Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Testosterone Propionate: An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Kisspeptins: Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Hypothalamus, Middle: Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Neurokinin B: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Etiocholanolone: The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.Adrenal Cortex HormonesHydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.

Sex steroid and prolactin profiles in male American black bears (Ursus americanus) during denning. (1/2003)

Serum sex steroid and prolactin profiles were examined in the male American black bear, Ursus americanus during denning. Sera collected in December and the following March from 8 denning male black bears in Minnesota, U.S.A. were assayed for testosterone, estradiol-17 beta and prolactin. Eight bears were confirmed to be the denning mode based on a serum urea to creatinine ratio less than 10. Serum testosterone concentrations tended to increase from December to the subsequent March whereas serum estradiol-17 beta concentrations tended to decrease during this period. There were few changes in serum prolactin concentrations between December and March. These findings suggest that spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis initiated during denning may be influenced by changes in serum sex steroid concentrations in the American black bear.  (+info)

Myometrial zonal differentiation and uterine junctional zone hyperplasia in the non-pregnant uterus. (2/2003)

Human non-gravid myometrium differentiates in response to ovarian sex steroids into a subendometrial layer or junctional zone and an outer myometrial layer. Compared to the outer myometrial layer, the junctional zone myocytes are characterized by higher cellular density and lower cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio. These structural differences allow in-vivo visualization of the myometrial zonal anatomy by T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The human myometrium is also functionally polarized. Video-vaginosonography studies have shown that propagated myometrial contractions in the non-pregnant uterus originate only from the junctional zone and that the frequency and orientation of these contraction waves are dependent on the phase of the menstrual cycle. The mechanisms underlying zonal myometrial differentiation are not known, but growing evidence suggests that ovarian hormone action may be mediated through cytokines and uterotonins locally released by the basal endometrial layer and endometrio-myometrial T-lymphocytes. Irregular thickening of the junctional zone due to inordinate proliferation of the inner myometrium, junctional zone hyperplasia, is a common MR finding in women suffering from menstrual dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that junctional zone hyperplasia is further characterized by loss of normal inner myometrial function. Although irregular thickening of the junctional zone has been associated with diffuse uterine adenomyosis, the precise relationship between subendometrial smooth muscle proliferation and myometrial invasion by endometrial glands and stroma remains to be established.  (+info)

Semen quality and reproductive hormones before orchiectomy in men with testicular cancer. (3/2003)

PURPOSE: To obtain information about preorchiectomy gonadal function in patients with testicular germ cell cancer to improve the clinical management of fertility and other andrologic aspects in these men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In group 1, a group of 83 consecutive patients with testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) investigated before orchiectomy, semen analysis was carried out in 63 patients and hormonal investigations, including measurement of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), inhibin B, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), in 71 patients. Hormone levels in patients with elevated hCG (n = 41) were analyzed separately. To discriminate between general cancer effects and specific effects associated with TGCC, the same analyses were carried out in a group of 45 consecutive male patients with malignant lymphoma (group 2). Group 3 comprised 141 men employed in a Danish company who served as controls in the comparison of semen parameters. As a control group in hormone investigations, 193 men were selected randomly from the Danish National Personal Register to make up group 4. RESULTS: We found significantly lower sperm concentration (median, 15 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0 to 128 x 10(6)/mL) and total sperm count (median, 29 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0 to 589 x 10(6)) in patients with testicular cancer than in patients with malignant lymphomas (sperm concentration: median, 48 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0.04 to 250 x 10(6)/mL; sperm count: median, 146 x 10(6); range, 0.05 to 418 x 10(6)) (P < .001 and P < .001) and healthy men (sperm concentration: median, 48 x 10(6)/mL; range, 0 to 402 x 10(6)/mL; sperm count: median, 162 x 10(6); range, 0 to 1253 x 10(6)) (P < .001 and P < .001). FSH levels were increased in men with testicular cancer (median, 5.7 IU/L; range, 2.0 to 27 IU/L) compared with both men with malignant lymphomas (median, 3.3 IU/L; range, 1.01 to 12.0 IU/L) and healthy controls (median, 4.1 IU/L; range, 1.04 to 21 IU/L)(P = .001 and P = .007, respectively). Surprisingly, we found significantly lower LH in the group of men with TGCC (median, 3.6 IU/L; range, 1.12 to 11.9 IU/L) than in healthy men (median, 4.7 IU/L; range, 1.3 to 11.9 IU/L) (P = .01). We could not detect any differences between men with testicular cancer and men with malignant lymphomas and healthy men with regard to serum levels of testosterone, SHBG, and estradiol. Men with testicular cancer who had increased hCG levels had significantly lower LH and significantly higher testosterone and estradiol than those without detectable hCG levels. CONCLUSION: Spermatogenesis is already impaired in men with testicular cancer before orchiectomy. Neither local suppression of spermatogenesis by tumor pressure nor a general cancer effect seems to fully explain this impairment. The most likely explanation is preexisting impairment of spermatogenesis in the contralateral testis in men with testicular cancer. The question of whether also a pre-existing Leydig cell dysfunction is present in men with testicular cancer could not be answered in this study because the tumor seems to have a direct effect on the Leydig cells. Men with testicular cancer had low LH values as compared with controls. We speculate that increased intratesticular level of hCG also in men without measurable serum hCG may play a role by exerting LH-like effects on the Leydig cells, causing increased testosterone and estrogen levels and low LH values in the blood.  (+info)

Suppression of the secretion of luteinizing hormone due to isolation/restraint stress in gonadectomised rams and ewes is influenced by sex steroids. (4/2003)

In this study we used an isolation/restraint stress to test the hypothesis that stress will affect the secretion of LH differently in gonadectomised rams and ewes treated with different combinations of sex steroids. Romney Marsh sheep were gonadectomised two weeks prior to these experiments. In the first experiment male and female sheep were treated with vehicle or different sex steroids for 7 days prior to the application of the isolation/restraint stress. Male sheep received either i.m. oil (control rams) or 6 mg testosterone propionate injections every 12 h. Female sheep were given empty s.c. implants (control ewes), or 2x1 cm s.c. implants containing oestradiol, or an intravaginal controlled internal drug release device containing 0.3 g progesterone, or the combination of oestradiol and progesterone. There were four animals in each group. On the day of application of the isolation/restraint stress, blood samples were collected every 10 min for 16 h for the subsequent measurement of plasma LH and cortisol concentrations. After 8 h the stress was applied for 4 h. Two weeks later, blood samples were collected for a further 16 h from the control rams and ewes, but on this day no stress was imposed. In the second experiment, separate control gonadectomised rams and ewes (n=4/group) were studied for 7 h on 3 consecutive days, when separate treatments were applied. On day 1, the animals received no treatment; on day 2, isolation/restraint stress was applied after 3 h; and on day 3, an i. v. injection of 2 microg/kg ACTH1-24 was given after 3 h. On each day, blood samples were collected every 10 min and the LH response to the i.v. injection of 500 ng GnRH administered after 5 h of sampling was measured. In Experiment 1, the secretion of LH was suppressed during isolation/restraint in all groups but the parameters of LH secretion (LH pulse frequency and amplitude) that were affected varied between groups. In control rams, LH pulse amplitude, and not frequency, was decreased during isolation/restraint whereas in rams treated with testosterone propionate the stressor reduced pulse frequency and not amplitude. In control ewes, isolation/restraint decreased LH pulse frequency but not amplitude. Isolation/restraint reduced both LH pulse frequency and amplitude in ewes treated with oestradiol, LH pulse frequency in ewes treated with progesterone and only LH pulse amplitude in ewes treated with both oestradiol and progesterone. There was no change in LH secretion during the day of no stress. Plasma concentrations of cortisol were higher during isolation/restraint than on the day of no stress. On the day of isolation/restraint maximal concentrations of cortisol were observed during the application of the stressor but there were no differences between groups in the magnitude of this response. In Experiment 2, isolation/restraint reduced the LH response to GnRH in rams but not ewes and ACTH reduced the LH response to GnRH both in rams and ewes. Our results show that the mechanism(s) by which isolation/restraint stress suppresses LH secretion in sheep is influenced by sex steroids. The predominance of particular sex steroids in the circulation may affect the extent to which stress inhibits the secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus and/or the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to the actions of GnRH. There are also differences between the sexes in the effects of stress on LH secretion that are independent of the sex steroids.  (+info)

Flow cytometric method to isolate round spermatids from mouse testis. (5/2003)

The purpose of this study was to isolate pure populations of round spermatids from mouse testis by flow cytometry followed by cell sorting. Cell suspensions from mouse testis were enriched in germ cells by centrifugation on a discontinuous Percoll gradient, then analysed using a FACScalibur flow cytometer measuring the cell size and density. A large and well-delimited population of cells (R1) expected to contain round spermatids was observed on the dot plot diagram. Sorted R1 cells were very homogeneous in size (approximately 11 microns) and displayed the characteristic cytological aspect of round spermatids. Spermatid-specific gene expression was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of R1 cells using primers for protamine 2 gene (PRM2) and SP-10. A positive signal for SP-10 was obtained with a single cell using nested primers. The 5.5 kb transcript of c-kit, which is not expressed in spermatids, was not detected by nested RT-PCR, excluding a contamination with spermatogonia. Our results clearly established that flow cytometry followed by cell sorting allows the isolation of a highly homogeneous population of round spermatids from the testis.  (+info)

Hormonal regulation of apolipoprotein AI. (6/2003)

Apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) is the major protein component of the serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. The antiatherogenic properties of apo AI alone or as part of HDL and their inverse correlation with the incidence of coronary heart disease underlie the clinical importance of the protein. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which apo AI is regulated will help us develop new and better ways to manipulate expression of the protein. Although there are many factors that influence apo AI expression, endogenous hormones are attractive because simple changes in abundance of these compounds will alter gene activity. Hormones belonging to the thyroid/steroid family that influence activity of the gene include thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, gender-specific steroids and retinoic acid. Whereas thyroid, glucocorticoid and estradiol enhance activity of the gene, retinoic acid and androgens decrease it. The mechanisms that mediate the effects of the hormones include direct effects of the ligand and nuclear receptor complex on gene activity. However, indirect means involving the participation of transcription factors other than the hormone receptors are also possible. In summary, members of the same hormone family may have different mechanisms that mediate their activities on apo AI gene activity.  (+info)

Involvement of gonadal steroid hormone disturbance in altered prolactin receptor gene expression in the liver of diabetic mice. (7/2003)

The levels of mRNA for long and three short forms of prolactin receptor (PRLR) were examined in the livers of normal (db+/db-) and insulin-resistant diabetic (db+/db+) mice to assess the role of gonadal steroid hormones in the regulation of PRLR gene expression in diabetes mellitus. In females, plasma levels of testosterone in diabetic mice were higher, and those of 17beta-estradiol were lower when compared with levels in normal mice. By contrast, diabetic male mice had lower plasma levels of testosterone than normal males and showed no significant difference in the low circulating level of 17beta-estradiol compared with normal males. The short 3 form of PRLR (PRLR3) mRNA was the most abundant in the liver of both normal and diabetic mice. In addition, the level of PRLR3 mRNA in normal females was 8-fold higher than in normal males. The level of PRLR3 mRNA in diabetic females was approximately a quarter lower than in normal females, whereas the level of PRLR3 mRNA in diabetic males was approximately 2-fold higher than in normal males. During postnatal development, the level of PRLR3 mRNA increased during puberty in normal females, while the level in diabetic females decreased to a nadir at 7 weeks of age followed by a progressive rise. On the other hand, the levels of PRLR3 mRNA in both normal and diabetic males decreased gradually during 5 to 14 weeks of age. Testosterone treatment of diabetic males and females resulted in a 49.1 and 49.8% decrease of PRLR3 mRNA respectively. 17beta-Estradiol treatment slightly (18%) increased levels of PRLR3 mRNA in diabetic males. These results suggest that the hepatic level of PRLR mRNA is regulated by the inhibitory effect of testosterone and the stimulatory effect of estrogen in both normal and diabetic mice.  (+info)

The Rho-related protein Rnd1 inhibits Ca2+ sensitization of rat smooth muscle. (8/2003)

1. The small GTP-binding Rho proteins are involved in the agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle. The action and the expression of Rnd1, a new member of the Rho protein family constitutively bound to GTP, has been studied in rat smooth muscle. 2. Recombinant prenylated Rnd1 (0.01-0.1 mg ml-1) dose dependently inhibited carbachol- and GTPgammaS-induced Ca2+ sensitization in beta-escin-permeabilized ileal smooth muscle strips but had no effect on the tension at submaximal [Ca2+] (pCa 6.3). Rnd1 inhibited GTPgammaS-induced tension without shifting the dose-response curves to GTPgammaS. 3. pCa-tension relationships were not modified by Rnd1 and the rise in tension induced through the inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase by calyculin A was not affected by Rnd1. 4. The Ca2+ sensitization induced by recombinant RhoA was completely abolished when RhoA and Rnd1 were applied together. 5. Rnd1 was expressed at a low level in membrane fractions prepared from intestinal or arterial smooth muscles. The expression of Rnd1 was strongly increased in ileal and aortic smooth muscle from rats treated with progesterone or oestrogen. Progesterone-treated ileal muscle strips showed a decrease in agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization. 6. The present study shows that (i) Rnd1 inhibits agonist- and GTPgammaS-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle by specifically interfering with a RhoA-dependent mechanism and (ii) an increase in Rnd1 expression may account, at least in part, for the steroid-induced decrease in agonist-induced Ca2+ sensitization.  (+info)

  • We speculate that perinatal gonadal steroids and elevated gonadatropins may affect growth and the growth hormone (GH) /IGF-1 axis. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SUMMARY] These data indicate that GnRHa induced gonadal suppression did not affect somatic growth or IGF-1 in male rats, while suppressed gonadotropin-estrogen axis resulted in increased body weight without changes in circulating IGF-1 levels in female rats, and this effect appears to be mediated through GH. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of this study was to study the association between sex hormone levels and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). (nih.gov)
  • We observed significant differences in sex hormone levels in patients who suffered SCA, with potential mechanistic implications. (nih.gov)
  • MATERIALS and METHODS] Spontaneous dwarf rat was used as a model of complete GH deficiency (GHD), and Sprague-Dawlry (SD) rat was used as control.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa : Leuprolide acetate depot, 2mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously every 3 weeks. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sex hormones are known to have significant effects on the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. (nih.gov)
  • Behavioral studies have not been useful in understanding the relationship between sex hormones and pain perception, and certainly have not helped to elucidate the mechanisms by which such effects may be mediated. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Women using hormones were excluded, leaving 364 breast cancer cases and 382 women in the subcohort for the analyses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, we conclude by considering how results of studies imaging the influence of sex hormones in related areas such as emotion and cognition also may inform our understanding of this complex area. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The strong modulatory effect of gonadal steroids on GH responsiveness provides insights into the biologic basis of sexual dimorphism in growth, development, and body composition and practical information for the clinical endocrinologist in the treatment of hypopituitary patients. (garvan.org.au)
  • For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. (ualg.pt)
  • A different pattern of gonadal development was found in embryos from the OP100 group compared with embryos from the control, OP25 or E 2 groups, in which approximately 50% had normal ovaries and 50% had normal presmptive male gonads. (biologists.org)
  • As oestrogen receptor (ER) expression was detected by in situ hybridisation in early differentiating gonads, these effects could be mediated by direct interaction of the xeno-oestrogens with gonadal ER. (biologists.org)
  • In the book, Moore argues that regulation of sex differentiation in mammals is not controlled by sex hormones secreted by embryonic sex organs (gonads), but is controlled by non-hormonal genetic factors. (asu.edu)
  • He explains that once an organism approaches puberty or the beginning of its reproductive life, hormones secreted by the gonads influence the reproductive system's functions and development of secondary sex characteristics. (asu.edu)
  • Moore reviews his experiments over the course of thirty years with rats, guinea pigs, and, opossums, studies that led him to conclude that hormones released by the embryonic gonads didn't cause the reproductive system to differentiate from other tissues, and that something else did, an interpretation contrary to Lillie's assertion. (asu.edu)
  • Moore also treated opossum young with hormones that stimulate gonads (gonadotropins), and he states that such treatment failed to produce appreciable amounts of sex hormones from the gonads. (asu.edu)
  • Sex hormones are produced by the gonads-testes in men, ovaries in women. (jaoa.org)
  • This distinction is not exclusive , however, because the adrenal cortex also secretes sex hormones, albeit to a lesser extent than do the gonads, and the ovaries under abnormal conditions may produce adrenal steroids. (britannica.com)
  • This hormone is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and to some degree in the gonads, specifically the corpus luteum of the ovary. (hmdb.ca)
  • The natural steroid hormones are generally synthesized from cholesterol in the gonads and adrenal glands . (bionity.com)
  • Metabolites of the gonadal steroid hormones - particularly 3α-hydroxy, 5α-reduced neurosteroids - are synthesized in the brain and can act through different mechanisms from their parent steroids. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2018). The present evaluate focuses more specifically within the 3-hydroxy, 5-reduced metabolites of Gata1 circulating and neuro-steroids, as well as potential mechanisms through which they may exert neuroprotective effects in the nervous system. (bioinf.org)
  • These results help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying steroid feedback in vivo, since reduction in pituitary responsiveness to LHRH may play an important role in T feedback, while facilitation by E of both self-priming and desensitization may serve to increase the magnitude and shorten the duration of the proestrous LH surge. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The influence of sex steroid hormones on the response to trauma and burn injury Trauma and related sequelae result in disturbance of homeostatic mechanisms frequently leading to cellular dysfunction and ultimately organ and system failure. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Throughout, major emphasis is placed on pathological conditions, aiming at the many physiologists and developmental biologists who are familiar with the importance and mechanisms of hormone regulation but have a limited background in epigenetics. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Understanding these pathophysiological states is not only important for revealing the etiology of the disorders but is also crucial for elucidating possible mechanisms of the normative state, which may be influenced by interactions between adrenal and gonadal hormones. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hoda H. Ahmed ,M. F. A. Fayez ,J. Meites , Episodic growth hormone secretory patterns in male rats: relationship to gonadal steroid hormones, Alex. (who.int)
  • Influencing hormones include thyroid hormones, growth hormone, and adrenal and gonadal steroids. (medscape.com)
  • These studies are being done in collaboration with Dr. John Houle at Drexel University, and include combinatorial treatment strategies utilizing growth factors and olfactory ensheathing cells to promote axonal regeneration and behavioral recovery following neuroprotective treatment with gonadal steroid administration immediately after SCI. (iu.edu)
  • Growth hormone releasing factor and growth hormone fall into this category -- being released in a pulse lasting for minutes in the middle of the night. (ceri.com)
  • Clinical implications of growth hormone-secreting tumor subtypes. (ucdenver.edu)
  • We aimed to study the possible roles of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in this growth pattern. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION Based on these findings, it can be concluded that reduced growth hormone secretion may contribute to the pattern of slow linear growth and reduced final height observed in these patients. (bmj.com)
  • 2 They may also have a risk of growth hormone deficiency as a consequence of various associated brain malformations. (bmj.com)
  • AAS have largely been replaced in this setting by synthetic protein hormones (such as epoetin alfa ) that selectively stimulate growth of blood cell precursors . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the availability of synthetic growth hormone , which has fewer side effects, makes this a secondary treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable data have been accumulated regarding the effect of naturally-occurring and synthetic sex steroids on glucose and insulin metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Controlling or major regulatory hormones include PTH, calcitonin, and vitamin D. The image below reviews vitamin D metabolism. (medscape.com)
  • CYP1B1 is also implicated in the etiology of hormone-mediated tumors, as it is responsible for hormone metabolism and the formation of toxic metabolites from both endogenous and exogenous molecules ( 13 - 16 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to its relevance in cancer risk, CYP1B1 is involved in the metabolism of some clinically relevant anticancer agents used in the treatment of hormone-mediated cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • in particular, morphological organi- zation of the central nervous system and functional influence by neuroactive steroids , genes, and immune system are considered. (degruyter.com)
  • It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR. (umassmed.edu)
  • This raises the chance that gonadal steroid hormone-mediated neuroprotection, and sex distinctions in the introduction of neurodegenerative illnesses, may be influenced by neurosteroids that respond through distinct systems off their precursors. (bioinf.org)
  • These metabolites may provide a mechanism for modulating the responses to their precursor hormones, thereby providing a regulatory influence on cellular responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The enzymes essential for transformation of the principal gonadal steroid human hormones to various other biologically energetic metabolites can be found in the mind. (bioinf.org)
  • Lately, this hypothesis provides obtained added impetus in the recognition which the neuroprotective ramifications of steroids, whether synthesized or produced from peripheral steroidogenesis locally, could be augmented and varied through local transformation to metabolites with natural properties not the same as those of their mother or father human hormones. (bioinf.org)
  • Gonadal steroid hormones are neurotrophic and neuroprotective. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are also examining the ability of gonadal steroid hormones to be neuroprotective after acute contusion spinal cord injury at the cervical level - a model relevant to our veteran population today. (iu.edu)
  • The role of sex hormones in the genesis of fatal ventricular arrhythmias warrants further exploration. (nih.gov)
  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum is used to produce proteins that will be secreted from the cell, including most peptide hormones. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Shafey, S. and Scheinberg, P.: Neurological syndromes occuring in patients receiving synthetic steroids (oral contraceptives). (springer.com)
  • A variety of synthetic steroids and sterols have also been contrived. (bionity.com)
  • It has been suggested that many known breast cancer risk factors may exert their effect via levels of endogenous sex hormones. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that breast cancer risk associated with measures of body size may be mediated, at least partially, by levels of endogenous sex hormones. (nih.gov)
  • The regulation of immune response is different in males and females due to the presence of different hormones. (hindawi.com)