and it may interact with other medications, so it should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Germinoma is a type of germ cell tumor that arises from the germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs or sperm in females and males, respectively. Germinomas are most commonly found in the brain and spinal cord, but they can also occur in other parts of the body, such as the testicles, ovaries, and mediastinum. Germinomas are typically slow-growing tumors and are often diagnosed in young adults and children. They are highly curable with radiation therapy, and the prognosis for patients with germinomas is generally very good if the tumor is detected and treated early. In some cases, germinomas can produce hormones, such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms may be a sign of a more advanced tumor or may be caused by the hormones produced by the tumor.

Adrenalectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both of the adrenal glands are removed. The adrenal glands are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. They produce hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and adrenaline, which play important roles in regulating various bodily functions. There are several reasons why an adrenalectomy may be performed, including: 1. Adrenal gland tumors: Benign or malignant tumors of the adrenal gland can cause hormonal imbalances and may need to be removed. 2. Hyperaldosteronism: This condition is caused by an overproduction of aldosterone, which can lead to high blood pressure. Adrenalectomy may be performed to remove the affected adrenal gland. 3. Cushing's disease: This condition is caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can lead to weight gain, high blood pressure, and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may be performed to remove the affected adrenal gland. 4. Pheochromocytoma: This is a rare tumor of the adrenal gland that can cause high blood pressure and other symptoms. Adrenalectomy may be performed to remove the affected gland. Adrenalectomy is typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done laparoscopically or through a traditional open incision. The procedure may take several hours, and patients may need to stay in the hospital for a few days following the surgery.

Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects males, resulting from the presence of an extra X chromosome. This leads to a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. The extra X chromosome affects the development of the testes and the production of testosterone, which can lead to a range of physical, developmental, and behavioral symptoms. Some common symptoms of Klinefelter syndrome include small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (enlarged breast tissue), tall stature, and learning difficulties. Affected individuals may also have delayed speech and language development, poor coordination, and an increased risk of developing certain health conditions, such as osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes. Klinefelter syndrome is usually diagnosed through a blood test that detects the presence of an extra X chromosome. Treatment may involve hormone replacement therapy to increase testosterone levels and address physical symptoms, as well as speech and language therapy, educational support, and counseling to address any emotional or behavioral challenges.

Aromatase inhibitors are a class of drugs that are used to treat certain types of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. These drugs work by blocking the enzyme aromatase, which is responsible for converting androgens (male hormones) into estrogens (female hormones). By inhibiting aromatase, these drugs can reduce the amount of estrogen in the body, which can slow the growth of breast cancer cells that are sensitive to estrogen. Aromatase inhibitors are typically used as a first-line treatment for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women who cannot take tamoxifen, or whose cancer has progressed while taking tamoxifen. They are also sometimes used as a second-line treatment for women whose cancer has progressed while taking other types of hormonal therapy. There are several different types of aromatase inhibitors, including anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. These drugs are usually taken orally and are generally well-tolerated, although they can cause side effects such as hot flashes, joint pain, and an increased risk of osteoporosis.

Cell differentiation is the process by which cells acquire specialized functions and characteristics during development. It is a fundamental process that occurs in all multicellular organisms, allowing cells to differentiate into various types of cells with specific functions, such as muscle cells, nerve cells, and blood cells. During cell differentiation, cells undergo changes in their shape, size, and function, as well as changes in the proteins and other molecules they produce. These changes are controlled by a complex network of genes and signaling pathways that regulate the expression of specific genes in different cell types. Cell differentiation is a critical process for the proper development and function of tissues and organs in the body. It is also involved in tissue repair and regeneration, as well as in the progression of diseases such as cancer, where cells lose their normal differentiation and become cancerous.

The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.

In the medical field, "Abortion, Spontaneous" refers to the natural termination of a pregnancy that occurs without any external intervention. This can occur due to various reasons, such as genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, infections, or other medical conditions. Spontaneous abortion, also known as a miscarriage, typically occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy and is often accompanied by bleeding and cramping. The risk of spontaneous abortion increases with age, certain medical conditions, and certain lifestyle factors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. It is important to note that while spontaneous abortion is a natural process, it can be emotionally and physically distressing for the woman involved. Medical professionals can provide support and care to help manage the physical and emotional aspects of a spontaneous abortion.

Androstane-3,17-diol, also known as 3α-androstanediol or 3α-androstenediol, is a naturally occurring and biologically active steroid hormone. It is a metabolite of testosterone and is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including the regulation of the menstrual cycle, bone density, and muscle mass. In the medical field, androstane-3,17-diol is sometimes used as a marker of testosterone metabolism and can be measured in blood or urine samples. It has also been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for conditions such as osteoporosis and muscle wasting. However, it is important to note that androstane-3,17-diol is a controlled substance and the use of it for any purpose other than medical research or treatment requires a prescription from a qualified healthcare provider. Additionally, the use of androstane-3,17-diol or any other anabolic steroid can have potential side effects and risks, including liver damage, cardiovascular problems, and hormonal imbalances.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

Proteins are complex biomolecules made up of amino acids that play a crucial role in many biological processes in the human body. In the medical field, proteins are studied extensively as they are involved in a wide range of functions, including: 1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the body, such as digestion, metabolism, and energy production. 2. Hormones: Proteins that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, development, and reproduction. 3. Antibodies: Proteins that help the immune system recognize and neutralize foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. 4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across cell membranes, such as oxygen and nutrients. 5. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide support and shape to cells and tissues, such as collagen and elastin. Protein abnormalities can lead to various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of proteins is essential for developing effective treatments and therapies for these conditions.

Pituitary diseases refer to disorders that affect the pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. The pituitary gland plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including growth, metabolism, and reproduction, through the production and release of hormones. Pituitary diseases can be classified into two main categories: functional and non-functional. Functional pituitary diseases occur when the pituitary gland produces too much or too little of a hormone, leading to imbalances in the body's hormonal system. Examples of functional pituitary diseases include: 1. Hyperpituitarism: This occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much of one or more hormones, leading to symptoms such as excessive growth, weight gain, and irregular menstrual periods in women. 2. Hypopituitarism: This occurs when the pituitary gland produces too little of one or more hormones, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and infertility. Non-functional pituitary diseases, on the other hand, occur when the pituitary gland does not produce enough hormones or when there is a problem with the gland itself. Examples of non-functional pituitary diseases include: 1. Pituitary adenoma: This is a benign tumor that develops in the pituitary gland, causing hormonal imbalances and potentially leading to headaches, vision problems, and hormonal symptoms. 2. Sheehan's syndrome: This occurs when the pituitary gland is damaged due to childbirth or other causes, leading to hormonal imbalances and symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and infertility. Treatment for pituitary diseases depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, radiation therapy, or hormone replacement therapy.

Chlormadinone acetate is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in various medical fields. It is a derivative of progesterone and is used in the treatment of various conditions such as: 1. Menstrual disorders: Chlormadinone acetate is used to regulate menstrual cycles and treat conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) and dysfunctional uterine bleeding. 2. Endometriosis: It is used to reduce the symptoms of endometriosis, such as pelvic pain and heavy bleeding. 3. Precancerous cervical conditions: Chlormadinone acetate is used in the treatment of precancerous cervical conditions, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). 4. Hormone replacement therapy: It is used in hormone replacement therapy to replace the natural hormones that are lost during menopause. 5. Gestational trophoblastic disease: Chlormadinone acetate is used to treat gestational trophoblastic disease, a rare type of cancer that affects the placenta. Chlormadinone acetate is usually administered orally in the form of tablets or injections. It is important to note that the use of this medication may have side effects, and it should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females and is caused by the complete or partial absence of one of the two X chromosomes. This results in a range of physical and developmental characteristics that can vary widely among affected individuals. Some common features of Turner Syndrome include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, broad chest, and a lack of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and menstruation. Affected individuals may also have heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and an increased risk of certain medical conditions such as diabetes and thyroid disorders. Treatment for Turner Syndrome typically involves hormone replacement therapy to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics and to help with growth and development.

Corpus luteum hormones are a group of hormones produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine gland in the ovaries. The corpus luteum is responsible for producing progesterone and estrogen during the menstrual cycle, and its hormones play a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle and supporting pregnancy. The corpus luteum hormones include: 1. Progesterone: This hormone is responsible for thickening the uterine lining and preparing it for implantation of a fertilized egg. It also helps to suppress the release of FSH and LH, which can prevent ovulation if pregnancy does not occur. 2. Estrogen: This hormone helps to maintain the thickened uterine lining and supports the growth of the developing fetus if pregnancy occurs. 3. Androgens: These hormones are produced in small amounts by the corpus luteum and can have masculinizing effects on the body, such as increased body hair and a deeper voice. Abnormal levels of corpus luteum hormones can lead to a variety of reproductive disorders, including irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and miscarriage.

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases (also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinases or PKA) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes in the body. These enzymes are activated by the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP), a second messenger molecule that is produced in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. PKA is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. The regulatory subunits bind to cAMP and prevent the catalytic subunits from phosphorylating their target proteins. When cAMP levels rise, the regulatory subunits are activated and release the catalytic subunits, allowing them to phosphorylate their target proteins. PKA is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, cell proliferation, and differentiation. It phosphorylates various proteins, including enzymes, transcription factors, and ion channels, leading to changes in their activity and function. In the medical field, PKA plays a critical role in various diseases and disorders, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For example, PKA is involved in the regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, and its dysfunction has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. PKA is also involved in the regulation of blood pressure and heart function, and its dysfunction has been linked to the development of hypertension and heart disease.

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a group of conditions that affect an individual's development of their reproductive system. These conditions can cause variations in the anatomy, hormones, and/or chromosomes of an individual, leading to differences in their sex characteristics. DSD can be classified into four categories: 1. Intersex: This category includes individuals who have variations in their sex chromosomes, gonads, or genitalia that do not fit typical male or female characteristics. 2. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS): This category includes individuals who have a normal amount of sex chromosomes but are resistant to androgens, which are male hormones. This can result in a range of genital and sexual characteristics that do not fit typical male or female characteristics. 3. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH): This category includes individuals who have a genetic defect that affects the production of hormones in the adrenal glands. This can result in the development of ambiguous genitalia or other sex characteristics that do not fit typical male or female characteristics. 4. Gonadal Dysgenesis: This category includes individuals who have a genetic defect that affects the development of their gonads (ovaries or testes). This can result in the development of ambiguous genitalia or other sex characteristics that do not fit typical male or female characteristics. DSD can have a significant impact on an individual's physical, emotional, and social well-being. Treatment options for DSD may include hormone therapy, surgery, and counseling to help individuals and their families cope with the challenges associated with these conditions.

High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze complex mixtures of compounds. It involves the use of a liquid mobile phase that is forced through a column packed with a stationary phase under high pressure. The compounds in the mixture interact with the stationary phase to different extents, causing them to separate as they pass through the column. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified using a detector, such as a UV detector or a mass spectrometer. HPLC is commonly used in the analysis of drugs, biological samples, and other complex mixtures in the medical field.

In the medical field, the term "catfishes" typically refers to a group of freshwater fish in the family Siluridae. These fish are known for their distinctive appearance, which includes a flat, laterally compressed body and a long, pointed snout. They are found in rivers, lakes, and other freshwater habitats in Asia, Africa, and North America. While catfishes are not typically associated with human health, some species of catfish are used in traditional medicine in certain parts of the world. For example, the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is sometimes used to treat fever, while the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is used to treat a variety of ailments, including respiratory infections and skin diseases. In addition, some species of catfish are considered to be a delicacy and are consumed as food in many parts of the world. However, it is important to note that some species of catfish can contain high levels of mercury, which can be harmful to human health if consumed in large quantities.

In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.

Protein isoforms refer to different forms of a protein that are produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. Alternative splicing is a process by which different combinations of exons (coding regions) are selected from the pre-mRNA transcript of a gene, resulting in the production of different protein isoforms with slightly different amino acid sequences. Protein isoforms can have different functions, localization, and stability, and can play distinct roles in cellular processes. For example, the same gene may produce a protein isoform that is expressed in the nucleus and another isoform that is expressed in the cytoplasm. Alternatively, different isoforms of the same protein may have different substrate specificity or binding affinity for other molecules. Dysregulation of alternative splicing can lead to the production of abnormal protein isoforms, which can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of alternative splicing and the functional consequences of protein isoforms is an important area of research in the medical field.

Peptide YY (PYY) is a hormone that is produced by the gastrointestinal tract in response to the presence of food in the stomach and small intestine. It is also produced by the pancreas and the central nervous system. PYY plays a role in regulating appetite and satiety, meaning it helps to control hunger and fullness. It is released in response to the presence of nutrients in the bloodstream, and it signals to the brain that the body has received enough food and does not need to eat more. PYY has also been shown to have other effects on the body, including reducing blood pressure, improving insulin sensitivity, and decreasing inflammation. As a result, PYY has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for a variety of conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Hyperprolactinemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood. Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain. It plays a crucial role in regulating milk production in women after childbirth and in stimulating breast development in infants. In women, hyperprolactinemia can cause a variety of symptoms, including irregular menstrual periods, infertility, and galactorrhea (abnormal milk production). In men, it can cause erectile dysfunction, decreased libido, and infertility. Hyperprolactinemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, pituitary tumors, hypothyroidism, and stress. Treatment for hyperprolactinemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Fluorogestone acetate is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in various medical fields. It is a derivative of the natural hormone progesterone and is used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Menstrual disorders: Fluorogestone acetate is used to regulate menstrual cycles and treat conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) and polymenorrhea (abnormal bleeding). 2. Infertility: It is used in combination with other medications to stimulate ovulation in women who are trying to conceive. 3. Endometriosis: Fluorogestone acetate is used to treat endometriosis, a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus. 4. Breast cancer: It is used in combination with other medications to treat breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Fluorogestone acetate is usually administered orally or by injection. It can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and mood changes. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to report any side effects to them.

Ecdysterone is a naturally occurring steroid hormone found in various insects, crustaceans, and other arthropods. It plays a role in regulating growth, molting, and reproduction in these organisms. In the medical field, ecdysterone has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of age-related diseases such as osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Some studies have suggested that ecdysterone may have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-cancer properties, and may also help to improve bone density and cognitive function. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of ecdysterone supplementation in humans.

In the medical field, nitriles are a type of organic compound that contain a cyano (-CN) group. They are often used as solvents, plasticizers, and as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. One common use of nitriles in medicine is as a component of certain types of rubber gloves. Nitrile gloves are often used in healthcare settings because they are resistant to many types of chemicals and are less likely to cause allergic reactions than latex gloves. Nitriles are also used in the production of certain medications, such as nitrates, which are used to treat heart disease. Nitrates work by relaxing the blood vessels, which can help to lower blood pressure and reduce the workload on the heart. In addition, nitriles are sometimes used as a preservative in medical devices, such as catheters and syringes, to prevent the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms.

Cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two or more daughter cells. This process is essential for the growth, development, and repair of tissues in the body. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the process by which somatic cells (non-reproductive cells) divide to produce two identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the process by which germ cells (reproductive cells) divide to produce four genetically diverse daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction. Abnormalities in cell division can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including cancer. In cancer, cells divide uncontrollably and form tumors, which can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Aminoglutethimide is a medication that is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. It works by inhibiting the production of certain hormones in the body, which can slow the growth of cancer cells. Aminoglutethimide is usually given in combination with other medications, such as estrogen or androgen blockers, to treat these types of cancer. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets or capsules. Side effects of aminoglutethimide may include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, and changes in blood pressure. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking this medication.

Receptors, Glucocorticoid are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to hormones called glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone that are produced by the adrenal gland in response to stress or injury. They play a role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including metabolism, immune function, and inflammation. When glucocorticoid hormones bind to their receptors, they trigger a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that leads to changes in gene expression and cellular function. This allows the body to respond to stress and maintain homeostasis.

Somatomedins are a group of hormones that are produced by the liver and other tissues in response to growth hormone (GH) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. There are five somatomedins: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3). Somatomedins play a crucial role in regulating growth and development in humans and other animals. They act on various tissues, including bone, muscle, and fat, to promote growth and cell division. In addition, somatomedins are involved in regulating metabolism, cell differentiation, and cell survival. Abnormal levels of somatomedins can lead to various medical conditions, including dwarfism, gigantism, and cancer. For example, mutations in the genes that encode for GH or its receptors can lead to growth disorders, while overproduction of somatomedins can contribute to the development of certain types of cancer.

Seminoma is a type of cancer that originates in the testicles and is caused by the abnormal growth of cells in the seminiferous tubules, which are responsible for producing sperm. Seminoma is the most common type of testicular cancer, accounting for about 40-50% of all cases. Seminoma typically presents as a painless lump in the testicle, which may be noticed by the patient or discovered during a routine physical examination. Other symptoms may include swelling in the scrotum, a feeling of heaviness in the testicle, or a dull ache in the lower abdomen or back. Seminoma is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans. Treatment options for seminoma include surgery to remove the affected testicle, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for seminoma is generally very good, with a five-year survival rate of over 95% for patients with localized disease.

Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, growth, and development. TRH is responsible for stimulating the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the anterior pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are essential for regulating metabolism, growth, and development in the body. They help to regulate the body's energy levels, maintain body temperature, and support the growth and development of tissues and organs. TRH is also involved in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, appetite, and mood. It is often used in medical treatments for conditions such as hypothyroidism, which is a condition characterized by low levels of thyroid hormones, and for disorders of the sleep-wake cycle, such as insomnia.

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as premature ovarian failure (POF), is a medical condition in which a woman's ovaries stop functioning before the age of 40. This can result in a lack of estrogen production, which can cause symptoms such as irregular or absent menstrual periods, hot flashes, and vaginal dryness. POI is usually diagnosed when a woman has not had a menstrual period for 12 consecutive months and has low levels of estrogen and high levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in her blood. POI can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, autoimmune disorders, exposure to toxins, and certain medical treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It is a relatively rare condition, affecting about 1% of women under the age of 40.

DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.

17-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of sex hormones in the human body. These enzymes are responsible for converting one form of a sex hormone into another, which can affect the hormone's activity and impact various physiological processes. There are several types of 17-HSDs, each with a specific function. For example, 17-HSD1 is involved in the conversion of estradiol to estrone, while 17-HSD2 is involved in the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. These enzymes are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, adrenal glands, and reproductive organs. Abnormalities in the activity of 17-HSDs can lead to various medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is characterized by hormonal imbalances and irregular menstrual cycles. In addition, some forms of cancer, such as breast and ovarian cancer, have been linked to changes in the activity of 17-HSDs. Overall, 17-HSDs play a critical role in regulating sex hormone metabolism and are an important area of research in the field of endocrinology.

Acromegaly is a rare hormonal disorder that occurs when the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone (GH). This excess GH causes the body's tissues to grow abnormally, leading to a variety of physical and health problems. The most noticeable physical changes associated with acromegaly are the enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features, particularly the nose, lips, and jaw. Other symptoms may include joint pain, thickening of the skin, excessive sweating, and sleep apnea. Acromegaly is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests to measure GH levels, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans to visualize the pituitary gland. Treatment options for acromegaly may include surgery to remove the pituitary tumor, radiation therapy, and medications to lower GH levels. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve quality of life for individuals with acromegaly.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.

Glucocorticoids are a class of hormones produced by the adrenal gland that regulate glucose metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They are commonly used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and asthma 2. Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease 3. Allergies and anaphylaxis 4. Skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis 5. Cancer treatment to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system 6. Endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease Glucocorticoids work by binding to specific receptors in cells throughout the body, leading to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. They can also increase blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to produce glucose and decreasing the body's sensitivity to insulin. Long-term use of high doses of glucocorticoids can have serious side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infection.

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine, also known as IBMX, is a chemical compound that belongs to the xanthine family. It is a selective inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4), which is involved in the breakdown of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in cells. In the medical field, IBMX is used as a research tool to study the effects of PDE4 inhibition on various physiological processes, including inflammation, pain, and airway smooth muscle contraction. It has also been investigated as a potential treatment for a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and psoriasis. However, IBMX is not currently approved for use as a therapeutic agent in humans, as it can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased heart rate. Additionally, prolonged use of IBMX can lead to the development of tolerance and dependence.

Oligosaccharides are short chains of sugar molecules that are composed of three to ten monosaccharide units. They are also known as "oligos" or "short-chain carbohydrates." In the medical field, oligosaccharides have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to improve gut health, boost the immune system, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Some specific types of oligosaccharides that have been studied in the medical field include: 1. Prebiotics: These are oligosaccharides that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. 2. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS): These are oligosaccharides that are found naturally in breast milk and have been shown to improve gut health and immune function in infants. 3. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS): These are oligosaccharides that are found in many fruits and vegetables and have been shown to improve gut health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Overall, oligosaccharides are an important class of carbohydrates that have potential health benefits and are being studied in the medical field for their potential therapeutic applications.

In the medical field, macromolecular substances refer to large molecules that are composed of repeating units, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids. These molecules are essential for many biological processes, including cell signaling, metabolism, and structural support. Macromolecular substances are typically composed of thousands or even millions of atoms, and they can range in size from a few nanometers to several micrometers. They are often found in the form of fibers, sheets, or other complex structures, and they can be found in a variety of biological tissues and fluids. Examples of macromolecular substances in the medical field include: - Proteins: These are large molecules composed of amino acids that are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including enzyme catalysis, structural support, and immune response. - Carbohydrates: These are molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms that are involved in energy storage, cell signaling, and structural support. - Lipids: These are molecules composed of fatty acids and glycerol that are involved in energy storage, cell membrane structure, and signaling. - Nucleic acids: These are molecules composed of nucleotides that are involved in genetic information storage and transfer. Macromolecular substances are important for many medical applications, including drug delivery, tissue engineering, and gene therapy. Understanding the structure and function of these molecules is essential for developing new treatments and therapies for a wide range of diseases and conditions.

Teriparatide is a medication used to treat osteoporosis, a condition in which the bones become weak and brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. It is a synthetic form of parathyroid hormone (PTH), a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that helps regulate the body's use of calcium and phosphorus. Teriparatide is typically given as a daily injection under the skin for up to two years. It works by stimulating the body to increase bone density and strength, which can help reduce the risk of fractures in people with osteoporosis. It is most commonly used in postmenopausal women and men over the age of 50 who are at high risk of fractures due to osteoporosis. Common side effects of teriparatide include nausea, headache, and joint pain. It is important to note that teriparatide can also increase the risk of certain types of fractures, such as those of the thigh bone, wrist, and spine. Therefore, it is important to carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks of this medication with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Virilism is a medical condition characterized by the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in females. This can include the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and an increase in muscle mass. Virilism can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic disorders, and exposure to certain medications or environmental toxins. Treatment for virilism depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate hormone levels, surgery to remove excess tissue, or other therapies.

CHO cells are a type of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that is commonly used in the biotechnology industry for the production of recombinant proteins. These cells are derived from the ovaries of Chinese hamsters and have been genetically modified to produce large amounts of a specific protein or protein complex. CHO cells are often used as a host cell for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies, growth factors, and enzymes. They are also used in research to study the structure and function of proteins, as well as to test the safety and efficacy of new drugs. One of the advantages of using CHO cells is that they are relatively easy to culture and can be grown in large quantities. They are also able to produce high levels of recombinant proteins, making them a popular choice for the production of biopharmaceuticals. However, like all cell lines, CHO cells can also have limitations and may not be suitable for all types of protein production.

Kallmann Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the development of the brain and reproductive system. It is characterized by the absence or underdevelopment of the olfactory bulbs and tract, which are responsible for the sense of smell, as well as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is a deficiency in the production of sex hormones and the development of the reproductive organs. Individuals with Kallmann Syndrome may also experience other symptoms, such as delayed puberty, infertility, and anosmia (loss of the sense of smell). The disorder is caused by mutations in one of several genes, and it is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that only one copy of the mutated gene is needed to develop the disorder. Treatment for Kallmann Syndrome may involve hormone replacement therapy to stimulate the production of sex hormones and promote the development of the reproductive organs. In some cases, assisted reproductive technologies may be used to help individuals with the disorder conceive.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells that contains the cell's genetic material, or DNA. It is typically located in the center of the cell and is surrounded by a double membrane called the nuclear envelope. The nucleus is responsible for regulating gene expression and controlling the cell's activities. It contains a dense, irregularly shaped mass of chromatin, which is made up of DNA and associated proteins. The nucleus also contains a small body called the nucleolus, which is responsible for producing ribosomes, the cellular structures that synthesize proteins.

Receptors, Ghrelin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone ghrelin. Ghrelin is a hormone that is produced by the stomach and plays a role in regulating appetite and metabolism. When ghrelin binds to its receptors, it can stimulate hunger and increase food intake. The receptors for ghrelin are found in a variety of tissues throughout the body, including the brain, the pancreas, and the fat cells.

The Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 2 (PTH2R) is a protein that acts as a receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTH) in the human body. PTH is a hormone produced by the parathyroid glands that regulates calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. PTH2R is expressed in various tissues throughout the body, including the kidney, bone, and placenta. When PTH binds to PTH2R, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to changes in gene expression and cellular function. In the kidney, PTH2R plays a role in regulating calcium and phosphorus excretion. In bone, PTH2R is involved in bone resorption and remodeling. In the placenta, PTH2R is thought to play a role in fetal development and growth. Disruptions in PTH2R function have been linked to various medical conditions, including hypoparathyroidism, osteoporosis, and pregnancy complications.

Propylthiouracil is a medication that is used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. It works by blocking the production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland. Propylthiouracil is usually taken by mouth in tablet form and is often used in combination with other medications to treat hyperthyroidism. It can also be used to treat certain types of goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland. Common side effects of propylthiouracil include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and skin rash. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking propylthiouracil and to report any side effects to your healthcare provider.

In the medical field, "Carnivora" refers to a scientific order of mammals that includes animals that primarily feed on meat. This order includes a diverse range of animals such as dogs, cats, bears, hyenas, and seals. In the context of medicine, the term "Carnivora" may be used to describe the anatomy and physiology of these animals, as well as their behavior and ecology. For example, researchers may study the digestive systems of carnivorous mammals to better understand how they are able to efficiently extract nutrients from their food. Additionally, some diseases and infections are more common in carnivorous mammals than in other types of animals, so veterinarians and researchers may study these animals to better understand the causes and treatments of these conditions.

Beta-Endorphin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone that is produced by the pituitary gland and the adrenal gland in the human body. It is a member of the endorphin family of peptides, which also includes alpha-endorphin and delta-endorphin. Beta-Endorphin is primarily known for its pain-relieving and mood-elevating effects. It binds to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which can reduce the perception of pain and produce feelings of euphoria and well-being. In addition to its effects on pain and mood, beta-endorphin has also been shown to have a number of other physiological effects, including reducing stress and anxiety, regulating appetite, and modulating the immune system. Beta-Endorphin is often used in medical research to study the mechanisms of pain perception and mood regulation, and it has potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, depression, and anxiety disorders.

Ecdysone is a type of steroid hormone that plays a crucial role in the growth and development of insects, including butterflies, moths, beetles, and flies. It is produced by the prothoracic gland in the insect's body and is responsible for triggering the process of molting, or shedding the old exoskeleton and growing a new one. In the medical field, ecdysone has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications in treating various diseases and conditions. For example, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and may be useful in treating conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and certain types of cancer. Additionally, ecdysone has been used in veterinary medicine to treat conditions such as hair loss and skin disorders in animals.

DAX-1, also known as NR0B1, is a nuclear receptor that plays a critical role in the development and function of the adrenal glands, gonads, and other endocrine organs. It is a member of the orphan nuclear receptor family, which means that it does not bind to any known ligand and its function is not well understood. Mutations in the DAX-1 gene can cause a group of disorders known as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), which is characterized by the failure of the gonads to develop properly and the lack of normal sexual development. HH can also lead to other endocrine disorders, such as adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. DAX-1 is also involved in the regulation of bone density and the development of the nervous system. It has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. In the medical field, DAX-1 is an important target for the development of new treatments for HH and other endocrine disorders.

Melanins are a group of pigments produced by melanocytes, which are specialized cells found in the skin, hair, and eyes. There are two main types of melanins: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Eumelanin is the darker pigment responsible for the color of black, brown, and red hair and skin. It also provides protection against harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Pheomelanin is the lighter pigment responsible for the color of blonde, red, and light brown hair and skin. It does not provide as much protection against UV radiation as eumelanin. Melanins play an important role in the body's defense against UV radiation, as they can absorb and scatter UV light, preventing it from penetrating the skin and causing damage to DNA. They also play a role in regulating skin pigmentation and protecting against skin cancer.

Estrogen Receptor beta (ER-beta) is a protein that is found in many tissues throughout the body, including the breast, uterus, brain, and bone. It is one of two types of estrogen receptors, the other being Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-alpha). Estrogen is a hormone that plays a key role in the development and regulation of many bodily functions, including the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and bone health. Estrogen binds to its receptors, including ER-beta, to initiate a cascade of cellular responses that can have a wide range of effects on the body. ER-beta has been shown to play a role in a variety of physiological processes, including bone metabolism, breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In particular, research has suggested that ER-beta may have protective effects against certain types of breast cancer, and may also play a role in regulating blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In the medical field, ER-beta is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies for a variety of conditions. For example, drugs that selectively target ER-beta may be useful for treating certain types of breast cancer or for preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women.

In the medical field, "COS Cells" typically refers to "cumulus-oocyte complexes." These are clusters of cells that are found in the ovaries of women and are involved in the process of ovulation and fertilization. The cumulus cells are a type of supporting cells that surround the oocyte (egg cell) and help to nourish and protect it. The oocyte is the female reproductive cell that is produced in the ovaries and is capable of being fertilized by a sperm cell to form a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. During the menstrual cycle, the ovaries produce several follicles, each containing an oocyte and surrounding cumulus cells. One follicle will mature and release its oocyte during ovulation, which is triggered by a surge in luteinizing hormone (LH). The released oocyte then travels down the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by a sperm cell. COS cells are often used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), to help facilitate the growth and development of oocytes for use in fertility treatments.

In the medical field, "Animals, Zoo" typically refers to the study and treatment of animals that are kept in zoos or other similar facilities. This can include a wide range of animals, from mammals and birds to reptiles and fish, and may involve the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Zoo animals may be subject to a range of health problems, including infectious diseases, injuries, and chronic conditions such as obesity or metabolic disorders. Medical professionals who work with zoo animals may include veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and other animal care staff. In addition to providing medical care, zoo veterinarians and staff may also be involved in research and conservation efforts aimed at protecting and preserving endangered species. They may work with other experts in fields such as genetics, nutrition, and behavior to develop strategies for improving the health and well-being of zoo animals and their wild counterparts.

Anabolic agents are drugs that promote the growth and repair of tissues in the body, particularly muscle and bone. They are often used in the medical field to treat conditions such as muscle wasting, osteoporosis, and anemia. Anabolic agents work by increasing the production of proteins in the body, which are essential for building and repairing tissues. They are also sometimes used in sports to enhance muscle growth and performance. However, the use of anabolic agents for non-medical purposes is illegal and can have serious health risks.

In the medical field, a blastocyst is an early stage of human development that occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization. It is a hollow ball of cells that is about 0.1-0.2 millimeters in diameter. The blastocyst consists of three main layers of cells: the inner cell mass, the trophoblast, and the zona pellucida. The inner cell mass is a cluster of cells that will eventually develop into the embryo and placenta. The trophoblast is a layer of cells that will develop into the placenta and nourish the developing embryo. The zona pellucida is a protective layer that surrounds the blastocyst and prevents it from being absorbed by the mother's body. The blastocyst is a critical stage in human development because it is the time when the embryo implants itself into the lining of the uterus. If the blastocyst successfully implants, it will continue to develop into a fetus. If it does not implant, it will be shed from the uterus during menstruation.

Infertility, male refers to the inability of a man to produce viable sperm or to deliver them to his partner in a way that can result in pregnancy. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, infections, injuries to the reproductive organs, or certain medications or environmental factors. Male infertility can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including semen analysis, hormone testing, and imaging studies. Treatment options for male infertility may include medications, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.

Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes are a group of rare disorders that occur as a result of the body's immune system attacking normal cells in response to a cancerous tumor. These disorders are characterized by the production of abnormal amounts of hormones by the affected organs, leading to a variety of symptoms and health problems. There are several different types of paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes, each of which affects a different hormone-producing gland or organ. For example, some people with paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes may experience symptoms related to the overproduction of hormones by the thyroid gland, such as weight loss, rapid heartbeat, and anxiety. Others may experience symptoms related to the overproduction of hormones by the adrenal gland, such as high blood pressure, fatigue, and muscle weakness. Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes are typically associated with cancer, although they can also occur in people without a known cancer diagnosis. The exact cause of these disorders is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to the body's immune response to cancer cells. Treatment for paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes typically involves managing the symptoms and addressing the underlying cancer.

3-Oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase, also known as AKR1C3 or steroid 4-dehydrogenase 3, is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of androgens and estrogens in the body. It is involved in the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol to estrone. This enzyme is primarily found in the liver, but it is also present in other tissues such as the prostate, breast, and skin. Abnormal levels of this enzyme activity have been associated with various medical conditions, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, and acne.

In the medical field, "culture techniques" refer to the methods used to grow and isolate microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, from clinical samples. These techniques are essential for diagnosing infectious diseases and determining the most effective treatment options. Culture techniques typically involve collecting a sample from a patient, such as blood, urine, or sputum, and then transferring it to a nutrient-rich medium where the microorganisms can grow. The medium is incubated in a controlled environment, and the growth of the microorganisms is monitored over time. There are several types of culture techniques, including: 1. Direct microscopy: This technique involves examining a sample under a microscope to identify microorganisms without the need for culturing. 2. Culture on solid media: This technique involves growing microorganisms on a solid surface, such as agar, where they can be observed and identified. 3. Culture in liquid media: This technique involves growing microorganisms in a liquid medium, where they can be observed and identified using various techniques, such as spectrophotometry or enzyme assays. 4. Molecular techniques: This technique involves using DNA or RNA analysis to identify microorganisms without the need for culturing. Overall, culture techniques are a critical part of medical diagnosis and treatment, allowing healthcare providers to identify and treat infectious diseases effectively.

Promegestone is a synthetic progestin medication that is used in various medical treatments. It is a derivative of progesterone, a naturally occurring hormone that plays a key role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Promegestone is primarily used as a contraceptive, either alone or in combination with an estrogen medication. It is also used to treat certain types of menstrual disorders, such as heavy bleeding or irregular periods, and to prevent miscarriage in early pregnancy. In addition, promegestone is sometimes used to treat certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer. It works by blocking the effects of estrogen on the body, which can help slow the growth of cancer cells. Promegestone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and implants. It is typically prescribed by a healthcare provider and should be taken according to their instructions. Like all medications, promegestone can have side effects, so it is important to discuss any concerns with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Corpora allata are paired glands located in the head of insects, including bees, ants, and butterflies. They are responsible for producing hormones that regulate the development and reproduction of these insects. In medical research, the study of corpora allata is important for understanding the endocrine system and the regulation of hormone production in insects.

Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.

Bromocriptine is a medication that is used to treat a variety of conditions, including Parkinson's disease, hyperprolactinemia (a condition in which the body produces too much of the hormone prolactin), and acromegaly (a hormonal disorder that causes the body to produce too much growth hormone). It is a dopamine agonist, which means that it works by mimicking the effects of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that is important for regulating movement, mood, and other bodily functions. Bromocriptine is usually taken by mouth, and it can be effective in reducing symptoms of Parkinson's disease and improving motor function in people with this condition. It can also be used to lower prolactin levels in people with hyperprolactinemia, and it may be used to treat acromegaly in some cases.

Endothelin-2 (ET-2) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide hormone that is primarily produced by endothelial cells in the cardiovascular system. It is a member of the endothelin family of peptides, which also includes endothelin-1 and endothelin-3. ET-2 plays a role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone by constricting blood vessels and increasing blood flow resistance. It is also involved in the regulation of fluid balance, inflammation, and cell proliferation. In the medical field, ET-2 is often measured as a biomarker for various cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of these conditions.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that plays a role in various physiological processes in the body, including the regulation of hormone secretion, metabolism, and pain perception. It is synthesized in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream, where it acts on receptors in various tissues throughout the body. PACAP has been shown to stimulate the release of several hormones from the pituitary gland, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It also has effects on the cardiovascular system, where it can cause vasodilation and lower blood pressure. In addition to its physiological effects, PACAP has been implicated in various diseases and disorders, including depression, anxiety, and pain. It is also being studied as a potential therapeutic target for these conditions.

Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.

Antineoplastic agents, hormonal are a class of drugs that are used to treat cancer by targeting hormones that regulate cell growth and division. These drugs work by either blocking the production or action of hormones that promote cancer cell growth, or by stimulating the production of hormones that inhibit cancer cell growth. Examples of hormonal antineoplastic agents include tamoxifen, which is used to treat breast cancer, and leuprolide, which is used to treat prostate cancer. These drugs are often used in combination with other antineoplastic agents, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to increase their effectiveness. It is important to note that hormonal antineoplastic agents are not effective for all types of cancer, and they may have side effects that can be serious or life-threatening. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of these drugs with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Androgen antagonists are a class of drugs that block the effects of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. These drugs are often used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer, acne, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women) by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. They work by binding to androgen receptors, preventing androgens from binding to these receptors and exerting their effects. Examples of androgen antagonists include flutamide, bicalutamide, and spironolactone.

Fushi Tarazu transcription factors (FTFs) are a family of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the development and differentiation of various tissues and organs in the body. They are named after the Japanese word "fushi tarazu," which means "to form and shape." FTFs are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including embryonic development, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis. They regulate the expression of genes that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and are involved in the regulation of various signaling pathways. In the medical field, FTFs have been implicated in a number of diseases and disorders, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. For example, mutations in FTFs have been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and FTFs have been shown to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis, a major cause of cardiovascular disease. Overall, FTFs are important regulators of gene expression and play a critical role in the development and maintenance of various tissues and organs in the body. Understanding the function of FTFs and their role in disease may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for a range of medical conditions.

Goserelin is a synthetic hormone used in the medical field to treat various conditions related to the endocrine system. It is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist, which means it mimics the action of GnRH, a hormone produced by the hypothalamus that regulates the production of sex hormones by the pituitary gland. Goserelin is commonly used to treat prostate cancer by reducing the production of testosterone, which can slow the growth of cancer cells. It is also used to treat uterine fibroids, endometriosis, and breast cancer in women. In addition, goserelin is used to treat precocious puberty in children. Goserelin is usually administered as an injection, either subcutaneously (under the skin) or intramuscularly (into a muscle). The frequency and duration of treatment depend on the condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication.

Chromatography, Gel is a technique used in the medical field to separate and analyze different components of a mixture. It involves passing a sample through a gel matrix, which allows different components to move through the gel at different rates based on their size, charge, or other properties. This separation is then detected and analyzed using various techniques, such as UV absorbance or fluorescence. Gel chromatography is commonly used in the purification of proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules, as well as in the analysis of complex mixtures in environmental and forensic science.

In the medical field, "body height" refers to the vertical distance from the ground to the top of the head when standing upright with the feet together and heels against a flat surface. It is typically measured in centimeters or inches and is an important factor in determining a person's overall health and well-being. Body height can be influenced by genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors, and can vary significantly among individuals. In some cases, a person's body height may be used as a diagnostic indicator for certain medical conditions, such as growth hormone deficiency or Turner syndrome.

Calcitriol is a hormone that is produced in the kidneys and helps to regulate the amount of calcium and phosphorus in the body. It is also known as vitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Calcitriol plays a critical role in maintaining healthy bones by promoting the absorption of calcium from the intestines and increasing the reabsorption of calcium from the kidneys. It also helps to regulate the immune system and may have other effects on the body. Calcitriol is available as a medication and is used to treat a variety of conditions, including osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency.

Age determination by skeleton is a method used in forensic anthropology to estimate the age of a person based on the examination of their skeletal remains. This method is particularly useful in cases where the individual's body has decomposed or been destroyed, leaving only bones as evidence. The process of age determination by skeleton involves a detailed examination of the bones, including the skull, teeth, and long bones. The bones are analyzed for various characteristics that can provide clues about the individual's age, such as the degree of ossification (hardening) of the bones, the wear and tear on the teeth, and the presence of certain growth lines or markers. There are several different methods used to estimate age from skeletal remains, including the use of statistical models based on large datasets of known-age skeletons, as well as more individualized approaches based on the specific characteristics of the bones in question. The accuracy of age determination by skeleton can vary depending on a number of factors, including the quality of the bones, the degree of decomposition, and the expertise of the examiner.

In the medical field, "bone and bones" typically refers to the skeletal system, which is made up of bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues. The skeletal system provides support and structure to the body, protects vital organs, and allows for movement through the use of muscles. Bones are the main component of the skeletal system and are responsible for providing support and protection to the body. There are 206 bones in the human body, which are classified into four types: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. Long bones, such as the femur and humerus, are cylindrical in shape and are found in the arms and legs. Short bones, such as the carpals and tarsals, are cube-shaped and are found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones, such as the skull and ribs, are thin and flat and provide protection to vital organs. Irregular bones, such as the vertebrae and pelvis, have complex shapes that allow for specific functions. Overall, the bone and bones of the skeletal system play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the human body.

In the medical field, estrogen antagonists are drugs that block the effects of estrogen, a hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of female reproductive tissues and secondary sexual characteristics. Estrogen antagonists are used in a variety of medical conditions, including breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and prostate cancer. They work by binding to estrogen receptors in the body and preventing estrogen from binding to these receptors, thereby reducing the effects of estrogen on the body. There are several types of estrogen antagonists, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, and aromatase inhibitors, such as anastrozole and letrozole. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, to improve outcomes for patients with certain types of cancer.

Antithyroid agents are medications that are used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. These medications work by reducing the production of thyroid hormones in the gland. There are several different types of antithyroid agents, including methimazole (Tapazole), propylthiouracil (PTU), and carbimazole (Carbimazole). These medications are typically prescribed for people who have Graves' disease, a type of hyperthyroidism that is caused by an autoimmune disorder, or for people who have had radioactive iodine therapy or surgery to treat their hyperthyroidism. Antithyroid agents can be effective in controlling the symptoms of hyperthyroidism and can help to prevent complications from the condition. However, they can also cause side effects, such as skin rash, hair loss, and liver problems.

Dwarfism is a medical condition characterized by short stature, which is defined as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less for males and 4 feet 6 inches (137 centimeters) or less for females. Dwarfism can be caused by a variety of genetic and non-genetic factors, including chromosomal abnormalities, hormonal imbalances, and skeletal dysplasias. There are over 200 different types of dwarfism, each with its own specific genetic cause and set of symptoms. Some forms of dwarfism are inherited, while others are caused by random genetic mutations or environmental factors. Individuals with dwarfism may also experience other health problems, such as joint pain, vision and hearing problems, and an increased risk of certain medical conditions, such as diabetes and heart disease. Treatment for dwarfism typically involves addressing any underlying health issues and providing supportive care to help individuals with dwarfism live healthy, fulfilling lives. This may include physical therapy, orthopedic surgery, and hormone replacement therapy.

Hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition characterized by the overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are four small glands located in the neck, behind the thyroid gland, and are responsible for regulating the levels of calcium in the blood. There are three main types of hyperparathyroidism: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by a problem with the parathyroid glands themselves, such as a benign tumor or hyperplasia (enlargement) of the glands. Secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs when the parathyroid glands produce too much PTH in response to low levels of calcium in the blood, which can be caused by kidney disease or vitamin D deficiency. Tertiary hyperparathyroidism is a rare form of the condition that occurs in people with long-term kidney failure who are on dialysis. Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism can include fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and digestive problems. Treatment options for hyperparathyroidism depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medication, lifestyle changes, or surgery to remove the affected parathyroid gland(s).

Calcitonin is a hormone produced by the parafollicular cells, also known as C cells, of the thyroid gland. It plays a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood by inhibiting the release of calcium from bones and increasing calcium excretion in the kidneys. Calcitonin is typically released in response to an increase in blood calcium levels, such as after a meal or during pregnancy. It is also produced by the medullary thyroid carcinoma, a rare type of thyroid cancer. Calcitonin is used as a diagnostic tool to help diagnose medullary thyroid carcinoma and is also used as a treatment for osteoporosis and hypercalcemia.

In the medical field, "Contraceptives, Oral" refers to a type of birth control that is taken by mouth in the form of pills, tablets, or capsules. These contraceptives contain hormones, such as estrogen and progestin, which work to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, and thinning the lining of the uterus to make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant. Oral contraceptives are one of the most commonly used forms of birth control worldwide, and they are available in a variety of formulations, including monophasic, biphasic, and triphasic pills. They are generally effective when taken correctly and consistently, but they may have side effects such as nausea, headaches, breast tenderness, and changes in menstrual bleeding patterns. Some women may also experience more serious side effects, such as blood clots or stroke, although these risks are relatively low.

Adrenal cortex hormones are a group of hormones produced by the adrenal gland's outer layer, the cortex. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal cortex hormones are divided into three main categories based on their chemical structure and function: 1. Glucocorticoids: These hormones, including cortisol, are responsible for regulating metabolism and the body's response to stress. They help the body break down stored carbohydrates and fats to provide energy, and they also suppress the immune system to reduce inflammation. 2. Mineralocorticoids: These hormones, including aldosterone, regulate the body's electrolyte balance and blood pressure. They help the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which helps maintain proper blood pressure. 3. Androgens: These hormones, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and deepening of the voice. They also play a role in the body's response to stress. Adrenal cortex hormones are produced in response to signals from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and their levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, and medications. Imbalances in adrenal cortex hormone levels can lead to a range of health problems, including Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and adrenal insufficiency.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide hormone that is produced by neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. It is one of the most widely distributed neuropeptides in the brain and body, and it plays a role in a variety of physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, stress response, and mood regulation. In the brain, NPY is primarily produced by neurons in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that plays a key role in regulating hunger and metabolism. NPY is also produced by neurons in other regions of the brain, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, which are involved in emotional regulation and reward processing. NPY acts on a number of different receptors in the brain and body, including Y1, Y2, Y4, Y5, and Y6 receptors. These receptors are found on a variety of different cell types, including neurons, immune cells, and smooth muscle cells. Activation of NPY receptors can have a wide range of effects, depending on the specific receptor that is activated and the cell type that expresses it. In the medical field, NPY and its receptors are being studied as potential targets for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including obesity, diabetes, anxiety, depression, and addiction. For example, drugs that block NPY receptors have been shown to reduce appetite and body weight in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for obesity and related conditions in humans. Similarly, drugs that activate NPY receptors have been shown to have anxiolytic and antidepressant effects in animal studies, and they are being investigated as potential treatments for anxiety and depression in humans.

Amino acids are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. They are composed of an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), and a side chain (R group) that varies in size and structure. There are 20 different amino acids that are commonly found in proteins, each with a unique side chain that gives it distinct chemical and physical properties. In the medical field, amino acids are important for a variety of functions, including the synthesis of proteins, enzymes, and hormones. They are also involved in energy metabolism and the maintenance of healthy tissues. Deficiencies in certain amino acids can lead to a range of health problems, including muscle wasting, anemia, and neurological disorders. In some cases, amino acids may be prescribed as supplements to help treat these conditions or to support overall health and wellness.

In the medical field, "cell count" refers to the measurement of the number of cells present in a specific sample of tissue or fluid. This measurement is typically performed using a microscope and a specialized staining technique to distinguish between different types of cells. For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a common laboratory test that measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Similarly, a urine analysis may include a cell count to measure the number of white blood cells or bacteria present in the urine. Cell counts can be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, such as infections, inflammation, or cancer. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments or to detect any changes in the body's cellular makeup over time.

Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are a family of nuclear receptors that play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression in response to the hormone retinoic acid (RA). RA is a metabolite of vitamin A and is involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. RARs are encoded by three genes, RARA, RARB, and RARγ, and are expressed as multiple isoforms through alternative splicing. These receptors bind to RA with high affinity and activate or repress the transcription of target genes by interacting with specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of these genes. RARs are involved in the development and function of many tissues and organs, including the brain, heart, lungs, skin, and eyes. They have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurological disorders. In the medical field, RARs are the target of several drugs, including retinoids, which are used to treat a variety of conditions, including acne, psoriasis, and certain types of cancer. Understanding the role of RARs in health and disease is an active area of research, with potential implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Ecdysteroids are a class of hormones that are produced by insects and some other arthropods. They play a role in regulating growth, molting, and reproduction in these organisms. In the medical field, ecdysteroids have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, particularly in the treatment of certain types of cancer. Some ecdysteroids have been shown to have anti-tumor properties and may be useful in combination with other cancer treatments. They have also been studied for their potential use in treating other conditions, such as inflammation and autoimmune diseases.

Adrenal insufficiency is a medical condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough of certain hormones, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. The adrenal glands are small endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys, and they play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the stress response. There are two main types of adrenal insufficiency: primary and secondary. Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, is caused by damage to the adrenal glands themselves, usually due to an autoimmune response or an infection. Secondary adrenal insufficiency, on the other hand, is caused by a problem with the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, which are responsible for regulating the production of hormones by the adrenal glands. Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, low blood pressure, dizziness, and nausea. In severe cases, it can lead to shock and even death if not properly treated. Treatment typically involves hormone replacement therapy to replace the missing hormones, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition.

Hirsutism is a medical condition characterized by excessive hair growth in women, typically on the face, chest, back, and abdomen. It is caused by an imbalance of hormones, particularly androgens, which are male sex hormones that are also present in women in small amounts. Hirsutism can be a symptom of a variety of underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, and Cushing's syndrome, or it can be caused by certain medications or hormonal treatments. Treatment options for hirsutism may include medications to regulate hormone levels, laser hair removal, and electrolysis.

RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is a type of nucleic acid that is involved in the process of protein synthesis in cells. It is composed of a chain of nucleotides, which are made up of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are three types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). In the medical field, RNA is often studied as a potential target for the development of new drugs and therapies. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to silence specific genes and treat diseases such as cancer and viral infections. Additionally, RNA is being studied as a potential biomarker for various diseases, as changes in the levels or structure of certain RNA molecules can indicate the presence of a particular condition.

In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.

Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are a family of proteins that bind to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and regulate their activity. There are six different IGFBPs, each with a distinct structure and function. IGFBPs play an important role in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival. They can either enhance or inhibit the effects of IGFs, depending on the specific IGFBP and the cellular context. In the medical field, IGFBPs have been studied in relation to various diseases, including cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes. For example, some studies have suggested that altered levels of IGFBPs may be involved in the development and progression of certain types of cancer. Additionally, IGFBPs have been investigated as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.

Immunologic contraception refers to a type of contraception that uses the body's immune system to prevent pregnancy. This method involves the administration of a vaccine or other immunostimulatory agent that triggers an immune response in the body, which in turn prevents fertilization or implantation of a fertilized egg. There are currently no licensed immunologic contraceptives available for use in humans, but several experimental vaccines are being developed and tested in clinical trials. These vaccines are designed to target specific proteins on the surface of sperm or the egg, preventing them from binding together and fertilizing. Immunologic contraception has the potential to be a highly effective and long-lasting form of contraception, with the added benefit of being non-hormonal and non-invasive. However, more research is needed to fully understand the safety and efficacy of these vaccines and to determine the optimal dosing and administration schedules.

In the medical field, "chickens" typically refers to the domesticated bird species Gallus gallus domesticus. Chickens are commonly raised for their meat, eggs, and feathers, and are also used in research and as pets. In veterinary medicine, chickens can be treated for a variety of health conditions, including diseases such as avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and fowl pox. They may also require treatment for injuries or trauma, such as broken bones or cuts. In human medicine, chickens are not typically used as a source of treatment or therapy. However, some research has been conducted using chicken cells or proteins as models for human diseases or as potential sources of vaccines or other medical interventions.

In the medical field, "breeding" typically refers to the process of producing offspring through sexual reproduction. This can include artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, and other assisted reproductive technologies. In some cases, breeding may also refer to the practice of selectively breeding animals or plants for specific traits or characteristics. However, in a medical context, the term is most commonly used in relation to human reproduction.

Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that is produced by the cells of the small intestine in response to the presence of food in the stomach. It plays a key role in regulating blood sugar levels by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and inhibiting the release of glucagon, another hormone that raises blood sugar levels. GLP-1 also has other effects on the body, including slowing down the rate at which food is digested and absorbed, reducing appetite, and promoting weight loss. It is also involved in the regulation of the digestive system and the cardiovascular system. In the medical field, GLP-1 is used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. It is administered as a medication, either through injection or inhalation, and works by stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin and reducing the amount of glucagon that is released. This helps to lower blood sugar levels and improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes.

In the medical field, copulation refers to the sexual act of penetration between a male and female reproductive organ, typically involving intercourse. It is a common form of sexual activity and is often associated with reproduction, although it can also occur for pleasure or other reasons. Copulation typically involves the penis penetrating the vagina, although other forms of sexual activity, such as anal or oral sex, can also occur. It is important to note that copulation can carry risks, including the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unwanted pregnancies, and it is important to practice safe sex to minimize these risks.

Desogestrel is a progestin, a synthetic hormone that is used in combination with estrogen in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy. It works by thickening the cervical mucus, which makes it difficult for sperm to reach the egg, and by inhibiting ovulation. Desogestrel is also used in emergency contraception, or "morning-after" pills, to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. It is also used in some hormonal contraceptive implants and vaginal rings.

Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) is a highly toxic and persistent organic pollutant that belongs to a class of compounds called polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). It is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless chemical that is primarily produced as a byproduct of industrial processes, such as the manufacture of pesticides, dyes, and bleaches. In the medical field, TCDD is known to cause a range of adverse health effects, including cancer, reproductive disorders, immune system dysfunction, and neurotoxicity. It is also a known teratogen, meaning that it can cause birth defects in developing fetuses if pregnant women are exposed to high levels of the chemical. TCDD is classified as a Class I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which means that it is considered to be carcinogenic to humans based on sufficient evidence from studies in humans and animals. As a result, exposure to TCDD is strictly regulated by many countries, and efforts are being made to reduce its production and use to minimize human exposure.

Asparagine is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body and is also found in many foods. It is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be produced by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, asparagine is sometimes used as a medication to treat certain types of cancer, such as ovarian cancer and multiple myeloma. It works by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and promoting their death. Asparagine is also used to treat certain types of infections, such as herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus. It is usually given intravenously, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific condition being treated.

Prostaglandins E (PGE) are a group of lipid signaling molecules that are produced in the body from arachidonic acid. They are synthesized by enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX) and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including inflammation, pain, fever, and blood clotting. PGEs are produced in response to various stimuli, such as injury, infection, or stress, and act as messengers to regulate cellular responses. They can also act as vasodilators, increasing blood flow to tissues, and as bronchodilators, relaxing smooth muscle in the airways. In the medical field, PGEs are used as drugs to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, inflammation, and asthma. They are also used in research to study the mechanisms of these processes and to develop new treatments.

Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP-3) is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and development of cells in the body. It is produced by various tissues, including the liver, muscle, and bone, and is secreted into the bloodstream. IGFBP-3 binds to insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), which are hormones that stimulate cell growth and division. By binding to IGFs, IGFBP-3 regulates their activity and helps to control the growth and development of cells. In addition to its role in cell growth and development, IGFBP-3 has been implicated in a number of other physiological processes, including bone metabolism, glucose metabolism, and immune function. It has also been studied in relation to a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Overall, IGFBP-3 is an important protein that plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and development, and its function is closely tied to a number of other physiological processes in the body.

Receptors, Estradiol are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone estradiol. Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone that plays a role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in other bodily functions such as bone health and mood. When estradiol binds to its receptors, it can trigger a variety of cellular responses, including changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism. These receptors are found in many different tissues throughout the body, including the brain, liver, breast, and uterus.

Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is a protein that plays a crucial role in cell growth, repair, and differentiation. It is produced by various cells in the body, including epithelial cells in the skin, respiratory tract, and digestive system. EGF binds to specific receptors on the surface of cells, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. It also promotes the production of new blood vessels and stimulates the formation of new skin cells, making it an important factor in wound healing and tissue repair. In the medical field, EGF has been used in various therapeutic applications, including the treatment of skin conditions such as burns, wounds, and ulcers. It has also been studied for its potential use in treating cancer, as it can stimulate the growth of cancer cells. However, the use of EGF in cancer treatment is still controversial, as it can also promote the growth of normal cells.

Hydatidiform mole, invasive is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs when a fertilized egg fails to develop properly and instead forms a mass of abnormal tissue. This tissue is called a hydatidiform mole, and it can invade the uterine wall (invasive hydatidiform mole) or spread to other parts of the body (chorionic carcinoma). Invasive hydatidiform mole is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is typically treated with surgery to remove the affected tissue, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. If left untreated, invasive hydatidiform mole can lead to serious complications, including uterine cancer, high blood pressure, and anemia. It is important to note that hydatidiform mole is different from a molar pregnancy, which is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs when a fertilized egg develops normally but the placenta does not. Molar pregnancies can also be invasive, but they are less common than hydatidiform mole.

Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus in the brain and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating water balance in the body by constricting blood vessels and increasing blood pressure, which helps to conserve water and maintain blood volume. AVP also regulates the amount of water reabsorbed by the kidneys, which helps to maintain the body's fluid balance. In addition to its role in water balance, AVP has other functions in the body, including regulating blood pressure, controlling the contraction of smooth muscles in the uterus and intestines, and stimulating the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland. Abnormal levels of AVP can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including diabetes insipidus, which is characterized by excessive thirst and urination, and central diabetes insipidus, which is caused by a deficiency of AVP in the brain. AVP is also used in medical treatment, such as the treatment of heart failure and shock.

Iodine is a chemical element that is essential for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland, which is located in the neck and plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism. In the medical field, iodine is commonly used as a dietary supplement to prevent and treat iodine deficiency disorders, which can lead to a range of health problems, including goiter, hypothyroidism, and cretinism. Iodine is also used in medical imaging procedures, such as radioiodine scans, which are used to diagnose and monitor thyroid disorders. In these procedures, a small amount of radioactive iodine is administered to the patient, and the thyroid gland's ability to absorb and store the iodine is measured using a special camera. In addition to its use in medicine, iodine is also used in the production of certain chemicals and pharmaceuticals, as well as in the manufacturing of dyes, pigments, and other industrial products.

Cholera toxin is a protein complex produced by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is the causative agent of cholera. The toxin is composed of two subunits: A1 and A2. The A1 subunit binds to the GM1 ganglioside receptor on the surface of host cells, while the A2 subunit is responsible for the toxic effects of the toxin. When cholera toxin enters the body, it binds to the GM1 ganglioside receptor on the surface of cells in the small intestine. This binding triggers the release of intracellular calcium ions, which leads to the activation of a signaling pathway that results in the secretion of large amounts of water and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. This excessive secretion of fluids leads to severe diarrhea, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Cholera toxin is a potent virulence factor that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholera. It is also used as a tool in research to study the mechanisms of cellular signaling and to develop vaccines against cholera.

Cell proliferation refers to the process of cell division and growth, which is essential for the maintenance and repair of tissues in the body. In the medical field, cell proliferation is often studied in the context of cancer, where uncontrolled cell proliferation can lead to the formation of tumors and the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body. In normal cells, cell proliferation is tightly regulated by a complex network of signaling pathways and feedback mechanisms that ensure that cells divide only when necessary and that they stop dividing when they have reached their full capacity. However, in cancer cells, these regulatory mechanisms can become disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and the formation of tumors. In addition to cancer, cell proliferation is also important in other medical conditions, such as wound healing, tissue regeneration, and the development of embryos. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate cell proliferation is therefore critical for developing new treatments for cancer and other diseases.

Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are a type of nuclear receptor that play a role in regulating gene expression in response to various signaling molecules, including retinoids (vitamin A derivatives) and thyroid hormones. RXRs are found in many tissues throughout the body and are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including development, metabolism, and cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, RXRs have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications in a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. For example, RXR agonists (molecules that bind to and activate RXRs) have been shown to have anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. RXR antagonists (molecules that bind to and block RXRs) have also been studied for their potential to treat diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease by regulating the expression of genes involved in these conditions. Overall, RXRs are an important class of nuclear receptors that play a critical role in regulating gene expression and maintaining normal physiological function.

Dactinomycin is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA, which are essential for the growth and division of cancer cells. Dactinomycin is usually given intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can also be administered as a cream or ointment to treat skin cancer. Common side effects of dactinomycin include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the lining of the mouth and throat.

Dysgerminoma is a rare type of ovarian germ cell tumor that typically affects young women in their 20s and 30s. It is a malignant tumor that arises from the germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs in the ovaries. Dysgerminomas are usually large and solid, and they can grow quickly if left untreated. They can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, and brain. Treatment for dysgerminoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, hormone therapy may also be used. The prognosis for dysgerminoma is generally good, especially if the tumor is caught early and treated promptly.

Cryopreservation is a medical technique that involves the preservation of biological materials, such as cells, tissues, and organs, at extremely low temperatures using cryoprotectants. The goal of cryopreservation is to slow down or stop the metabolic processes of the biological material, allowing it to be stored for extended periods of time without significant degradation or damage. Cryopreservation is commonly used in medical research, tissue banking, and organ transplantation. For example, stem cells can be cryopreserved for future use in regenerative medicine, and organs can be cryopreserved for transplantation in cases where a suitable donor is not immediately available. The process of cryopreservation typically involves the following steps: 1. The biological material is first washed with a cryoprotectant solution to remove any contaminants or impurities. 2. The material is then placed in a container filled with a cryoprotectant solution and cooled using liquid nitrogen or another cryogen. 3. The material is stored at a temperature of -196°C or lower until it is needed. When the biological material is needed, it is thawed slowly to prevent ice crystal formation and damage to the cells or tissues. The material can then be used for further research or clinical applications.

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been modified by the addition of a phosphate group to one or more of their amino acid residues. This modification is known as phosphorylation, and it is a common post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes, including signal transduction, metabolism, and gene expression. Phosphoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including cell growth and division, cell migration and differentiation, and the regulation of gene expression. They are also involved in many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Phosphoproteins can be detected and studied using a variety of techniques, including mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation. These techniques allow researchers to identify and quantify the phosphorylation status of specific proteins in cells and tissues, and to study the effects of changes in phosphorylation on protein function and cellular processes.

Crown-Rump Length (CRL) is a measurement used in obstetrics and gynecology to estimate the gestational age of a fetus during early pregnancy. It is the distance from the top of the head (the "crown") to the bottom of the buttocks (the "rump") of the fetus, as seen on an ultrasound scan. The CRL is typically measured in millimeters and is used to determine the due date of the pregnancy, as well as to monitor fetal growth and development. It is usually measured between 6 and 13 weeks of gestation.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or danger. In the medical field, epinephrine is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and asthma. It works by constricting blood vessels, increasing heart rate and contractility, and relaxing smooth muscles in the bronchial tubes, which can help to open airways and improve breathing. Epinephrine is typically administered via injection, either intravenously or subcutaneously (under the skin). It is a powerful medication and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Body composition refers to the proportion of different types of tissue in the human body, including fat, muscle, bone, and water. It is an important measure of overall health and can be used to assess changes in weight and body shape over time. In the medical field, body composition is often measured using various techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements. These methods can provide information about an individual's body fat percentage, lean body mass, and bone density, which can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including obesity, osteoporosis, and metabolic disorders.

Leucine is an essential amino acid that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is one of the nine essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, leucine is often used as a dietary supplement to promote muscle growth and recovery, particularly in athletes and bodybuilders. It is also used to treat certain medical conditions, such as phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that affects the metabolism of amino acids. Leucine has been shown to have various physiological effects, including increasing protein synthesis, stimulating muscle growth, and improving insulin sensitivity. It is also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the production of neurotransmitters. However, excessive consumption of leucine can have negative effects on health, such as liver damage and increased risk of certain cancers. Therefore, it is important to consume leucine in moderation and as part of a balanced diet.

Receptors, Peptide are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to specific peptides (short chains of amino acids) and initiate a cellular response. These receptors play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including hormone signaling, immune response, and neurotransmission. Examples of peptide receptors include the insulin receptor, the growth hormone receptor, and the opioid receptor. Activation of these receptors can lead to a variety of effects, such as changes in gene expression, enzyme activity, or intracellular signaling pathways.

Thyronines are hormones produced by the thyroid gland that play a crucial role in regulating metabolism in the body. There are two main types of thyronines: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroxine is the primary hormone produced by the thyroid gland and is converted into triiodothyronine in the body. Both hormones are essential for regulating metabolism, which is the process by which the body uses energy from food. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine help to control the rate at which the body burns calories, affects the body's sensitivity to insulin, and regulates the growth and development of tissues. Thyroid hormones are also important for maintaining a healthy heart rate, regulating body temperature, and supporting normal brain function. Imbalances in thyronine levels can lead to a variety of health problems, including hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormones) and hyperthyroidism (high levels of thyroid hormones).

Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by an excess of androgens, which are male sex hormones such as testosterone. This excess can lead to a variety of symptoms and health problems, particularly in women and girls. In women, hyperandrogenism can cause symptoms such as acne, excess hair growth (hirsutism), irregular menstrual periods, and infertility. It can also lead to conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which is a hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. In boys, hyperandrogenism can cause symptoms such as early puberty, excessive growth, and acne. It can also lead to conditions such as precocious puberty, which is the early onset of puberty. Hyperandrogenism can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as Cushing's syndrome or adrenal gland tumors. Treatment for hyperandrogenism depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to lower androgen levels, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

In the medical field, culture media refers to a nutrient-rich substance used to support the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Culture media is typically used in diagnostic laboratories to isolate and identify microorganisms from clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or sputum. Culture media can be classified into two main types: solid and liquid. Solid media is usually a gel-like substance that allows microorganisms to grow in a three-dimensional matrix, while liquid media is a broth or solution that provides nutrients for microorganisms to grow in suspension. The composition of culture media varies depending on the type of microorganism being cultured and the specific needs of that organism. Culture media may contain a variety of nutrients, including amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and minerals, as well as antibiotics or other agents to inhibit the growth of unwanted microorganisms. Overall, culture media is an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as it allows healthcare professionals to identify the specific microorganisms causing an infection and select the most appropriate treatment.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign prostatic neoplasms, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are the most common type of prostatic neoplasm and are typically associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland. Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular cells of the prostate. Other types of prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas, which are rare and start in the connective tissue of the prostate, and carcinoid tumors, which are rare and start in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.

A cell line, tumor is a type of cell culture that is derived from a cancerous tumor. These cell lines are grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the biology of cancer and testing potential new treatments. They are typically immortalized, meaning that they can continue to divide and grow indefinitely, and they often exhibit the characteristics of the original tumor from which they were derived, such as specific genetic mutations or protein expression patterns. Cell lines, tumor are an important tool in cancer research and have been used to develop many of the treatments that are currently available for cancer patients.

Carcinoma, bronchogenic is a type of cancer that starts in the cells that line the airways of the lungs. These airways include the bronchi, which are the large tubes that carry air into and out of the lungs, and the bronchioles, which are smaller tubes that branch off from the bronchi. Carcinoma, bronchogenic is also known as lung cancer. There are several different types of lung cancer, including small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinoma, bronchogenic is a type of non-small cell lung cancer. It is the most common type of lung cancer and is usually diagnosed at a later stage, when it has already spread to other parts of the body. Symptoms of carcinoma, bronchogenic may include a persistent cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and coughing up blood. These symptoms may be caused by the cancer itself or by the body's response to the cancer. Treatment for carcinoma, bronchogenic may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments. The best treatment option will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the person.

Secretogranin II (also known as chromogranin B) is a protein that is synthesized and stored in secretory granules of endocrine cells, such as chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla and neurons in the central nervous system. It is a member of the secretogranin family of proteins, which are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and hormone secretion. Secretogranin II is synthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into smaller peptides and proteins by proteolytic enzymes. One of the cleavage products of secretogranin II is vasopressin, a hormone that regulates blood pressure and water balance in the body. Other cleavage products of secretogranin II include chromogranin A, which is involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, and catestatin, which inhibits the release of catecholamines (such as adrenaline and noradrenaline) from the adrenal medulla. In addition to its role in hormone and neurotransmitter regulation, secretogranin II has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of certain diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, as well as certain types of cancer.

Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.

In the medical field, disulfides refer to chemical compounds that contain two sulfur atoms connected by a single bond. Disulfides are commonly found in proteins, where they play an important role in maintaining the structure and function of the protein. One of the most well-known examples of a disulfide is the cystine molecule, which is composed of two cysteine amino acids that are linked together by a disulfide bond. Disulfide bonds are important for the proper folding and stability of proteins, and they can also play a role in the function of the protein. Disulfides can also be found in other types of molecules, such as lipids and carbohydrates. In these cases, disulfides may play a role in the structure and function of the molecule, or they may be involved in signaling pathways within the body. Overall, disulfides are an important class of chemical compounds that play a variety of roles in the body, including the maintenance of protein structure and function, and the regulation of signaling pathways.

Receptors, Neurokinin-3 (NK3) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in the nervous system. They are activated by the neuropeptide neurokinin B (NKB) and are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, mood regulation, and appetite control. NK3 receptors are expressed in several areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus, as well as in peripheral tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract and the heart. Activation of NK3 receptors has been shown to modulate the release of other neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin, and to affect the activity of neurons involved in pain transmission and appetite regulation. In the medical field, NK3 receptors have been targeted for the development of drugs for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and obesity. However, further research is needed to fully understand the role of NK3 receptors in these and other diseases, and to develop safe and effective drugs that target these receptors.

Apoptosis is a programmed cell death process that occurs naturally in the body. It is a vital mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and eliminating damaged or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, cells undergo a series of changes that ultimately lead to their death and removal from the body. These changes include chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of apoptotic bodies, which are engulfed by neighboring cells or removed by immune cells. Apoptosis plays a critical role in many physiological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and immune function. However, when apoptosis is disrupted or dysregulated, it can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.

A granulosa cell tumor is a rare type of ovarian tumor that develops from the granulosa cells, which are the cells that produce estrogen in the ovaries. These tumors are usually benign, but in some cases, they can be malignant and spread to other parts of the body. Granulosa cell tumors are typically found in women in their 40s and 50s, and they are more common in women who have never had children or who have had their ovaries removed. The symptoms of granulosa cell tumors can include abdominal pain, bloating, and an increase in the size of the abdomen. In some cases, the tumor may produce too much estrogen, which can cause symptoms such as irregular periods, hot flashes, and vaginal bleeding. Treatment for granulosa cell tumors usually involves surgery to remove the tumor, and in some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be used. The prognosis for granulosa cell tumors depends on the size and location of the tumor, as well as whether it is benign or malignant. In general, however, the prognosis is good if the tumor is caught early and treated promptly.

Pregnancy proteins are proteins that are produced during pregnancy and are specific to pregnancy. These proteins are produced by the placenta and are present in the mother's blood, urine, and other body fluids. They are used in medical testing to confirm pregnancy and to monitor the health of the pregnancy. Some examples of pregnancy proteins include human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and unconjugated estriol (uE3). These proteins are important for the development of the fetus and can be used to detect potential problems with the pregnancy, such as fetal abnormalities or complications.

Oligomenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by infrequent menstrual periods. Specifically, it is defined as menstrual periods that occur less frequently than every 21 days or more than 35 days. In general, menstrual cycles that are too frequent or too infrequent can be a sign of an underlying health issue. Oligomenorrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, stress, weight changes, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or thyroid disorders. Treatment for oligomenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular exercise, and a healthy diet may be sufficient to improve menstrual regularity. Hormonal therapy or other medications may also be prescribed to regulate menstrual cycles. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing oligomenorrhea or other menstrual irregularities.

Indoleacetic Acids (IAAs) are a type of plant hormone that play a crucial role in plant growth and development. They are synthesized from the amino acid tryptophan and are involved in various aspects of plant physiology, including cell division, elongation, and differentiation. In the medical field, IAAs have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, IAAs have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties, and they may be useful in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. IAAs have also been used in agriculture as a growth promoter for plants. They can stimulate root growth, increase plant biomass, and improve crop yields. However, the use of IAAs as a plant growth promoter is controversial, as it may have negative environmental impacts and may contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Overall, IAAs are an important class of plant hormones with potential therapeutic and agricultural applications.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a crucial role in the body's "fight or flight" response. It is produced by the adrenal glands and is also found in certain neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In the medical field, norepinephrine is often used as a medication to treat low blood pressure, shock, and heart failure. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to raise blood pressure and improve blood flow to vital organs. Norepinephrine is also used to treat certain types of depression, as it can help to increase feelings of alertness and energy. However, it is important to note that norepinephrine can have side effects, including rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, and anxiety, and should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Callithrix is a genus of New World monkeys that includes species commonly known as marmosets. These small primates are native to South America and are known for their distinctive appearance, which includes a pointed snout, large eyes, and a prehensile tail. Marmosets are often kept as pets, but they are also important subjects in medical research due to their similarities to humans in terms of genetics and physiology. Studies on marmosets have contributed to our understanding of a wide range of medical conditions, including infectious diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer.

... (GnRH) is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ... Gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF, GRF); Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, GRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing ... Kakar SS, Jennes L (November 1995). "Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor ... Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH, LHRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (FSH/LH ...
A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones. ... of fertility in female dogs Induction of ovulation in mares Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes. GnRH was ...
The gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) (gonadoliberin) are a family of peptides that play a pivotal role in reproduction. ... Hormones, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins). ... and secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones ...
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), also known as the luteinizing hormone releasing hormone receptor (LHRHR), ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor function has been shown to be deleteriously effected by point mutations in its gene. ... It is the receptor of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRHR is expressed on the surface of pituitary gonadotrope ... Harrison GS, Wierman ME, Nett TM, Glode LM (2004). "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its receptor in normal and malignant ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) insensitivity also known as Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency ( ... prepubertal testes size and complete absence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]-induced luteinizing hormone [LH] ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins, Rare diseases, Syndromes). ... Boys and men - In boys, puberty can be induced with testosterone, exogenous gonadotropins, or pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing ...
... the biological target of the hypothalamic hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; also known as luteinizing-releasing ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins, Hormonal antineoplastic drugs, Progonadotropins). ... All GnRH modulators are contraindicated in pregnancy (pregnancy category X). A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH ... GnRH modulators affect the secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulator Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist Van Poppel H, Nilsson S (June 2008). ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin- ... releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). They are used in the ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins, Hormonal antineoplastic drugs, Human female endocrine system, GnRH ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins, Human female endocrine system). ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is secreted from the hypothalamus by GnRH-expressing neurons. The anterior portion of the ... In addition, leptin and insulin have stimulatory effects and ghrelin has inhibitory effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( ... "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors". Endocr. Rev. 25 (2): 235-75. doi:10.1210/er.2003-0002. PMID 15082521. Charlton H ( ...
... or an antagonist of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), the biological target of the hypothalamic hormone ... Elagolix, sold under the brand name Orilissa, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) medication which ... Huirne JA, Lambalk CB (November 2001). "Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor antagonists". Lancet. 358 (9295): 1793-803. doi ... of gonadotropins and estradiol in premenopausal women by oral administration of the nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone ...
Peptide hormones, Hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins, Animal ... Gonadotropins are released under the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the arcuate nucleus and preoptic ... Antigonadotropin Gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor Parhar, Ishwar S. (2002). Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone: Molecules and ... The gonadotropins act on the gonads, controlling gamete and sex hormone production. Gonadotropin is sometimes abbreviated Gn. ...
The underlying cause is a failure in the correct production or activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus. ... Balasubramanian R, Crowley WF Jr (2017). "Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency". SourceGeneReviews. PMID ... in the production of the gonadotropin hormones normally released by the anterior pituitary gland known as luteinising hormone ( ... "Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency". GeneReviews. University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 20301509. De ...
... is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) which is used in fertility medicine and to treat ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists "Gonadorelin". J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical ... ISBN 978-0-07-026266-9. Bain J, Moskowitz JP, Clapp JJ (1978). "LH and FSH response to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in ... of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland and to increase sex hormone ...
Buck, Cassandra; Balasubramanian, Ravikumar; Crowley, Jr, William F (2013-07-18). Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH ... GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171316 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000041235 - Ensembl, May ...
... s, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons, are the cells in the brain that control the release of ... Giacobini, P (2007). "Hepatocyte growth factor acts as a motogen and guidance signal for gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone ... Giacobini, P (2008). "Semaphorin 4D regulates gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone-1 neuronal migration through PlexinB1-Met ... where the GnRH hormone activates the pituitary to release luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition to ...
Boccon-Gibod L, van der Meulen E, Persson BE (June 2011). "An update on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Abarelix". PubChem. 2017-07-29. "Abarelix". Drugs.com. Archived from the ... Abarelix, sold under the brand name Plenaxis, is an injectable gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) ...
White, SA; Nguyen, T; Fernald, RD (1 September 2002). "Social regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone". J Exp Biol. 205 ( ... The male releases sperm and fertilizes the eggs in the female's mouth. This pecking and fertilizing behavior repeats until the ... Following brood release, after several more weeks have passed, the female cichlids will have recovered physiologically enough ... This may be potentially due to levels of circulating hormones. Intra- and inter-sexual social communications in males can also ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropins, Genetic diseases and disorders). ... To date, at least 25 different genes have been implicated in causing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency ... Balasubramanian R, Crowley WF Jr (2017). "Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Deficiency". SourceGeneReviews. PMID ...
"Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor-coupled gene network organization". J Biol Chem. 276 (50): 47195-201. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Microtranscriptome regulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone". Mol Cell Endocrinol. 302 (1): 12-7. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2008.12 ... Cloning and Expression of Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1999, U.S. #5,985,583, Applications of GnRH Receptor Partial ... "Cloning and functional expression of a mouse gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor". Mol Endocrinol. 6 (7): 1163-9. doi: ...
... and gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulators (GnRH modulators). Feminizing hormone therapy has been shown to likely reduce the ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is produced in the hypothalamus and induces the secretion of the gonadotropins ... Conn PM, Crowley WF (January 1991). "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and its analogues". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... ISBN 978-3-642-80859-3. Wenderoth UK, Jacobi GH (1983). "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for palliation of carcinoma ...
White, S. A.; Kasten, T. L.; Bond, C. T.; Adelman, J. P.; Fernald, R. D. (1995-08-29). "Three gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... Her research considered social control of the expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormones. She became interested in ... White, Stephanie A.; Nguyen, Tuan; Fernald, Russell D. (2002-09-01). "Social regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone". ... White, Stephanie Ann (1997). Social control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression (Thesis). OCLC 80935553. "ORCID: ...
... is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) and works by preventing the production of sex hormones by ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists Chrisp P, Goa KL (April 1990). "Nafarelin. A review of its pharmacodynamic ... Nafarelin is a peptide and an analogue of GnRHTooltip gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Nafarelin was introduced for medical use ... Nafarelin, sold under the brand name Synarel among others, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Ozarelix - AdisInsight". Festuccia C, Dondi D, Piccolella M, Locatelli A ... Ozarelix (developmental code names D-63153, SPI-153) is a peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) ... Gravina GL, Tombolini V, Motta M (2010). "Ozarelix, a fourth generation GnRH antagonist, induces apoptosis in hormone ...
Limonta P, Moretti RM, Marelli MM, Motta M (2004). "The biology of gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone: role in the control ... 2005). "Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-I (GnRH-I) and type-II (GnRH-II) in human peripheral blood ... White RB, Eisen JA, Kasten TL, Fernald RD (Feb 1998). "Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans". Proc Natl ... "Entrez Gene: GNRH2 gonadotropin-releasing hormone 2". "GNRH2 - Progonadoliberin-2 precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - GNRH2 gene ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical ... 120-. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1. "List of Gonadotropin releasing hormones". Okada J, Seo T, Kasahara F, Takeda K, Kondo S (1991 ... Fertirelin, or fertirelin acetate, sold under the brand name Ovalyse, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist ... It may have been used in the treatment of sex hormone-dependent conditions and infertility in women. The drug was first ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Agonists Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Elsevier Science. 29 June 2018. pp. 554-556. ... Azagly-nafarelin, sold under the brand name Gonazon, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) medication ... "Signaling events associated with gonadotropin releasing hormone-agonist-induced hormonal castration and its reversal in canines ...
White, S. A.; Kasten, T. L.; Bond, C. T.; Adelman, J. P.; Fernald, R. D. (1995). "Three gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes in ... White, R. B.; Eisen, J. A.; Kasten, T. L.; Fernald, R. D. (1998). "Second gene for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in humans". ... White, Richard B.; Fernald, Russell D. (1998). "Genomic Structure and Expression Sites of Three Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone ... In his research on the control of reproduction, Fernald's research showed neurons containing gonadotropin releasing hormone ( ...
John W. Kimball (12 February 2011). "Hormones of the Hypothalamus: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)". Kimball's Biology ... This secretion is regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) produced in the hypothalamus. Gonads start developing as a ... The gonads are controlled by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), produced and secreted by ... A gonad, sex gland, or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes and sex hormones of an organism. Female ...
... gonadotropin releasing hormone and testosterone). The diagnosis is often based on the history of the condition as well as a ... Anticoagulants (heparin and warfarin). Antihypertensives (i.e., hydralazine, guanethidine and propranolol). Hormones (i.e., ...
The anterior pituitary releases the gonadotropins luteunizing hormone (LH) into the ovaries, which produce estrogen, and ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretes from the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic GnRH pulse influences the pulsatile ... Activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) initiates puberty by secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone ( ... Chemicals and hormones found in the environment and plastics such as Bisphenol A (BPA) have been thought to affect sexual ...
Landgren V, Malki K, Bottai M, Arver S, Rahm C (April 2020). "Effect of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist on Risk of ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists "Degarelix (Firmagon) Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. 3 February 2020. ... Degarelix has an immediate onset of action, binding to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors in the pituitary gland ... van Poppel H, Nilsson S (June 2008). "Testosterone surge: rationale for gonadotropin-releasing hormone blockers?". Urology. 71 ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ... Gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF, GRF); Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, GRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing ... Kakar SS, Jennes L (November 1995). "Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor ... Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH, LHRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (FSH/LH ...
... is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. Pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors. The decapeptide GnRH is derived from ... encoded search term (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in Adults) and Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency in ... Hormone ontogeny in the ovine fetus: XIX: The effect of a potent luteinizing hormone-releasing factor agonist on gonadotropin ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor Agonist [Drug Class] (28 results) ...
... gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) or (iii) combined bicalutamide and GnRH (CAB), together with RRT.,/p,,p, ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) or (iii) combined bicalutamide and GnRH (CAB), together with RRT. ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) or (iii) combined bicalutamide and GnRH (CAB), together with RRT. ... death after radical radiotherapy with neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapy with bicalutamide or gonadotropin-releasing hormone ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ... Gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF, GRF); Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, GRH). *Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing ... Kakar SS, Jennes L (November 1995). "Expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor ... Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LRH, LHRH). *Follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (FSH/ ...
cellular response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone / G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway / multicellular organismal ... Receptor for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) that mediates the action of GnRH to stimulate the secretion of the ... Kakar SS: Molecular structure of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. Eur J Endocrinol. 1997 Aug;137(2):183- ... Grosse R, Schoneberg T, Schultz G, Gudermann T: Inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor signaling by expression ...
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH): Production, Structure and Functions. $179.00. Select options. * Dynamic Consumer Theory ...
Gonadotropin releasing hormone SBV Methyl-orange alkalinity GnRHa Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue ...
Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / deficiency* * Humans * Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System / physiopathology * Hypothalamus / ...
Suppression of gonadotropins and estradiol in premenopausal women by oral administration of the nonpeptide gonadotropin- ... of gonadotropins and estradiol in premenopausal women by oral administration of the nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... Serum gonadotropins declined rapidly. Estradiol was suppressed by 24 h in subjects receiving at least 50 mg/d. Daily (50-200 mg ... OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and inhibitory effects on gonadotropins and estradiol of ...
... using human chorionic gonadotropin and mammalian and salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues. Aquaculture. , 73(1-4), ... using human chorionic gonadotropin and mammalian and salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues. Export citation. *Global ... The response of mature female captive milkfish to mammalian and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (mGnRH-A and ... Induced spawning of maturing milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues ...
Randomized Trial Using Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Triptorelin for the Preservation of Ov.... November 2012 · ... Moderate association was also observed between hormone receptor status and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy, though it was ... tumor stage and hormone receptor status were estimated. Overall, 936 of these 1,431 patients (65.41%) received adjuvant ...
We hypothesized that gonadotropin releasing hormones receptor 2 (GnRH-R2), which together produce a signal that interacts with ... Effects of gonadotropin inhibitory hormone or gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproduction-related genes in the protandrous ... and luteinizing hormone (LH) gene expression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and sexual steroids in the Mediterranean ... Changes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor 2 during the anadromous spawning migration in Coilia nasus *Jin-Rong Duan1, ...
Prostaglandins mediate the endotoxin-induced suppression of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone ... Prostaglandins mediate the endotoxin-induced suppression of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone ... Prostaglandins mediate the endotoxin-induced suppression of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone ... Prostaglandins mediate the endotoxin-induced suppression of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone ...
Fertility Control in Free-Ranging Elk Using Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Leuprolide: Effects on Reproduction, ... Fertility Control in Free-Ranging Elk Using Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Leuprolide: Effects on Reproduction, ...
Effect of Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone on the Release of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in ... Effect of Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone on the Release of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in ... Effect of Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone on the Release of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in ... Effect of Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone on the Release of Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in ...
GonadotropinReleasing Hormone mRNA and Gonadotropin β‐Subunit mRNA Expression in the Adult Female Rat Exposed to Ethanol In ... Dive into the research topics of GonadotropinReleasing Hormone mRNA and Gonadotropin β‐Subunit mRNA Expression in the Adult ...
Chorionic Gonadotropin; DNA, 9007-49-2; Epidermal Growth Factor, 62229-50-9; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, 33515-09-2; ... steroidogenesis and gonadotropin secretion in response to long-term treatment with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in ... Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on rat ovarian follicle apoptosis: Regulation by epidermal growth factor ... Parborell, F.; Pecci, A.; Gonzalez, O.; Vitale, A.; Tesone, M. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on rat ...
Luliberin definition: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone.
New Horizons: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and cognition. June 01, 2023 *[ MEDLINE Abstract ] ... Growth hormone administration improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in overweight/obesity: a randomized trial. June 28, ... Hormones and Aging: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement The Endocrine Society has issued a scientific statement regarding ... Growth hormone treatment for non-GHD disorders: Excitement tempered by biology. July 14, 2023 ...
LH response to GnRH is a blood test to help determine if your pituitary gland can correctly respond to gonadotropin releasing ... to GnRH is a blood test to help determine if your pituitary gland can correctly respond to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH ... GnRH is a hormone made by the hypothalamus gland. LH is made by the pituitary gland. GnRH causes (stimulates) the pituitary ... Hypogonadism is a condition in which the sex glands make little or no hormones. In men, the sex glands (gonads) are the testes ...
... thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, HIV testing, C-reactive protein level, and chest radiography. Additional tests that could ... gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, and antiandrogens. ... which can precede elevations in gonadotropin hormone levels. ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone. Cough, fever, high-risk sexual activity, history of exposure to tuberculosis, immunocompromise, ... and thyroid hormone supplements2,18 (Table 22,4,18). Vasomotor symptoms are a common adverse effect of medications that mediate ...
... gonadotropin-releasing hormone), FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). These hormones trigger your ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), such as Factrel and Lutrepulse. This hormone triggers the release of FSH and LH from ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist), such as Antagon and Cetrotide.. These drugs arent pills that you ... Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist), such as Lupron, Synarel, and Zoladex. ...
Oviduct and uterus (4 days after gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced ovulation; D4) as well as the uterus (D7) were ... Incubation of the chorioamniotic membranes with HMGB1 1) induced the release of mature IL-1beta and IL-6; 2) upregulated the ... Detection of serum equine chorionic gonadotropin was used as a proxy for transplant lifespan. There was no significant ... equine chorionic gonadotropin) upon the recipients ovaries, and induction of host immune responses. Immunologic memory has not ...
Luteinizing Hormone (LH);. Weight Loss;. Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (HA);. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH);. ... ii.Hormone-based contraception iii.Sleeping pills iv.Homeopathic substances (e.g. Chinese herbs, protein or other powders, and ... Luteinizing hormone pulsatility is disrupted at a threshold of energy availability in regularly menstruating women. J Clin ... 6. Currently using hormone-based contraception, including those administered orally, vaginally, via injection, sub-dermally, or ...
E. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Explanation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a peptide hormone that acts on ... Dopamine, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), somatostatin, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) all are secreted by ... A. Thyroid hormone Explanation. Thyroid hormone, an amine, acts on its target tissues by a steroid hormone mechanism, inducing ... E. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Explanation. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary. ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. These may help relieve pain from problems such as endometriosis. ... Some medicines help with pain by controlling hormones. They include: *Hormonal birth control. This may be used for menstrual ... Common treatments include birth control pills or hormone treatment for problems related to your periods, or surgery to remove a ... Symptoms that are caused by hormone fluctuations often go away without treatment when menopause occurs. ...
Assessment of basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated gonadotropins by immunochemiluminometric and ... Effects and safety of combination therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue and growth hormone in girls with ... Use of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analogs in Children: Update by an International Consortium. Horm Res Paediatr. 2019. 91 ( ... Treatment outcomes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in obese girls with central precocious puberty. Ann Pediatr ...
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a releasing hormone responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH is a tropic peptide hormone synthesized and released from GnRH neurons within the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The portal blood carries the GnRH to the pituitary gland, which contains the gonadotrope cells, where GnRH activates its own receptor, gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR), a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor that stimulates the beta isoform of Phosphoinositide phospholipase C, which goes on to mobilize calcium and protein kinase C. This results in the activation of proteins involved in the synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins LH and FSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the pituitary, GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). (wikipedia.org)
  • Low-frequency GnRH pulses are required for FSH release, whereas high-frequency GnRH pulses stimulate LH pulses in a one-to-one manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH is considered a neurohormone, a hormone produced in a specific neural cell and released at its neural terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bundle together so they receive shared synaptic input, a process that allows them to synchronize their GnRH release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kisspeptin appears to be an important regulator of GnRH release. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH release can also be regulated by estrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a neurohormone central to initiation of the reproductive hormone cascade. (medscape.com)
  • Failure of this release results in isolated GnRH deficiency that can be distinguished by partial or complete lack of GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses, normalization with pulsatile GnRH replacement therapy, and otherwise normal hypothalamic-pituitary neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. (medscape.com)
  • Most patients have low serum levels of basal gonadotropins, estrogen/testosterone, and poor response to GnRH stimulation. (medscape.com)
  • The GnRH stimulation test using a synthetic GnRH analog, such as buserelin, has been used to differentiate males with gonadotropin deficiency from those with delayed puberty. (medscape.com)
  • GnRH binds with high affinity to cell surface LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptors located on the pituitary gonadotrophs. (medscape.com)
  • i) bicalutamide, (ii) gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRH) or (iii) combined bicalutamide and GnRH (CAB), together with RRT. (lu.se)
  • This article is about GnRH as a hormone. (wikidoc.org)
  • Receptor for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) that mediates the action of GnRH to stimulate the secretion of the gonadotropic hormones luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). (drugbank.com)
  • The response of maturing female milkfish to D-Ala 6 -des Gly 10 mammalian GnRH ethylamide (mGnRH-A), D-Arg 6 -des Gly 10 salmon GnRH ethylamide (sGnRH-A) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was investigated. (seafdec.org.ph)
  • We hypothesized that gonadotropin releasing hormones receptor 2 (GnRH-R2), which together produce a signal that interacts with the PG-axis, may help to regulate spawning migration processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Exp 5, flurbiprofen prevented the endotoxin-induced inhibition of pulsatile GnRH release into pituitary portal blood. (psu.edu)
  • The ability of pituitaries from lactating animals to secrete LH and FSH in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was studied in vitro using a pituitary incubation system. (elsevierpure.com)
  • LH release by anterior pituitaries (APs) from day 5 postpartum rats nursing eight pups, in response to pulsatile exposure to GnRH, was significantly less than that released by APs from diestrous cycling females. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Also, the total amount of FSH released in vitro in response to GnRH by pituitaries from lactating and cycling females did not differ significantly, even though LH release differed greatly among these groups of animals. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Generally, there was no correlation between the amount of LH or FSH released by pituitaries in response to GnRH and pituitary gonadotropin content. (elsevierpure.com)
  • LH response to GnRH is a blood test to help determine if your pituitary gland can correctly respond to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). (medlineplus.gov)
  • GnRH is a hormone made by the hypothalamus gland. (medlineplus.gov)
  • GnRH causes (stimulates) the pituitary gland to release LH. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They cause the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, located in your brain , to release hormones called GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), FSH ( follicle-stimulating hormone ) and LH ( luteinizing hormone ). (webmd.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) , such as Factrel and Lutrepulse. (webmd.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) , such as Lupron , Synarel, and Zoladex . (webmd.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) , such as Antagon and Cetrotide . (webmd.com)
  • DACT treatment also decreased release of LH from the pituitary in response to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by 47% compared to control. (cdc.gov)
  • In Exp 4, flurbiprofen failed to prevent suppression of pulsatile LH secretion induced by luteal phase levels of the ovarian steroids progesterone and estradiol, which produce a nonimmune suppression of gonadotropin secretion. (psu.edu)
  • Immunization against growth hormone releasing factor or chronic feed restriction initiated at 3.5 months of age reduces ovarian response to pulsatile administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone at 6 months of age and delays onset of puberty in heifers. (ncsu.edu)
  • de Roux N, Young J, Misrahi M, Genet R, Chanson P, Schaison G, Milgrom E: A family with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and mutations in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. (drugbank.com)
  • Kakar SS: Molecular structure of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. (drugbank.com)
  • Grosse R, Schoneberg T, Schultz G, Gudermann T: Inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor signaling by expression of a splice variant of the human receptor. (drugbank.com)
  • Kottler ML, Bergametti F, Carre MC, Morice S, Decoret E, Lagarde JP, Starzec A, Counis R: Tissue-specific pattern of variant transcripts of the human gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene. (drugbank.com)
  • Evidence that atrazine and diaminochlorotriazine inhibit the estrogen/progesterone induced surge of luteinizing hormone in female Sprague-Dawley rats without changing estrogen receptor action. (cdc.gov)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)-secreting tumors somewhat increase testicular size by stimulating testicular Leydig-cell LH receptors. (medscape.com)
  • Increased estrogen, by positive feedback, stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). (proprofs.com)
  • High levels of estrogen and possibly progesterone (female hormones) seem to stimulate their growth. (msdmanuals.com)
  • High oral doses of atrazine (ATRA) disrupt normal neuroendocrine function, resulting in suppression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in adult, ovariectomized (OVX) estrogen-primed female rats. (cdc.gov)
  • In response to rising estrogen levels, the pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), which stimulate the release of an ovum at the midpoint of the cycle. (medscape.com)
  • If implantation does not occur, in the absence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), the corpus luteum dies, accompanied by sharp drops in progesterone and estrogen levels. (medscape.com)
  • LH stands for luteinizing hormone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This drug combines FSH and LH (luteinizing hormone). (webmd.com)
  • Point E shows the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge that initiates ovulation at mid-cycle. (proprofs.com)
  • Parborell, F. Effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on rat ovarian follicle apoptosis: Regulation by epidermal growth factor and the expression of Bcl-2-related genes. (uba.ar)
  • Production of too much prolactin, a hormone made by the pituitary gland (often due to the presence of a benign pituitary gland tumor), or other conditions that damage or impair the function of the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland may result in low or no sperm production. (cdc.gov)
  • Suppression of gonadotropins and estradiol in premenopausal women by oral administration of the nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist elagolix. (druglib.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and inhibitory effects on gonadotropins and estradiol of single-dose and 7-d elagolix administration to healthy premenopausal women. (druglib.com)
  • These meds, called fertility drugs, work by causing your body to release hormones that trigger or regulate ovulation -- the release of an egg from your ovary. (webmd.com)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) , such as Bravelle , Fertinex , Follistim , and Gonal -F. These drugs trigger the growth of eggs in your ovaries. (webmd.com)
  • This hormone triggers the release of FSH and LH from your pituitary gland, but it's rarely prescribed in the U.S. (webmd.com)
  • These results suggest that elagolix may enable dose-related pituitary and gonadal suppression in premenopausal women as part of treatment strategies for reproductive hormone-dependent disease states. (druglib.com)
  • A severe or moderate suppression of serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was induced in heifers, beginning at 104 days of age, by active immunization against growth hormone-releasing factor (GRFi) or by chronic feed restriction (RES), respectively. (ncsu.edu)
  • In most such men, gonadotropin levels are not elevated, [ 6 ] and hypogonadism is caused by functional HPT axis suppression in the presence of an intact HPT axis (analogous to functional amenorrhea in women). (medscape.com)
  • The peptide belongs to gonadotropin-releasing hormone family. (wikipedia.org)
  • If Clomid on its own doesn't work, your doctor may recommend hormones to trigger ovulation. (webmd.com)
  • Common treatments include birth control pills or hormone treatment for problems related to your periods, or surgery to remove a growth, cyst, or tumor. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Serum gonadotropins declined rapidly. (druglib.com)
  • The ability of lactation to suppress the postcastration rise in serum LH also was demonstrated in vitro as pituitaries from ovariectomized or intact females nursing eight pups released similar amounts of LH on days 5 and 10 postpartum. (elsevierpure.com)
  • However, by day 15 postpartum, even though serum LH concentrations were still very low, pituitaries from ovariectomized lactating females released LH in vitro at a rate similar to pituitaries from nonlactating rats. (elsevierpure.com)
  • These hormones trigger your ovaries to make eggs. (webmd.com)
  • This medication is usually used along with other fertility drugs to trigger your ovaries to release an egg. (webmd.com)
  • A woman's body must release an egg from one of her ovaries . (cdc.gov)
  • The hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain produce hormones that maintain normal testicular function. (cdc.gov)
  • When the history and physical examination do not reveal a specific cause, physicians should proceed with a systematic and cost-conscious strategy that uses readily available laboratory and imaging studies, such as a complete blood count, tuberculosis testing, thyroid-stimulating hormone levels, HIV testing, C-reactive protein level, and chest radiography. (aafp.org)
  • The response of mature female captive milkfish to mammalian and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (mGnRH-A and sGnRH-A) was investigated. (seafdec.org.ph)
  • In contrast pituitaries from lactating females nursing two pups released amounts of LH similar to that released by pituitaries from diestrous females, whereas females deprived of their litters for 48 h showed a greater response than diestrous females. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Hypogonadism is a condition in which the sex glands make little or no hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) , such as Novarel , Ovidrel , Pregnyl , and Profasi . (webmd.com)
  • Generally, there was a good quantitative relationship between the amount of LH released in vitro and plasma LH concentrations for all the intact groups studied. (elsevierpure.com)
  • however, concentrations of both hormones were lower in GRFi than in control or RES heifers. (ncsu.edu)
  • Fibroids may become larger during pregnancy (when levels of these hormones increase), and fibroids tend to shrink after menopause (when levels decrease drastically). (msdmanuals.com)
  • In middle-aged and older men, functional (late-onset, age-related onset, or adult onset) hypogonadism is usually associated with low or normal gonadotropin levels. (medscape.com)
  • Injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes an increase in urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (proprofs.com)
  • dopamine may inhibit LH release in ovariectomized females. (wikipedia.org)
  • The author deals with the catfish Clarias macrocephalus which are artificially fertilized by inducing females to spawn using various hormones. (seafdec.org.ph)
  • Even though the amount of LH released by APs increased as lactation progressed, LH release by APs from day 15 postpartum rats nursing eight pups was still less than LH release by APs from diestrous females. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Effect of gonadotropins on the ability of 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) to inhibit germinal vesicle breakdown in bovine oocytes. (ncsu.edu)
  • I was young and otherwise healthy, but no amount of money or hormones could get me pregnant. (healthline.com)
  • As with clomiphene, injected hormones have a high rate of success in helping you to ovulate. (webmd.com)
  • Because endometriosis is a hormone-driven condition, the thought is that by stopping the hormones, the disease can be stopped as well. (healthline.com)