A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme that hydrolyzes thiamine pyrophosphate to thiamine monophosphate plus inorganic phosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A 700-kDa cytosolic protein complex consisting of seven equimolar subunits (alpha, beta, beta', gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta). COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 are principle components of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I and are involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
TRANSPORT VESICLES formed when cell-membrane coated pits (COATED PITS, CELL-MEMBRANE) invaginate and pinch off. The outer surface of these vesicles is covered with a lattice-like network of COP (coat protein complex) proteins, either COPI or COPII. COPI coated vesicles transport backwards from the cisternae of the GOLGI APPARATUS to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH), while COPII coated vesicles transport forward from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Osmium. A very hard, gray, toxic, and nearly infusible metal element, atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.2, symbol Os. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
The decarboxylation product of UDPglucuronic acid, which is used for formation of the xylosides of seryl hydroxyl groups in mucoprotein synthesis. Also forms plant xylans.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC and EC
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
The main structural coat protein of COATED VESICLES which play a key role in the intracellular transport between membranous organelles. Each molecule of clathrin consists of three light chains (CLATHRIN LIGHT CHAINS) and three heavy chains (CLATHRIN HEAVY CHAINS) that form a structure called a triskelion. Clathrin also interacts with cytoskeletal proteins.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
An island in Micronesia, east of the Philippines, the largest and southernmost of the Marianas. Its capital is Agana. It was discovered by Magellan in 1521 and occupied by Spain in 1565. They ceded it to the United States in 1898. It is an unincorporated territory of the United States, administered by the Department of the Interior since 1950. The derivation of the name Guam is in dispute. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p471)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
A family of large adaptin protein subunits of approximately 90 KDa in size. They have been primarily found as components of ADAPTOR PROTEIN COMPLEX 1.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the C-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the C-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.
An enzyme complex that catalyzes the transfer of GALACTOSE from UDP GALACTOSE to GLUCOSE, forming LACTOSE. The enzyme complex is composed of a B subunit, ALPHA-LACTALBUMIN, which changes the substrate specificity of the A subunit, N-ACETYLLACTOSAMINE SYNTHASE, from N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE to glucose making lactose synthesis the preferred reaction.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A class of proteins involved in the transport of molecules via TRANSPORT VESICLES. They perform functions such as binding to the cell membrane, capturing cargo molecules and promoting the assembly of CLATHRIN. The majority of adaptor proteins exist as multi-subunit complexes, however monomeric varieties have also been found.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar formed from GDPmannose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls, and for blood group substances and other glycoproteins.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.
The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (1/7236)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B mediates membrane binding and directs sorting from the trans-Golgi network to secretory granules. (2/7236)

The disulfide-bonded loop of chromogranin B (CgB), a regulated secretory protein with widespread distribution in neuroendocrine cells, is known to be essential for the sorting of CgB from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to immature secretory granules. Here we show that this loop, when fused to the constitutively secreted protein alpha1-antitrypsin (AT), is sufficient to direct the fusion protein to secretory granules. Importantly, the sorting efficiency of the AT reporter protein bearing two loops (E2/3-AT-E2/3) is much higher compared with that of AT with a single disulfide-bonded loop. In contrast to endogenous CgB, E2/3-AT-E2/3 does not undergo Ca2+/pH-dependent aggregation in the TGN. Furthermore, the disulfide-bonded loop of CgB mediates membrane binding in the TGN and does so with 5-fold higher efficiency if two loops are present on the reporter protein. The latter finding supports the concept that under physiological conditions, aggregates of CgB are the sorted units of cargo which have multiple loops on their surface leading to high membrane binding and sorting efficiency of CgB in the TGN.  (+info)

Identification of a new Pyk2 target protein with Arf-GAP activity. (3/7236)

Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 is activated by a variety of G-protein-coupled receptors and by extracellular signals that elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We have identified a new Pyk2 binding protein designated Pap. Pap is a multidomain protein composed of an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal SH3 domain. We demonstrate that Pap forms a stable complex with Pyk2 and that activation of Pyk2 leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of Pap in living cells. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrate that Pap is localized in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it is colocalized with Pyk2. In addition, in vitro recombinant Pap exhibits strong GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards the small GTPases Arf1 and Arf5 and weak activity towards Arf6. Addition of recombinant Pap protein to Golgi preparations prevented Arf-dependent generation of post-Golgi vesicles in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of Pap in cultured cells reduced the constitutive secretion of a marker protein. We propose that Pap functions as a GAP for Arf and that Pyk2 may be involved in regulation of vesicular transport through its interaction with Pap.  (+info)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells. (4/7236)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.  (+info)

Langerhans cells in the human oesophagus. (5/7236)

The dendrite cells of Langerhans, first identified in the epidermis, have now been observed in the middle and superficial layers of the normal human oesophageal mucosa. They exhibit typical Langerhans granules, but no desmosomes and tonofilaments. They often have irregular indented nuclei, with a relatively pale cytoplasm contrasting with that of the adjacent squamous cells. These cells are sometimes difficult to distinguish from intra-epithelial lymphocytes, which are also encountered in the oesophageal mucosa and which share certain ultrastructural characteristics with Langerhans cells.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (6/7236)

The vacuole is the major site of intracellular Ca2+ storage in yeast and functions to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ levels within a narrow physiological range. In this study, we examined how cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in a vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant. We found that growth of the vps33Delta strain was sensitive to high or low extracellular Ca2+. This strain could not properly regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and was able to retain only a small fraction of its total cellular Ca2+ in a nonexchangeable intracellular pool. Surprisingly, the vps33Delta strain contained more total cellular Ca2+ than the wild type strain. Because most cellular Ca2+ is normally found within the vacuole, this suggested that other intracellular compartments compensated for the reduced capacity to store Ca2+ within the vacuole of this strain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the contribution of the Golgi-localized Ca2+ ATPase Pmr1p in the maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that a vps33Delta/pmr1Delta strain was hypersensitive to high extracellular Ca2+. In addition, certain combinations of mutations effecting both vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+ transport resulted in synthetic lethality. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis when vacuolar biogenesis is compromised.  (+info)

Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. (7/7236)

SNARE proteins are known to play a role in regulating intracellular protein transport between donor and target membranes. This docking and fusion process involves the interaction of specific vesicle-SNAREs (e.g. VAMP) with specific cognate target-SNAREs (e.g. syntaxin and SNAP-23). Using human SNAP-23 as the bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human B-lymphocyte cDNA library, we have identified the 287-amino-acid SNARE protein syntaxin 11. Like other syntaxin family members, syntaxin 11 binds to the SNARE proteins VAMP and SNAP-23 in vitro and also exists in a complex with SNAP-23 in transfected HeLa cells and in native human B lymphocytes. Unlike other syntaxin family members, no obvious transmembrane domain is present in syntaxin 11. Nevertheless, syntaxin 11 is predominantly membrane-associated and colocalizes with the mannose 6-phosphate receptor on late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network. These data suggest that syntaxin 11 is a SNARE that acts to regulate protein transport between late endosomes and the trans-Golgi network in mammalian cells.  (+info)

The genes for the Golgi apparatus N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transporter are contiguous in Kluyveromyces lactis. (8/7236)

The mannan chains of Kluyveromyces lactis mannoproteins are similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae except that they lack mannose phosphate and have terminal alpha(1-->2)-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Previously, Smith et al. (Smith, W. L. Nakajima, T., and Ballou, C. E. (1975) J. Biol. Chem. 250, 3426-3435) characterized two mutants, mnn2-1 and mnn2-2, which lacked terminal N-acetylglucosamine in their mannoproteins. The former mutant lacks the Golgi N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity, whereas the latter one was recently found to be deficient in the Golgi UDP-GlcNAc transporter activity. Analysis of extensive crossings between the two mutants led Ballou and co-workers (reference cited above) to conclude that these genes were allelic or tightly linked. We have now cloned the gene encoding the K. lactis Golgi membrane N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase by complementation of the mnn2-1 mutation and named it GNT1. The mnn2-1 mutant was transformed with a 9.5-kilobase (kb) genomic fragment previously shown to contain the gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc transporter; transformants were isolated, and phenotypic correction was monitored after cell surface labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia II lectin, which binds terminal N-acetylglucosamine, and a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. The above 9.5-kb DNA fragment restored the wild-type lectin binding phenotype of the transferase mutant; further subcloning of this fragment yielded a smaller one containing an opening reading frame of 1,383 bases encoding a protein of 460 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 53 kDa, which also restored the wild-type phenotype. Transformants had also regained the ability to transfer N-acetylglucosamine to 3-0-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannopyranoside. The gene encoding the above transferase was found to be approximately 1 kb upstream from the previously characterized MNN2 gene encoding the UDP-GlcNAc Golgi transporter. Each gene can be transcribed independently by their own promoter. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of two Golgi apparatus functionally related genes being contiguous in a genome.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus has long been suggested to be important for directing secretion to specific sites on the plasma membrane in response to extracellular signaling events. However, the mechanisms by which signaling events are coordinated with Golgi apparatus function remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a scaffolding function for the Golgi matrix protein GM130 that sheds light on how such signaling events may be regulated. We show that the mammalian Ste20 kinases YSK1 and MST4 target to the Golgi apparatus via the Golgi matrix protein GM130. In addition, GM130 binding activates these kinases by promoting autophosphorylation of a conserved threonine within the T-loop. Interference with YSK1 function perturbs perinuclear Golgi organization, cell migration, and invasion into type I collagen. A biochemical screen identifies 14-3-3zeta as a specific substrate for YSK1 that localizes to the Golgi apparatus, and potentially links YSK1 signaling at the Golgi apparatus with protein transport events, cell
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reconstitution of sterol-regulated endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi transport of SREBP-2 in insect cells by co-expression of mammalian SCAP and Insigs. AU - Dobrosotskaya, Irina Y.. AU - Goldstein, Joseph L.. AU - Brown, Michael S.. AU - Rawson, Robert B.. PY - 2003/9/12. Y1 - 2003/9/12. N2 - In mammalian cells, membrane-bound sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transported from ER to Golgi where they are processed proteolytically to generate soluble transcription factors that activate lipid synthesis. ER-to-Golgi transport requires SCAP, a sterol-regulated escort protein. In sterol-treated cells, the SCAP/SREBP complex binds to Insig-1 or Insig-2, which retains the complex in the ER, blocking SREBP processing and decreasing lipid synthesis. In Drosophila cells, the endogenous SCAP/SREBP complex is transported to Golgi, but transport is blocked by phosphatidylethanolamine instead of sterols. Here, we show that mammalian SREBP-2 is not transported to Golgi when ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Rab GTPases control vesicle movement and tethering membrane events in membrane trafficking. We used the 38 human Rab GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) to identify which of the 60 Rabs encoded in the human genome function at the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, this screen identified only two GAPs, RN-tre and TBC1D20, disrupting both Golgi organization and protein transport. RN-tre is the GAP for Rab43, and controls retrograde transport into the Golgi from the endocytic pathway. TBC1D20 is the ER-localized GAP for Rab1, and is the only GAP blocking the delivery of secretory cargo from the ER to the cell surface. Strikingly, its expression causes the loss of the Golgi complex, highlighting the importance of Rab1 for Golgi biogenesis. These effects can be antagonized by reticulon, a binding partner for TBC1D20 in the ER. Together, these findings indicate that Rab1 and Rab43 are key Rabs required for the biogenesis and maintenance of a functional Golgi structure, and suggest that other Rabs acting at the Golgi
Transition zones are associated with the Golgi stacks. They are close to each other. This makes sense because the communication is more efficient. Vesicles dont need to travel long distances and the existence of the Golgi apparatus itself depends on a continuous process of vesicle incoming. It has been observed that a new transition zone led quickly to the nearby formation of a new Golgi stack. On the contrary, if a transition zone disappears, the associated Golgi cisternae are also lost. Transition zones can fuse with others and one transition zone can be split in two. Their associated Golgi stacks match this behavior. Vesicles budding from the transition zones are COPII coated vesicles ( COPII: coat protein II; Figure 1). Several proteins are involved in the formation of this COPII molecular framework: Sec16, Sar1 GTPases, Sec23/24 and Sec13/31. In this order, they are assembled at the cytosolic surface of the transition zone membranes. Transition zones are the more suitable environments for ...
Multiple epidemiologic observations and meta-analysis clearly indicate the link between alcohol abuse and the incidence and progression of prostate cancer; however, the mechanism remains enigmatic. Recently, it was found that ethanol (EtOH) induces disorganization of the Golgi complex caused by impaired function of the largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin (GOLGB1), which, in turn, alters the Golgi docking of resident Golgi proteins. Here, it is determined that in normal prostate cells, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), the known regulator of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, localizes in the cytoplasm and nucleus, while its kinase, glycogen synthase kinase β (GSK3β), primarily resides in the Golgi. Progression of prostate cancer is accompanied by Golgi scattering, translocation of GSK3β from the Golgi to the cytoplasm, and the cytoplasmic shift in HDAC6 localization. Alcohol dehydrogenase-generated metabolites induces Golgi disorganization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of the subunit organization and function of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. T2 - Studies of COG5- and COG7-deficient mammalian cells. AU - Oka, Toshihiko. AU - Vasile, Eliza. AU - Penman, Marsha. AU - Novina, Carl D.. AU - Dykxhoorn, Derek M.. AU - Ungar, Daniel. AU - Hughson, Frederick M.. AU - Krieger, Monty. PY - 2005/9/23. Y1 - 2005/9/23. N2 - The conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex is an eight-subunit (Cog1-8) peripheral Golgi protein involved in Golgi-associated membrane trafficking and glycoconjugate synthesis. We have analyzed the structure and function of COG using Cog1 or Cog2 null Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants, fibroblasts from a patient with Cog7-deficient congenital disorders of glycosylation, and stable Cog5-deficient HeLa cells generated by RNA interference. Although the dilation of some Golgi cisternae in Cog5-deficient cells resembled that observed in Cog1- or Cog2-deficient cells, their global glycosylation defects (less ...
Microtubules (MT) are required for the efficient transport of membranes from the trans-Golgi and for transcytosis of vesicles from the basolateral membrane to the apical cytoplasm in polarized epithelia. MTs in these cells are primarily oriented with their plus ends basally near the Golgi and their minus-ends in the apical cytoplasm. Here we report that isolated Golgi and Golgi-enriched membranes from intestinal epithelial cells possess the actin based motor myosin-I, the MT minus-end-directed motor cytoplasmic dynein and its in vitro motility activator dynactin (p150/Glued). The Golgi can be separated into stacks, possessing features of the Golgi cisternae, and small membranes enriched in the trans-Golgi network marker TGN 38/41. Whereas myosin-I is present on all membranes in the Golgi fraction, dynein is present only on the small membrane fraction. Dynein, like myosin-I, is associated with membranes as a cytoplasmic peripheral membrane protein. Dynein and myosin-I coassociate with membranes ...
gi,17538522,ref,NP_501092.1, component of oligomeric Golgi complex 2; brefeldin A-sensitive, LDLC related peripheral Golgi protein, required for normal Golgi function; contains an N myristoylation domain (78.6 kD) (4H802) [Caenorhabditis elegans] gi,2498513,sp,Q21444,COG2_CAEEL Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex component 2 (LDLC protein homolog) gi,1078836,pir,,B53542 brefeldin A-sensitive Golgi protein LDLC - Caenorhabditis elegans gi,807871,emb,CAA84428.1, Cog2 protein [Caenorhabditis elegans] ...
The Golgi complex, also known as the Golgi apparatus or simply the Golgi, is a cytoplasmic organelle. It is found in eukaryote cells, as in animals, plants, and fungi. The complex was discovered by Camillo Golgi in 1898. Golgi, who worked at Pavia, Italy, was ignored. His discovery was said to be dirt on his lenses. Years later, electron microscope pictures showed structures just like in the original Golgi drawings. It is made of several flattened sac-like membranes which look like a stack of pancakes. The main function of the Golgi apparatus is to process and package macromolecules, such as proteins and lipids. They come to the Golgi after being built, and before they go to their destination. In general, what the Golgi does is Much of the enzymatic processing is post-translational modification of proteins. The Golgi complex inspects them for flaws and discards extra material added during their manufacture, wraps them up and then targets them for packaging. The Golgi complex is especially active ...
The stiochiometric phosphorylation of golgin-84 in mitosis together with its binding to active rab1 suggested that it may play a role in Golgi structure and/or membrane trafficking through the Golgi apparatus. To address a possible structural role for golgin-84, GFP-tagged full-length and truncated versions of the protein were expressed in HeLa cells, and effects upon Golgi structure were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy (Fig. 5 a). At moderate expression levels, none of the golgin-84 constructs elicited any significant change in Golgi structure (unpublished data). Furthermore, constructs that failed to target to the Golgi apparatus had no effects upon Golgi structure even at very high levels of expression (Fig. 5 a; unpublished data). In contrast, expression at high levels of both full-length and golgin-84 lacking the head region had dramatic effects upon Golgi structure, converting the ribbon into punctate structures dispersed throughout the cytoplasm (Fig. 5 b). EM analysis of the ...
Background: In hepatocytes and alcohol-metabolizing cultured cells, Golgi undergoes ethanol (EtOH)-induced disorganization. Periniclear and organized Golgi is important in liver homeostasis, but how the Golgi remains intact is unknown. Work from our laboratories showed that EtOH-altered cellular function could be reversed after alcohol removal; we wanted to determine whether this recovery would apply to Golgi. Methods: We used alcohol-metabolizing HepG2 (VA-13) cells (cultured with or without EtOH for 72 h) and rat hepatocytes (control and EtOH-fed (Lieber-DeCarli diet). For recovery, EtOH was removed and replenished with control medium (48 hours for VA-13 cells) or control diet (10 days for rats). Results: EtOH-induced Golgi disassembly was associated with de-dimerization of the largest Golgi matrix protein giantin, along with impaired transport of selected hepatic proteins. After recovery from EtOH, Golgi regained their compact structure, and alterations in giantin and protein transport were restored.
GBRs (GABAB receptors; where GABA stands for γ-aminobutyric acid) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the brain and spinal cord. In vitro assays have previously demonstrated that these receptors are heterodimers assembled from two homologous subunits, GBR1 and GBR2, neither of which is capable of producing functional GBR on their own. We have used co-immunoprecipitation in combination with bioluminescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer approaches in living cells to assess directly the interaction between GBR subunits and determine their subcellular localization. The results show that, in addition to forming heterodimers, GBR1 and GBR2 can associate as stable homodimers. Confocal microscopy indicates that, while GBR1/GBR1 homodimers are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment, both GBR2/GBR2 homodimers and GBR1/GBR2 heterodimers are present at the plasma membrane. Although these observations ...
Recent studies showed that the phospholipase subunits of Platelet Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) Ib, α1 and α2 partially localize to the Golgi complex and regulate its structure and function. Using siRNA knockdown of individual subunits, we find that α1 and α2 perform overlapping and unique roles in regulating Golgi morphology, assembly, and secretory cargo trafficking. Knockdown of either α1 or α2 reduced secretion of soluble proteins, but neither single knockdown reduced secretion to the same degree as knockdown of both. Knockdown of α1 or α2 inhibited reassembly of an intact Golgi complex to the same extent as knockdown of both. Transport of VSV-G was slowed but at different steps in the secretory pathway: reduction of α1 slowed trans Golgi network to plasma membrane transport, whereas α2 loss reduced endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi trafficking. Similarly, knockdown of either subunit alone disrupted the Golgi complex but with markedly different morphologies. Finally, ...
STAT transcription factors signal from the plasma membrane to the nucleus in response to growth factors and cytokines, but little is known about activation of STAT1 from intracellular sites. Here we show that transient transfection of COS cells with fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) led to ligand-independent phosphorylation of the receptors, including intracellular immature forms. FGF-independent activation of STAT1 was demonstrated at the Golgi apparatus where it was colocalized with FGFRs. Both FGFR1 and FGFR2 induced strong phosphorylation of STAT1 causing redistribution of the Golgi apparatus, while FGFR3 and FGFR4 induced less phosphorylation of STAT1 and little or no redistribution of the Golgi apparatus. Upon expression of a cytosolic mutant of FGFR4 lacking the transmembrane as well as the extracellular region (CytR4), STAT1 was phosphorylated and transferred to the nucleus. The results indicate that immature forms of FGFRs form incomplete signaling complexes on Golgi membranes trapping
The protein encoded by this gene resides in the golgi, and constitutes one of the 8 subunits of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, which is required for normal golgi morphology and localization. Mutations in this gene are associated with the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIe.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010 ...
The Golgi complex plays a key role in the sorting and modification of proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the maintenance of Golgi structure and function through its interaction with the integral membrane protein giantin. It may also be involved in the hormonal regulation of steroid formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
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We then studied the effect of the I44A ubiquitin variant on the Golgi system in two ways. First, we added wt or I44A ubiquitin to the mitotic cytosol that was used for the disassembly of the membranes, reisolated the membranes, and then performed the reassembly in the absence of exogenous ubiquitin with either interphase cytosol or pure p97-p47. In a second approach, we performed the disassembly under normal conditions and added the exogenous ubiquitin variants during the reassembly step, to either interphase cytosol or p97-p47. In both cases, the extent of Golgi disassembly and subsequent reassembly of cisternae was determined by stereological analysis of EM images. In these experiments, addition of exogenous VCIP135 was not required because the membranes were not salt washed. Furthermore, since the assay relied on physical removal of soluble mitotic regulators, such as cyclin B, that need to be degraded in vivo, this allowed us to look exclusively at the processes occurring on the ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (TEM) of Golgi apparatus, stacks of cisternae and vesicles (Euglena sp.). The Golgi apparatus is a cell organelle in all plant and animal cells. The apparatus consists of flattened membrane bound sacs located close to the endoplasmic reticulum. The Golgi apparatus receives proteins and lipids (fats) from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It modifies some of them and sorts, concentrates and packs them into sealed droplets called vesicles. Depending on the contents these are despatched to one of three destinations: within the cell to lysosomes; to the cell plasma membrane; outside the cell. . Magnification: x11,010 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/1221
The distribution of beta 1,2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (NAGT I), alpha 1,3-1,6 mannosidase II (Mann II), beta 1,4 galactosyltransferase (GalT), alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase (SialylT) was determined by immuno-labelling of cryo-sections from HeLa cell lines. Antibody labelling in the HeLa cell line was made possible by stable expression of epitope-tagged forms of these proteins or forms from species to which specific antibodies were available. NAGT I and Mann II had the same distribution occupying the medial and trans cisternae of the stack. GalT and SialylT also had the same distribution but they occupied the trans cisterna and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). These results generalise our earlier observations on the overlapping distribution of Golgi enzymes and show that each of the trans compartments of the Golgi apparatus in HeLa cells contains unique mixtures of those Golgi enzymes involved in the construction of complex, N-linked oligosaccharides. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Different biosynthetic transport routes to the plasma membrane in BHK and CHO cells. AU - Yoshimori, Tamotsu. AU - Keller, Patrick. AU - Roth, Michael G.. AU - Simons, Kai. PY - 1996/4. Y1 - 1996/4. N2 - The question of how membrane proteins are delivered from the TGN to the cell surface in fibroblasts has received little attention. In this paper we have studied how their post-Golgi delivery routes compare with those in epithelial cells. We have analyzed the transport of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein, the Semliki Forest virus spike-glycoprotein, both basolateral in MDCK cells, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin, apical in MDCK cells. In addition, we also have studied the transport of a hemagglutinin mutant (Cys543Tyr) which is basolateral in MDCK cells. Aluminum fluoride, a general activator of heterotrimeric G proteins, inhibited the transport of the basolateral cognate proteins, as well as of the hemagglutinin mutant, from the TGN to the cell surface in BHK and ...
We have examined intracellular transport and metabolism of the fluorescent analogue of phosphatidylserine, 1-palmitoyl-2-(N-[12[(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-yl)amino] dodecanoyl])-phosphatidylserine ([palmitoyl-C12-NBD]-PS) in cultured fibroblasts. When monolayer cultures were incubated with liposomes containing (palmitoyl-C12-NBD)-PS at 37 degrees C, fluorescent PS was transported to the Golgi apparatus. NBD-containing analogues of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), or phosphatidic acid did not accumulate in the Golgi apparatus under the same experimental conditions. We suggest that the transport is not due to endocytosis, but is the result of incorporation and trans-bilayer movement of the (palmitoyl-C12-NBD)-PS at the plasma membrane followed by translocation of the lipid from plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus via nonvesicular mechanisms. Uptake of fluorescent PS was inhibited by depletion of cellular ATP and was blocked by structural analogues of the lipid or by ...
Recently, Lanoix et al. 1999 have analyzed the resident protein (glycosyltransferase) content of an uncoated membrane fraction produced from Golgi membranes in vitro (in the presence of GTP) that is thought to be derived from COPI-coated vesicles, and compared this with bona fide COPI-coated vesicles prepared with GTPγS. They report (Table IV in Lanoix et al., 1999) a 9.6-fold higher concentration (protein/phospholipid) of NAGT I and a 4.8-fold higher concentration of Man II, in the uncoated (GTP) vesicles than in the starting Golgi fraction and an exclusion of residents in the GTPγS -prepared coated vesicles. There was no corresponding enrichment in anterograde-directed cargo in the GTP-produced uncoated vesicles (1.7-fold for pIgR) or in bona fide COP I-coated vesicles made with GTPγS (1.2-fold). In contradiction to this, Nickel et al. 1998 analyzed bona fide coated COPI vesicles produced in the presence of GTP versus GTPγS, and report that anterograde-directed cargo is up to 50-fold more ...
The chief function of Golgi body is secretion from a cell of protein materials, such as enzymes, hormones etc., that are not easily diffusible through the cell membrane. After being synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the secretory proteins pass into the cisternae of Golgi body through the tubules of ER and Golgi body, and are stored in the Golgi vacuoles. From the vacuoles the secretory materials are released in the cytoplasm in the form of membrane bound tiny vesicels. These vesicles then pass towards the border of the cell and fuse with the cell membrane in such a manner that the secretory materials are expelled out of the cell keeping the cell membrane unbroken. By the same mechanism the Golgi body also helps in the release of neurotransmitters and neuro-hormones from nerve cells.. ...
The Conserved Oligomeric Golgi complex can be an evolutionarily conserved multisubunit tethering complex (MTC) thats crucial for intracellular membrane trafficking and Golgi homeostasis. inhabitants. Preliminary analysis uncovered that 8 times after transfection with specific COG-subunit-specific CRISPR constructs a subpopulation of cells (around 5% of the full total population) appeared which have high GNL binding in comparison to control cells (data not really shown). Through the 5% GNL positive inhabitants observed by movement cytometry, presumed COG KO cells had been one cell sorted right into a 96 well dish. Each plate yielded ~10C15 individual colonies. Around the secondary GNL binding test several colonies exhibited diminished GNL staining (~3 for each plate) and these clones were always still positive for the targeted subunit and served as an internal control. We preserved at least 2C5 Cog unfavorable clones for each subunit KO as assessed by high GNL binding (assessed by IF, Physique ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motoring around the Golgi. AU - Allan, Victoria J.. AU - Thompson, Heather M.. AU - McNiven, Mark A.. PY - 2002/10. Y1 - 2002/10. N2 - The Golgi apparatus is a dynamic organelle through which nascent secretory and transmembrane proteins are transported, post-translationally modified and finally packaged into carrier vesicles for transport along the cytoskeleton to a variety of destinations. In the past decade, studies have shown that a number of molecular motors are involved in maintaining the proper structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. Here, we review just some of the many functions performed by these mechanochemical enzymes - dyneins, kinesins, myosins and dynamin - in relation to the Golgi apparatus.. AB - The Golgi apparatus is a dynamic organelle through which nascent secretory and transmembrane proteins are transported, post-translationally modified and finally packaged into carrier vesicles for transport along the cytoskeleton to a variety of destinations. In ...
After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activated TBK1 induces type I interferon production by phosphorylating the transcription factor IRF3, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying TBK1 activation remain unclear. We report here the localization of the ubiquitinated and phosphorylated active form of TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus after the stimulation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) or Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), due to TBK1 K63-linked ubiquitination on lysine residues 30 and 401. The ubiquitin-binding protein optineurin (OPTN) recruits ubiquitinated TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus, leading to the formation of complexes in which TBK1 is activated by trans-autophosphorylation. Indeed, OPTN deficiency in various cell lines and primary cells impairs TBK1 targeting to the Golgi apparatus and its activation following RLR or TLR3 stimulation.
The Golgi apparatus is a packaging center Golgi apparatus or Golgi body or Golgi complex is a membrane-bound organelle, associated with the processing of…
Anti-Golgi complex antibodies (AGAs) are primarily associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögrens syndrome. Here we report on the immunoreactivity of AGAs against five Golgi autoantigens (giantin, golgin-245, golgin-160, golgin-95/GM130, and golgin-97) and provide data from epitope mapping on the most common Golgi autoantigen, namely giantin. A total of 80 human sera containing AGAs, as defined by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, were analyzed by ELISA using recombinant autoantigens and immunoprecipitation. The proportion of AGA sera that reacted with the five Golgi autoantigens was correlated with the molecular mass of the Golgi antigens. Autoantibodies to giantin, the largest Golgi autoantigen, were the predominant AGAs, being found in 50% of the AGA sera. Epitope mapping of giantin was performed using six recombinant fragments spanning the entire protein. Antigiantin-positive sera with low titer autoantibodies recognized epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal fragments that are
Transport vesicles form at a donor compartment and fuse to an acceptor compartment mediate the movement of cargo proteins within eukaryotic cells from one subcellular compartment to another. COPII vesicles specifically provide the means of transport for proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. The in vitro enrichment of COPII vesicles was undertaken with the intent of better understanding COPII dependent transport between the ER and Golgi. This approach allowed for the identification of abundant vesicle proteins, one of which is Erv14p, an ER-vesicle protein of 14 kDa. Erv14p is an integral membrane protein that localized to the ER and Golgi and was responsible for the efficient transport of at least one secretory cargo protein, Ax12p. Erv14p was not essential. However, genetic analysis of ERV14 deletion strains carrying thermosensitive alleles encoding for COPII components and other proteins known to participate in ER to Golgi vesicle trafficking revealed a variety ...
The Golgi apparatus in mammalian interphase cells is composed of flattened, membrane-bound structures approximately 1µm long, named Golgi cisternae. Between two and five cisternae align in a parallel fashion forming a Golgi stack[34]. At the onset of mitosis, the Golgi stacks take a polarized position around the cell nucleus and centrosome in a cis-trans fashion. The cisternae of same polarity belonging to two adjacent stacks are connected by thin tububules, forming the Golgi Ribbons [35] Towards the end on interphase at G2/M of the cell cycle the Golgi ribbons begin to disassemble and assume a peri-nuclear arrangement around the nucleus. Micro-tubules are known to assist in this structural organization[36]. Unlinking the Golgi ribbon This process emerge from Interphase to early G2 (prophase). It unlinks the golgi ribbon by detaching the cells tubular connections between the cells stacks [36]. In this process the ribbon may be converted into stacks depending on the protein enzymes such as ...
The Golgi apparatus in mammalian interphase cells is composed of flattened, membrane-bound structures approximately 1µm long, named Golgi cisternae. Between two and five cisternae align in a parallel fashion forming a Golgi stack[32]. At the onset of mitosis, the Golgi stacks take a polarized position around the cell nucleus and centrosome in a cis-trans fashion. The cisternae of same polarity belonging to two adjacent stacks are connected by thin tububules, forming the Golgi Ribbons [33] Towards the end on interphase at G2/M of the cell cycle the Golgi ribbons begin to disassemble and assume a peri-nuclear arrangement around the nucleus. Micro-tubules are known to assist in this structural organization[34]. Unlinking the Golgi ribbon This process emerge from Interphase to early G2 (prophase). It unlinks the golgi ribbon by detaching the cells tubular connections between the cells stacks [35]. In this process the ribbon may be converted into stacks depending on the protein enzymes such as ...
Golgi apparatus also called the secretary organelle of the cell because it packages material synthesized in the ER and dispatches it to intracellular like plasma membrane and lysosomes and extracellular like cell-surface target ...
An Endoscopic and Transcranial Perspective of Basal Cisternal Membranes. E, Endoscopic view directed through the opticocarotid triangle. The...
Rough ER is named for its rough appearance, which is due to the ribosomes attached to its outer (cytoplasmic) surface. Rough ER lies immediately adjacent to the cell nucleus, and its membrane is continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. The ribosomes on rough ER specialize in the synthesis of proteins that possess a signal sequence that directs them specifically to the ER for processing. (A number of other proteins in a cell, including those destined for the nucleus and mitochondria, are targeted for synthesis on free ribosomes, or those not attached to the ER membrane; see the article ribosome.) Proteins synthesized by the rough ER have specific final destinations. Some proteins, for example, remain within the ER, whereas others are sent to the Golgi apparatus, which lies next to the ER. Proteins secreted from the Golgi apparatus are directed to lysosomes or to the cell membrane; still others are destined for secretion to the cell exterior. Proteins targeted for transport to ...
Predicted to be involved in several processes, including Golgi organization; Golgi vesicle transport; and protein stabilization. Predicted to localize to the Golgi transport complex; cytosol; and plasma membrane. Is expressed in several structures, including brain; pancreas; and reproductive system. Orthologous to human COG3 (component of oligomeric golgi complex 3 ...
Two pathways for the transport of integral membrane proteins appear to exist in protoplasts of suspension-cultured tobacco cells, as Jiang and Rogers (1998) have recently demonstrated by using chimeric integral membrane reporter proteins. Whereas γ-TIP and BP-80 seemed to share the same vesicular pathway to the prevacuolar compartment of these cells, α-TIP did not colocalize in the same transport compartments. Instead, after leaving the ER, α-TIP apparently reached an undefined compartment, bypassing the Golgi apparatus. In contrast to these results, α-TIP does indeed pass through the Golgi apparatus of developing pea cotyledons. Furthermore, because ,90% of the dense vesicles were significantly labeled with α-TIP antibodies in situ and because nearly all of the dense vesicles were also labeled with antibodies raised against the two storage proteins vicilin and legumin (Hohl et al., 1996), α-TIP seems to be cotransported with the storage protein precursor polypeptides along the same ...
The Golgi apparatus, or Golgi complex, functions as a factory in which proteins received from the ER are further processed and sorted for transport to their eventual destinations: lysosomes, the plasma membrane, or secretion. In addition, as noted earlier, glycolipids and sphingomyelin are synthesized within the Golgi. In plant cells, the Golgi apparatus further serves as the site at which the complex polysaccharides of the cell wall are synthesized. The Golgi apparatus is thus involved in processing the broad range of cellular constituents that travel along the secretory pathway. ...
Golgi Dynamics. How can it happen that the resident proteins appear to remain in place while the transient proteins, destined for other sites in the cell, move through the organelle in a cis to trans direction?. Over the years a number of ideas have been put forth they fall into two general models.. 1. Vesicle Transport Model. This model assumes that the cisternae are essentially stationary and contain their resident proteins. The transient proteins are selected and concentrated in vesicles by the process of vesicle formation that is driven by coat proteins and their interaction with cargo receptor proteins as described in the last lecture. See vesicle formation animation for review of how this works.. These transport vesicles bud from the periphery of the Golgi cisterna as shown in the picture above, and then fuse with the appropriate target cisterna (trans to the point of origin) via the normal vesicle targeting process. In this manner a transient protein makes is way down the Golgi stack, cis ...
Biology Assignment Help, Egg - synergids, Egg - Synergids The three cells of the egg apparatus are arranged in triangular fashion with the egg sharing a common wall with the two synergids and the central cell. In the egg the wall is thicker at the micropylar end and is absent at the cha
Anti-Golgi complex antibodies (AGAs) are primarily associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögrens syndrome. Here we report on the immunoreactivity of AGAs against five Golgi autoantigens (giantin, golgin-245, golgin-160, golgin-95/GM130, and golgin-97) and provide data from epitope mapping on the most common Golgi autoantigen, namely giantin. A total of 80 human sera containing AGAs, as defined by indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells, were analyzed by ELISA using recombinant autoantigens and immunoprecipitation. The proportion of AGA sera that reacted with the five Golgi autoantigens was correlated with the molecular mass of the Golgi antigens. Autoantibodies to giantin, the largest Golgi autoantigen, were the predominant AGAs, being found in 50% of the AGA sera. Epitope mapping of giantin was performed using six recombinant fragments spanning the entire protein. Antigiantin-positive sera with low titer autoantibodies recognized epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal fragments that are
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, and 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA, 3Omaha Western Iowa Health Care System, VA Service, Department of Research Service, Omaha, NE, USA. The abnormalities in the Golgi apparatus function are important for the development of alcoholic liver injury, but mechanism and consequences have not been defined. Previously, we found that formation of compact Golgi requires dimerization of the largest Golgi matrix protein, giantin, which is catalyzed by protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3). Here, in both HepG2 cells expressing alcohol dehydrogenase and hepatocytes isolated from alcohol-fed rats, we show that ethanol administration induces crucial Golgi disorganization, as reflected by conversion of its main body to the several mini-Golgi structures, exhibiting swollen and distended cisternae. This Golgi fragmentation was accompanied by reduced level of giantin and its dimer form, ...
ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 4A (ARL4A) is a developmentally regulated member of the ARF/ARL GTPase family. The primary structure of ARL4A is very similar to that of other ARF/ARL molecules, but its function remains unclear. The trans-Golgi network golgin GCC185 is required for maintenance of Golgi structure and distinct endosome-to-Golgi transport. We show here that GCC185 acts as a new effector for ARL4 to modulate Golgi organization. ARL4A directly interacts with GCC185 in a GTP-dependent manner. Sub-coiled-coil regions of the CC2 domain of GCC185 are required for the interaction between GCC185 and ARL4A. Depletion of ARL4A reproduces the GCC185-depleted phenotype, causing fragmentation of the Golgi compartment and defects in endosome-to-Golgi transport. GCC185 and ARL4A localize to the Golgi independently of each other. Deletion of the ARL4A-interacting region of GCC185 results in inability to maintain Golgi structure. Depletion of ARL4A impairs the interaction between GCC185 and ...
Arl1 (ARF like protein1) is a poorly understood member of ARF family small GTPases. This thesis presents an original characterization of Arl1 and its effectors. Arl1 was localized to the tans Golgi under EM. Over expression of guanine nucleotide mutants of Arl1 dramatically affects the structure and function of Golgi apparatus. Arl1-GTP was found to interact with GRIP domain of Golgins (Golgin-97, Golgin-245, GCC1 and KIAA0336). The interaction was dependent on the conserved amino acids on both switch II region of Arl1 and the GRIP domain. Collectively, the research presented in this thesis reveals Arl1 is a new regulator of Golgi structure and function and one mechanism of Arl1a??s function is that it recruits and regulates its effectors a?? GRIP domain Golgins to Golgi ...
104. Summary Rosettes of six particles have been visualized by freeze-fracture in the protoplasmic fracture (PF) faces of: a) the plasma membrane, b) Golgi cisternae, and c) Golgi-derived vesicles in mesophyll cells of Zinnia elegans that had been induced to differentiate synchronously into tracheary elements in suspension culture. These rosettes have been observed previously in the PF face of the plasma membranes of a variety of cellulose-synthesizing cells and are thought to be important in cellulose synthesis. In Zinnia tracheary elements, the rosettes are localized in the membrane over regions of secondary wall thickening and are absent between thickenings. The observation of rosettes in the Golgi cisternae and vesicles suggests that the Golgi apparatus is responsible for the selective transport and exocytosis of rosettes in higher plants, as has been previously indicated in the alga Micrasterias (GIDDINGS et al. 1980). The data presented indicate that the Golgi apparatus has a critical role ...
Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-binding protein that links Golgi membranes to the cytoskeleton and may participate in the tensile force required for vesicle budding from the Golgi. Thereby, may play a role in Golgi membrane trafficking and could indirectly give its flattened shape to the Golgi apparatus. May also bind to the coatomer to regulate Golgi membrane trafficking. May play a role in anterograde transport from the Golgi to the plasma membrane and regulate secretion. Has also been involved in the control of the localization of Golgi enzymes through interaction with their cytoplasmic part. May play an indirect role in cell migration. Has also been involved in the modulation of mTOR signaling. May also be involved in the regulation of mitochondrial lipids biosynthesis (By similarity).
Plant Golgi stacks are mobile organelles that can travel along actin filaments. How COPII (coat complex II) vesicles are transferred from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export sites to the moving Golgi stacks is not understood. We have examined COPII vesicle transfer in high-pressure frozen/freeze-subst …
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The glycoside digitonin was used to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane exposing functionally and morphologically intact ER and Golgi compartments. Permeabilized cells efficiently transported vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) through sealed, membrane-bound compartments in an ATP and cytosol dependent fashion. Transport was vectorial. VSV-G protein was first transported to punctate structures which colocalized with p58 (a putative marker for peripheral punctate pre-Golgi intermediates and the cis-Golgi network) before delivery to the medial Golgi compartments containing alpha-1,2-mannosidase II and processing of VSV-G to endoglycosidase H resistant forms. Exit from the ER was inhibited by an antibody recognizing the carboxyl-terminus of VSV-G. In contrast, VSV-G protein colocalized with p58 in the absence of Ca2+ or the presence of an antibody which inhibits the transport component NSF (SEC18). These studies demonstrate that digitonin permeabilized cells can be used to ...
The spe-10 gene encodes a novel, predicted four-pass integral membrane protein that contains a highly conserved DHHC-CRD motif (Bohm et al. 1997; Putilina et al. 1999). If a potential glycosylation site following TM4 is utilized, then the N-terminal region, the DHHC-CRD zinc-finger, and the C-terminal region should all face the lumen of the MO (Figure 6A). This orientation would allow the N-linked glycans to face the exterior of the cell surface when the MOs fuse to the plasma membrane. Northern hybridizations comparing oogenesis-specific and spermatogenesis-specific transcripts indicate that the spe-10 mRNA is found only in worms that are actively engaged in spermatogenesis (Figure 4B). SPE-10 localizes within the lysosome-like FB-MOs and segregates to spermatids as they bud from the residual body during C. elegans spermatogenesis (Figure 8). These results suggest that a lack of wild-type SPE-10 in the FB-MOs of spe-10 mutants probably causes the previously described sperm ultrastructural ...
Intracellular transport between the ER and Golgi is mediated by vesicles that bud from donor membranes and then fuse with acceptor membranes. Bi-directional vesicle transport maintains distinct organelle composition through a process known as molecular sorting. Collectively, molecular sorting refers to the process of actively selecting or excluding proteins and lipids into transport vesicles. Some of the proteins involved in sorting have been identified although the mechanisms remain obscure. This dissertation examines proteins contained on ER-derived vesicles (Ervs) and how these proteins facilitate sorting. Erv function requires bi-directional ER to Golgi transport therefore it was determined how the cytoplamic tail sequences of Emp24p and Erv25p function in transport. Both Emp24p and Erv25p tail sequences are sufficient to direct anterograde transport and interact with COPII subunits, however the Erv25p tail is necessary to direct retrograde transport. A vexing question regarding p24 function ...
Transport and Golgi organization protein 1 homolog; Plays a role in the transport of cargos that are too large to fit into COPII-coated vesicles and require specific mechanisms to be incorporated into membrane-bound carriers and exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein is required for collagen VII (COL7A1) secretion by loading COL7A1 into transport carriers. It may participate in cargo loading of COL7A1 at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites by binding to COPII coat subunits Sec23/24 and guiding SH3-bound COL7A1 into a growing carrier. Does not play a role in global protein s ...
In this study, we demonstrated first that QUA2 is required for normal synthesis of HG in Arabidopsis, and second that QUA2 is a predicted type II membrane protein with a lumenal putative MT domain, which, consistent with a role in the synthesis of HG, accumulates in the Golgi apparatus.. qua1 and qua2 mutants have similar phenotypes: both mutants are dwarfed, with reduced cell adhesion, and show a reduced GalA content and very similar FT-IR profiles. QUA1 - also referred to as GAUT8 (Sterling et al., 2006) - is a member of GT family 8. So far, attempts to demonstrate the enzyme activity for QUA1 expressed in a heterologous system have failed. Recently, however, GalAT activity has been observed for a protein of the same family, GAUT1, expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (Sterling et al., 2006). Given the mutant phenotype and the similarity to GAUT1, it is likely that QUA1 also encodes a GalAT. Concerning QUA2, despite several attempts, we have not been able to produce a soluble version of ...
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Approximately 80% of secreted and membrane proteins (40% of all proteins) of eukaryotes become covalently linked to sugars in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus, a cellular organelle that is part of the secretory system of all eukaryotes. The sugar donors are mostly nucleoside diphosphate sugars (nucl …
Newly synthesized proteins and lipids are transported across the Golgi complex via different mechanisms whose respective roles are not completely clear. We previously identified a non-vesicular intra-Golgi transport pathway for glucosylceramide (GlcCer)--the common precursor of the different series of glycosphingolipids-that is operated by the cytosolic GlcCer-transfer protein FAPP2 (also known as PLEKHA8) (ref. 1). However, the molecular determinants of the FAPP2-mediated transfer of GlcCer from the cis-Golgi to the trans-Golgi network, as well as the physiological relevance of maintaining two parallel transport pathways of GlcCer--vesicular and non-vesicular--through the Golgi, remain poorly defined. Here, using mouse and cell models, we clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the intra-Golgi vectorial transfer of GlcCer by FAPP2 and show that GlcCer is channelled by vesicular and non-vesicular transport to two topologically distinct glycosylation tracks in the Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi
TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA processing bodies, peroxisomes, golgi bodies, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum tubule junctions frequently pause at cortical microtubules. AU - Hamada, Takahiro. AU - Tominaga, Motoki. AU - Fukaya, Takashi. AU - Nakamura, Masayoshi. AU - Nakano, Akihiko. AU - Watanabe, Yuichiro. AU - Hashimoto, Takashi. AU - Baskin, Tobias I.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Organelle motility, essential for cellular function, is driven by the cytoskeleton. In plants, actin filaments sustain the long-distance transport of many types of organelles, and microtubules typically fine-tune the motile behavior. In shoot epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, we show here that a type of RNA granule, the RNA processing body (P-body), is transported by actin filaments and pauses at cortical microtubules. Interestingly, removal of microtubules does not change the frequency of P-body pausing. Similarly, we show that Golgi bodies, peroxisomes, and mitochondria all pause at microtubules, ...
Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: Comparison of classical and semi-automated methods for measuring Golgi apparatus polarization. and EGF (2 ng/ml) for all those conditions tested: 10 min stimulation (ACB), 30 min stimulation (CCD), pretreatment and concurrent stimulation with U0126 (ECF), BFA (GCH), and wortmannin (ICJ). Y in m and the absolute value of the Golgi angle are plotted as cumulative distributions and examined by Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical exams. Drug-treated conditions had been weighed against the baseline control non-e and with the activated, drug-free control (denoted by mounting brackets where appropriate). *** represents p0.001, ** represents p0.01, and * represents p0.05.(TIF) pone.0080446.s002.tif (1.7M) GUID:?73CA6A49-6462-4641-85EF-35AF912FC074 Document S1: Dining tables S1, S2, and S3 include two-way ANOVA Boneferroni post-test outcomes for the proper period factors 0 h, 24 h, and 48 h from the wound recovery assay. Dining tables S4 and S3 represent the one-way ANOVA ...
Disclosed herein is an image display system including a display apparatus, an imaging apparatus placed on a movable body; and a server apparatus. The display apparatus and the imaging apparatus are capable of communicating with the server apparatus. The imaging apparatus includes: an imaging section; a speed detection section; and a control section that controls transmission of image data and speed information to the server apparatus. The server apparatus includes: a movable body speed management section that manages the moving speed of the movable body using the speed information; and a control section that identifies an imaging apparatus that matches speed specification information, and causes image data to be transferred from the identified imaging apparatus to the display apparatus. The display apparatus includes: a display section; and a control section that performs a speed specification process, an image request transmission process, and a display process.
The subcellular localization studies of the URGT family indicated that they are located in the Golgi apparatus, which underlines their function as Golgi resident NSTs. All six URGTs are expressed ubiquitously throughout plant development, with URGT1 showing the highest expression levels and URGT2 preferentially expressed during seed development. To characterize the function of URGT1 and URGT2 in planta, we identified loss-of-function mutants and generated plants overexpressing URGT1 and URGT2.. The urgt1 mutants and plants overexpressing URGT1 confirmed its role as a UDP-Gal transporter in vivo because both mutants showed a reduction in cell wall Gal and the overexpressors accumulated Gal in the leaf cell wall. Recently, it was demonstrated that the Gal content of the cell wall could be easily manipulated (35); this is probably due to the extension of galactan side chains on the RG-I backbone. In contrast, no changes in the levels of Rha were observed in either the urgt1 mutants or ...
A sensor apparatus for monitoring voltage and/or current in an electric circuit and a system for monitoring voltages and currents in a system wherein electricity is distributed in a plurality of circuits. A sensor apparatus is associated with each phase conductor in each of the circuits. The sensor apparatus senses the electricity in the phase conductor and provides a digital output that is representative of the sensed electricity in the phase conductor. The digital output preferably includes phasor data for the sensed phase conductor. The monitoring system includes a plurality of such sensor apparatuses. The plurality of sensor apparatuses are coupled to a digital data network that provides for the exchange of sensed data among nodes on the digital data network. On a node of the network, phasor data from some of the plurality of sensor apparatuses are summed or otherwise processed to obtain phasor data representative of a plurality of the circuits.
We have identified AtPAKRP2 cDNA encoding a novel N-terminal motor KRP in Arabidopsis and determined the intracellular localization of this AtPAKRP2 protein. AtPAKRP2 and its homologs in tobacco and B. oleracea localize specifically to the phragmoplast during cell division. In addition to AtPAKRP1 (Lee and Liu, 2000), AtPAKRP2 is the second plant KRP that associates only with the phragmoplast MT array. Unlike AtPAKRP1, which is localized exclusively at or near the plus end of phragmoplast MT bundles, however, AtPAKRP2 appears in a punctate pattern with more pronounced distribution toward the division site. On the basis of biochemical and pharmacological data, AtPAKRP2 likely associates with possibly Golgi-derived vesicles in the phragmoplast. Thus, this protein is a potential motor for vesicle transport during cell plate formation.. Although AtPAKRP2 has a tripartite structure with a coiled-coil domain flanked by the motor and tail domains, it does not fall into any of the established ...
SCYL1 binds COP1 vesicles that mediate retrograde Golgi-to ER transport, through an SCYL1-specific RKLD motif at the extreme C terminus [2]. Knockdown of SCYL1 disrupts Golgi morphology and blocks retrograte COPI-mediated transport from Golgi to ER [3]. The Golgi-localized Gorab protein (aka NTKL-BP1, SCYL-BP1) was found as a interactor of mouse Scyl1 by Y2H and coIP [4]. The yeast SCYL1, Cex1, also has several trafficking-associated physical and genetic interactors, including YPT6 (Golgi fusion of late endosome vesicles), COG5 and COG6 (fusion of vesicles to Golgi), several COPI complex members (COP1, SEC27, SEC29, RET2, UBP5 and BRE5 (ER-Golgi transport), and RGP1 and RIC1 (Golgi-to-ER transport) (BioGrid). SCYL2 appears to act a a different point in trafficking - the endocytosis and trafficking of surface proteins. Human SCYL2 (aka CVAK104) binds clathrin and the plasma membrane adaptor complex, AP2 [5]. Yeast SCYL2 (Cex1) was also found in a genetic screen for modifiers of a clathrin mutant ...
Similar to Golgi resident protein GCP60; Acyl-CoA-binding domain-containing protein 3; Golgi complex-associated protein 1; GOCAP1; Golgi phosphoprotein 1; GOLPH1; PBR- and PKA-associated protein 7; Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor-associated protein PAP7 ...
The Golgi body (or Golgi complex, apparatus), and Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are both organelles found in the majority of eukaryotic cells. They are very closely associated and show both similarities and differences in structure and function.
Root hairs, tubular structures that emerge from plant root epidermal cells, grow through localized exocytosis of cell-wall matrix, a process involving actin-dependent delivery of Golgi-derived vesicles containing matrix material to the growing tip. Researchers have long recognized that the cell nucleus maintains a fixed distance from the apex of the growing root hair. The mechanisms by which the nucleus maintains this position, however, and how it pertains to tip growth, remain unclear. Ketelaar et al. used time-lapse photography of Arabidopsis root hair tips to investigate nuclear behavior during root hair growth and did pharmacological analysis to implicate the actin cytoskeleton in nuclear localization. During active growth, the nucleus maintained a fixed distance from the tip, moving backwards when growth ceased to a random position in the root hair. In mutants with branched hairs, branches emerged from the site at which the nucleus was located; thereafter, nuclei moved between growing ...
Constitutive Secretion: Advanced Look --, 2.) Exocytosis After leaving the Golgi apparatus, proteins following the constitutive secretion pathway merge with the cell membrane and release their cargo by a process called exocytosis. Clicking on each of the thumbnail images will bring up a larger, labeled version of the described scene.. To see the Flash movie for the following sequence of images, click here.. ...
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Original Message----- , From: Hemant Agrawal ,[email protected], , Sent: Saturday, April 24, 2021 3:37 AM , , From: Nipun Gupta ,[email protected], , , This patch adds two test vectors for transport block in network byte , order: , - LDPC encode for Transport Block , - LDPC decode for Transport block , , Signed-off-by: Nipun Gupta ,[email protected], , --- See related comment on patch 1. Assuming this is a different PMD assumption (not an incremental one) then this should not require new vectors with the op_flag RTE_BBDEV_LDPC_ENC_NETWORK_ORDER. These would artificially create non-compatible vectors for no reason. But all existing vectors should be able to run on any PMD, the test framework will just change order endianness based on what is supported by the device so that all unit test can be run successfully on any PMD. See how it is done for LLR numerical assumptions which can differ between PMDs. Let me know if unclear , app/test-bbdev/test_vectors/ldpc_dec_tb.data , 122 , ...
Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome (DMC), a severe autosomal recessive skeletal disorder with mental retardation, is caused by mutation of the gene encoding Dymeclin (DYM). Employing patient fibroblasts with mutations characterized at the genomic and, for the first time, transcript level, we identified profound disruption of Golgi organization as a pathogenic feature, resolved by transfection of heterologous wild-type Dymeclin. Collagen targeting appeared defective in DMC cells leading to near complete absence of cell surface collagen fibers. DMC cells have an elevated apoptotic index (P< 0.01) likely due to a stress response contingent upon Golgi-related trafficking defects. We performed spatiotemporal mapping of Dymeclin expression in zebrafish embryos and identified high levels of transcript in brain and cartilage during early development. Finally, in a chondrocyte cDNA library, we identified two novel secretion pathway proteins as Dymeclin interacting partners: GOLM1 and PPIB. Together these ...
We have assessed the ability of the plant secretory pathway to handle the expression of complex heterologous proteins by investigating the fate of a hybrid immunoglobulin A/G in tobacco cells. Although plant cells can express large amounts of the antibody, a relevant proportion is normally lost to vacuolar sorting and degradation. Here we show that the synthesis of high amounts of IgA/G does not impose stress on the plant secretory pathway. Plant cells can assemble antibody chains with high efficiency and vacuolar transport occurs only after the assembled immunoglobulins have traveled through the Golgi complex. We prove that vacuolar delivery of IgA/G depends on the presence of a cryptic sorting signal in the tailpiece of the IgA/G heavy chain. We also show that unassembled light chains are efficiently secreted as monomers by the plant secretory pathway.. ...
Polyclonal antibody for CAVEOLIN 1/CAV1 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: IHC-P. Reactive species: Human. CAVEOLIN 1/CAV1 information: Molecular Weight: 20472 MW; Subcellular Localization: Golgi apparatus membrane; Peripheral
FUNCTION: This gene encodes a protein from the glycosyltransferase 32 family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to alpha-1,4-linked beta-galactose residues. This enzyme is required for type III mucin synthesis and it is largely associated with the Golgi apparatus membrane. The encoded protein appears to be expressed in adenocarcinoma cells of pancreatic, biliary tract and gastric cancers.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010 ...
1. General Function. Rab1 is a small GTP binding protein that is expressed in virtually all mammalian cells, fish, worms and flies and is homologous to the yeast protein Ypt1 (3). It is essential for ER to Golgi transport and has also been implicated in intra Golgi transport (22, 30). There are two isoforms Rab1a (205 aa) and Rab1b (201aa) which are 92% identical at the amino acid level with most differences in the carboxyl terminus (28). These two isoforms are generally localized in the same cellular regions and have similar biochemical properties and functions. Rab1a may also play a role in transcytosis (14). In addition to localization by immunoflourescence in tissue culture cells, Rab1a has been localized by immunogold labeling to vesicles between the ER and Golgi region and over Golgi stacks in NRK cells (23).. The vesicular transport activity of Rab1 is dependent on its GTPase activity as a GDP bound mutant form, Rab1aS25N and the nucleotide free mutant (N124I) block transport from ER to ...
Methods and apparatus are provided for remotely controlling the bending of an elongated member (22) by implementing energy responsible control over a member that is configured from two plastic materials of differing coefficients of thermal expansion. The disclosed methods and apparatus are particularly applicable for use in applications such as surgical catheterization where control of the member from a position relatively remote from the member is desired.
Golgi apparatus; lysosome; mitochondrion (inner and outer membranes); nucleus (inner and outer membranes); peroxisome; vacuole ... glycoconjugates facing the lumen of the ER and Golgi get expressed on the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. In ...
Golgi apparatus. In cell theory, what is the exact transport mechanism by which proteins travel through the Golgi apparatus? ...
Golgi apparatus, an organelle of the eukaryotic cell, discovered by Camillo Golgi in 1897. HIV Virus (co-discovered): the ... "Golgi apparatus , Definition, Function, Location, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 November 2019. "New York - ... Radiogoniometer: radio-electric apparatus that enables to determinate the direction, and thus the position, of transmission of ... Black reaction: a silver staining technique which was first performed by Camillo Golgi. It helped the study of the nerve cells ...
"Golgi Apparatus". British Society for Cell Biology. Archived from the original on 13 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017 ... golgi apparatus, nuclear membrane, and single membrane structures such as lysosomes. Mitochondria are proposed to come from the ... the Golgi apparatus. Vesicles may be specialized for various purposes. For instance, lysosomes contain digestive enzymes that ... Eukaryotic cells typically contain other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. Chloroplasts can ...
"Golgi Apparatus". Song Histories. phish.net. Retrieved 8 November 2012. "Gone". Song Histories. phish.net. Retrieved 8 November ... "Golgi Apparatus" "Gone" "Gotta Jibboo" "Grind" "Guantanamo Strut" (never played live) "Guelah Papyrus" "Gumbo" "Guy Forget" " ...
The proteins contain a signal sequence that allows the Golgi apparatus to recognize and direct it to the correct place. Golgi ... Golgi apparatus: This functions to further process, package, and secrete the proteins to their destination. ... 55-63, doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-03410-4.50013-4, ISBN 9780323034104 Cooper, Geoffrey M. (2000). "The Golgi Apparatus". The Cell: ... Endoplasmic reticulum (ER): This functions to synthesize, store, and secrete proteins to the Golgi apparatus. Structurally, the ...
Suda Y, Nakano A (April 2012). "The yeast Golgi apparatus". Traffic. 13 (4): 505-10. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011.01316.x. PMID ... Mitochondria diseases, and various organelle systems such as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum, can be further ...
... he proposed that the Golgi apparatus concentrates cholesterol away from the cis-side of the Golgi towards the trans-side. This ... Bretscher, MS; Munro, S (1993). "Cholesterol and the Golgi apparatus". Science. 261 (5126): 1280-1281. Bibcode:1993Sci... ...
Alternate splicing of this gene results in many isoforms that localize to the centrosome and the Golgi apparatus, and interact ... Shanks RA, Larocca MC, Berryman M, Edwards JC, Urushidani T, Navarre J, Goldenring JR (2002). "AKAP350 at the Golgi apparatus. ... "AKAP350 interaction with cdc42 interacting protein 4 at the Golgi apparatus". Mol. Biol. Cell. 15 (6): 2771-81. doi:10.1091/mbc ... that anchors multiple signaling enzymes to centrosome and the golgi apparatus". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (24): 17267-74. doi:10.1074/ ...
"AKAP350 at the Golgi apparatus. II. Association of AKAP350 with a novel chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) family member". ...
A complex Golgi apparatus is seen; the nuclear structure of D. fragilis is more similar to that of flagellated trichomonads ...
2002). "AKAP350 at the Golgi apparatus. II. Association of AKAP350 with a novel chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) family ...
The protein associates with the Golgi apparatus. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. GRCh38: ...
Glick BS, Malhotra V (December 1998). "The curious status of the Golgi apparatus". Cell. 95 (7): 883-889. doi:10.1016/S0092- ... modified in the Golgi apparatus and function in an acidic environment. The approximate pH of a lysosome is 4.8 and by electron ... Then, these oligomers travel through the Golgi complex before arriving at the cell surface to aid in caveolar formation. ... from trans-Golgi network (TGN) in the biosynthetic pathway, and from phagosomes in the phagocytic pathway. Late endosomes often ...
Exosome Endosome Golgi apparatus Girbardt, Manfred (1957). "Uber die Substruktur von Polystictus versicolor L.". Archives of ...
Golgi apparatus protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLG1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000090863 ... "Entrez Gene: GLG1 golgi apparatus protein 1". Burrus LW, Zuber ME, Lueddecke BA, Olwin BB (1992). "Identification of a cysteine ... 1990). "Immunocytochemical visualization of the Golgi apparatus in several species, including human, and tissues with an ... a fibroblast growth factor and E-selectin binding membrane sialoglycoprotein of the Golgi apparatus, to chromosome 16q22-q23 by ...
Worley, L. G.; Worley, E. K. (1943). "Studies of the Supravitally Stained Golgi Apparatus". Journal of Morphology. 73 (2): 365- ... Worley, Leonard G. (July 1944). "Studies of the Vitally Stained Golgi Apparatus". Journal of Morphology. 75 (2): 261-289. doi: ... In the 1940s, they collaborated on research on Golgi bodies, and he acknowledged her contributions to his publications. As E. K ...
It has been localized to the Golgi apparatus. CASP has been reported to be part of a complex with Golgin 84 that tethers COPI ... vesicles and is important for retrograde transport in the Golgi and between the Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. The targeting ... is a Golgi membrane protein related to giantin". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (11): 3761-74. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-06-0349. ... a Subset of Golgi Integral Membrane Proteins". Mol. Biol. Cell. 15 (5): 2423-35. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-09-0699. PMC 404034. PMID ...
Almost all glycosyltransferases reside in the Golgi apparatus. However, POFUT2 as well as the related enzyme POFUT1 have ...
SPCA is found primarily in the membranes of the golgi apparatus in increasing concentrations from the cis- to the trans-golgi ... The removal of these ions from the cytosol can also be looked upon as supplying the golgi apparatus and thus the entire ... "The Ca2+/Mn2+ pumps in the golgi apparatus". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1742 (1-3): 103-112. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2004.08.018. PMID ... SPCA is also able to transport Mn2+ ions into the golgi with high affinity, an ability that the related Ca2+-ATPase, SERCA, ...
Got1p is a protein that aides in vesicle transport through the Golgi apparatus of the cell. Got1p has a calculated mass of 15.4 ... "Entrez Gene: GOLT1B golgi transport 1 homolog B (S. cerevisiae)". Connerly, PL (2010). "How Do Proteins Move Through the Golgi ... In vivo, It has been found that the removal of these two proteins results in defects in endosome-Golgi traffic and ER-Golgi ... In vitro, the removal of got1 specifically, results in a defect in ER-Golgi transport in relation to vesicle tethering to Golgi ...
Nichols BJ, Pelham HR (Aug 1998). "SNAREs and membrane fusion in the Golgi apparatus". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... and Ykt6 and is implicated in traffic in the early cisternae of the Golgi apparatus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (10): ... and Ykt6 and is implicated in traffic in the early cisternae of the Golgi apparatus". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 13 (10): ... "Protein interactions regulating vesicle transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells". ...
SLC38A10 localized on Golgi apparatus and ER organelles. Recent study on SLC38A10 knockout model provided some insight on ... Tripathi R, Hosseini K, Arapi V, Fredriksson R, Bagchi S (December 2019). "SLC38A10 (SNAT10) is Located in ER and Golgi ...
Once Pre-notch is done being modified by POFUT-1 and POFUT-2, it is then exported to the Golgi apparatus where it is further ... Almost all glycosyltransferases reside in the Golgi apparatus. However, POFUT1 as well as the related enzyme POFUT2 have ... in to the endoplasmic reticulum and are then first modified by POFUT-1 then by PGLUT-1 then exported the Golgi apparatus. in ...
Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts K, Walter P (2002). "Transport from the ER through the Golgi Apparatus". ... Sugars are removed gradually as the protein travels to the Golgi apparatus, and it becomes resistant to endoglycosidase H. When ... December 2001). "Small cargo proteins and large aggregates can traverse the Golgi by a common mechanism without leaving the ... Immunoelectron microscopy suggests that VSIV G protein moves from cis to trans Golgi bodies without being transported between ...
These processing reactions occur in the Golgi apparatus. Modification reactions may involve the addition of a phosphate or ... O-linked glycans are assembled one sugar at a time on a serine or threonine residue of a peptide chain in the Golgi apparatus. ... Processing and modification of N-linked glycans within the Golgi does not follow a linear pathway. As a result, many different ... variations of N-linked glycan structure are possible, depending on enzyme activity in the Golgi. N-linked glycans are extremely ...
Then, it will move to the Golgi apparatus. If the ceramide transporter protein is involved, it will go to the TGN to form ... as well as the co-location in the RE and Golgi markers. The signal was absent in the lysosomes and in the plasma membrane. A ...
A Golgi apparatus is not present in Psalteriomonas. Both modified anaerobic mitochondria and hydrogenosomes are presented in ...
Nichols BJ, Pelham HR (August 1998). "SNAREs and membrane fusion in the Golgi apparatus". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Depletion of α-SNAP has been reported to impair Golgi body integrity and assembly of vesicle fusion proteins at signaling ... These complex form similar structures for both synaptic and vacuolar systems including the Golgi transport. Data generated ... Immunofluorescent localization showed strong association of the proteins to intracellular membranes including the ER and Golgi ...
The protein localizes to lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus. It plays a role in the formation of intracellular transport ... in lysosomes and Golgi apparatus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (15): ... Vitale N, Ferrans VJ, Moss J, Vaughan M (Oct 2000). "Identification of lysosomal and Golgi localization signals in GAP and ARF ...
... and the Golgi apparatus).[26]. The "uncombined fatty acids" or "free fatty acids" found in the circulation of animals come from ...
This reaction takes place in Golgi apparatus in mast cells and in basophils. Next, histamine is stored in granularity in mast ...
... of vesicles may have led to formation of the endoplasmic reticulum and contributed to the formation of Golgi apparatus.[39] ...
For example, fatty acids are synthesized by one set of enzymes in the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Then ...
Golgi apparatus. *Parenthesome. *Autophagosome. *Vesicle *Exosome. *Lysosome. *Endosome. *Phagosome. *Vacuole. *Acrosome. * ...
... s in the membranes of organelles such as the Golgi apparatus can influence those organelles' internal environments, ...
... and Golgi apparatus. The TTC39B protein folds into an alpha-alpha super helix. 40% of its structure matches with d1w3ba, the ...
It is localized to the Golgi apparatus, specifically in the trans-Golgi region, and acts almost exclusively on secretory and ... Danan LM, Yu Z, Ludden PJ, Jia W, Moore KL, Leary JA (Sep 2010). "Catalytic mechanism of Golgi-resident human tyrosylprotein ... a Golgi enzyme". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 82 (18): 6143-7. Bibcode: ...
New Zealand zoologist notable for work on structure of cells and Golgi apparatus John Gatenby Bolton (1922-1993), British- ...
... or can acquire a second membrane from the Golgi apparatus and bud as extracellular enveloped virions. In this latter case, the ...
The virus is transported to the Golgi apparatus and subsequently released from the cell's membrane The effects infection has ...
... s are translated by ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum and are modified by the Golgi apparatus before ... This precludes the movement of the receptor from the ER to the Golgi, and leads to degradation of the receptor protein. Class 3 ... Class 2 mutations prevent proper transport to the Golgi body needed for modifications to the receptor. e.g. a truncation of the ...
... nucleus is a Golgi apparatus, deficiency of rough endoplasmic reticulum and desmosomes with tight junction which fixes tuft ... However, with more new research suggests that tuft cells can also be activated by the taste receptor apparatus. These can also ... For instance, they express many taste receptors and taste signaling apparatus. This might suggest that tuft cells could ...
... established the function of the Golgi apparatus alongside George Palade Theodore Lidz (1951-1978): Sterling Professor of ...
... membrane proteins from the Golgi apparatus. Roughly 7 alpha helices are predicted for C3orf62 through Pele Protein Structure ...
It lacks a Golgi apparatus and reproduction occurs in both stages of its life cycle. Broers, Cees A.M.; Stumm, Claudius K.; ...
Multiprotein complexes are key determinants of Golgi apparatus structure and its capacity for intracellular transport and ... "Characterization of a mammalian Golgi-localized protein complex, COG, that is required for normal Golgi morphology and function ... Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COG7 gene. ... Loh E, Hong W (2002). "Sec34 is implicated in traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and exists in a complex with ...
Jamieson where he developed a computational method to reconstruct the Golgi Apparatus. He then worked as Research Assistant at ...
In addition, species of this genus also lack mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and an undulating membrane, a shared characteristic ...
... and a third on the Golgi apparatus in nerve cells (Paris, 1929). Between 1892 and 1939, he was a professor at the University of ...
The perinuclear structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in eukaryotes is dependent on microtubule trafficking, but ... These functional Golgi ministacks remain distributed about the cell, unable to track forward to form a perinuclear Golgi since ... Another standard cell biological application of nocodazole is to induce the formation of Golgi ministacks in eukaryotic cells. ... induces numerous Golgi elements to form adjacent to ER exit sites. ...
In addition, work from the Kaverina group at Vanderbilt, as well as others, suggests that the Golgi apparatus can serve as an ... including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Nucleation is the event that initiates the formation of ... This configuration is thought to help deliver microtubule-bound vesicles from the Golgi to the site of polarity. Dynamic ... Vinogradova T, Miller PM, Kaverina I (July 2009). "Microtubule network asymmetry in motile cells: role of Golgi-derived array ...
... while the rest of the sugars are attached in the Golgi apparatus. Chondroitin sulfate is highly soluble in water. Chondroitin ...
The immature virions mature through an unknown mechanism that may involve processing by the Golgi apparatus in the cell. They ...
Multiprotein complexes are key determinants of Golgi apparatus structure and its capacity for intracellular transport and ... "Characterization of a mammalian Golgi-localized protein complex, COG, that is required for normal Golgi morphology and function ... Conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COG8 gene. ... Loh E, Hong W (2002). "Sec34 is implicated in traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and exists in a complex with ...
It is a giant protein associated with the Golgi apparatus that is believed to be involved in post-Golgi apparatus sorting and ... When this happens, the nonfunctional protein causes the Golgi apparatus not to work properly and stops normal glycosylation. ... The VPS13B protein has been associated with the Golgi apparatus and intracellular processes such as protein modification, ... HUMAN Proteins produced from the VPS13B gene are part of the Golgi apparatus. They are also responsible for sorting and ...
... promotes non-amyloidogenic transport from the Golgi apparatus to other cellular locations, leading to an increase of APP ... the Golgi apparatus or endosomes, it is partially localized at mitochondria. Furthermore, RNA viral infections cause the ... with Rab7 at late endosomes and with Giantin at Golgi apparatus. Although the endosomal compartment is composed of vesicular ... ER-Golgi intermediate compartment, Golgi and endosomes is similar to that of MITA. Examples of genes whose DNA virus-triggered ...
Golgi apparatus protein 1 HBAP1: Hemoglobin, alpha pseudogene 1 HBHR, ATR1: Alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, type ... encoding protein Transport and Golgi organization protein 6 homolog TAO2: encoding Serine/threonine-protein kinase TAO2 TBC1D24 ...
In the golgi apparatus, the HCV precursor cell fuses with two more cells before becoming the HCV lipoviral particle. HCV in ...
... see Golgi Apparatus. Golgi, oh, woe is me, you cant even see the sea. Golgi, olgi, oh ooo olgi Golgi Golgi. They call him ... Golgi, oh, woe is me, you cant even see the sea. Golgi, olgi, oh ooo olgi Golgi Golgi. I saw you with a ticket stub in your ... Golgi Apparatus Lyrics. I look into the finance box just to check my status. I look into the microscope, ...
... In this cell (from a bat), the Golgi apparatus (boxed in red) is used for the final stages in the ... The Golgi apparatus is a cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER ... The Golgi is not a static cell organelle. *The Golgi breaks up and disappears at the onset of mitosis. *By telophase of mitosis ... Two mechanisms appear to participate in the migration of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi apparatus. ...
LOINC Code 54007-0 Golgi apparatus Ab [Presence] in Serum by Immunofluorescence ... Golgi apparatus Ab Ser Ql IF. Display Name. Golgi apparatus Ab IF Ql (S). Consumer Name Alpha. Golgi apparatus antibody, Blood ... 54007-0Golgi apparatus Ab [Presence] in Serum by ImmunofluorescenceActive. Fully-Specified Name. Component. Golgi apparatus Ab ... Golgi, apparato Ab:. PrThr:. Pt:. Siero:. Ord:. IF. pt-BRPortuguese (Brazil). Aparelho de Golgi Ac:. ACnc:. Pt:. Soro:. Ord:. ...
MARIANNE DAUWALDER, W. G. WHALEY, JOYCE E. KEPHART; Phosphatases and Differentiation of the Golgi Apparatus. J Cell Sci 1 March ... Acid phosphatase, generally accepted as a lysosomal marker, was found in association with the Golgi apparatus in only a few ... Following formaldehyde fixation the Golgi apparatus of most of the cells showed reaction specificity for IDPase and TPPase. ... Following glutaraldehyde fixation marked localization of IDPase reactivity in the Golgi apparatus was limited to the root cap, ...
Morpho-topochemical studies of Golgi apparatus and Vitamin C in normal mammary gland cells of agent free C3Hf and agent ... Studies on the Golgi apparatus in gland-cells. IV. A critique of the topography, structure and function of the Golgi apparatus ... I. Morpho-topochemical studies of Golgi apparatus and glycogen in malignant cells of sarcoma 180 after treatment with the ... Studies on the Golgi Apparatus of the Mammary Gland. Science 66(1709): 306, 1927 ...
Golgi apparatus. Cellular Biology , Intracellular components , Golgi apparatus Please rate this service (1 votes, average: 5.00 ...
Golgi apparatus. Here you will find all the resources identified by our tutors as useful for the study of this topic, arranged ...
Storrie B, Nilsson T. The Golgi apparatus: balancing new with old. Traffic. 2002 Aug; 3(8):521-9. ...
In the Golgi apparatus, lipid homeostasis pathways are coordinated with the biogenesis of cargo transport vesicles by ... Local control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling in the Golgi apparatus by Vps74 and Sac1 phosphoinositide ... Local control of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate signaling in the Golgi apparatus by Vps74 and Sac1 phosphoinositide ... Trans-Golgi network and endosome dynamics connect ceramide homeostasis with regulation of the unfolded protein response and TOR ...
... cashloanssolutions.com The download The presents presented related from earlier choices to be ... download The Golgi Apparatus was in 1897 and he commented being on it until 1922. The systems for sentence seek free round and ... too, download The Golgi Apparatus decisions ve that it is, not to zero. Bhat and Narasimha lit a Soviet Democracy in the ... download The Golgi Apparatus Kit, is Verified her Victorian trousseau to the drug of FXD beading: quantum time. There is visit ...
"Golgi Apparatus" by people in this website by year, and whether "Golgi Apparatus" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Golgi Apparatus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Golgi Apparatus" by people in Profiles. ...
Monoclonal antibodies to the Golgi apparatus of serous exocrine cells. S. Yamashita, H. Uchida, M. Shiozawa, S. Aiso, K. Yasuda ... Dive into the research topics of Monoclonal antibodies to the Golgi apparatus of serous exocrine cells. Together they form a ...
GIANTmicrobes Golgi will bring tremendous fun to your biological ... very own colorful plush representation of the Golgi apparatus. ... All About Golgi Apparatus. FACTS: The Golgi apparatus is an organelle present in all animal, plant and other eukaryotic cells. ... Golgi, oh, woe is me. Why is it named Golgi? In the late 1800s Camillo Golgi used a silver stain to discover its existence. ... The Golgi apparatus manufactures and packages proteins, lipids and other macromolecules produced by the cell. It assembles ...
Golgi apparatus. mitochondrion. non-membrane-bounded organelle. nucleus. organelle envelope. organelle lumen ...
Golgi apparatus. The Golgi apparatus. packages molecules processed by the endoplasmic reticulum to be transported out of the ...
... Functions of Golgi Apparatus, Golgi Apparatus Location ... The Golgi apparatus (salmon pink) in context of the secretory pathway Golgi Apparatus Assembly. The Golgi apparatus, or Golgi ... Golgi Apparatus Definition. The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi body, or Golgi complex, or just Golgi is a cell-based ... "Golgi-Holmgren apparatus", "Golgi-Holmgren ducts" as well as "Golgi-Kopsch apparatus". The expression "Golgi apparatus" was ...
Golgi apparatus and cytoplasmic vesicles Site of Virion Accumulation. Extracellular spaces Inclusion Bodies. No Other. ...
en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Golgi_apparatusGolgi apparatus - Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Golgi_apparatus. ... ゴルジ体(ゴルジたい、英語: Golgi body)は、真核生物の細胞にみられる細胞小器官の1つ。発見者のカミッロ・ゴルジ(Camillo Golgi)の名前をとってつけられた。ゴルジ装置 (Golgi apparatus)、ゴルジ複合体(Golgi ... The Golgi apparatus (/ ˈ ɡ ɒ l dʒ i /), also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found ... This structure now bears his name as
Conclusion: Integrities of the ER and the Golgi apparatus maintained by BiP in the host cells is necessary for DENV production. ... Results: Depleted expression of BiP affected integrities of the ER and the Golgi apparatus in DENV-infected cells. ... Depleted immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) expands the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in dengue ... Depleted immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) expands the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in dengue ...
Showing subcellular location of MAMLD1 (CG1, CXorf6, F18).
... experimental method by which the membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins can be determined in the Golgi apparatus in ... showing either the presence or absence of fluorescence with signal morphologies characteristic of the Golgi apparatus and ... A Golgi marker was used to construct a series of reporters based on the principle of bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ... The results suggest the existence of novel biosynthetic mechanisms involving transports of intermediates across Golgi membranes ...
Photo by Josh Witten (CC BY-NC-SA) via Instagram http://ift.tt/1IspAla
In both cases the matrix was dense, and ridges were clearly visible (Figure 4C). Configurations similar to the Golgi apparatus ... TE - trophectoderm; ZP - zona pellucida; Nu - nucleolus; GA - Golgi apparatus; Mi - microvilli; CG - cortical granules, TJ - ... TE - trophectoderm; ZP - zona pellucida; Nu - nucleolus; GA - Golgi apparatus; Mi - microvilli; CG - cortical granules, TJ - ... TE - trophectoderm; ZP - zona pellucida; Nu - nucleolus; GA - Golgi apparatus; Mi - microvilli; CG - cortical granules, TJ - ...
Home→Literature→Golgi Ion Pump→The Ca2+/Mn2+ pumps in the Golgi apparatus. ... Recent evidence highlights the functional importance of the Golgi apparatus as an agonist-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store ... Besides Ca(2+)-release channels and Ca(2+)-binding proteins, the Golgi complex contains Ca(2+)-uptake mechanisms consisting of ... SPCA supplies the Golgi compartments and, possibly, the more distal compartments of the secretory pathway with both Ca(2+) and ...
Golgi organization Cellular Component. Golgi apparatus COS 7 cell expressing Organelle LightsTM Golgi-GFP (Invitrogen) ... Golgi organization Cellular Component. Golgi apparatus COS 7 cell expressing Organelle LightsTM Golgi-GFP (Invitrogen) ... consisting of the human Golgi-resident enzyme N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2. Images were collected with a 63X 1.4 NA ... consisting of the human Golgi-resident enzyme N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2. Images were collected with a 63X1.4 NA Plan- ...
Microsporidia also possess degenerated mitochondria called mitosomes and lack a conventional Golgi apparatus. ... Following the proliferative phase, meronts undergo sporogony in which the thick spore wall and invasion apparatus develop, ...
located_in Golgi apparatus IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info. located_in axon cytoplasm IEA Inferred from ...
Golgi Apparatus / metabolism * Humans * Intracellular Membranes / metabolism * Lysosomes / metabolism * Nuclear Proteins * ... the peri-nuclear clustering of lysosomes following serum and amino acid withdrawal and is supported by the predominantly Golgi- ...
  • The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (musc.edu)
  • FLCN promotes the peri-nuclear clustering of lysosomes following serum and amino acid withdrawal and is supported by the predominantly Golgi-associated small GTPase Rab34. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, inverse fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis for lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 and mannose-6-phosphate receptor showed that the optineurin/Rab8-dependent post-Golgi trafficking to lysosomes was impaired in cells expressing mutant huntingtin or reducing huntingtin levels by small interfering RNA. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that when the transfer vesicles are formed by budding on the transitional elements of ER, P-450 is completely excluded from such regions and is not transported to the Golgi apparatus, and only the membrane proteins destined for the Golgi apparatus, plasma membranes, or lysosomes are selectively collected and transported. (silverchair.com)
  • Examples include the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum etc. (theskepticsguide.org)
  • Microsporidia also possess degenerated mitochondria called mitosomes and lack a conventional Golgi apparatus. (cdc.gov)
  • Both animal and plant cells contain Golgi bodies, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Also known as Golgi body, Golgi complex or dictyosome, it consists of tiny sacs (vesicles) and folded membranes within the cytoplasm, next to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and near the nucleus. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • Most mammal cells have the Golgi apparatus located near the centrosome and the nucleus of the cell. (sciencetrends.com)
  • Unlike the HSV-L Us9 homologue which was reported to be associated with nucleocapsids in the nuclei of infected cells, ADV Us9 localises to the secretory system (predominantly to the Golgi apparatus) and not to the nucleus. (vetres.org)
  • The transition vesicles move toward the cis Golgi on microtubules . (biology-pages.info)
  • These steps take place as shuttle vesicles carry the proteins from cis to medial to the trans Golgi compartments. (biology-pages.info)
  • At the outer face of the trans Golgi, vesicles pinch off and carry their completed products to their various destinations. (biology-pages.info)
  • The localization was usually in a single cisterna at the face of the apparatus toward which the production of secretory vesicles builds up and associated regions of what may be smooth endoplasmic reticulum. (biologists.com)
  • Vesicles carrying protein molecules transition from the ER to the Golgi apparatus where they fuse with sugars and lipids. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • The vesicles that carry the proteins leave the Golgi body and are sent out to either different portions of the cell or to extracellular space. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The principal purpose for Golgi's main function is Golgi apparatus is to transfer vesicles or packets of different cell products, to various. (microbiologynote.com)
  • The Golgi is also involved in tagging vesicles by sugar molecules and proteins which act as identifiers of the vesicles, allowing them to be delivered to the right destination. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Cells expressing mutant huntingtin produced both an accumulation of clathrin adaptor complex 1 at the Golgi and an increase of clathrin-coated vesicles in the vicinity of Golgi cisternae as revealed by electron microscopy. (elsevier.com)
  • The P-450 detected biochemically in the Golgi subcellular fraction can be explained by the contamination of the microsomal vesicles derived from fragmented ER membranes to the Golgi fraction. (silverchair.com)
  • The Golgi body packages proteins into vesicles that can be transported out of the cell. (varsitytutors.com)
  • In the late 1800s Camillo Golgi used a silver stain to discover its existence. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • It was first discovered during the year 1898 by Italian doctor Camillo Golgi in the course of an investigation into the nerve system. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Golgi apparatus was first discovered in 1898 by the Italian biologist named Camillo Golgi. (microbiologynote.com)
  • In 1898, the famous neuroanatomist Camillo Golgi reported his discovery of a ribbon-like apparatus inside neurons of the cerebellum. (yahoo.com)
  • 37th Camillo Golgi Lecture. (yahoo.com)
  • Camillo Golgi ontdekt het golgicomplex. (yahoo.com)
  • The Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology was awarded to Santiago Ramon y Cajal and Camillo Golgi. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • In this cell (from a bat), the Golgi apparatus (boxed in red) is used for the final stages in the synthesis of proteins that are to be secreted from the cell. (biology-pages.info)
  • The Golgi apparatus is a cell structure mainly devoted to processing the proteins synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum ( ER ). (biology-pages.info)
  • Link to discussion of the paths taken by proteins when they leave the Golgi. (biology-pages.info)
  • Many different enzymes (proteins) are present in the Golgi to perform its various synthetic activities. (biology-pages.info)
  • Two mechanisms appear to participate in the migration of proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi apparatus. (biology-pages.info)
  • The Golgi apparatus manufactures and packages proteins, lipids and other macromolecules produced by the cell. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • The Golgi body is usually located close to the exit sites of the endoplasmic reticulum, which allows it to have quick access to the proteins made by the ribosomes, which are found in the endoplasmic reticulum. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The primary function of the Golgi apparatus is to collect proteins, prepare them for transport, and then send the proteins out to the correct destination. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The cargo proteins that the Golgi body collects are modified and prepared for distribution by the process of exocytosis. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The individual stacks of cisternae within the apparatus have various enzymes that allow the proteins to be processed as they travel through the Golgi apparatus to the trans-Golgi end. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The enzymes found within the Golgi apparatus react with the proteins primarily near the surface of the membranes, as the enzymes are plugged in there. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The modification of proteins in the Golgi apparatus can form a sequence of chemical signals used to classify the protein's destination. (sciencetrends.com)
  • Golgi plays a role in packaging proteins prior to when they are shipped to their destinations. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Golgi proteins in the membrane are the reason for their distinctive shape. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Therefore we devised a non-invasive experimental method by which the membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins can be determined in the Golgi apparatus in living tissues. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The method allows prompt and robust determinations of membrane topologies of Golgi-resident proteins and is termed GO-PROMTO (for GOlgi PROtein Membrane TOpology). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Besides Ca(2+)-release channels and Ca(2+)-binding proteins, the Golgi complex contains Ca(2+)-uptake mechanisms consisting of the well-known sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-transport ATPases (SERCA) and the much less characterized secretory-pathway Ca(2+)-transport ATPases (SPCA). (haileyhailey.com)
  • Huntingtin regulates post-Golgi trafficking of secreted proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • The Golgi apparatus mediates intracellular transport of not only secretory and lysosomal proteins but also membrane proteins. (silverchair.com)
  • The capacity to retrieve escaped ER proteins extends to the trans-most cisterna of the Golgi stack. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To explore how far into the Golgi stack the capacity to retrieve KDEL proteins extends, we have introduced an exogenous probe (the peptide YHPNSTCSEKDEL) into the TGN of living cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The KDEL-tagged glycopeptides (approximately 10% of the endocytosed load) behaved like endogenous ER residents: they stayed intracellular, and their oligosaccharide side chains remained sensitive to endoglycosidase H. An option thus exists to extract ER residents even at the most distant pole of the Golgi stack, suggesting that sorting of resident from exported ER proteins may occur in a multistage process akin to fractional distillation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results suggest the existence of novel biosynthetic mechanisms involving transports of intermediates across Golgi membranes. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Colocalization studies and Western blot analysis of isolated Golgi membranes showed a reduction of huntingtin in the Golgi apparatus of cells expressing mutant huntingtin. (elsevier.com)
  • The Golgi body is found within the cytoplasm of the cell and is part of the endomembrane system. (sciencetrends.com)
  • there was evident vacuolation of neuronal cytoplasm, swelling of Golgi apparatus. (harvoa.org)
  • The Golgi consists of a stack of membrane-bound cisternae located between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cell surface. (biology-pages.info)
  • The tubular connections are made out of microtubules, and the stacks of cisternae that make up the Golgi body originate in the endoplasmic reticulum and bud off. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The Golgi bodies found within mammalian cells are usually made out of 40 to 100 layers of cisternae, with four to eight cisternae comprising an individual stack. (sciencetrends.com)
  • Some protists have Golgi bodies with as many as sixty cisternae per stack, however. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The Golgi apparatus is comprised of flat sacs referred to as Cisternae. (microbiologynote.com)
  • We found that P-450(PB) was not detectable on the membrane of Golgi cisternae either when P-450 was maximally induced by phenobarbital treatment or when P-450 content in the microsomes rapidly decreased after cessation of the treatment. (silverchair.com)
  • Micrograph illustrating the Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) cell stabilized by ultrarapid freezing. (ucsd.edu)
  • Instead, the ribosomes on the ER synthesize a large precursor protein that is later cut up into small peptide fragments as it traverses the Golgi. (biology-pages.info)
  • Secondly, after being shuttled to an endosome, the ricin is delivered to the Golgi apparatus, from which it makes its way to the cellular cytosol, where it begins its deactivation of ribosomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Adaptor Protein CD2AP and L-type Lectin LMAN2 Regulate Exosome Cargo Protein Trafficking through the Golgi Complex. (musc.edu)
  • Golgi complex, or Golgi body. (microbiologynote.com)
  • The term "Golgi complex" was introduced in 1956. (microbiologynote.com)
  • The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi body, or Golgi complex, or just Golgi is a cell-based organelle that is found in the majority of the cells in eukaryotic species. (microbiologynote.com)
  • The Golgi apparatus (/ ˈ ɡ ɒ l dʒ i /), also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi , is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. (yahoo.com)
  • Together, our results indicate that mutant huntingtin perturbs post-Golgi trafficking to lysosomal compartments by delocalizing the optineurin/Rab8 complex, which, in turn, affects the lysosomal function. (elsevier.com)
  • Figure 212 from Chapter 6 (Golgi Apparatus) of 'The Cell, 2nd Ed.' by Don W. Fawcett M.D. Secretory cells in Brunner's duodenal gland of the mouse have an extensive Golgi complex, with secretory granu. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • Note the relationship of the RER membrane to the Golgi complex. (ucsd.edu)
  • There are two different compartments within the Golgi body - the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the cis-Golgi network (CGN). (sciencetrends.com)
  • SPCA supplies the Golgi compartments and, possibly, the more distal compartments of the secretory pathway with both Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) and, therefore, plays an important role in the cytosolic and intra-Golgi Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) homeostasis. (haileyhailey.com)
  • Recent evidence highlights the functional importance of the Golgi apparatus as an agonist-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store. (haileyhailey.com)
  • Bachert C, Linstedt A * . A Sensor of Protein O-Glycosylation Based on Sequential Processing in the Golgi apparatus. (cmu.edu)
  • A parallelism was apparent between the sequential morphological development of the apparatus for the secretion of a polysaccharide product, the fairly direct incorporation of tritiated glucose into the apparatus to become a component of this product and the development of the enzyme reactivity. (biologists.com)
  • The Golgi apparatus also plays a role in lysosome formation and the transportation of lipids. (sciencetrends.com)
  • FACTS: The Golgi apparatus is an organelle present in all animal, plant and other eukaryotic cells. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • However, it wasn't until the invention of the electron microscope decades later that the Golgi apparatus was proven to be a distinctive organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • Plasma-B cells, for example, have to make large amounts of antibodies since they are involved in the immune system, and as a result, they have larger Golgi bodies. (sciencetrends.com)
  • Sec14, the major yeast phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) transfer protein, regulates essential interfaces between lipid metabolism and membrane trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). (edu.au)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Depleted immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) expands the endoplasmic reticulum and the golgi apparatus in dengue virus-infected cells. (who.int)
  • Objective: To test whether depleted expression of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), which is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, in dengue virus (DENV)-infected cells, affected integrities of the ER and the Golgi apparatus of the host cells. (who.int)
  • As a typical marker membrane protein for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of rat hepatocytes, we have selected phenobarbital (PB)-inducible cytochrome P-450 (P-450[PB]) and investigated whether P-450(PB) is transported to the Golgi apparatus or not by combining biochemical and quantitative ferritin immunoelectron microscopic techniques. (silverchair.com)
  • Describe the mechanism for protein synthesis including transcription, translation, and modification within the Golgi apparatus. (nsta.org)
  • By fusing the jellyfish enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter molecule (EGFP) to the carboxy-terminus of Us9, we demonstrated that Us9 not only is capable of targeting a Us9-EGFP fusion protein to the Golgi compartment, it also is able to direct efficient incorporation of such chimeric molecules into infectious viral particles. (vetres.org)
  • The steady-state residence of the Us9 protein is in a cellular compartment in or near the trans -Golgi network (TGN). (vetres.org)
  • In plant cells, the Golgi secretes the cell plate and cell wall . (biology-pages.info)
  • Following formaldehyde fixation the Golgi apparatus of most of the cells showed reaction specificity for IDPase and TPPase. (biologists.com)
  • Microscopy (x 1800 magnification) revealed that malignant cells of 30-day-old tumours contained a more random distribution of Golgi apparatus compared to the perinuclear distribution in normal tissue cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • Animal cells have 10-20 Golgi apparati and plant cells may have up to 200. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • The Golgi apparatus functions as an organelle found within the cells of the majority of eukaryotic organisms. (sciencetrends.com)
  • Plants cells have stacks of Golgi that aren't concentrated around the centrosome and don't have the ribbon structure that the Golgi body does in other cells. (sciencetrends.com)
  • The Golgi apparatus is usually larger and bigger in cells that create a substantial amount of substances for use in other parts of the body. (sciencetrends.com)
  • Results: Depleted expression of BiP affected integrities of the ER and the Golgi apparatus in DENV-infected cells. (who.int)
  • Conclusion: Integrities of the ER and the Golgi apparatus maintained by BiP in the host cells is necessary for DENV production. (who.int)
  • Acid phosphatase, generally accepted as a lysosomal marker, was found in association with the Golgi apparatus in only a few cell types near the apex of the root. (biologists.com)
  • Learning cell biology is wonderful and exhilarating with your very own colorful plush representation of the Golgi apparatus. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • The Golgi apparatus is sometimes referred to as the "post office of the cell. (sciencetrends.com)
  • COS 7 cell expressing Organelle LightsTM Golgi-GFP (Invitrogen)consisting of the human Golgi-resident enzyme N- acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2. (cellimagelibrary.org)
  • The Golgi apparatus can be thought of as the "shipping center" of the cell. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Using a variety of signals, the Golgi separates the products from the processing enzymes that made them and returns the enzymes back to the endoplasmic reticulum. (biology-pages.info)
  • The ER and the Golgi apparatus also cooperate to make enzymes which are used to break down large molecules. (giantmicrobes.ca)
  • The compartmentalized nature of the Golgi body is useful for keeping enzymes separated, making sure that the proper enzymes only act on their respective targets, restricting processing to several different steps. (sciencetrends.com)
  • El movimiento de las proteínas tiene lugar mediante la transferencia de las vesículas que brotan del retículo endoplásmico rugoso o del aparato de Golgi y se fusionan con el sistema de Golgi, los lisosomas o la membrana celular. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viral mutants lacking the highly conserved Us9 acidic motif required for endocytosis and trans -Golgi network targeting are defective for directional spread in the rat visual system. (vetres.org)
  • Cajal improved the techniques of Golgi, which involved staining neurons for observation. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The somatic and dendritic features of Golgi stained pyramidal neurons were examined by light microscopy in both hydrocephalic and control mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Golgi Apparatus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (musc.edu)
  • Senkal CE, Ponnusamy S, Manevich Y, Meyers-Needham M, Saddoughi SA, Mukhopadyay A, Dent P, Bielawski J, Ogretmen B. Alteration of ceramide synthase 6/C16-ceramide induces activating transcription factor 6-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis via perturbation of cellular Ca2+ and ER/Golgi membrane network. (musc.edu)
  • Following glutaraldehyde fixation marked localization of IDPase reactivity in the Golgi apparatus was limited to the root cap, the epidermis, and the phloem. (biologists.com)
  • Due to its huge dimensions and unique structure Due to its size and distinctive structure, due to its distinctive shape and size, Golgi apparatus was among the first organelles examined in detail. (microbiologynote.com)
  • Following the proliferative phase, meronts undergo sporogony in which the thick spore wall and invasion apparatus develop, creating sporonts and eventually mature spores when all organelles are polarized. (cdc.gov)
  • They are organelles formed by the Golgi apparatus . (genial.ly)
  • that is, the cis Golgi gradually migrates up the stack becoming a medial and finally a trans Golgi (depicted in the figure with red arrows). (biology-pages.info)
  • Functions of neutral ceramidase in the Golgi apparatus. (musc.edu)
  • A Golgi marker was used to construct a series of reporters based on the principle of bimolecular fluorescence complementation. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Output signals were binary, showing either the presence or absence of fluorescence with signal morphologies characteristic of the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • It is suggested that oxidative stress, stress in the Golgi Apparatus, reduction in expression of the set of genes involved in the signaling pathway Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and in the pathway of the metabolism of beta-amyloid peptide and alteration of the catalytic activity of D2 with consequent changes in serum levels of T3 and T4 may contribute to the development or as aggravating of these conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Golgi apparatus is made out of stacks of different sizes linked together by tubular connections. (sciencetrends.com)
  • This structure now bears his name as the ' Golgi apparatus. (yahoo.com)
  • Disease-Associated Mutations of TREM2 Alter the Processing of N-Linked Oligosaccharides in the Golgi Apparatus. (cdc.gov)