Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Gold Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain gold as an integral part of the molecule.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Gold Colloid, Radioactive: A suspension of radioactive gold particles emitting negative beta particles and gamma irradiation. It was formerly used for liver scans and irradiation treatment of some metastatic malignancies.Gold Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Auranofin: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.Gold Sodium Thiosulfate: A sodium salt of gold thiosulfate. It has uses like the ORGANOGOLD COMPOUNDS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)MiningElectrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Nanoshells: Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.ThiomalatesSurface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Diet, Gluten-Free: A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Thorium: Thorium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol Th, atomic number 90, and atomic weight 232.04. It is used as fuel in nuclear reactors to produce fissionable uranium isotopes. Because of its radioopacity, various thorium compounds are used to facilitate visualization in roentgenography.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Melaleuca: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.Fiji: A republic consisting of an island group in Melanesia, in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Suva. It was discovered by Abel Tasman in 1643 and was visited by Captain Cook in 1774. It was used by escaped convicts from Australia as early as 1804. It was annexed by Great Britain in 1874 but achieved independence in 1970. The name Fiji is of uncertain origin. In its present form it may represent that of Viti, the main island in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p396 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p186)Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.ColoradoStrikes, Employee: Work-related situations in which the employees as a group refuse to work until certain conditions of employment are granted by the employer.Peritoneovenous Shunt: An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.IrelandCultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Northern IrelandMeliaceae: The mahogany plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.

Mercury toxicity due to the smelting of placer gold recovered by mercury amalgam. (1/2249)

A 19-year-old man developed tremor in both hands and fatigue after starting work at a placer gold mine where he was exposed to mercury-gold amalgam. Examination revealed an intention tremor, dysdiadochokinesis and mild rigidity. The 24-h urinary mercury concentration reached a peak of 715 nmol/l (143 ug/l) shortly before the clinical examination, after which he was removed from working in the gold room [Mercury No. Adverse Effect Level: 250 nmol/l (50 ug/l)]. On review 7 weeks later his tremor had almost resolved and the dysdiadochokinesis and rigidity had gone. The 24-h urinary mercury concentration had fallen to 160 nmol/l (32 ug/l). The principal exposure to mercury was considered to be the smelting of retorted gold with previously unrecognized residual mercury in it. The peak air concentration of mercury vapour during gold smelting was 0.533 mg/m3 (Mercury Vapour ACGIH TLV: 0.05 mg/m3 TWA). Several engineering and procedural controls were instituted. This episode occurred at another mine site, unrelated to Mount Isa Mines Limited.  (+info)

Carbon disulphide absorption during xanthate reagent mixing in a gold mine concentrator. (2/2249)

A xanthate reagent mixer at a gold mine concentrator was exposed to carbon disulphide by extensive skin contamination with xanthate powder and solution during the reagent mixing process. Absorption of carbon disulphide was confirmed by the detection of urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA). Drager colorimetric tube testing during subsequent mixing recorded a maximum concentration of at least 60 ppm carbon disulphide. An illness consisting of predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms began 20 h after the exposure. Although this may have been due to carbon disulphide toxicity this is by no means certain. The need for engineering controls, impervious protective clothing and full-face respirators with particulate and organic vapour cartridges is discussed. This episode occurred at another mine site, unrelated to Mount Isa Mines Limited.  (+info)

Particle bombardment mediated transformation and GFP expression in the moss Physcomitrella patens. (3/2249)

There are few plants facilitated for the study of development, morphogenesis and gene expression at the cellular level. The moss Physcomitrella patens can be a very useful plant with several advantages: simple life cycle containing a major haploid gametophyte stage, easy manipulation, small genome size (6 x 10(8) bp) and high similarities with higher plants. To establish the transformation system of mosses as a model for basic plant research, a series of experiments were performed. Mosses were cultured in cellophane overlaid BCD media, transformed by particle bombardment and selected by the choice of appropriate antibiotics. Initial transformants appeared 8 d or 14 d after selection, showing different sensitivities toward the antibiotics used. Heat treatment during the preparation of particles revealed that denaturing the DNA enabled a more efficient way to deliver a transgene into the chromosome. This was proven by the increase in the number of transformants by five times in the plants with denatured DNA. In the test for the repairing capacity of mosses, 154 and 195 transformants survived from 1 d and 3 d incubations, respectively, indicating that a longer period of incubation seemed to be recommendable for better survival. The selected transformants were further analyzed at the DNA and expression level. Transformed genes were confirmed by PCR where all the transformants showed the expected size of amplification. Histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression also confirmed the integration of exogenous DNA. In a comparison of the two different forms of GFP, soluble-modified GFP (smGFP) expressed stronger signals than modified GFP (mGFP) due to its improved solubility. Confirmation of the transgene in the chloroplast transformation has improved the applicability of moss as a model system for the study of basic biological researches.  (+info)

Cutting edge: receptor-mediated endocytosis of heat shock proteins by professional antigen-presenting cells. (4/2249)

Immunization with heat shock proteins (HSPs) induces Ag-specific CTL responses. The specificity of the immune response is based on peptides associated with HSPs. To investigate how exogenous HSP/peptide complexes gain access to the MHC class I-restricted Ag presentation pathway, we incubated the monocytic cell line P388D1 and the dendritic cell line D2SC/1 with gold-labeled HSPs gp96 and HSC70. We show that HSPs bind specifically to the surface of these APCs and are internalized spontaneously by receptor-mediated endocytosis, demonstrating the existence of specific receptors for HSPs on these cells. In addition, we observe colocalization of internalized HSPs and surface MHC class I molecules in early and late endosomal structures. These findings provide possible explanations for the immunogenicity of HSP/peptide complexes and for the transfer of HSP-associated peptides onto MHC class I molecules.  (+info)

The secretory route of the leaderless protein interleukin 1beta involves exocytosis of endolysosome-related vesicles. (5/2249)

Interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), a secretory protein lacking a signal peptide, does not follow the classical endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi pathway of secretion. Here we provide the evidence for a "leaderless" secretory route that uses regulated exocytosis of preterminal endocytic vesicles to transport cytosolic IL-1beta out of the cell. Indeed, although most of the IL-1beta precursor (proIL-1beta) localizes in the cytosol of activated human monocytes, a fraction is contained within vesicles that cofractionate with late endosomes and early lysosomes on Percoll density gradients and display ultrastructural features and markers typical of these organelles. The observation of organelles positive for both IL-1beta and the endolysosomal hydrolase cathepsin D or for both IL-1beta and the lysosomal marker Lamp-1 further suggests that they belong to the preterminal endocytic compartment. In addition, similarly to lysosomal hydrolases, secretion of IL-1beta is induced by acidotropic drugs. Treatment of monocytes with the sulfonylurea glibenclamide inhibits both IL-1beta secretion and vesicular accumulation, suggesting that this drug prevents the translocation of proIL-1beta from the cytosol into the vesicles. A high concentration of extracellular ATP and hypotonic medium increase secretion of IL-1beta but deplete the vesicular proIL-1beta content, indicating that exocytosis of proIL-1beta-containing vesicles is regulated by ATP and osmotic conditions.  (+info)

Leptospirosis and Ebola virus infection in five gold-panning villages in northeastern Gabon. (6/2249)

An exhaustive epidemiologic and serologic survey was carried out in five gold-panning villages situated in northeastern Gabon to estimate the degree of exposure of to leptospirosis and Ebola virus. The seroprevalence was 15.7% for leptospirosis and 10.2% for Ebola virus. Sixty years after the last seroepidemiologic survey of leptospirosis in Gabon, this study demonstrates the persistence of this infection among the endemic population and the need to consider it as a potential cause of hemorrhagic fever in Gabon. There was no significant statistical correlation between the serologic status of populations exposed to both infectious agents, indicating the lack of common risk factors for these diseases.  (+info)

Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum major surface antigens and their relationship to human activities associated with malaria transmission. (7/2249)

In Brazil, two types of activities have led to the worsening of malarial transmission in the Amazon region: prospecting/mining and agricultural settlements. In the present study, we analyze the cellular response of 52 of these individuals (14 gold-miners and 38 farmers) living within the same endemic area. Two Plasmodium falciparum major surface antigens (recombinant proteins) were used for cellular proliferative assays: circumsporozoite protein and merozoite surface protein-1. The frequency of these cellular responses were significantly higher among the miners (57-64%) than the farmers (10-20%) when either recombinant protein was used. Our data suggest that a higher exposure to malaria of the gold-miners contributed to their higher in vitro cellular response compared with the farmers. These findings point the way to further studies evaluating the influence of risk factors associated with the life styles of different social groups and the immune responses to these antigens.  (+info)

Single micro electrode dielectrophoretic tweezers for manipulation of suspended cells and particles. (8/2249)

Cells or particles in aqueous suspension close to a single capacitively coupled micro electrode (CCME) driven with high frequency electric fields experience dielectrophoretic forces. The effects near the CCME can be used for trapping and manipulation of single cells using externally metallised glass pipettes and might be used to develop a microscope based on force or capacitance measurements in conductive media.  (+info)

Gold nanoparticles reflect different colors when exposed to light. Gold nanoparticles properties can be changed by altering their structure, shape and size. These advantages have been driving the global gold nanoparticles market in major end-use industries including electronics, sensory probes, therapeutic agents and medical applications. Gold nanoparticles are available at nano scale size ranging from 5nm to 100nm. Gold nanoparticles market has been witnessing strong growth over the last few years on account of increasing demand from medical and dentistry sector and trend is expected to continue over the forecast period. Growing application scope of nanotechnology in medical sector especially in diagnostics and imaging application is the key factor expected to drive the market over the next six years. Gold nanoparticles are used in detection of tumor cells and cancer drug delivery. These advantageous factors are expected to boost nanoparticles demand over the forecast period. Gold nanoparticles ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiplexed DNA detection with DNA-functionalized silver and silver/gold nanoparticle superstructure probes. AU - Kim, Ji Young. AU - Lee, Jae-Seung. PY - 2012/1/20. Y1 - 2012/1/20. N2 - DNA-functionalized silver and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticle superstructure probes with controllable sizes and optical properties are synthesized using monothiol DNA and dithiothreitol. The superstructures exhibit a very narrow size distribution, which can be easily controlled by balancing the ratio of dithiothreitol and DNA. These superstructures assemble reversibly in a highly cooperative manner, and are SERS active. Multiplexed colorimetric detection of DNA targets using these superstructure probes has been demonstrated to identify three different DNA target sequences that are associated with three lethal diseases, respectively.. AB - DNA-functionalized silver and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticle superstructure probes with controllable sizes and optical properties are synthesized using ...
Tuning and controlling size, shape and surface characteristics of plasmonic gold nanoparticles can help define their photonic, catalytic, and spectroscopic properties, and therefore are crucial for the development of biosensors. This strategy is demonstrated in the present study. Gold nanostars (Au NST) chemically synthesized through a seeding approach exhibited not only Vis-NIR tunable localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), but also strong peroxidase-mimicking activity which can catalyse the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) into an oxidized chromogenic product (oxTMB). The catalytic activity of gold nanostars was found to correlate well with their size and LSPR mode, and to be strongly affected by capping ligands (i.e. poly and oligo ethylene glycol, 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid, 4-mercaptobenzoic acid). When capped with molecular binders (i.e. peptides and antibodies), the peroxidase-mimicking activity was suppressed by almost 100% under the examined conditions. However, a gold ...
The attachment of cells onto solid surfaces is a fundamental pedestal in the field of biosensors and biochips development. In this work we investigate the adhesion and survival of rat cortical neurons on positively charged surface. We bind amino-functionalized thiol (Amino-EG6-undecanethiol) on Au nanoparticles that are immobilized on surfaces with varying density. The neural cell survival and adhesion is studied on the Au nanoparticles that work as carriers for positive charges. The Au nanoparticles attachment is done by silanizing a Si/SiO2 surface with amino terminated silane (APTES) and on gold substrate by 11-MUA (11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid). Different number of positive charge on Au nanoparticles is obtained by tuning the number of density of Au nanoparticles. A comparison is made between two types of surfaces for cell survival and attachment.. The neural cells are cultured on positively charged gold nanoparticles as well as on PLL (Poly-Lysine) coated surfaces. The Characterization of the ...
A gold-nanoparticles (Au NPs)-Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) based fluorescent sensor for detecting Hg(II) in aqueous solution has been developed. Water-soluble and monodisperse gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has been prepared facilely and further modified with thioglycolic acid (TGA). Free Rh6G dye was strongly fluorescent in bulk solution. The sensor system composing of Rh6G and Au NPs fluoresce weakly as result of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and collision. The fluorescence of Rh6G and Au NPs based sensor was gradually recovered due to Rh6G units departed from the surface of functionalized Au NPs in the presence of Hg(II). Based on the modulation of fluorescence quenching efficiency of Rh6G-Au NPs by Hg(II) at pH 9.0 of teraborate buffer solution, a simple, rapid, reliable and specific turn-on fluorescent assay for Hg(II) was proposed. Under the optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity of sensor is proportional to the concentration of Hg(II). The calibration graphs are linear over the range
In the present study, we fabricated a hemoglobin/gold nanoparticle (Hb/GNP) heterolayer immobilized on the Au micro-gap to confirm H2O2 detection with a signal-enhancement effect. The hemoglobin which contained the heme group catalyzed the reduction of H2O2. To facilitate the electron transfer between hemoglobin and Au micro-gap electrode, a gold nanoparticle was introduced. The Au micro-gap electrode that has gap size of 5 µm was fabricated by conventional photolithographic technique to locate working and counter electrodes oppositely in a single chip for the signal sensitivity and reliability. The hemoglobin was self-assembled onto the Au surface via chemical linker 6-mercaptohexanoic acid (6-MHA). Then, the gold nanoparticles were adsorbed onto hemoglobin/6-MHA heterolayers by the layer-by-layer (LbL) method. The fabrication of the Hb/GNP heterolayer was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The redox property and H2O2 detection of Hb/GNP on the
We present and analyze a method to improve the morphology and mechanical properties of gold thin films for use in optical sensors or other settings where good adhesion of gold to a substrate is of importance and where controlled topography/roughness is key. To improve the adhesion of thermally evaporated gold thin films, we introduce a gold deposition step on SU-8 photoresist prior to UV exposure but after the pre-bake step of SU-8 processing. Shrinkage and distribution of residual stresses, which occur during cross-linking of the SU-8 polymer layer in the post-exposure baking step, are responsible for the higher adhesion of the top gold film to the post-deposition cured SU-8 sublayer. The SU-8 underlayer can also be used to tune the resulting gold film morphology. Our promoter-free protocol is easily integrated with existing sensor microfabrication processes.
Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used for drug delivery in treating several neurological disorders e.g., Alzheimers disease (AD), Parkinsons disease, Stroke and trauma. In addition, use of AuNPs for diagnostic purposes in various diseases are also common in clinical medicine. However, the neurotoxic effects of AuNPs in vivo studies are not well explored. Thus, it would be interesting to examine AuNPs neurotoxicity in vivo models in relation to size related effects on brain pathology. We examined the effects of moderate doses of AuNPs of 3 different sizes (5 nm, 10 nm and 40 nm) administered either though intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg, i.p.), intravenously (5 mg/kg, i.v.), intracarotidly (2 mg/kg, i.c.a.) or intracerebroventricularly (20 µg in 20 µl, i.c.v.) in rats (Age 20 to 25 weeks). Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown to Evans blue albumin (EBA 3 ml/kg, i.v.) and [131]-Iodine (100 µCi/kg, i.v.) was examined 24 h after AuNPs administration in the brain in relation to edema formation and
Americas Gold Nanoparticles Market Analysis by Type (nanorods, nanoshells , nanocages) by Application (photodynamic therapy, diagnostics, medical imaging), by End-users (Hospitals, Clinics, Dental clinics) Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and - Forecast to 2027. Market Synopsis of Gold nanoparticles Market Scenario. The market for Gold nanoparticles is increasing rapidly due to increasing advancement in nanotechnologies. The factors that influence the growth of Gold nanoparticles market; expanding medical diagnostics industry, increasing growth in advance healthcare technology, high advantages in medicinal imaging applications and many others. As per the American Nano Society, nanotechnology is a field of science which manages the investigation of nano size. In medical field, gold nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, and calcium phosphate are significantly used nanoparticles. These particles all things considered represented a piece of the overall industry of more ...
Gold nanoparticles with sizes around 2 nm and below are being studied extensively because they exhibit novel electronic, magnetic, optical and catalytic properties. We are investigating the formation of Au-55 types of gold nanoparticles through a reduction reaction at a liquid-liquid interface. Diffuse X-ray scattering and reflectivity techniques [1] allow us to monitor the formation of gold nanoparticles at liquid-liquid interface. These techniques also provide information regarding the out-of-plane and in-plane structure of the gold nanoparticles at liquid surface and liquid-liquid interface.. In situ X-ray scattering measurements were carried out at beamline ID10B during the formation of gold nanoparticles at a toluene-water interface. The reduction reaction [2] uses an organic precursor of gold kept in the toluene layer and a reducing agent kept in the slightly alkaline water layer. As the reaction occurs through the creation of fingers from one liquid to another, the size (1 nm diameter) of ...
Nanoparticles have contributed significantly to the design of new drug delivery and targeting in cancer chemotherapy. Consequently, some of the desirable qualities of silver and gold nanoparticles have prompted their novel applications in cancer nanobiotechnology. Glioblastoma is the most common and highest grade primary brain tumors in adults. Despite limited recent advances in treatment of this neurotumor, the prognosis of patients with this tumor remains extremely poor. In this study, we have investigated the hypothesis that silver and gold nanoparticles exert differential cytotoxic effects on human astrocytoma (glioblastoma) U87 cells. Our results demonstrate silver and gold nanoparticles induced time- and concentration-related effects in lowering the survival of U87 cells. Consistent with our hypothesis, the effects induced by silver nanoparticles were much more pronounced compared to those induced by gold nanoparticles. We also found that both silver and gold nanoparticles induced changes in the
... (Gold Nanoparticle Conjugation Kits). One-Step mini kit for covalent conjugation of proteins and other amine containing ligands to 30nm gold nanoparticles. Contains enough reagents for conjugation of 10 x 40ug of protein.
... (Gold Nanoparticle Conjugation Kits). One-Step mini kit for covalent conjugation of proteins and other amine containing ligands to 20nm gold nanoparticles. Contains enough reagents for conjugation of 10 x 40ug of protein.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of adsorption constants of laccase on gold nanoparticles to evaluate the enhancement in enzyme activity of adsorbed laccase. AU - Almeida, Miguel Peixoto de AU - Quaresma, Pedro. AU - Sousa, Susana. AU - Couto, Cláudia. AU - Gomes, Inês. AU - Krippahl, Ludwig. AU - Franco, Ricardo. AU - Pereira, Eulália. N1 - Marta Giza is acknowledged for expert utilization of the UCSF Chimera package. Chimera is developed by the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics at the University of California, San Francisco (supported by NIGMS P41-GM103311). This work was supported by (a) Unidade de Ciencias Biomoleculares Aplicadas-UCIBIO which is financed by Portuguese national funds from FCT/MEC (UID/Multi/04378/2013) and co-financed by the ERDF under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007728); and NOVA LINCS UID/CEC/04516/2013; and (b) European Union (FEDER funds through COMPETE) and National Funds (FCT, Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia), under ...
Global Gold Nanoparticles Market is expected to reach USD 4.86 billion by 2020, according to a new study by Grand View Research, Inc. Medical & dentistry was the largest end-use segment for the gold nanoparticles and accounted for over 50% of total demand in 2013. Growing metal nanomaterials use in medical diagnostics & imaging especially for drug delivery systems in cancer & tumor cell detection is expected to drive gold nanoparticles demand over the forecast period.. North America dominated the global gold nanoparticles market accounting for over 30% of global volume in 2013. Increasing R&D spending by individual nanotechnology companies and universities along with expanding medical diagnostics industry is expected to be the major factors driving gold nanoparticles demand in the region. Asia Pacific is estimated to witness the fastest growth at a CAGR of over 25% from 2014 to 2020. Growth of nanomaterials industry in countries including China, Taiwan, South Korea and Japan along with emergence ...
This work proposes a method for fabricating silica-coated gold (Au) nanoparticles, surface modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (Au/SiO2/PEG), with a particle size of 54.8 nm. X-ray imaging of a mouse is performed with the colloid solution. A colloid solution of 17.9 nm Au nanoparticles was prepared by reducing Au ions (III) with sodium citrate in water at 80 °C. The method used for silica-coating the Au nanoparticles was composed of surface-modification of the Au nanoparticles with (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APMS) and a sol-gel process. The sol-gel process was performed in the presence of the surface-modified Au nanoparticles using tetraethylorthosilicate, APMS, water, and sodium hydroxide, in which the formation of silica shells and the introduction of amino groups to the silica-coated particles took place simultaneously (Au/SiO2-NH2). Surface modification of the Au/SiO2-NH2 particles with PEG, or PEGylation of the particle surface, was performed by adding PEG with a functional ...
Purpose: : Molecular in vivo imaging allows for diagnostic imaging, target screening, and therapeutic monitoring of disease on a molecular level, prior to evidence of pathologic changes that can be detected with conventional imaging modalities. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an imaging modality used to visualize ocular structures with high spatial resolution. We have created optimized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) which produce a strong OCT signal, beyond the background tissue OCT signal, and can fulfill the role of an exogenous OCT contrast agent. In order to achieve molecular diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities, we functionalized these GNPs with anti-VEGF antibodies, allowing for the dual purpose of molecular diagnostic imaging and therapy towards age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: : GNPs with a longitudinal plasmon resonance at 840nm were synthesized using seed-mediated growth mechanism. The GNPs were covalently attached to anti-VEGF antibodies via carbodiimide chemistry. ...
Colloidal gold is a sol or colloidal suspension of nanoparticles of gold in a fluid, usually water. The liquid is usually either an intense red colour (for particles less than 100 nm) or blue/purple (for larger particles). Due to their optical, electronic, and molecular-recognition properties, gold nanoparticles are the subject of substantial research, with many potential or promised applications. and materials science. The properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles, and thus their applications, depend strongly upon their size and shape. For example, rodlike particles have both transverse and longitudinal absorption peak, and anisotropy of the shape affects their self-assembly. Used since ancient times, the synthesis of colloidal gold was crucial to the 4th-century Lycurgus Cup, which changes color depending on the location of light source. Later it was used as a method of staining glass. During the Middle Ages, soluble gold, a solution containing gold salt, had a reputation for its curative ...
A sensing system has been obtained by self-assembly of multiple fluorescent indicators and monolayer protected gold nanoparticles. The system is able to discriminate between each of the eight nucleotides NDP and NTP (N = A, T, G, C) in a quantitative manner at micromolar concentrations.
We have numerically investigated the influence of a nanoscale silicon tip in proximity to an illuminated gold nanoparticle. We describe how the position of the high-permittivity tip and the size of the nanoparticle impact the absorption, peak electric field and surface plasmon resonance wavelength under different illumination conditions. We detail the finite element method (FEM) approach we have used, whereby we specify a volume excitation field analytically and calculate the difference between this source field and the total field (i.e., scattered-field formulation). We show that a nanoscale tip can locally enhance the absorption of the particle as well as the peak electric field at length scales far smaller than the wavelength of the incident light.. ©2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
Polyvalent DNA gold nanoparticles are colloidal gold whose surface is modified with thiol capped synthetic DNA sequences. They were co-discovered by Chad Mirkin et al. at Northwestern University in 1996 and Paul Alivisatos at University of California, Berkeley. Due to the strong interaction between gold and thiols (-SH), a single monolayer of DNA around the gold particle can be obtained. The negative charge repulsion of the phosphate backbone of DNA orients the DNA strands out into solution with a unique footprint that is dependent on gold nanoparticle size and packing density. (Schematic Image) Simply by positioning many strands into close proximity, these particles possess novel properties in which the independent DNA strands do not. Due to the cooperative effects of the polyvalency of multiple DNA strands, DNA on a particle has a stronger and sharper melting temperature when binding to its complement compared to DNA free in solution. Because of this effect and the unique optical properties of ...
Protein encapsulated gold nanoclusters have received much attention due to the possibility of using them as a non-toxic fluorescent probe or marker for biomedical applications, however one major disadvantage currently is their low brightness and quantum yield in comparison to currently used fluorescent markers. A method of increasing the fluorescence emission of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) encapsulated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) via a Polyallylamide hydrochloride (PAH) coating is described. PAH molecules with a molecular weight of ~17,500 Da were found to enhance the fluorescence emission of HSA-AuNCs by 3-fold when the protein/polymer concentration ratio is 2:1 in solution. Interestingly, the fluorescence lifetime of the AuNCs was found to decrease while the native tryptophan (TRP) fluorescence lifetime also decreased during the fluorescence emission intensity enhancement caused by the PAH binding. Coinciding with the decrease in fluorescence lifetime, the zeta potential of the system was observed ...
... A gold colloid suspensions containing different size nanoparticles, will be dumped in succesion, and the particles will self assemble into proper sized trenches.
Atomically precise gold nanoclusters are ideal model catalysts with well-defined compositions and tunable structures. Determination of the ligand effect on catalysis requires the use of gold nanoclusters with protecting ligands as the only variable. Two isostructural Au38 nanoclusters, [Au38(L)20(Ph3P)4]2+ (L = alkynyl or thiolate), have been synthesized by a direct reduction method, and they have an unprecedented face-centered cubic (fcc)-type Au34 kernel surrounded by 4 AuL2 staple motifs, 4 Ph3P, and 12 bridging L ligands. The Au34 kernel can be derived from the fusion of two fcc-type Au20 via sharing a Au6 face. Catalytic performance was studied with these two nanoclusters supported on TiO2 (1/TiO2 and 2/TiO2) as catalysts. The alkynyl-protected Au38 are very active (,97%) in the semihydrogenation of alkynes (including terminal and internal ones) to alkenes, whereas the thiolated Au38 showed a very low conversion (,2%). This fact suggests that the protecting ligands play an important role in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein-assisted 2D assembly of gold nanoparticles on a polysaccharide surface. AU - Taajamaa, Laura. AU - Rojas, Orlando J.. AU - Laine, Janne. AU - Yliniemi, Kirsi. AU - Kontturi, Eero. PY - 2013/1/2. Y1 - 2013/1/2. KW - Nanoparticles; Specific Adsorption; Cationic and anionic surfaces. KW - Nanoparticles; Specific Adsorption; Cationic and anionic surfaces. KW - Nanoparticles. KW - Specific Adsorption. KW - Cationic and anionic surfaces. UR - http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2013/CC/c2cc37288f. U2 - 10.1039/c2cc37288f. DO - 10.1039/c2cc37288f. M3 - Article. VL - 49. SP - 1318. EP - 1320. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical Communications. SN - 1359-7345. IS - 13. ER - ...
Amine gold nanoparticles are available with a 5000Da PEG surface spacers. Our amine gold nanoparticles are available in 12 different sizes ranging from 5-100nm, are more than 95% spherical, and have uniform size distribution (CV,12).. Technical Specifications , Peer Reviewed Publications. ...
Read Gold Nanoparticles in Biomedical Applications by Lev Dykman with Rakuten Kobo. This book discusses fabrication of functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and multifunctional nanocomposites, their op...
Targeted metallic nanoparticles have shown potential as a platform for development of molecular-specific contrast agents. Aptamers have recently been demonstrated as ideal candidates for molecular targeting applications. In this study, we investigated the development of aptamer-based gold nanoparticles as contrast agents, using aptamers as targeting agents and gold nanoparticles as imaging agents. We devised a novel conjugation approach using an extended aptamer design where the extension is complementary to an oligonucleotide sequence attached to the surface of the gold nanoparticles. The chemical and optical properties of the aptamer−gold conjugates were characterized using size measurements and oligonucleotide quantitation assays. We demonstrate this conjugation approach to create a contrast agent designed for detection of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), obtaining reflectance images of PSMA(+) and PSMA(−) cell lines treated with the anti-PSMA aptamer−gold conjugates. This ...
We demonstrate a phase transfer method to create stable colloidal solutions of Au nanoparticles with 4-methoxypyridine ligands. We then investigate the adsorption behavior of 4-methoxypyridine onto gold surfaces by Raman spectroscopy, DFT calculations, and 1H NMR. In contrast to unsubstituted pyridine and the frequently used (N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP), a flat adsorption of 4-methoxypyridine on gold was found. ...
The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects of taurine and Au nanoparticles on the expression of genes related to embryonic muscle development and on the morphological characteristics of muscles. Fertilised chicken eggs (n = 160) were randomly divided into four groups: without injection (Control) and with injection of Au nanoparticles (NanoAu), taurine (Tau) or Au nanoparticles with taurine (NanoAu + Tau). The experimental solutions were given in ovo, on the third day of incubation, by injecting 0.3 ml of the experimental solution into the air sack. The embryos were evaluated on the 20th day of incubation. The methods included gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels, immunohistochemistry, histology and microscopy. In groups NanoAu, Tau and NanoAu + Tau, the muscle structure and the number of muscle cells were affected. Furthermore, taurine increased fibre diameter, the total number of nuclei, the proportion of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spectroscopic ellipsometry of yttrium-iron garnet thin films containing gold nanoparticles. AU - Tomita, Satoshi. AU - Fujii, Minoru. AU - Hayashi, Shinji. AU - Terai, Asuka. AU - Nabatova-Gabain, Nataliya. PY - 2007/11/9. Y1 - 2007/11/9. N2 - We report complex dielectric function (ε) for yttrium-iron garnet thin films containing Au nanoparticles. Films are prepared using a co-sputtering method with post-annealing. Real and imaginary parts of e of the films are obtained using spectroscopic ellipsometry in a photon energy region from near-infrared to ultra-violet. An anomalous dispersion of Re[ε] in the visible region originating from localized surface plasmon of Au nanoparticles is clearly observed. The influence of e on the magnetooptical Kerr properties of the nanocomposite films is discussed.. AB - We report complex dielectric function (ε) for yttrium-iron garnet thin films containing Au nanoparticles. Films are prepared using a co-sputtering method with post-annealing. ...
Two different methods were used to obtain polypyrrole/AuNP (Ppy/AuNP) composites. One through the electrooxidation of the pyrrole monomer in the presence of colloidal gold nanoparticles, referred to as trapping method (T), and the second one by electrodeposition of both components from one solution containing the monomer and a gold salt, referred to as cogeneration method (C). In both cases, electrodeposition was carried out through galvanostatic and potentiostatic methods and using platinum (Pt) or stainless steel (SS) as substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that in all cases gold nanoparticles of similar size were uniformly dispersed in the Ppy matrix. The amount of AuNPs incorporated in the Ppy films was higher when electropolymerization was carried out by chronopotentiometry (CP). Besides, cogeneration method allowed for the incorporation of a higher number of AuNPs than trapping. Impedance experiments demonstrated that the insertion of AuNPs increased the ...
Gold nanostars are theoretically studied as efficient thermal heaters at their corresponding localized surface-plasmon resonances (LSPRs). Numerical calculations are performed through the 3D Greens Theorem method to obtain the absorption and scattering cross sections for Au nanoparticles with star-like shape of varying symmetry and tip number. Their unique thermoplasmonic properties, with regard to their (red-shifted) LSPR wavelentgh, (∼ 30-fold increase) steady-state temperature, and scattering/absorption cross section ratios, make them specially suitable for optical heating and in turn for cancer thermal therapy.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of flow, shear stress and adhesion molecule targeting on gold nanoparticle uptake in human endothelial cells. AU - Klingberg, Henrik. AU - Loft, Steffen. AU - Oddershede, Lene B.. AU - Moller, Peter. PY - 2015/2/1. Y1 - 2015/2/1. U2 - 10.1039/c5nr01467k. DO - 10.1039/c5nr01467k. M3 - Journal article. VL - 7. SP - 11409. EP - 11419. JO - Nanoscale. JF - Nanoscale. SN - 2040-3364. IS - 26. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fabrication of low-impedance nanoporous gold multiple-electrode arrays for neural electrophysiology studies. AU - Seker, Erkin. AU - Berdichevsky, Yevgeny. AU - Begley, Matthew R.. AU - Reed, Michael L.. AU - Staley, Kevin J.. AU - Yarmush, Martin L.. PY - 2010/3/19. Y1 - 2010/3/19. N2 - Neural electrodes are essential tools for the study of the nervous system and related diseases. Low electrode impedance is a figure of merit for sensitive detection of neural electrical activity and numerous studies have aimed to reduce impedance. Unfortunately, most of these efforts have been tethered by a combination of poor functional coating adhesion, complicated fabrication techniques, and poor fabrication repeatability. We address these issues with a facile method for reliably producing multiple-electrode arrays with low impedance by patterning highly adherent nanoporous gold films using conventional microfabrication techniques. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of self-assembled ...
We report on the electronic structure of Au (gold) nanoparticles supported onto TiO 2 with a goal of elucidating the most important effects that contribute to their high catalytic activity. We synthesize and characterize with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) 3.4, 5.3, and 9.5 nm diameter TiO 2-supported Au nanoparticles with nearly spherical shape and measure their valence band using Au 5d subshell sensitive hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) conducted at Spring-8. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various Au surface structures, we interpret the observed changes in the Au 5d valence band structure as a function of size in terms of an increasing percentage of Au atoms at corners/edges for decreasing particle size. Finally, this work elucidates how Au coordination number impacts the electronic structure of Au nanoparticles, ultimately giving rise to their well-known catalytic activity. ...
Wegener, Joachim, Sieber, M. und Galla, H.-J. (1996) Impedance analysis of epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers cultured on gold surfaces. Journal of biochemical and biophysical methods . J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 32, S. 151-170 ...
Gold nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions: assessment of safety and biological identity for nanomedicine applications Abstract: Due to excellent biocompatibility, chemical stability, and promising optical properties , gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are the focus of research and applications in nanomedicine. Au-NPs prepared by laser ablation in aqueous biocompatible solutions present an essentially novel object that is unique in avoiding any residual toxic contaminant. This paper is conceived as the next step in development of laser-ablated Au-NPs for future in vivo applications. The aim of the study was to assess the safety, uptake, and biological behavior of laser-synthesized Au-NPs prepared in water or polymer solutions in human cell lines. Our results showed that laser ablation allows the obtaining of stable and monodisperse Au-NPs in water, polyethylene glycol, and dextran solutions. The three types of Au-NPs were internalized in human cell lines, as shown ...
Delivery of vincristine sulfate-conjugated gold nanoparticles using liposomes: a light-responsive nanocarrier with enhanced antitumor efficiency Ying Liu,1,* Man He,1,* Mengmeng Niu,1 Yiqing Zhao,1 Yuanzhang Zhu,1 Zhenhua Li,2 Nianping Feng1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Rapid drug release at the specific site of action is still a challenge for antitumor therapy. Development of stimuli-responsive hybrid nanocarriers provides a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic effects by combining the unique features of each component. The present study explored the use of drug–gold nanoparticle conjugates incorporated into liposomes to enhance antitumor efficiency. A model drug, vincristine sulfate, was physically conjugated with gold nanoparticles and verified by
Alfa Aesar™ Gold nanoparticles, 400nm, supplied in 0.1mg/mL sodium citrate with stabilizer 25mL Alfa Aesar™ Gold nanoparticles, 400nm, supplied...
Alfa Aesar™ Gold nanoparticles, 250nm, supplied in 0.1mg/mL sodium citrate with stabilizer 100mL Alfa Aesar™ Gold nanoparticles, 250nm, supplied...
Two decades ago, it was found that gold is catalytically active as clusters although it is known to be inert as bulk material. In the work presented in this thesis, density functional theory calculations have been applied to show that the properties of gold clusters and small molecules, namely O2 and NO2, are di erent on oxide thin lms supported by metal carriers than on single crystal oxide surfaces. Collectively, these di erences are called thin- lm e ects. The e ects and the mechanisms behind them have been studied with atomistic calculations and rationalized with simple physical models. The signi cance of the thin- lm e ects for heterogeneous catalysis is discussed. It has been found that on MgO/Mo thin lm, the adsorption of gold clusters is strong, whereas on single crystal MgO, the adsorption is weak. On MgO/Mo and MgO/Ag, the clusters are charged and tend to maximize their surface contact whereas on single crystal MgO, they are essentially neutral and the smallest clusters have only few ...
Gold nanoparticles, Nanogold conjugates & labeling reagents for immunolabeling, EM, correlative and fluorescence microscopy, enzyme metallography & x-ray contrast agents for micro-CT.
TY - JOUR. T1 - EGCG/gelatin-doxorubicin gold nanoparticles enhance therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin for prostate cancer treatment. AU - Tsai, Li Chu. AU - Hsieh, Hao Ying. AU - Lu, Kun Ying. AU - Wang, Sin Yu. AU - Mi, Fwu Long. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Aim: Development of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gelatin-doxorubicin conjugate (GLT-DOX)-coated gold nanoparticles (DOX-GLT/EGCG AuNPs) for fluorescence imaging and inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth. Materials & methods: AuNPs alternatively coated with EGCG and DOX-GLT conjugates were prepared by a layer-by-layer assembly method. The physicochemical properties of the AuNPs and the effect of Laminin 67R receptor-mediated endocytosis on the anticancer efficacy of the AuNPs were examined. Results: The AuNPs significantly inhibit the proliferation of PC-3 cancer cell and the enzyme-responsive intracellular release of DOX could be tracked by monitoring the recovery of the fluorescence signal of DOX. Conclusion: Laminin 67R ...
Government intervention against the price of gold is not mere "conspiracy theory" but an old story fully documented in governments own archives. It is official policy going back to the United States governments enactment of the Gold Reserve Act of 1934, which created the U.S. governments Exchange Stabilization Fund. This policy of gold price suppression continued through the London Gold Pool of the 1960s, a coordinated scheme of gold reserve dishoarding by the U.S. government and seven allied governments to hold the international gold price at $35 per ounce. The objective of these interventions always has been to defend government currencies and bonds against competition from gold as a currency and store of value. But by the early 1970s the governments participating in gold price suppression had lost too much of their gold reserves to continue suppressing the gold price by dishoarding in the open. So they began operating against gold mostly in secret, through gold leasing, swapping, and ...
Nanoparticle gold is a suspension of sub-micron gold particles typically dispersed in water. Gold nanoparticles are of great interest for researchers in many fields due to their unique physical and optical properties. These properties change with the particle size distribution, so size analysis is an important measurement requirement.
Also known as colloidal gold, gold nanoparticles are small gold crystals that can range in size from a few nanometers (10-9 meters) to several hundred n...
Although gold nanoparticle production can be controlled to yield specific size ranges, both the concentration and size of nanoparticles must be checked
Page contains details about citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticle-integrated citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticle attached tin dioxide nanofiber . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of substrates on the melting temperature of gold nanoparticles. AU - Lee, Joonho. AU - Tanaka, Toshihiro. AU - Lee, Junggoo. AU - Mori, Hirotaro. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. N2 - The size-dependent melting temperature of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) is generally examined on a solid substrate. However, most experimental works performed on a solid substrate were explained by a homogeneous particle model without considering the effect of the substrate. For example, in the previous studies, the melting temperatures of gold NPs were examined on carbon or tungsten substrates. However, the experimental results were described only by the surface tension of gold, without interfacial tension between gold and substrate. In the present work, the effect of the sorts of substrate on the melting temperatures of gold NPs was examined by using a thermodynamic model equilibrating the chemical potentials of liquid and solid particles. For this study, graphite, alumina and tungsten substrates ...
Gold. RIAA.com Accessed January 13, 2010. "Exclusive: A Zune Of Their Own". Billboard. Retrieved 2011-01-12. "¿Retomarán Wisin ...
Donald Teplyske (April 21, 2014). "Gold...In A Way- David Parmley & Continental Divide". Country Standard Time. Retrieved ...
"IRMA > 2009 Certification Awards > Gold". Irish Recorded Music Association. Retrieved 2011-08-17. "Latest Gold / Platinum ... "RIAA Gold & Platinum". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved 2011-08-19. "ARIA Charts > Accreditations > 2005 ...
Gold. Ein californisches Lebensbild aus dem Jahre 1849 (Gold. An Image of Californian Life from the year 1848). 3 volumes, Jena ... He experienced the California gold rush, crossed the South Pacific on a whaler, and wandered through Australia and experienced ... a "gold rush" there. On his return to Germany, he settled in Leipzig. In 1860 he again went to South America, chiefly with a ...
Gold. Model MX8. Kim Rhode USA. Double Trap Ladies. Gold. Model MX12. Diana Igaly HUN. Olympic Skeet Ladies. Gold. Model SC3. ... Gold. Model MX2000/8. Kim Rhode. USA. Olympic Skeet Ladies. Gold. Model MX2000/S. Jessica Rossi ITA. Olympic Trap Ladies. Gold ... Gold. 1996 Atlanta Kim Rhode USA. Double Trap Ladies. Gold. Model MX12. Michael Diamond AUS. Olympic Trap. Gold. Model MX8. ... Gold. Model MX8. Zemfira Meftakhetdinova AZE. Olympic Skeet Ladies. Gold. Model MX8. Deborah Gelisio ITA. Double Trap Ladies. ...
Calzada Romana (in Spanish) "Ubiquitous computing" Weiser; Gold; Brown (1999-05-11). Retrieved 2008-05-07. ISBN 3-540-00218-9 ...
It was the site of a gold rush in the 1870s. Prospector James Venture Mulligan discovered gold in the Hodgkinson River area in ... The Tyrconnel Historic Gold Mine can be visited as a tourist attraction. Cairns Historical Society. "Gold!" (PDF). Archived ... As with many gold rushes, after a few years, only a few people had made money and the others left, often to another promising ... There was a brief resurgence of interest during the economic depression of the 1890s as gold became more valuable. But ...
GOLD. "Uribe llegó a Aldea TIC" [Uribe arrives at Aldea TIC]. canal13.com.co (in Spanish). 2 November 2013. "Final de la ... GOLD. Cannes Lions Publicity Awards 2013. France, 2013. Campaign: ¿What Does ABSOLUT Sounds Like? Brand: ABSOLUT. Alongside PHD ...
Peg-Leg Smith's Gold, Where it was found and where it was lost; Gold; More About Dick Wick Hall; The Spanish Galleon of the ... Gold, $70.00 an Ounce; Squaw Wood Packet Two (to be determined) Packet Three, Along The Border Packet - No Burro, No Gold; ... R.A. Gibson; More Gold From Beatty; Bill Nye's Story of Big Steve; Let's Talk of Graves, of Worms, and Epitaths, by Walter S. ... Ben Hicks; Death Valley and Peg Leg Too, by William Caruthers; Back to the Reservation; Indian Signs You Should Know; Gold in ...
Chuqi Pirwa (Aymara chuqi gold, pirwa, piwra granary, Quechua chuqi, metal, every kind of precious metal; gold (. ...
2010 FIBA Europe Under-18 Championship 03 ! Bronze 2014 FIBA Europe Under-20 Championship 01 ! Gold. ...
Gold. XXIII Olympic Games, Los Angeles, USA, 1984. Fifth place. Defeated Hugh Dyer and Barbar Ali Khan. Lost to Maurizio Stecca ... Gold. Defeated Héctor López. II Suramerican Championship, Guayaquil, ECU, 1983. Silver. Lost to Manuel Vilchez. Pan American ...
Gold > review at AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-08-26. "Discos de oro y platino" (in Spanish). Cámara Argentina de Productores de ... In 2006, it was re-released as part of Universal Music's Gold series. In 2010, it was rereleased again as part of Universal ... The Ultimate Collection, aka Gold and, later, Icon 2, is a retrospective 2-disc set of Barry White's career that was released ...
The Lost Gold of the Republic, and Learning about the Gold Standard , Peace . Gold . Liberty". Dailypaul.com. Retrieved 2013-09 ... Gold and wine hoard is target of new dive / White Star Line passenger ship salvage by Askold Krushelnycky Los Angeles Times, ... During the summer of 1987, Martin went out to perform a major salvage on the Republic to try to recover the gold, an event that ... Trinkets but Still No Gold at Wreck. By SETH S. KING, Special to the New York Times The Times (London), July 20, 1986, Sunday, ...
Gold - One of the Queen's Maid of Honour is getting married. However the preparations are interrupted when Her Majesty's gold ... In Book 7, Gold, Penelope gets married, thus leaving the Queen's service. Carmina is bright and bouncy. In Feud, she suffers ... Gold; Haunted, Intrigue, Jinx, Keys, and Loot. The first book, Assassin, was published in 2004. The first three books, Assassin ... 2006 Gold by Sara Vogler & Jan Burchett, 2006 Haunted by Sara Vogler & Jan Burchett, 2006 Intrigue by Sara Vogler & Jan ...
Komatsu; Dunkley; Nolta; Bennett; Gold; Hinshaw; Jarosik; Larson; et al. (2009). "Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy ...
It was first published in the 1 January 1989 issue of The Observer and reprinted in the collection Gold (1995). A professor ... Asimov, Isaac (1995). Gold. HarperCollins. Doubleday, Mar 17, 2009. The Instability title listing at the Internet Speculative ...
Oxford University Press, 1996 Gold! Gold! Gold! The Language of the Nineteenth-Century Australian Goldfield. Bruce Moore. ... and the language of early Australian gold miners. The Australian National Dictionary Centre edits a number of dictionaries for ...
Gold. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 8 October 2015. "Mineral Commodity Summaries 2017" (PDF). U.S. Geological ...
Choquepirhua (possibly from Aymara chuqi gold, pirwa, piwra granary, Quechua chuqi, metal, every kind of precious metal; gold ( ...
Gold; Gold (2011): p. 35 Gold; Gold (2011): p. 34 Wallechinsky; Loucky (2008): pp. 265-266 Wallechinsky; Loucky (2008): p. 521 ... ISBN 978-1-84513-330-6. Gold, John Robert; Gold, Margaret M (2011). Olympic cities: city agendas, planning and the world's ... and a demonstration by the individual dressage gold medalist, which were both held at Empire Stadium on the last day of the ...
Gold! There are rumors that long ago a treasure was hidden in a city now buried under the Nevada desert. Nancy Drew and her ... In the end Nancy and Ned nearly lose their lives, just after she has discovered the priceless hidden treasure of gold. The ... friends plan to join a dig sponsored by two colleges to hunt for the gold. Before she starts, the young sleuth receives an ...
1 gold Cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos Exchange rates: gold Córdoba (C$) per US$1 - 17.582 (2006), 16.733 (2005), 15.937 (2004), ... gold; seafood; and new agricultural products such as peanuts, sesame, melons, and onions. In 2007, exports topped $1 billion US ... gold Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and equipment, raw materials, petroleum products Currency: ...
Melbourne was transformed by the 1850s gold rush; within months of the discovery of gold in August 1852, the city's population ... "Gold!". sbs.com.au. Archived from the original on 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2008-07-18. The Snowy Mountains Scheme and ... In 1848, the first large group of Buddhists to come to Australia came as part of gold rush. The great majority stayed briefly ... These two groups accounted for nearly all arrivals before the gold rush, and supplied the predominant number of immigrants to ...
"GOLD". Anderson I, Rodriguez J, Susanti D, Porat I, Reich C, Ulrich LE, Elkins JG, Mavromatis K, Lykidis A, Kim E, Thompson LS ... GOLD:Genomes OnLine Database v 2.0 SUPERFAMILY comparative genomics database Includes genomes of completely sequenced archaea, ...
Known allergy to ATM (Aurothiomalate [gold sodium thiomalate]) or other gold compounds ... Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. The safety and ... Patients receive sirolimus PO QD on days 1-28 and gold sodium thiomalate IM on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. Courses repeat every 28 ... This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of sirolimus and gold sodium thiomalate when given together in ...
timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower Land use:. arable land: 10.95% permanent crops: 4.65% other: ...
The rapist terrorising women in the Gold Coast suburbs takes care not to be seen. Police believe that the same man is ... Ward, the detective hunting the Gold Coast rapist, offers a cautious assessment of the technologys value. The images that ... hair and skin colour of the Gold Coast rapist. ... Could DNA phenotyping construct a likeness of the Gold Coast ...
A gastroscopy for small bowel (duodenal) biopsy is the gold standard and is recommended for all patients to confirm the ... A tissue diagnosis from duodenal histology obtained at the time of gastroscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosing coeliac ...
... an ontology for descriptive linguistics Gold (UK TV channel), television channel stylised as "GOLD" Gold (disambiguation). ... GOLD may refer to: Genomes OnLine Database Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk, a NASA Explorer Mission of ... in the staging tables of a data warehouse GOLD (ontology), ... Opportunity GOLD (parser), an open-source Backus-Naur form ...
Kern River Gold Rush, California (1853-58). *Idaho Gold Rush, also known as the Fort Colville Gold Rush, near Colville, ... The low investment, the high value per unit weight of gold, and the ability of gold dust and gold nuggets to serve as a medium ... The surface outcrop of a gold-bearing vein may be oxidized, so that the gold occurs as native gold, and the ore needs only to ... Main article: Klondike Gold Rush. One of the last "great gold rushes" was the Klondike Gold Rush in Canadas Yukon Territory ( ...
Timorex Gold is recognized to be a product that is used in both conventional and organic agriculture. Timorex Gold meets the ... Timorex Gold is a natural botanical broad spectrum fungicide with prophylactic and curative activity, based on a plant extract ... Timorex Gold is effective against a wide range of plant-pathogenic fungi, including Oomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycota, ... Timorex Gold has demonstrated high efficacy against Black Sigatoka (Black leaf streak disease in banana). Plants damaged by ...
Rogers Gold Page. CONTENTS *DEDICATION *ABOUT THE EDITOR *MY FRIST INTRO TO GOLD FEVER *IN MY OPINION *FAVORITE LINKS ... 4. If there is still black sand of a non-magnetic type mixed with the gold, then your next step is to separate the gold with ... Assume you have already picked out the nuggets and coarse gold, and have just the black sand and ftne gold remaining. Here is ... This special affinity for gold makes mercury an invaluable aid in separating the gold from the black sands.. It takes only a ...
Over the years, his birth name of Lewis Milton Goldwasser metamorphosed first into Lew Gold, then Lou Gold, and finally into ...
Such money was not gold or silver coins, but certificates that promised the delivery of gold or silver coins to the holder of ... You can lose gold or silver coins. You can place them in someone elses custody, either a person or an institution. But the ... Gold and silver coins can be falsified - but this is a minor risk, compared with the risks associated with the other types of ... This is the term for money that promises neither the delivery of gold nor of silver, nor of anything else to the bearer. The ...
Since the Twelfth Dynasty the Gold name or Gold Horus name is attested in its classical form: the hieroglyph for gold with a ... Already for Djer a name composed from the word nbw - gold is attested. The main element of the name was at this time the gold ... This kind of name was called rn n nbw (name of gold). In the Old Kingdom (about 2686-2181 BC) the form of the name varied. ... Gold Horus name of Amenhotep III, from stela found at Thebes (Petrie 1897: pl. XI) ...
A striking new high-tech building in Shanghai is going for gold-LEED Gold, that is. Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects... ... LEED Gold-seeking Cambie Fire Hall is a beacon of sustainability in Richmond, BC. *by Lucy Wang ... LEED Gold Gateway Arch Museum sports a 3-acre green roof in St. Louis. *by Lucy Wang ... LEED Gold eco hotel in the Wine Country was built using reclaimed wood. *by Katherine Gallagher ...
NPR coverage of Gold: The Race for the Worlds Most Seductive Metal by Matthew Hart. News, author interviews, critics picks ... Gold NPR coverage of Gold: The Race for the Worlds Most Seductive Metal by Matthew Hart. News, author interviews, critics ... A gold cross tops St. Edwards crown in the tower of London. The cross showed that the king ruled by divine right. Gold was the ... Gold once had a sacred aura, like the anointed kings who wore it. The skull of the emperor Charlemagne is encased in a gold ...
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Gold processors, improved 4 socket performance, advanced reliability, hardware-enhanced security for cloud, network workloads. ... With support for up-to two Intel AVX-512 channels, the Intel Xeon Gold 6000 processor family delivers a level of compute for ... Built on 14 nm process technology, the Intel® Xeon® Gold 6000 processor family offers up to 22 cores/44 threads per socket for ... The Intel® Xeon® Gold processor 5000 family delivers improved performance with affordable advanced reliability and hardware- ...
Gold certificates were issued as U.S. currency equivalents until 1934. ... A gold certificate is a document that proves ownership of a specific amount of gold. ... What Is the Gold Reserve Act of 1934? The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 purchased virtually all privately-held gold and restored the ... Understanding the Gold Certificate Gold certificates represent ownership of a quantity of gold, similar to the way that stock ...
GOLD 14.5 CM NATIONAL MUSEUM OF IRELAND, DUBLIN This torc is very simply made in comparison to the buffer torc found at Knock; ... The man who found this torc in 1861, along with a gold buffer torc, claimed that he found them in a cavern in Clonmacnoise, Co ... Archaeologist G. Eogan thought that ribbon torcs belonged to the Bishopland Phase; however, the gold content of this torc is ... a narrow gold ribbon was twisted and formed into a circle. In this example, the twisting is slightly imperfect and asymmetrical ...
... epa0385Huge billboards of happy miners on the outside of the Anglo American offices in downtown ... Anglo American along with other mining houses are effected by a nation wide gold miners strike that sees some 80 000 miners ...
Japans Gold leaves are praised for extreme thinness and often used in the art, craft and architectural objects. Learn how it ... which allows 2 grams of gold to produce about 1.65 m2 of gold leaf. Most of the gold leaves produced overseas is 10 to 20% ... Gold leaves are used in art, crafts and architectural objects the world over. Made in Japans gold leaves are highly praised ... Thin, pliant gold leaves precisely express the details of intricate Japanese crafts and sculptures. Gold leaves with the ...
The Lotus Gold Scholarship is available to undergraduate and graduate students pursuing a bachelors or masters degree at the ... The Lotus Gold Scholarship is available to undergraduate and graduate students pursuing a bachelors or masters degree at the ...
Historian Charlotte Gray profiles six of the stampeders who travelled to Dawson City in the 1890s during the last great gold ... Gold bound Bill and Joe together. If their partnership was successful in striking gold, it would let them vault out of poverty ... Gold Diggers follows six stampeders - Bill Haskell, a farm boy who hungered for striking gold; Father Judge, a Jesuit priest ... Gold Diggers. Historian Charlotte Gray profiles six of the stampeders who travelled to Dawson City in the 1890s during the last ...
Lewis won five gold medals at the National Championships in 2003. At the Pan American games, also last year, he won a silver ... Gold Medalist Kristin Luckenbill 01 (photo courtesy of Sports Publicity). Kristin Luckenbill 01 shares in U.S. womens soccer ... Nelsons best throw of 21.16 meters tied the best throw of winner Yuriy Bilonog of Ukraine, but Bilonog was awarded the gold ... After graduation he was the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Trials shot put champion, the 2001 Goodwill Games gold medalist, two-time USA ...
Scott receives life-changing news that could alter their gold mining futures. ... Scott and George only have 48 hours left to prove that they can get to the gold or their mining deal with Dave Thomas will be ... With their excavator back, Scott and George only have 48 hours left to prove that they can get to the gold or their mining deal ... Scott and George reunite in Ghana and struggle to find a way to wash gold. Their mining partner Dave Thomas bails them out with ...
Nicely varied bill here this evening, featuring charming Aussie Celia Pacquola, laidback one-liner slinger Benny Boot, Ellie Taylor and more.
The new iPod touch has the A10 Fusion chip, up to 256GB of storage and Group FaceTime. All in our most portable iOS device. Buy now on apple.com.
  • But on the July morning in 2012 when i went down Mponeng mine, the gold price was $1,581 an ounce. (npr.org)
  • Gold for immediate delivery was seen trading at $ 1199.17 an ounce at 12.00 noon Singapore time while US gold futures for December delivery was at $1202.2 an ounce. (ibtimes.com)
  • On Wednesday, December gold was the only key metal to rise in overnight trading, closing up $1.20 at $1,199.20 per fine ounce. (ibtimes.com)
  • That's partly because gold was only $400 an ounce then, partly because the global chaos of the last few years has revived interest in gold. (cnbc.com)
  • Similarly, how does a nugget of gold from the same mine end up part of a 400-ounce gold bar sitting in a vault in London? (cnbc.com)
  • Example: Gold market at $1200.00 per ounce. (google.com)
  • By 1999, CEO Bristow recalls, gold had sunk to near $250 an ounce. (yahoo.com)
  • We think the true cost of gold mining is about $1,300 an ounce," Beristain said. (yahoo.com)
  • A Reuters poll of 20 hedge fund managers, economists and traders showed international spot gold prices are expected to fall below $1,500 an ounce over the next three months and they are unlikely to retest September's all-time highs until later 2012 at the earliest. (ibtimes.com)
  • The December gold contract on the New York Mercantile Exchange closed today at $1,237.00 an ounce - down $5.70. (wtop.com)
  • On Friday afternoon, the price was fixed at US$404.85, up from US$403.05in the morning and US$404.60 at the late fixing Thursday, giving heart to gold bugs who are determined to keep an ounce of bullion above the US$400barrier that took so long to hurdle. (kitco.com)
  • ( Kitco News ) - Gold prices could continue to hold just under $1,800 an ounce as the market does not have many catalysts to push it through that area, and action could be similar to this week's trend, market watchers said. (forbes.com)
  • The most-active December gold contract on the Comex division of the Nymex settled at $1,759.70 an ounce, down 1.19% on the week. (forbes.com)
  • Gold for August delivery rose by 30 cents to $320.80 an ounce, after hitting an earlier high of $325. (marketwatch.com)
  • Luckenbill, who played professionally with the Carolina Courage of the Women's United Soccer Association before the WUSA folded last year, was one of two goalkeepers for the U.S. women's soccer team that won the gold medal Aug. 26 with a 2-1 overtime victory against Brazil. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Nelson's best throw of 21.16 meters tied the best throw of winner Yuriy Bilonog of Ukraine, but Bilonog was awarded the gold medal by virtue of having a second-best throw in the competition. (dartmouth.edu)
  • And now she's made it to a gold medal at London 2012. (prweb.com)
  • BEIJING - The gold medal went away a little for the United States today when the tiny Chinese uneven bars workers twirled and let go and caught those chalky bars as if they were in a gym with a few friends and no pressure. (baltimoresun.com)
  • China won the women's gymnastics team gold medal. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Mexico's Hiram Mier, left, battles Brazil's Leandro Damiao for the ball in the men's gold medal soccer match won by Mexico, 2-1. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Nothing was more important than the gold medal to the guys who volunteered almost a month of their time to come to Russia and play for Canada. (thestar.com)
  • And we deserved this gold medal. (thestar.com)
  • His two goals in the gold medal game were the difference and helped earn him the tournament's most valuable player award and a spot on its all-star team. (thestar.com)
  • It was really weird, we really grew together quickly,' said 18-year-old Jordan Staal, who is now the youngest Canadian ever to win a gold medal at this tournament. (thestar.com)
  • Colby Armstrong and Eric Staal also scored in the gold medal game for Canada while Petri Kontiola and Antti Miettinen replied with third-period goals for the Finns. (thestar.com)
  • It was all in preparation for the type of adversity they faced at the end of the gold medal game. (thestar.com)
  • Better than a gold medal, East London won funding and secured a future which would not have been possible without the Olympics. (visitbritain.com)
  • We are here to win the gold medal - it was a tough match but we are a great team. (reuters.com)
  • China now leads in the gold medal count with almost 40. (npr.org)
  • Zhang Juan Juan of China won the gold medal in women's individual archery at the Beijing Olympics. (npr.org)
  • The U.S. was the overall gold medal winner at the past three Summer Olympics. (npr.org)
  • If the U.S. gets trounced by China in the gold medal count, there will be some hand-wringing about the decline of America's Olympic prowess. (npr.org)
  • Lewis won five gold medals at the National Championships in 2003. (dartmouth.edu)
  • His players stood around the dressing room in red Canadian jerseys draped with gold medals from the IIHF World Hockey Championship on Sunday, moments after watching Rick Nash score a breathtaking breakaway goal to secure a 4-2 win over Finland. (thestar.com)
  • Rica Reinisch, who won three gold medals in swimming events at the age of 15 at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow, is bringing a case against the individuals who gave her hormones which, she claims, have caused cysts and inflammation in her oviducts. (newscientist.com)
  • Even before the Olympics began, it was expected that China would harvest the most gold medals in Beijing. (npr.org)
  • On Sunday alone, China won eight gold medals. (npr.org)
  • At the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, China won only five gold medals. (npr.org)
  • If this sports factory approach seems familiar, just think back to Communist East Germany and the Soviet Union, where sports had their own ministries and gold medals became a tool of government policy. (npr.org)
  • In 2011 the London bullion market discovered that its members were trading as much gold every three months as had been mined in all of history. (npr.org)
  • We are on the biggest gold binge ever, a scramble for gold ignited by a mouthwatering price, by the click-of-a-mouse simplicity of buying bullion, and by the sense of looming apocalypse that stormed through financial markets in the banking crisis and sent people hurrying for cover into gold. (npr.org)
  • Gold certificates are still issued by some banks and other companies as proof of ownership of the stated amount of gold bullion. (investopedia.com)
  • Gold bullion is difficult to carry around or exchange for goods or services. (investopedia.com)
  • The guy explained that he didn't do gold as in bullion or jewellery, but Gold as in Gold Class. (indiatimes.com)
  • JOHANNESBURG -- Shares edged lower Friday amid uncertainty about U.S. interest rates, although gold and resources stocks were well bid and bullion retained its recent gains. (wsj.com)
  • Although not directly addressed in Darkest Hour , the U.K. ended up evacuating billions of dollars' worth of gold bullion and other assets across the Atlantic, all to be kept safely in Canada. (forbes.com)
  • In 2008, it was estimated that 157,000 tons of gold had been mined throughout history -- and that individuals were sitting on a whopping 104,000 tons of it, in the form of bullion, coin and jewelry. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Timorex Gold has demonstrated high efficacy against Black Sigatoka (Black leaf streak disease in banana). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinkakuji, or the golden temple, has its entire body coated in gold leaf. (panasonic.com)
  • It is stretched by being beaten approximately 50,000 times, which allows 2 grams of gold to produce about 1.65 m 2 of gold leaf. (panasonic.com)
  • In this way, the gold leaf was born and continues to evolve with the culture of Japan's craftsmanship and its brilliance will continue to express the beauty of Japan. (panasonic.com)
  • The average concentration of gold in the leaves was only about 46 parts per billion, less than 0.000005 percent of each leaf by weight. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The gold lettering found on leather-bound books and leather items is usually made from gold foil or gold leaf that has been attached to the surface of the leather using an adhesive. (ehow.com)
  • Gold leaf is gold that is pressed into very thin, featherweight sheets. (ehow.com)
  • Because gold leaf is very delicate, pieces of the gold leaf can sometimes flake or rub off of the object it has been applied to. (ehow.com)
  • In order to repair these imperfections, it is helpful to follow a few guidelines for repairing the gold leaf. (ehow.com)
  • Take the protective cover off of the top of the gold leaf. (ehow.com)
  • Place a butter knife onto the top corner of the gold leaf, anf gently peel the gold leaf off of the sheet. (ehow.com)
  • Pat the gold leaf in place with a soft paintbrush, such as a watercolor brush. (ehow.com)
  • Repeat this process until the entire damaged area is covered by the new gold leaf. (ehow.com)
  • This illustrated manuscript from the Book of Hours is decorated with gold leaf, beaten to an extremely thin foil. (webexhibits.org)
  • Scott receives life-changing news that could alter their gold mining futures. (discovery.com)
  • Back then you had to have a futures license to invest in gold futures, or you had to buy physical gold, a cumbersome and expensive process. (cnbc.com)
  • Gold plays different roles at different times," said futures analyst Ira Epstein of the Linn Group. (yahoo.com)
  • Bob Haberkon, senior commodities broker, RJO Futures, said he's neutral on gold next week, expecting it to hold in the current range between $1,760 and $1,780. (forbes.com)
  • In celebration of this new retail channel, OG is inviting all consumers to become connoisseurs through its free coffee for a year sweepstakes - "Coffee 365" - via the Organo Gold Official Facebook page. (prweb.com)
  • To enter, consumers can simply visit the official Organo Gold Facebook page and enter how many cups of coffee they drink in a typical day. (prweb.com)
  • All this sounds very quaint and out of touch with computer-driven markets, but up to 20 tonnes of gold a day is thought to be traded through the fixing. (kitco.com)
  • The International Monetary Fund has sold 200 tonnes of gold to the Reserve Bank of India for $6.7bn (£4.1bn). (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Annual global gold output is about 2,400 tonnes and there is a basic balance between its supply and demand now. (reuters.com)
  • In the past few years, we increased the gold reserve by more than 400 tonnes. (reuters.com)
  • In the Kitco News Gold Survey , out of 33 participants, 21 responded this week. (forbes.com)
  • Gold initially soared but came off its highs as the market absorbed the news about WorldCom, said trader Phil Flynn of Alaron. (marketwatch.com)
  • Twitter reacts to United States' Gold Cup victory Jordan Morris scored in the 88th minute to help the U.S. earn a dramatic win over Jamaica in the Gold Cup final. (usatoday.com)
  • For heavy high viscosity oils - 8 gallons of SAF-RON GOLD will disperse approximately 70 gallons of crude oil or bunker C. Also for use with heavy high viscosity oils, SAF-RON GOLD can be used as a concentrate or diluted at a dispersant to water ratio of 1:10. (epa.gov)
  • Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lure of gold has been the downfall of many, from those worshipping the biblical golden calf to those unsuccessfully staking their claims during the 19th century gold rushes. (webexhibits.org)
  • Less than 1% of the world's gold is mined in India. (businessinsider.com)
  • Some estimates say that 10% of all gold is held in India. (businessinsider.com)
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has produced a report indicating "a need to moderate gold import, as the insatiable appetite for the yellow metal could jeopardize economic stability," reports BullionStreet.com. (businessinsider.com)
  • The people of India have cultural, historical, and traditional reasons to buy gold. (businessinsider.com)
  • Similarly, millions of people in India have capitalized their businesses or farms, or secured their basic necessities after severe business reversals, by pledging their gold jewelry," he writes. (businessinsider.com)
  • And nothing says gold in India like a wedding. (businessinsider.com)
  • It is said in India, "If there is no gold, there will be no wedding. (businessinsider.com)
  • Even the poorest people in India buy gold, saving a little each week to buy a gram at a time. (businessinsider.com)
  • REUTERS) -- Gold demand in India, the world's top buyer, remained subdued on Friday after prices edged higher, tracking a rebound in the world market and as the local currency pared early gains, dealers said. (ibtimes.com)
  • India, along with China and Russia, have indicated interest in buying gold as a way to diversify their holdings in dollar-denominated assets. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • No gold, no wedding," is a saying in India, indicating the importance of gold to Indian culture and tradition. (cbsnews.com)
  • From birth to death, for men and women, among rich and poor -- acquiring gold is a goal for the people of India. (cbsnews.com)
  • If India sneezes, the gold industry will catch a cold," says Ajay Mitra of the World Gold Council. (cbsnews.com)
  • Just as part of the American dream is to own a home, the dream in India is to own gold. (cbsnews.com)
  • We use Sand Away TM Gold Recovery Systems for black sand/gold separation, Keene Sluice Boxes, The GOLD CUBE and GOLD N SAND hand dredge systems for optimum gold recovery. (google.com)
  • The purpose of this educational webinar is to examine the Gold STAMP Program in the changing health care environment and highlight the resources available to hospitals, nursing homes and home care agencies through this program. (albany.edu)
  • They are said to have been produced in Egypt during the period before Christ (B.C.). It then expanded worldwide, and it is recorded as have been used in Buddhist images in Japan 1,200 years ago.The thickness of gold leaves produced in Japan is approximately 1/10,000 mm. (panasonic.com)
  • They need to find $10,000 worth of gold within two days or the families will be sent home. (discovery.com)
  • Kinkaku-ji, the temple in which 200,000 gold leaves were used, is a symbol of Japan and Kyoto that is visited each year by many people from both Japan and overseas. (panasonic.com)
  • The families spent over $200,000 just on gold. (cbsnews.com)
  • That's the purpose of our special report on CNBC TV and CNBC.com - to shed some light on how gold goes from a mine two miles beneath the earth in South Africa to the neck of a woman in, say, Mumbai. (cnbc.com)
  • Gold "clearly lacks the necessary impetus to make further gains just now, the debt crisis in the eurozone having not escalated any further and the supply risks in South Africa already being largely priced in," said analysts at Commerzbank. (forbes.com)
  • But low interest rates and fear of inflation, due in part to quantitative easing, give gold a chance to show its strength as a shape-shifting asset. (yahoo.com)
  • Lamont is sure some gold buyers are doing so as 'a hedge against the runaway asset price inflation ' that has gripped stock markets. (kitco.com)
  • Gold is the only financial asset to have depreciated in value in the past 15 years and it stands out as a haven against the massive price inflation sweeping through equity markets. (kitco.com)
  • Gold is without doubt the ultimate safe haven asset. (goldseek.com)
  • While gold mining itself was unprofitable for most diggers and mine owners, some people made large fortunes, and the merchants and transportation facilities made large profits. (wikipedia.org)
  • John Paulson, the hedge-fund wizard, was reported to have made almost $5 billion personally on his gold bets. (npr.org)
  • Gold certificates made it practical to own and use gold. (investopedia.com)
  • U.S. gold certificates resemble paper banknotes made in the same period with some distinguishing features. (investopedia.com)
  • Made in Japan's gold leaves are highly praised for its extreme thinness and beautiful luster. (panasonic.com)
  • This high-quality gold leaves were made possible through the manual dexterity and perseverance that is common to Japanese artisans. (panasonic.com)
  • Old jewelry may be made of sterling 1 silver, carat 2 gold (alloyed gold), or of base metals plated with gold. (springer.com)
  • The central banking wonks are thinking that if the Indian public can be made aware of financial paper instruments such as gold accumulation plans, gold pensions, and gold-linked accounts, it will drop its obsession with the barbarous relic. (businessinsider.com)
  • It can be applied to objects, such as picture frames or statues, to make them look as though they are made of gold. (ehow.com)
  • But her secret was the elixir she drunk every day made up of gold chloride and diethyl ether. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Avoiding the nasty stumble at the break that had caused a cracked hoof in the Preakness and the traffic trouble that came later in the race, Touch Gold made no mistakes. (latimes.com)
  • Comex gold inventories stood at 1.59 million ounces, unchanged as of the close of business on Tuesday. (marketwatch.com)
  • At a time when the world's money supply was based on gold , the newly mined gold provided economic stimulus far beyond the gold fields. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main element of the name was at this time the gold sign, which could be combined with other words. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We had a fantastic time and yes, we are now impressed with Colorado gold. (google.com)
  • Since the value of the dollar itself was tied to the value of gold, between 1879 and the time they were phased out, the certificates were essentially a parallel currency and were technically exchangeable as such, although they were not often used in routine transactions. (investopedia.com)
  • After graduation he was the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Trials shot put champion, the 2001 Goodwill Games gold medalist, two-time USA Indoor champion, and three-time USA Outdoor champion. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Midas Gold is a fun time killer game which you will never regret downloading! (steampowered.com)
  • Mark Bristow remembers a time not so long ago when gold "was not even considered a commodity that one should invest in. (yahoo.com)
  • It was a time in which investors had dot-coms, not gold on their minds. (yahoo.com)
  • More than likely, gold is going to be tied to equities and will move in the same direction for the time being," said Travis Rodock, senior market specialist with Efutures.com. (yahoo.com)
  • Silver is a poor man's gold and at the same time, it's an industrial metal," Epstein said. (yahoo.com)
  • Anachronistic or not, it works to give the market a snapshot of the spot price of gold at a particular moment in time. (kitco.com)
  • This currency strength is occurring at the right time for gold, with the wedding season intensifying from late October and followed by Diwali from Nov. 13. (forbes.com)
  • For a look at the world's biggest gold mining operations, CNBC analyzed the most recent data from Thompson Reuters and Metals Economics Group, which included information only from publicly traded companies. (sify.com)
  • But whoever coined the phrase you can t eat gold conveniently failed to mention this on CNBC. (goldseek.com)
  • International spot gold inched higher on Friday in thin trade, taking cues from higher equities after upbeat U.S. economic data encouraged investors, while the persistent gloom hanging over the euro zone weighed on sentiment. (ibtimes.com)
  • He believes the end is nigh for the bull market in equities and that gold offers insurance against the turbulent event. (kitco.com)
  • NEW YORK (CBS.MW) -- A rally in gold and silver stocks fizzled by the market's close Wednesday as the broader equities market staged a 200-point recovery. (marketwatch.com)
  • The U.S. abandoned the gold standard in 1933. (investopedia.com)
  • Gold certificates were in general circulation in the U.S. until President Franklin D. Roosevelt removed the dollar from the gold standard in 1933. (investopedia.com)
  • The free gold supply in stream beds would become depleted somewhat quickly, and the initial phase would be followed by prospecting for veins of lode gold that were the original source of the placer gold. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, we guarantee you will take home your fair share of genuine Colorado placer Gold to show friends and family. (google.com)
  • Two borehole placer material was excavated from the gold-bearing zone. (cdc.gov)
  • As the gold price soared it swept up legendary billionaires. (npr.org)
  • A gold analyst told Pitts that it's impossible to explain to an Indian that gold might go down in price. (businessinsider.com)
  • Karat X Gold at (Oz.) X factor + fabrication charge = price per 1 DWT. (google.com)
  • The price of gold has more than doubled in the past five years, creating considerable interest in trading the precious metal. (sify.com)
  • The gold bugs reckon if the price can continue to climb from Friday's fixing, it can be taken as a bullish sign. (kitco.com)
  • If we buy a large amount of gold, it will surely push up the global gold price. (reuters.com)
  • China's gold price basically matches the global level, so when Chinese people go to buy gold jewellery in shopping centres, they face surging prices. (reuters.com)
  • Second, the gold price is very volatile. (reuters.com)
  • The global gold price is much affected by currency rates, geopolitical changes, supply-demand relations and speculation. (reuters.com)
  • The reason for investing in gold during times of crisis is based on the fact that investors instinctively know that the gold price behaves differently to the prices of other assets, particularly during crises. (goldseek.com)
  • Transition-metal catalysts containing gold present new opportunities for chemical synthesis, and it is therefore not surprising that these complexes are beginning to capture the attention of the chemical community. (nature.com)
  • Cationic phosphine-gold( i ) complexes are especially versatile and selective catalysts for a growing number of synthetic transformations. (nature.com)
  • relativistic effects are especially helpful in rationalizing the reaction manifolds available to gold catalysts. (nature.com)
  • Hashmi, A. S. K. Homogeneous gold catalysts and alkynes: A successful liaison. (nature.com)
  • Gold nanoparticle production can be achieved from both a 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' approach, that is, beginning from either bulk metal or molecular gold. (news-medical.net)
  • The nanoparticle continues to grow evenly in all directions (isotropic), until the available gold in solution has been used up. (news-medical.net)
  • Therefore, the initial quantities of gold and reducing agent(s) reacted must be carefully considered when aiming to produce a particular size of nanoparticle, while the growth conditions must be carefully controlled and maintained to achieve monodispersity. (news-medical.net)
  • These clusters act as 'seeds', providing a surface on which additional gold ions are reduced to their metallic state. (news-medical.net)
  • Along with colleagues at The University's Core Labs and coworkers in UK, Switzerland and France, the researchers have shown different ways that citrate ions can bind to gold atoms at the surface of nanoparticles1. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now you have a real choice and we guarantee you will find gold! (google.com)
  • Don is the guy to call if you want to learn how to do it right and find gold" - Dave Winters, aquatic biologist. (google.com)
  • Ireland believes that the man who originally found the torcs wanted to keep the find spot a secret so that he could have access to all other gold objects that could have been buried there. (unc.edu)
  • But to find the big gold payout, they'll put their lives on the line by diving deep beneath the raging waters of one of Alaska's wildest creeks. (apple.com)
  • However, Commerzbank said they don't see significant losses likely for gold because of the global central banks' ultra-loose monetary policy underpins values. (forbes.com)
  • however, the gold content of this torc is different from other objects from that phase and suggests that the torc may be a La Tène import. (unc.edu)
  • BEIJING, July 7 (Reuters) - Following is a translation of a statement on gold reserves by China's State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • MANCHESTER, England (Reuters) - Brazil's dream of winning an elusive Olympic soccer gold came a step closer when they thrashed South Korea 3-0 in the semi-finals at Old Trafford on Tuesday. (reuters.com)
  • Edel Tully, precious metals strategist at UBS, said while speculative buying and ETF inflows have supported gold to current levels, she is watching physical demand, which generally has been lagging with gold prices near records in most emerging market currencies. (forbes.com)
  • Gold certificates are still issued to investors as proof of ownership of gold stored by a bank. (investopedia.com)
  • Today, gold certificates continue to be issued to investors as receipts that prove ownership of the stated amount of gold. (investopedia.com)
  • In addition, gold investment does not generate interest returns, but investors have to bear warehouse, transportation and insurance costs. (reuters.com)
  • In times of financial crisis and turmoil, investors and savers flock to gold as a wealth preservation strategy. (goldseek.com)
  • This web page is bening writen and dedicated to the memory of a dear friend and mentor William (Scrappy) Collins, who not only shered his friend ship with a young wet behind the ears soldier but passed on a wealth of knowledge about gold minning. (angelfire.com)
  • Beyond being a symbol of wealth and status, gold is part of worship and culture -- a tradition that goes back thousands of years. (cbsnews.com)
  • As we first told you in February, for Indians, gold jewelry is wearable wealth, financial security that's also a fashion statement. (cbsnews.com)
  • Yannopoulos J.C. (1991) Recovery of Secondary Gold. (springer.com)
  • Gold prices turned higher, rising to an eventual peak a year ago that was 650% above their 1999 lows. (yahoo.com)
  • That was in 1995, when his gold mining company Randgold Resources ( GOLD ) was just getting off the ground in West Africa. (yahoo.com)
  • The active ingredient of Timorex Gold is a natural product that is classified as a low-risk substance for which Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) are not required in Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myocrisin injection contains the active ingredient sodium aurothiomalate, which is an injectable form of the precious metal gold. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • By some estimates, all of the gold ever mined in the history of the world would fill only two Olympic-size swimming pools. (sify.com)
  • Like the dollar, gold often acts as a safe haven, moving counterpoint to rising and falling stocks. (yahoo.com)
  • Top gold mining stocks, both in earnings and stock performance, include Randgold, Agnico Eagle ( AEM ), Iamgold ( IAG ), Royal Gold ( RGLD ) and Allied Nevada Gold ( ANV ). (yahoo.com)
  • While that's a plausible enough scenario, Market Eye still believes gold is for speculators and that gold stocks provide a better investment.Even then, they, too, look due for a healthy correction. (kitco.com)
  • RIAA's historic Gold® & Platinum® Program defines success in the recorded music industry. (riaa.com)
  • Originally conceived to honor artists and track sound recording sales, Gold & Platinum Awards have come to stand as a benchmark of success for any artist-whether they've just released their first song or Greatest Hits album. (riaa.com)
  • Tony mines near the Klondike River, where gold was first discovered on Rabbit Creek by Skookum Jim, George Carmack and Tagish Charlie in August 1896. (lonelyplanet.com)
  • Forget any '49er fantasies you may have of nuggets glittering in riverbeds: Most gold these days comes from large open-pit mines, where huge amounts of rock are churned up to extract tiny flecks of precious metal. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Unfortunately, information on the provenance of any particular ring is very hard to come by, particularly since gold refineries often pool metal from many different mines in the same smelter. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Gold rebounded in thin Asian trade Thursday despite a strong dollar while palladium dropped nearly four percent. (ibtimes.com)
  • Palladium white gold is available (please call for quote). (google.com)
  • The brilliance of gold leaves are found in the intricate handyworks of the lacquer, a traditional craft loved by Japanese since ancient times. (panasonic.com)
  • While gold might be a safe haven at times, Mali is anything but that these days. (yahoo.com)
  • New gold-plastic nanomaterial could produce artificial skin 10 times more sensitive than the best available today. (extremetech.com)
  • The breakthrough came when they studied locks of her hair kept at the chateau d'Anet: these were found to contain gold 500 times above normal levels, as well as mercury - used as a "purifier" in the elixir. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • However, there are some limits to investing in gold and it cannot become a main channel for investing our foreign exchange reserves. (reuters.com)