The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
What a person has in mind to do or bring about.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.

What is the future for equity within health policy? (1/1047)

In spite of differences in meaning, equity is generally accepted as an important social and economic policy goal. However, recent policy debates suggest that this consensus is under challenge. This paper explores the current debate between the 'New Right' and its opponents, and how different approaches affect health policy. It is strongly argued that if equity is not to remain a misunderstood concept, it is essential to clarify the arguments in its favour, as well as the steps required to protect its position within policy. The paper then goes on to justify the concern with equity, the broad goals equity seeks to achieve, and the practical translation of these goals into health policy. In the final section essentially practical issues are raised, by considering planning strategies and what research is necessary to support and develop pragmatic planning based on equity goals.  (+info)

Threats to global health and survival: the growing crises of tropical infectious diseases--our "unfinished agenda". (2/1047)

Health, one of our most unassailable human values, transcends all geographic, political, and cultural boundaries. The health problems of the rapidly growing 80% of the world's population that live in the tropical developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America pose major threats to industrialized as well as developing regions. These threats can be divided into three areas, or three "E"s: (1) emerging, reemerging, and antimicrobial-resistant infections; (2) exploding populations without improved health; and (3) erosion of our humanity or leadership if we ignore the growing health problems of the poor. Our assessment of current trends in global population distribution and resource consumption; DALY calculations, causes, and distribution of global mortality and morbidity; and the misperceptions about and maldistribution of resources for health point to the critical importance of addressing tropical infectious diseases and global health for preservation of democracy and civilization as we know it.  (+info)

Goal attainment scaling as a measure of clinically important change in nursing-home patients. (3/1047)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility, validity and responsiveness of an individualized measure--goal attainment scaling-in long-term care. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. SETTING: One academic and three community-based long-term care facilities. SUBJECTS: 53 nursing-home patients seen in consultation between July 1996 and June 1997. INTERVENTION: Specialized geriatric medicine consultation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect size and relative efficiency of the Barthel index, hierarchical assessment of balance and mobility, global deterioration scale, axis 8 (behaviour) of the brief cognitive rating scale, cumulative illness rating scale and the goal attainment scale. RESULTS: Mean goal attainment scale at follow-up was 46+/-7. The goal attainment scale was the most responsive measure, with an effect size of 1.29 and a relative efficiency of 53.7. The goal attainment scale did not correlate well with the other measures (-0.22 to 0.17). CONCLUSION: Goal attainment scaling is a feasible and responsive measure in long-term care. Although fewer problems in nursing-home patients than elderly inpatients are susceptible to intervention, clinically important goals can be achieved in this population.  (+info)

Delay activity of orbital and lateral prefrontal neurons of the monkey varying with different rewards. (4/1047)

We examined neuronal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in relation to reward expectancy and compared findings with those of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) in the monkey. Activity of OFC neurons was examined in a delayed reaction time task where every four trials constituted one block within which three kinds of rewards and no reward were delivered in a fixed order. More than half of OFC delay neurons were related to the expectancy of delivery or nodelivery of a reward as the response outcome, while some neurons showed nature-of-reward-specific anticipatory activity changes. These delay-related activities reflected the preference of the animal for each kind of reward and were modulated by the motivational state of the animal. LPFC neurons are reported to show nature-ofreward-specific anticipatory activity changes in a delayed response task when several different kinds of rewards are used. Such rewarddependent activity is observed in LPFC delay neurons both with and without spatially differential delay (working memory-related) activity. Although reward expectancy-related activity is commonly observed in both OFC and LPFC, it is suggested that the OFC is more concerned with motivational aspects, while the LPFC is related to both the cognitive and motivational aspects of the expectancy of response outcome.  (+info)

Reward processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. (5/1047)

This article reviews and interprets neuronal activities related to the expectation and delivery of reward in the primate orbitofrontal cortex, in comparison with slowly discharging neurons in the striatum (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum, including nucleus accumbens) and midbrain dopamine neurons. Orbitofrontal neurons showed three principal forms of reward-related activity during the performance of delayed response tasks, namely responses to reward-predicting instructions, activations during the expectation period immediately preceding reward and responses following reward. These activations discriminated between different rewards, often on the basis of the animals' preferences. Neurons in the striatum were also activated in relation to the expectation and detection of reward but in addition showed activities related to the preparation, initiation and execution of movements which reflected the expected reward. Dopamine neurons responded to rewards and reward-predicting stimuli, and coded an error in the prediction of reward. Thus, the investigated cortical and basal ganglia structures showed multiple, heterogeneous, partly simultaneous activations which were related to specific aspects of rewards. These activations may represent the neuronal substrates of rewards during learning and established behavioral performance. The processing of reward expectations suggests an access to central representations of rewards which may be used for the neuronal control of goaldirected behavior.  (+info)

Reward-related neuronal activity during go-nogo task performance in primate orbitofrontal cortex. (6/1047)

The orbitofrontal cortex appears to be involved in the control of voluntary, goal-directed behavior by motivational outcomes. This study investigated how orbitofrontal neurons process information about rewards in a task that depends on intact orbitofrontal functions. In a delayed go-nogo task, animals executed or withheld a reaching movement and obtained liquid or a conditioned sound as reinforcement. An initial instruction picture indicated the behavioral reaction to be performed (movement vs. nonmovement) and the reinforcer to be obtained (liquid vs. sound) after a subsequent trigger stimulus. We found task-related activations in 188 of 505 neurons in rostral orbitofrontal area 13, entire area 11, and lateral area 14. The principal task-related activations consisted of responses to instructions, activations preceding reinforcers, or responses to reinforcers. Most activations reflected the reinforcing event rather than other task components. Instruction responses occurred either in liquid- or sound-reinforced trials but rarely distinguished between movement and nonmovement reactions. These instruction responses reflected the predicted motivational outcome rather than the behavioral reaction necessary for obtaining that outcome. Activations preceding the reinforcer began slowly and terminated immediately after the reinforcer, even when the reinforcer occurred earlier or later than usually. These activations preceded usually the liquid reward but rarely the conditioned auditory reinforcer. The activations also preceded expected drops of liquid delivered outside the task, suggesting a primary appetitive rather than a task-reinforcing relationship that apparently was related to the expectation of reward. Responses after the reinforcer occurred in liquid- but rarely in sound-reinforced trials. Reward-preceding activations and reward responses were unrelated temporally to licking movements. Several neurons showed reward responses outside the task but instruction responses during the task, indicating a response transfer from primary reward to the reward-predicting instruction, possibly reflecting the temporal unpredictability of reward. In conclusion, orbitofrontal neurons report stimuli associated with reinforcers are concerned with the expectation of reward and detect reward delivery at trial end. These activities may contribute to the processing of reward information for the motivational control of goal-directed behavior.  (+info)

Effects of reversible inactivation of the primate mesencephalic reticular formation. I. Hypermetric goal-directed saccades. (7/1047)

Single-neuron recording and electrical microstimulation suggest three roles for the mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) in oculomotor control: 1) saccade triggering, 2) computation of the horizontal component of saccade amplitude (a feed-forward function), and 3) feedback of an eye velocity signal from the paramedian zone of the pontine reticular formation (PPRF) to higher structures. These ideas were tested using reversible inactivation of the MRF with pressure microinjection of muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist, in four rhesus monkeys prepared for chronic single-neuron and eye movement recording. Reversible inactivation revealed two subregions of the MRF: ventral-caudal and rostral. The ventral-caudal region, which corresponds to the central MRF, the cMRF, or nucleus subcuneiformis, is the focus of this paper and is located lateral to the oculomotor nucleus and caudal to the posterior commissure (PC). Inactivation of the cMRF produced contraversive, upward saccade hypermetria. In three of eight injections, the velocity of hypermetric saccades was too fast for a given saccade amplitude, and saccade duration was shorter. The latency for initiation of most contraversive saccades was markedly reduced. Fixation was also destabilized with the development of macrosaccadic square-wave jerks that were directed toward a contraversive goal in the hypermetric direction. Spontaneous saccades collected in total darkness were also directed toward the same orbital goal, up and to the contraversive side. Three of eight muscimol injections were associated with a shift in the initial position of the eyes. A contralateral head tilt was also observed in 5 out of 8 caudal injections. All ventral-caudal injections with head tilt showed no evidence of vertical postsaccadic drift. This suggested that the observed changes in head movement and posture resulted from inactivation of the caudal MRF and not spread of the muscimol to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC). Evidence of hypermetria strongly supports the idea that the ventral-caudal MRF participates in the feedback control of saccade accuracy. However, development of goal-directed eye movements, as well as a shift in the initial position following some of the cMRF injections, suggest that this region also contributes to the generation of an estimate of target or eye position coded in craniotopic coordinates. Last, the observed reduction in contraversive saccade latency and development of macrosaccadic square-wave jerks supports a role of the MRF in saccade triggering.  (+info)

Evidence for the transient nature of a neural system supporting goal-directed action. (8/1047)

Disruption of a neural system supporting goal-directed action gives rise to lapses of intention in healthy individuals and disorganized behavior in patients with prefrontal lesions. Evidence from behavioral studies indicates that the occurrence of lapses in selective attention, working memory and prospective memory tasks is transient in nature. In the current study, we used event-related brain potentials to demonstrate that lapses are associated with a slow wave over the frontal region that begins well before stimulus onset and lasts for several hundred milliseconds. The magnitude of this slow wave was modulated by task demands, indicating that attentional processes can be flexibly allocated in the service of goal-directed action. Together the findings of these experiments indicate that lapses result from a transient inability to bring to bear the goals of the individual upon the action selection system.  (+info)

In the context of medicine, particularly in the setting of developing a care plan for patients, "goals" refer to specific, measurable, and achievable outcomes that healthcare providers and patients aim to accomplish through treatment or management strategies. These goals are often centered around improving symptoms, enhancing quality of life, promoting functional ability, preventing complications, and extending survival. Goals should be individualized to each patient's unique needs, values, and preferences and may be adjusted over time based on the patient's progress and changing circumstances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Objectives" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general management and business concept. Organizational objectives are the goals or targets that an organization aims to achieve through its operations and functions. These can include financial objectives like profitability and growth, as well as non-financial objectives related to areas like quality, innovation, social responsibility, and employee satisfaction.

In a healthcare setting, organizational objectives might include improving patient outcomes, increasing patient satisfaction, reducing costs, implementing new treatments or technologies, enhancing community health, and maintaining ethical standards.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Patient care planning is a critical aspect of medical practice that involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of an individualized plan for patients to receive high-quality and coordinated healthcare services. It is a collaborative process between healthcare professionals, patients, and their families that aims to identify the patient's health needs, establish realistic goals, and determine the most effective interventions to achieve those goals.

The care planning process typically includes several key components, such as:

1. Assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the patient's physical, psychological, social, and environmental status to identify their healthcare needs and strengths.
2. Diagnosis: The identification of the patient's medical condition(s) based on clinical findings and diagnostic tests.
3. Goal-setting: The establishment of realistic and measurable goals that address the patient's healthcare needs and align with their values, preferences, and lifestyle.
4. Intervention: The development and implementation of evidence-based strategies to achieve the identified goals, including medical treatments, therapies, and supportive services.
5. Monitoring and evaluation: The ongoing assessment of the patient's progress towards achieving their goals and adjusting the care plan as needed based on changes in their condition or response to treatment.

Patient care planning is essential for ensuring that patients receive comprehensive, coordinated, and personalized care that promotes their health, well-being, and quality of life. It also helps healthcare professionals to communicate effectively, make informed decisions, and provide safe and effective care that meets the needs and expectations of their patients.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "United Nations" is a political and international organization, not a medical concept or term. The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was established on October 24, 1945, to promote international cooperation and prevent conflicts. It is headquartered in New York City, and its member states work together to address various global issues, such as peace and security, climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

The "Healthy People" programs are a set of initiatives and objectives established by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). These programs aim to improve the health of all Americans over the course of a decade by setting evidence-based national goals and objectives for promoting physical, mental, and social well-being, as well as preventing disease, injury, and premature death.

The "Healthy People" programs are not a medical definition per se, but rather a set of public health initiatives that provide a framework for improving the health of the population. The program's goals and objectives cover a wide range of topics, including:

* Physical activity
* Nutrition
* Tobacco use
* Alcohol and drug abuse
* Mental health
* Sexual health
* Injury prevention
* Environmental health
* Access to healthcare

The "Healthy People" programs are updated every 10 years, with the most recent iteration being Healthy People 2030. These programs serve as a roadmap for policymakers, healthcare providers, and communities to work together to improve the health of the nation.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

A computer simulation is a process that involves creating a model of a real-world system or phenomenon on a computer and then using that model to run experiments and make predictions about how the system will behave under different conditions. In the medical field, computer simulations are used for a variety of purposes, including:

1. Training and education: Computer simulations can be used to create realistic virtual environments where medical students and professionals can practice their skills and learn new procedures without risk to actual patients. For example, surgeons may use simulation software to practice complex surgical techniques before performing them on real patients.
2. Research and development: Computer simulations can help medical researchers study the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone. By creating detailed models of cells, tissues, organs, or even entire organisms, researchers can use simulation software to explore how these systems function and how they respond to different stimuli.
3. Drug discovery and development: Computer simulations are an essential tool in modern drug discovery and development. By modeling the behavior of drugs at a molecular level, researchers can predict how they will interact with their targets in the body and identify potential side effects or toxicities. This information can help guide the design of new drugs and reduce the need for expensive and time-consuming clinical trials.
4. Personalized medicine: Computer simulations can be used to create personalized models of individual patients based on their unique genetic, physiological, and environmental characteristics. These models can then be used to predict how a patient will respond to different treatments and identify the most effective therapy for their specific condition.

Overall, computer simulations are a powerful tool in modern medicine, enabling researchers and clinicians to study complex systems and make predictions about how they will behave under a wide range of conditions. By providing insights into the behavior of biological systems at a level of detail that would be difficult or impossible to achieve through experimental methods alone, computer simulations are helping to advance our understanding of human health and disease.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

Automatism is a medical and legal term that refers to unconscious or involuntary behavior or actions that are performed without conscious awareness or control. In medicine, automatisms can occur in various neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy, sleepwalking, or certain mental disorders. During an automatism episode, a person may appear to be awake and functioning, but they are not fully aware of their actions and may not remember them later.

In the legal context, automatism is often used as a defense in criminal cases, where it is argued that the defendant was not mentally responsible for their actions due to an involuntary automatism episode. However, the definition and application of automatism as a legal defense can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the specific circumstances of the case.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Internet" is a term that pertains to the global network of interconnected computers and servers that enable the transmission and reception of data via the internet protocol (IP). It is not a medical term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Program Development" is not a medical term. It is a general term that refers to the process of creating, planning, and implementing a new program or project, typically in a business, education, or community setting. In a healthcare context, it might refer to the development of a new healthcare service, treatment program, or educational initiative.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try and help!

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

A User-Computer Interface (also known as Human-Computer Interaction) refers to the point at which a person (user) interacts with a computer system. This can include both hardware and software components, such as keyboards, mice, touchscreens, and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The design of the user-computer interface is crucial in determining the usability and accessibility of a computer system for the user. A well-designed interface should be intuitive, efficient, and easy to use, minimizing the cognitive load on the user and allowing them to effectively accomplish their tasks.

"Forecasting" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general term used in various fields, including finance, economics, and meteorology, to describe the process of making predictions or estimates about future events or trends based on historical data, trends, and other relevant factors. In healthcare and public health, forecasting may be used to predict the spread of diseases, identify potential shortages of resources such as hospital beds or medical equipment, or plan for future health care needs. However, there is no medical definition for "forecasting" itself.

LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol. It is one of the lipoproteins that helps carry cholesterol throughout your body. High levels of LDL cholesterol can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid) that is found in the cells of your body. Your body needs some cholesterol to function properly, but having too much can lead to health problems. LDL cholesterol is one of the two main types of cholesterol; the other is high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol.

It's important to keep your LDL cholesterol levels in a healthy range to reduce your risk of developing heart disease and stroke. A healthcare professional can help you determine what your target LDL cholesterol level should be based on your individual health status and risk factors.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Child mortality refers to the death of children under a specific age, typically under 5 years old. It is usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in a given population during a specified period. High child mortality rates are often indicative of underlying issues related to health care access, nutrition, sanitation, and socioeconomic factors. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals set a target to reduce under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, and this goal has been continued in the Sustainable Development Goals with a new target of ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030.

Guideline adherence, in the context of medicine, refers to the extent to which healthcare professionals follow established clinical practice guidelines or recommendations in their daily practice. These guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines can help improve the quality of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote optimal patient outcomes. Factors that may influence guideline adherence include clinician awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the complexity of the recommendation.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. ClinicalTrials.gov: A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

Disease eradication is the complete and permanent elimination of a specific disease from all humans or animals worldwide. This is achieved through various methods, including vaccination programs, improved sanitation, and public health measures. The disease is no longer present in any form, and there is no risk of it re-emerging. Smallpox is the only human disease to have been successfully eradicated so far. Efforts are currently underway to eradicate polio, with significant progress made but still ongoing.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

In the context of medical ethics and law, "intention" refers to the purpose or aim behind an action. It is a mental state that is formed when an individual consciously decides to perform a certain act or achieve a specific goal. In medical procedures and treatments, healthcare providers must consider their intentions and ensure that they are acting in the best interest of the patient, with the primary intent being to benefit the patient's health and well-being.

In some cases, such as in end-of-life care, determining the intention behind a medical intervention can be critical in assessing its ethical and legal implications. For example, if a healthcare provider administers pain relief medication with the primary intention of alleviating the patient's suffering, rather than shortening their life, then this is considered ethically and legally acceptable. However, if the primary intention is to hasten the patient's death, then this would be considered unacceptable and potentially illegal.

Therefore, understanding and clarifying the intention behind medical actions is an essential aspect of ensuring that healthcare providers act ethically and within the bounds of the law.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose (or sugar) levels resulting from the body's inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. This form of diabetes usually develops gradually over several years and is often associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, meaning they don't respond properly to the hormone. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Over time, the pancreas can't keep up with the increased demand, leading to high blood glucose levels and diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is managed through lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications, including insulin therapy, may also be necessary to control blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications associated with the disease, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision loss.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

In a medical context, "achievement" generally refers to the successful completion of a specific goal or task related to a person's health or medical treatment. This could include reaching certain milestones in rehabilitation or therapy, achieving certain laboratory test results, or meeting other health-related objectives. Achievements in healthcare are often celebrated as they represent progress and improvement in a patient's condition. However, it is important to note that the definition of achievement may vary depending on the individual's medical history, current health status, and treatment plan.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Hypolipidemic agents are a class of medications that are used to lower the levels of lipids (fats) in the blood, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides. These drugs work by reducing the production or increasing the breakdown of fats in the body, which can help prevent or treat conditions such as hyperlipidemia (high levels of fats in the blood), atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), and cardiovascular disease.

There are several different types of hypolipidemic agents, including:

1. Statins: These drugs block the action of an enzyme called HMG-CoA reductase, which is necessary for the production of cholesterol in the liver. By reducing the amount of cholesterol produced, statins can help lower LDL (bad) cholesterol levels and increase HDL (good) cholesterol levels.
2. Bile acid sequestrants: These drugs bind to bile acids in the intestines and prevent them from being reabsorbed into the bloodstream. This causes the liver to produce more bile acids, which requires it to use up more cholesterol, thereby lowering LDL cholesterol levels.
3. Nicotinic acid: Also known as niacin, this drug can help lower LDL and VLDL (very low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels and increase HDL cholesterol levels. It works by reducing the production of fatty acids in the liver.
4. Fibrates: These drugs are used to treat high triglyceride levels. They work by increasing the breakdown of fats in the body and reducing the production of VLDL cholesterol in the liver.
5. PCSK9 inhibitors: These drugs block the action of a protein called PCSK9, which helps regulate the amount of LDL cholesterol in the blood. By blocking PCSK9, these drugs can help lower LDL cholesterol levels.

It's important to note that hypolipidemic agents should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

Statistical data interpretation involves analyzing and interpreting numerical data in order to identify trends, patterns, and relationships. This process often involves the use of statistical methods and tools to organize, summarize, and draw conclusions from the data. The goal is to extract meaningful insights that can inform decision-making, hypothesis testing, or further research.

In medical contexts, statistical data interpretation is used to analyze and make sense of large sets of clinical data, such as patient outcomes, treatment effectiveness, or disease prevalence. This information can help healthcare professionals and researchers better understand the relationships between various factors that impact health outcomes, develop more effective treatments, and identify areas for further study.

Some common statistical methods used in data interpretation include descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, mode), inferential statistics (e.g., hypothesis testing, confidence intervals), and regression analysis (e.g., linear, logistic). These methods can help medical professionals identify patterns and trends in the data, assess the significance of their findings, and make evidence-based recommendations for patient care or public health policy.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Medical societies are professional organizations composed of physicians, surgeons, and other healthcare professionals who share a common purpose of promoting medical research, education, and patient care. These societies can focus on specific medical specialties, such as the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) for cancer specialists or the American College of Surgeons (ACS) for surgeons. They may also address broader issues related to healthcare policy, advocacy, and ethics. Medical societies often provide resources for continuing medical education, publish scientific journals, establish clinical practice guidelines, and offer networking opportunities for members.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Disease management is a proactive, planned approach to identify and manage patients with chronic medical conditions. It involves a systematic and coordinated method of delivering care to patients with the goal of improving clinical outcomes, enhancing quality of life, and reducing healthcare costs. This approach typically includes elements such as evidence-based care guidelines, patient education, self-management support, regular monitoring and follow-up, and collaboration between healthcare providers and specialists.

The objective of disease management is to improve the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic conditions by providing them with the necessary tools, resources, and support to effectively manage their condition and prevent complications. By implementing a comprehensive and coordinated approach to care, disease management can help reduce hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and other costly healthcare services while improving patient satisfaction and overall health outcomes.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Self-efficacy is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in medical and health-related contexts. It is a concept from social cognitive theory that refers to an individual's belief in their ability to successfully perform specific tasks or achieve certain goals, particularly in the face of challenges or adversity.

In medical settings, self-efficacy can refer to a patient's confidence in their ability to manage their health condition, adhere to treatment plans, and engage in healthy behaviors. For example, a person with diabetes who has high self-efficacy may feel confident in their ability to monitor their blood sugar levels, follow a healthy diet, and exercise regularly, even if they encounter obstacles or setbacks.

Research has shown that self-efficacy is an important predictor of health outcomes, as individuals with higher self-efficacy are more likely to engage in positive health behaviors and experience better health outcomes than those with lower self-efficacy. Healthcare providers may seek to enhance patients' self-efficacy through education, counseling, and support to help them manage their health condition more effectively.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

"Terminology as a topic" in the context of medical education and practice refers to the study and use of specialized language and terms within the field of medicine. This includes understanding the meaning, origins, and appropriate usage of medical terminology in order to effectively communicate among healthcare professionals and with patients. It may also involve studying the evolution and cultural significance of medical terminology. The importance of "terminology as a topic" lies in promoting clear and accurate communication, which is essential for providing safe and effective patient care.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Space perception, in the context of neuroscience and psychology, refers to the ability to perceive and understand the spatial arrangement of objects and their relationship to oneself. It involves integrating various sensory inputs such as visual, auditory, tactile, and proprioceptive information to create a coherent three-dimensional representation of our environment.

This cognitive process enables us to judge distances, sizes, shapes, and movements of objects around us. It also helps us navigate through space, reach for objects, avoid obstacles, and maintain balance. Disorders in space perception can lead to difficulties in performing everyday activities and may be associated with neurological conditions such as stroke, brain injury, or neurodevelopmental disorders like autism.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

In the context of medicine, problem-solving refers to the cognitive process by which healthcare professionals identify, analyze, and address clinical issues or challenges in order to provide optimal care for their patients. This may involve gathering relevant information, generating potential solutions, evaluating their feasibility and risks, selecting the most appropriate course of action, and implementing and monitoring the chosen intervention. Effective problem-solving skills are essential for making informed decisions, improving patient outcomes, and reducing medical errors.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

Interdisciplinary communication in a medical context refers to the exchange of information and ideas between professionals from different healthcare disciplines, such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and therapists. This form of communication is essential for coordinating patient care, making informed treatment decisions, and ensuring that all members of the healthcare team are aware of the patient's needs, goals, and progress. Effective interdisciplinary communication can help to improve patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce medical errors. It typically involves clear, concise, and respectful communication, often through regular meetings, shared documentation, and collaborative decision-making processes.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Genomics is the scientific study of genes and their functions. It involves the sequencing and analysis of an organism's genome, which is its complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Genomics also includes the study of how genes interact with each other and with the environment. This field of study can provide important insights into the genetic basis of diseases and can lead to the development of new diagnostic tools and treatments.

... is a 1999 television film directed by David Steinberg and starring Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen. Thirteen-year- ... At 20 seconds left Sam kicks the ball into the goal, and it is blocked by Emma, tying the game. The Buzzards and the Hurricanes ... Adrian Griffin as Referee Alex House as Kid at arcade Alexi Lalas as Himself List of association football films Switching Goals ...
... may refer to: The Western Goals Foundation, a private intelligence dissemination network active on the right-wing ... a conservative pressure group in Britain This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Western Goals. If an ... in the United States The Western Goals Institute, ...
... will produce Doha GOALS in 2012. The Doha GOALS Forum will be based on initiatives that were discussed during a pre-forum ... Doha GOALS-Gathering of All Leaders In Sport-is an initiative designed as a "call to action" for the role that sport plays as a ... Doha Goals Forum is already a well known manifestation, where many projects can be evoked. For example, during the third ... The launch of Doha GOALS at Bayt Qatar during the London 2012 games was attended by President Ali Bongo Ondimba of Gabon and ...
... (RM; Spanish: Realizando Metas) is a political party in Panama. It was recognized by the Electoral Tribunal of ... Realizing Goals was founded by Ricardo Martinelli after splitting from the Democratic Change party. After Martinelli was ... In February 2020, a faction led by Martinelli decided to renounce CD and create the Realizing Goals party. Initially, the new ... As an alternative, several names were chosen using the initials of the former president Martinelli (RM), with Realizing Goals ( ...
... subordinate and intermediate goals) with the overall purpose (superordinate goals). Superordinate goals were first described ... Superordinate goals differ from smaller group goals in that they cannot be achieved by a single small group, and thus force ... Therefore, not only is there a need for non-zero-sum goals, but they must be perceived as such. Superordinate goals are not as ... In the context of goal-setting theory, the concept is seen in terms of three goal levels. These are classified as subordinate, ...
... is a Philippine business talk program broadcast by ALLTV. Originally hosted by Gerry "Mr. Freeze" Santos. It ... "New segment host on 'Negosyo Goals'". Manila Times. April 5, 2023. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... Freeze Gerry Santos shares business goals in new show". Manila Standard. Requintina, Robert (March 17, 2023). "Biz guru Gerry ...
The National Educational Goals, also known as the Goals 2000 Act were set by the U.S. Congress in the 1990s to set goals for ... National Education Goals Panel Ready schools "20 USC 5812: National Education Goals". "'89 Education Summit's Goals Still Unmet ... The goals stated in the Summary of Goals 2000 include: By the Year 2000... All children in America will start school ready to ... The goals are not intended to be a curriculum. Instead, curriculum is to be developed locally on the basis of the goals. ...
... - DISCOVERING PLACES AND CULTURES, retrieved October 22, 2021 MAINE GOALS TEASER..., retrieved October 22, 2021 v t ... Maine Goals (stylized as #MaineGoals) is a Philippine travel and lifestyle show broadcast by BuKo channel. It is hosted by ... Maine Goals featured different places in the country and discover tourist spots and the culture of the locals. "Laugh, learn, ...
Over a season this yields about 3 more goals for, an improved goal difference of about 6 goals. Jake Ensum, Richard Pollard and ... "expected goals" with actual goals and her process of applying weightings to incremental actions for P(goal) outcomes. In April ... determine its goal probability Expected Goals: EG = the sum of the goal probabilities for each shot Neutralize the variation in ... Mean squared error (MSE) of actual goals and predicted goals was our choice for measuring the performance of our models. "xG ...
"Wad Goals" is the 13th episode of the thirty-second season of the American animated television series The Simpsons, and the ... Tony Sokol with Den of Geek, said ""Wad Goals" aims at too many targets and spends some time in the rough. The arc is timed out ... "Wad Goals" at IMDb Portal: The Simpsons (Use mdy dates from June 2023, Articles with short description, Short description is ... Sokol, Tony (March 1, 2021). "The Simpsons Season 32 Episode 13 Review: Wad Goals". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on ...
If some goals are related to safety issues while others are more "comfort of use usability goals", they will not all require ... Then, the goal will be formulated in terms related to the coding scheme used for the analysis. Those qualitative goals can be ... That kind of goal is called a usability goal (or also usability requirement). They are objective criteria against which the ... "definition of usability goals" part). Then, usability goals are used at each usability evaluation phase of the design process. ...
... may refer to: Set Your Goals (band), an American rock band Set Your Goals (album), an album by CIV This ... disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Set Your Goals. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
"global goals week". Archived from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2020. "Global Goals Week 2019". IISD SDG ... The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of seventeen interlinked objectives designed to serve ... "Sustainable Development Goal 17". Sustainable Development Goals. 16 November 2017. Archived from the original on 5 September ... They also shortened the title The 17 Sustainable Development Goals to Global Goals, then ran workshops and conferences to ...
The goals breakdown structure (GBS) is a hierarchical structure linking high-level objectives or goals to more detailed goals. ... The goal of the project mission or goal statement is to maintain the focus of the project team and stakeholders. Therefore, it ... The highest-level defines the overall goal or mission for the project. The next level down sets the goals the organization ... Each layer must contain all the goals needed to ensure the project achieves the next higher level goals. Nothing extra. No ...
... is an operator of dedicated 5-a-side soccer centers based in California, with around 50 locations. Goals ... "Interview-Keith-Rogers". Goals Soccer Centres. Retrieved February 3, 2020. "Goals Soccer Centres opens its 50th football centre ... "Manchester City Soccer Academy at Goals". Goals Soccer Centers. Retrieved February 3, 2020. (Use mdy dates from February 2020, ... Three months later, Goal's stake in the U.S. joint venture was sold to partners City Football Group, giving the soccer ...
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established ... "Goal :: Improve Maternal Health". Mdg Monitor. Retrieved 18 October 2012. "Goal :: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases ... "Goal :: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women". Mdg Monitor. 30 April 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2012. "Goal :: Reduce ... "The Millennium Development Goals Report" "United Nations Millennium Development Goals". Un.org. 20 May 2008. Retrieved 18 ...
Western Goals at Powerbase.info Western Goals at Militarist Monitor Works published by Western Goals at WorldCat (Articles with ... Western Goals would then cite McDonald's statements in its own public reports. Unverified reports by Western Goals accusing ... The organization founded an offshoot, Western Goals (UK), later the Western Goals Institute, which was briefly influential in ... Western Goals was sued by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) after a police officer was caught adding information from ...
... was a British football discussion television programme on Sky Sports that shows highlights and analysis of the ... On 28 June 2019, Ben Shephard announced his departure from Goals on Sunday to allow him to spend more time with his family, ... "For inane analysis, Sky Sports' Goals on Sunday with Chris Kamara is top drawer". The Telegraph. 30 September 2012. Retrieved ...
The EFL Dubious Goals Committee exists for the English Football League. The EPL Committee is made up of three former football ... A Dubious Goals Committee is a committee in the English football leagues which adjudicates in any instance where the identity ... However if the deflection means that a wayward effort results in a goal then it is attributed to the player who had the last ... The committee does not enquire into: whether a goal has been scored. This is a matter for the officials attending the match in ...
In 2005, GOALS began a strategic expansion in close partnership with the city of Anaheim, with the opening of GOALS Gardens, an ... GOALS Academy was founded by GOALS as a Kindergarten to 6th grade elementary school located in north central Anaheim. More than ... GOALS organizes activities within designated under served communities and links those areas to central GOALS facilities with a ... GOALS programs all revolve around (free) opportunities in athletics, learning and service. GOALS is the largest diversity ...
"Investegate ,Goals Soccer Centres Announcements , Goals Soccer Centres: Goals to be acquired by Northwind 5s Limited". www. ... Goals Soccer Centres (trading as Goals) is an operator of dedicated 5-a-side football centres based in Glasgow, with 45 ... Rogers left Goals at the end of 2016. In October 2019, following financial problems it was announced that Goals Soccer Centres ... "Monday Interview: Keith Rogers, Goals Soccer Centres". www.scotsman.com. "Goals agrees £73.1m takeover by Goliath , 20 July ...
Under the away goals rule, if the total goals scored by each team are equal, the team that has scored more goals "away from ... superior goal difference from all group matches played; higher number of goals scored; higher number of goals scored away; ... "Away goals rule: What is it & why did UEFA drop it from Champions League & Europa League?". Goal.com. 8 March 2022. Retrieved ... However, Team A has now scored an away goal and competition rules count away goals after extra time, Team A will thus progress ...
... (WGI) was a far-right pressure group and think-tank in Britain, formed in 1989 from Western Goals UK, ... The Western Goals Institute was founded (as Western Goals UK) in May 1985 as the British branch of the American organisation ... were all on Western Goals' first UK Directorate. Western Goals activists Lauder-Frost, Anthony Murphy, and Dr. Harvey Ward all ... Western Goals Institute Winter 1997". Traditional Britain Group. Western Goals Newsletter. Retrieved 15 September 2023. The ...
"Score! Classic Goals review , TouchGen". Archived from the original on 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2014-10-10. "Score! Classic Goals ... "Score! Classic Goals Review". Appspy.com. Retrieved 2 December 2021. "Score! Classic Goals". Pocketgamer.com. 23 May 2012. ... Score! Classic Goals' Review - World Class". Toucharcade.com. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2021. "Score! Classic Goals ... Score! Classic Goals is an iOS football-themed puzzle game, developed by British studio First Touch Games and released on May ...
... (GAA) also known as "average goals against" or "AGA" is a statistic used in field hockey, ice hockey, ... For ice hockey, the goals against average statistic is the number of goals a goaltender allows per 60 minutes of playing time. ... When calculating GAA, overtime goals and time on ice are included, whereas empty net and shootout goals are not. It is ... It is calculated by taking the number of goals against, multiply that by 60 (minutes) and then dividing by the number of ...
"Global Goals Week 2018". The Global Goals. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2020. "Global Goals ... In 2018, Global Goals Week took place from September 22 to 29. It was termed "the biggest Global Goals Week yet". Its theme was ... Global Goals Week 2020 took place from September 18 to 26. It was completely virtual due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal was ... "Global Goals Week 2017". IISD SDG Knowledge Hub. Retrieved 4 August 2020. "7 biggest trends to emerge from Global Goals Week". ...
... may refer to: List of longest gridiron football field goals List of longest NBA field goals, basketball ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Longest field goals. If an internal link led you here, you ...
"Relationship Goals - Steven Lee Olsen". AllMusic. Retrieved November 11, 2021. "Relationship Goals (Acoustic Version) - Single ... Relationship Goals". New Country Songs. Retrieved October 19, 2021. "Relationship Goals - Steven Lee Olsen, Song Info". ... "Relationship Goals" is a song co-written, co-produced, and recorded by Canadian country artist Steven Lee Olsen. The song was ... It was the lead single off his extended play Relationship Goals, the first release from a joint venture between The Core ...
The European Youth Goals were included in the EU Youth Strategy 2019-2027. The European Youth Goals were developed during the ... The European Youth Goals are a collection of 11 interlinked goals representing young people's vision for youth policy in the ... The European Youth Goals encompass 11 goals: Connecting EU with Youth Equality of All Genders Inclusive Societies Information ... Youth Goals. Retrieved 2020-12-11. CSUDAY, Gabor Tamas (2019-01-15). "European Youth Goals". Youth - European Commission. ...
The 1994 Goals 2000 legislation formally established the National Education Goals Panel in federal law, and the legislation ... The National Education Goals Panel (NEGP) was an organization formed in 1990 after a meeting of President George H.W. Bush and ... National Education Goals Panel History hosted at the University of North Texas Libraries and the U.S. Government Printing ... The organization was established to report on the nation's progress toward the six education goals adopted at the ...
Switching Goals is a 1999 television film directed by David Steinberg and starring Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen. Thirteen-year- ... At 20 seconds left Sam kicks the ball into the goal, and it is blocked by Emma, tying the game. The Buzzards and the Hurricanes ... Adrian Griffin as Referee Alex House as Kid at arcade Alexi Lalas as Himself List of association football films Switching Goals ...
... and set achievable automation goals. Preview The automation architects handbook. ... Set goals. Before your organization can set IT automation goals, you need to get a clear picture of where your organization is ... Use these and other guiding questions to help set your automation goals. Download The automation architects handbook: A guide ...
The first skills goal reiterates over-arching goal #3, but here my focus is on communication between peers, rather than purely ... The second skills goal is the direct outcome of comments I received from all of you. Many people suggested that I teach ... As I wrote in my last post, heres what Ive picked for the overarching course goals:. *I want students to be able to evaluate ... I did a not-so-stellar job of meeting my not-so-stellar goals for writing and research in November, but I did get some stuff ...
The seven goals - designed to complement the 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals - focus on cross-border crime issues:. * ... "The Global Policing Goals developed by INTERPOL are both a call for action and a roadmap to focus and coordinate international ... The Global Policing Goals contribute to this effort." John Brandolino, UNODC Director of the Division for Treaty Affairs ... "The global policing goals developed alongside the UN agenda 2030, will allow a uniform and comprehensive way of addressing the ...
Donate trees and help Brazil achieve its restoration goal at the pace and scale needed by the country and world. Learn more.. ... COP27: The Challenge of Achieving Goals and Commitments. Countries meet at the Climate Conference on the African continent, ... In order to achieve this goal, deforestation must be dramatically reduced, and 5.6 million hectares of forests must be restored ... TNC participates in and collaborates with other diverse collectives with converging goals. Some have launched COP26-specific ...
There are plenty of tricks to stick to your goals , but whats science got to say about it? Well, apparently, framing your ... So if you are going to use a question to reframe your goals, then try starting them with "How might I", Fast Company advises. ... There are plenty of tricks to stick to your goals, but whats science got to say about it? Well, apparently, framing your ... Motivating Goal-Directed Behavior Through Introspective Self-Talk , PubMed Central via Fast Company ...
Millennium Development Goals. EPPN Alert: Foreign Aid Should Support Local Agriculture Efforts June 3, 2013 ... A Theological Reflection On The Millennium Development Goals May 21, 2012 Episcopal Church Presiding Bishop calls for focus on ... Presiding Bishop Frank Griswold: A reflection on the Millennium Development Goal... September 21, 2006 ... Millennium Development Goal... February 16, 2012 Presiding Bishops Letter to the Senate on the International Affairs Budget ...
Home Aims & goals Aims & goals. At Heathrow Express we want to get you to your destination safely and on time. Thats our key ...
Our investors goal, however, has a five-year objective and includes not realizing a loss of 10% at any time within the five ... While investment goals and objectives are personal, key considerations are common to most investors. These include a desired ... While the traditional asset portfolio may meet some of the investors goals, the drawdown is too large and the returns will be ... In any given investment program the first and perhaps most important step is to determine the investment goal. Remember that ...
This sight introduces the environmental goals of the GRB framework. ... Initiatives for Achieving Goals. Since 2018, the Fujitsu Group has been a member of the international initiative RE100, which ... Updating Medium- and Long-term Goals. In May 2017, the Fujitsu Group formulated the Fujitsu Climate and Energy Vision as our ... To contribute to this goal in its DC business as well, Fujitsu has begun offering "Environmental Value Delivery Service" from a ...
... This set of essays offers a detailed look at the problems behind the internet ... Domain Name Service (DNS). It includes an analysis of the problem, an examination of the goals people have for DNS, and a ...
Goal Program - find test scores, ratings, reviews, and 137 nearby homes for sale at realtor.com. ... Goal Program. Browse popular neighborhoods, cities and ZIP codes around Goal Program ...
Learning Goals for Students Majoring in Mathematics and Statistics ...
... teaches kids about money management through an exercise called setting SMART financial goals. ... Achievable: Do I have, or can I get, the resources needed to achieve the goal? Is the goal reasonable for me? Are the actions I ... Will it delay or prevent me from achieving more important goals? Am I willing to commit to really achieving this goal? ... Smart Goals. Life is getting busy and you need cash for things like nights out with friends, lunch money, school trips, prom, ...
Ottawa doubled its lead on Anthony Duclairs power-play goal. That gave the Senators twice as many goals as they had managed in ... Oshies second goal of the game made it 6-2 and prompted Ottawa coach Guy Boucher to yank Nilsson and replace him with Craig ... Oshie reached 20 goals in a season for the fourth time, while Evgeny Kuznetsov, Tom Wilson, Lars Eller, John Carlson and Brett ... The Capitals really turned it on in a four-goal second period. Carlson broke the tie with his 10th of the season, on a power ...
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When I say "personal goals" I dont mean, "Im going to double my sales quota this quarter." Im talking about goals that have ... Why Personal Goals and Hobbies Are Essential For A Fulfilling Career They give you perspective and make you better at your job ... Your personal goals dont exist in a vacuum. They have the potential to lead you towards a happier, more fulfilling career and ... Setting personal goals is often underrated by those who dont understand their power. But if you begin to pursue some of your ...
European Football Writer for GOAL US/en-us ... Raphael Guerreiro scored a memorable goal as Bayern Munich ... The England midfielder made Spains biggest game his own once again as he provided another huge goal to take down Madrids ... Covered American academy, club, college and pro soccer before moving on to the European game for GOAL in 2022. Now handles ...
Universal learning goals of academic programs at St. Bonaventure University. ... University Learning Goals University Learning Goals. St. Bonaventure University has adopted universal learning goals applicable ... Learning Goal 2: Reasoning and Inquiry. Objectives/indicators: *Determine the extent of information needed in a given situation ... Learning Goal 1: Broad and Discipline-Specific Learning. Objectives/indicators: *Demonstrate knowledge and competency in the ...
In addition, through our program learning goals, we instill a number of important skills, attitudes and behaviours in our ... MER learning goals. Through the interdisciplinary MER program, students learn how to effectively manage relationships in an ... In addition, through our program learning goals, we instill a number of important skills, attitudes and behaviours in our ...
Modernizing Death Data: Goals and Progress. Projects to modernize death data are underway across our nation. The National ... The process of modernization is leading toward one main goal: to transform the National Vital Statistics System into a tool for ... Center for Health Statistics set ambitious goals for the timeliness and quality of death data: ...
About 8% of Australias population is not included in reporting on Sustainable Development Goal Target 6.1 for access to safe ... When it comes to addressing the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs), water organisations should seek to ... Youth engagement will be important to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6), according to one young water ... Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) , Latest News Blog ...
We are proud to have arrived at this goal via a combination of reduction initiatives, including not only purchasing but also ...
Leading experts involved in the formation of the Sustainable Development Goals will provide insight and context into the new ... goals during a press teleconference on Wednesday, September 16, at 10:00 a.m. EDT. ... The Sustainable Development Goals will create a new roadmap for global development over the next 15 years. The overarching goal ... 42:30] How does climate goal connect to UNFCCC process? What would happen for development if these goals did not exist? ...
Learn how to prioritize goals if you want to make all of them a reality. ... Prioritizing our goals doesnt mean giving up on some of them. Instead, its about giving each goal its own time in the ... For more tips on achieving your goals, dont miss out on this comprehensive guide: The Ultimate Guide to Goal Achieving ... Once youve got your list, your next task is to identify the 5 goals that resonate most with you. These are the goals that make ...
... greatly improving the liveability of our urban environment and meeting net zero goals. It all starts with a simple piece of ...
PIT@CBJ: Marchenko scores goal against Alex Nedeljkovic Kirill Marchenko scores goal against Alex Nedeljkovic to make it 3 - 3 ... CAR@CBJ: Del Bel Belluz scores goal against Spencer Martin. CAR@CBJ: Del Bel Belluz scores goal against Spencer Martin ... CAR@CBJ: Werenski scores goal against Spencer Martin. CAR@CBJ: Werenski scores goal against Spencer Martin ... CAR@CBJ: Nylander scores goal against Spencer Martin. CAR@CBJ: Nylander scores goal against Spencer Martin ...
Goal 1 - Instill Equity as a Foundation of Emergency Management * Goal 2 - Lead Whole of Community in Climate Resilience * ... Low-Carbon Goals * 2 CFR - Actualizaciones de la política * Orientación y Herramientas * Authorized Equipment List * Análisis ... Goal 2 - Lead Whole of Community in Climate Resilience Climate change represents a profound crisis for the nation, making ... Enlaces transversales de Book para Goal 2 - Lead Whole of Community in Climate Resilience. * ‹Anterior Objective 1.3 - Achieve ...
If we meet that goal, that $5 million will also be matched, and our fundraising for 2014 will end. ... If we meet that goal, that $1 million will be matched, and well move to the second target. ...
  • One of the principal outcomes of Rio+20 was the call to produce a set of universally applicable sustainable development goals (SDGs) that balance the environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development. (un.org)
  • This document summarises the points the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) considers essential in the discussion on the post-2015 development agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). (un.org)
  • Either all Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) - as a comprehensive set, including SDG 16 related to security - will be attained for all, or peace, security and prosperity will be at jeopardy everywhere. (interpol.int)
  • This Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) website is part of a project that will benefit our community at large by helping inform SFU's Global Engagement Plan. (sfu.ca)
  • The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, contains 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). (who.int)
  • We are passionate about addressing the world's challenges, and we have identified a wide range of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that our research helps address. (lu.se)
  • The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most prominent example of such goals, but many others have been set since the 1960s. (un.org)
  • The United Nations and partners have launched an unprecedented series of consultations with people the world over to seek their views on a new development agenda to build on the successes of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (un.org)
  • With only five years left until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has called on world leaders to attend a summit in New York in September 2010 to boost progress towards the realization of the MDGs. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In 2000, world leaders adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration and the millennium development goals (MDGs), setting the year 2015 as the date for reaching the targets. (who.int)
  • On Monday, 23 October at 11:00-12:00, at Malmö Live, researchers from Lund University and Malmö University will discuss with Isabella Lövin, Sweden's Minister for International Development Cooperation and Climate, what we need to do to achieve the 1.5-degree goal. (lu.se)
  • The global policing goals developed alongside the UN agenda 2030, will allow a uniform and comprehensive way of addressing the development of security sector reforms globally, providing a roadmap for the future sustainable development of law enforcement on the national and international levels," said Odd Reidar Humlegard, National Police Commissioner of Norway. (interpol.int)
  • Through Agenda 2030, the United Nations' 193 member states have committed themselves to 17 Global Goals for sustainable development. (lu.se)
  • The Global Goals and the 2030 Agenda is the most ambitious agreement on sustainable development that the world's countries have ever adopted. (lu.se)
  • Agenda 2030 was adopted in 2015 by the UN member states and it includes 17 Global Goals for an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable development. (lu.se)
  • The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) has also launched an " E-Handbook on Sustainable Development Goals Indicators " in collaboration with the custodian agencies for each indicator. (who.int)
  • Developing personal KPIs allows you to focus on your goal and to measure progress by outcomes, not by hours spent on the task. (forbes.com)
  • The leader determines outcomes subordinates want to achieve, rewards high performance, and ensures subordinates believe they can achieve goals and perform well. (slideshare.net)
  • SFU's 2022-2025 Strategic Sustainability and Climate Action Plan establishes the university's sustainability goals, defines SFU's climate action targets and outlines how SFU will take action to achieve them. (sfu.ca)
  • They give you concrete landmarks and short-term targets to reach long-term financial goals. (benzinga.com)
  • Advances in the SDG monitoring are also specifically addressed in the Sustainable Development Goals Report 2018 . (who.int)
  • Action item 11 of the 2001 Action Plan called for an assessment of progress in achieving the three goals of the Action Plan (Coastal, Within Basin, and Quality of Life) and for decisions on a future course of action. (epa.gov)
  • Short-term financial goals, like mini-milestones toward your long-term financial planning, can help you stay on track and make achieving bigger goals more fun. (benzinga.com)
  • Achieving short-term monetary goals requires a look at your finances and some determination. (benzinga.com)
  • What is a reasonable time frame for achieving your financial goals if the savings amount is larger? (benzinga.com)
  • 1 Resolution AFR/RC55/R2, Achieving the health millennium development goals: situation analysis and perspectives in the African Region. (who.int)
  • Global development goals have become increasingly used by the United Nations and the international community to promote priority global objectives. (un.org)
  • INTERPOL launched the Global Policing Goals at an event coordinated by INTERPOL in cooperation with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Government of Norway. (interpol.int)
  • The United Nations set up 17 goals to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all. (lu.se)
  • Major Groups and other Stakeholders can contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals process through Thematic Clusters. (un.org)
  • The Global Policing Goals developed by INTERPOL are both a call for action and a roadmap to focus and coordinate international policing efforts which are consistent with promoting sustainable development," concluded Mr Alexandre. (interpol.int)
  • Use the filter below to explore examples of how UCL is helping to achieve the UN's Sustainable Development Goals. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In our exhibition, you will learn more about the 17 Global Goals for sustainable development, the various sub-goals, and about positive examples of what we can do to help - both locally, regionally and in worldwide collaborations. (lu.se)
  • We want visitors to gain an increased understanding of the UN global sustainable development goals and to be inspired to take their own initiatives to work on them. (lu.se)
  • Through the sustainable development goals, this could become reality. (lu.se)
  • The Sustainable Development Goal - wheel, will take you to the UN page, where you can read more. (lu.se)
  • UNDP in Sweden works to reinforce policies and sustainable development policies and initiatives and to communicate and support the implementation of the Global Goals. (lu.se)
  • Coastal Goal (Adopted 2015): We strive to reduce the five-year running average areal extent of the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone to less than 5,000 square kilometers by the year 2035. (epa.gov)
  • Reaching this final goal will require a significant commitment of resources to greatly accelerate implementation of actions to reduce nutrient loading from all major sources of nitrogen and phosphorus in the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB). (epa.gov)
  • Within Basin Goal (Adopted 2008): To restore and protect the waters of the 31 States and Tribal lands within the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin through implementation of nutrient and sediment reduction actions to protect public health and aquatic life as well as reduce negative impacts of water pollution on the Gulf of Mexico. (epa.gov)
  • Six years ago, at COP21, world leaders announced the Paris Agreement, a commitment to keeping global warming well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, while at the same time making efforts to limit the rise of the average temperature to 1.5°C. This is the goal that scientists agree will substantially reduce the harmful effects of climate change. (nature.org)
  • In critically ill patients, goals are to limit loss of ROM, reduce edema, and prevent predictable contractures through positioning and splinting. (medscape.com)
  • Developed by INTERPOL and adopted by its 192 member countries at the INTERPOL General Assembly session in 2017, the Global Policing Goals will serve as a framework for the international community to collectively address today's greatest security threats. (interpol.int)
  • This study aimed to translate, adapt and identify validity evidence for the 2×2 Framework of Goal Achievement at Work Scale. (bvsalud.org)
  • Search engines drive dramatic quantities of focused traffic, comprising people intent on accomplishing their research and purchasing goals. (oreilly.com)
  • Conversion goals help you organize your conversion actions so that you can more easily optimize toward your advertising objectives. (google.com)
  • Work and life often force us to put objectives and goals on creative endeavors, and that's certainly still okay. (lifehacker.com)
  • End goals and objectives are obviously still necessary in a lot of cases, but when you're trying to create something totally new, a goal often gets in the way of what you're really trying to do. (lifehacker.com)
  • This article describes the use of a new grouping of conversion actions into conversion goals, and a new experience during campaign creation and conversion tracking setup. (google.com)
  • Path-Goal Theory describes how leaders can motivate followers to achieve goals. (slideshare.net)
  • This section describes the mission and goals of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (cdc.gov)
  • As needed, ATSDR may refine our mission and goals to 1) improve the approach to evaluate public health hazards and 2) ensure practice of the best science to meet the needs of affected communities. (cdc.gov)
  • An Interim Target of a 20% reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus loading by 2025 is a milestone for immediate planning and implementation actions, while continuing to develop future action strategies to achieve the final goal through 2035. (epa.gov)
  • Goal #2: Student(s) will develop communication skills. (apsu.edu)
  • Goal #3: Student(s) will develop professionalism. (apsu.edu)
  • Having personal KPIs helps you identify your goal and develop a plan to help you achieve it. (forbes.com)
  • and Goal 8, Develop a global partnership for development (see the table in Annex A for an updated list). (who.int)
  • The Task Force uses these goals to guide state nutrient reduction strategies and assess collective progress. (epa.gov)
  • The process of modernization is leading toward one main goal: to transform the National Vital Statistics System into a tool for real-time public health surveillance. (cdc.gov)
  • Even the most local of law enforcement actors need to understand these threats and common goals in how to deal with them, individually and in cooperation with others outside their jurisdictions or countries. (interpol.int)
  • Video created to increase public awareness and galvanize support to the Millennium Development Goals. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This paper addresses opportunities as set forth in the Millennium Development Goals, a revival of primary health care, and the necessary resetting of global aid in terms of international donor harmonization and national coordination, e.g., through a Sector Wide Approach (SWAp). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • A sprinkle goal is really an excuse not to think deeply about setting true and meaningful goals in some area of life. (stevepavlina.com)
  • They're often added on top after you've gotten tired of thinking deeply about your other goals, and you don't want to invest the same depth of thought into other areas of life. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Goal 1: Broadly and deeply educate c ore doctoral students to be outstanding water experts. (lu.se)
  • Federal agencies, States, Tribes and other partners will work collaboratively to plan and implement specific, practical and cost-effective actions to achieve both the Interim Target and the updated Coastal Goal. (epa.gov)
  • A sprinkle goal is a replacement for the hard work of real goal setting. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Goals range from minimizing loss of range of motion (ROM) in the critically ill patient to establishing a work-hardening program in recovered patients. (medscape.com)
  • Most people agree that climate change is an urgent issue, and now we need to work together to achieve the goals. (lu.se)
  • They will work with you to figure out your needs, goals, and treatment plan. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Willy Caballero, the goalkeeper preferred to Joe Hart was left untroubled, John Stones emerged as the dominant partner in the centre of defence, there was speed and penetration from the wide players playing in the middle of midfield and in Sergio Aguero, Pep Guardiola has inherited a striker whose goals changes moods. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Whether applied to paroxysmal or persistent AF, PFA "beat the benchmark performance goals in a statistically significant fashion," said Atul Verma, MD, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada. (medscape.com)
  • But even adding sprinkle goals to your goals list is generally a mistake because it creates clutter and makes you feel less accomplished. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Therefore, the great challenge of COP27 is, ultimately, to achieve climate goals and commitments. (nature.org)
  • We cannot keep the climate within safe limits without transitioning to clean energy sources, but we also cannot achieve that goal if we do not invest more in nature. (nature.org)
  • Climate Change - from knowledge to politics: How do we reach the 1.5 degree goal? (lu.se)
  • By involving a diverse set of stakeholders including police, government and private partners, the Global Policing Goals will shape the wider security agenda by highlighting the need for collective action. (interpol.int)
  • The conversion actions in your account are automatically grouped into relevant conversion goals to describe the actions that are the most meaningful for your business. (google.com)
  • One person's sprinkle goals may actually be meaningful for another person. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Because they don't matter much, you probably won't achieve your sprinkle goals either, and it may be best that you don't since they'd otherwise distract you from working on more meaningful goals. (stevepavlina.com)
  • You'll be tempted to treat them like other goals, but they're really too malformed to be truly actionable in a meaningful way. (stevepavlina.com)
  • The importance of early and active focus on long-term rehabilitation goals cannot be overemphasized. (medscape.com)
  • As previously stated, burn rehabilitation is undeniably difficult and time consuming, but the time spent on outlining short-term and long-term treatment goals and modalities is worthwhile. (medscape.com)
  • What are the goals of rehabilitation? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The overall goal of rehabilitation is to help you get your abilities back and regain independence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sprinkle goals don't generate much commitment, and they're often phrased noncommittally. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Those could matter enough if they're connected with a deeper meaning and purpose, but most of the time when people ask this question, the hollowness of their sprinkle goals becomes apparent. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Rather than beginning with a specific goal, most creative people "start out with with a hazy intuition or vision," Kaufman told me. (lifehacker.com)
  • This is a time when people set goals which usually don't get met. (forbes.com)
  • At the Global Goals station, visitors are able to match up lids with the right 'good examples', by reading the notes on the different solutions - political decisions, innovations and initiatives that people can implement in their own daily lives. (lu.se)
  • Despite the increasing use and influence of global goals, little has been written about goal setting as a particular type of policy instrument in global governance. (un.org)
  • VIENNA, Austria - INTERPOL has encouraged the international community to make global security a priority by supporting its comprehensive set of Global Policing Goals. (interpol.int)
  • The Global Policing Goals contribute to this effort. (interpol.int)
  • The overarching aim of the goals is to create a common understanding of what actions international law enforcement and global security actors should prioritize and commit to in the coming years. (interpol.int)
  • Select and edit conversion goals when you create new campaigns to make sure you're fully optimizing for conversions that matter and getting the most from your campaigns. (google.com)
  • I think of a sprinkle goal as being a token goal that's added to a goal list to try to create better balance. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Both parts have goals and specific activities to achieve the goals and will be revised as early as 2022. (lu.se)
  • But the specific goals are different for each person. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Quality of Life Goal (Adopted 2008): To improve the communities and economic conditions across the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin, in particular the agriculture, fisheries and recreation sectors, through improved public and private land management and a cooperative, incentive-based approach. (epa.gov)
  • Setting a goal like "spend more time with my husband" means you haven't really thought through where your relationship is going and how you'd actually like to see it grow and improve. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Personal KPIs provide small, incremental, and measurable steps to achieve our professional goals. (forbes.com)
  • Instead, they concentrate on small, incremental steps to achieve a goal. (forbes.com)
  • Using account-default goals makes sure that all your valuable conversions are considered across all your campaigns for your smart bidding strategies. (google.com)
  • Environmental Manager Claes Nilén emphasized that the university has many laws and regulations to follow as a state authority, but also great opportunities for management-inspired goals and strategies, such as the sustainability plan. (lu.se)
  • These goals, which can include an emergency savings fund, a vacation or cutting back on groceries, can build momentum and give you a sense of accomplishment. (benzinga.com)
  • A short-term financial goal might include saving for a special vacation, a house downpayment or building an emergency fund. (benzinga.com)
  • Prior to hospital discharge, appropriate functional goals for the patient should include the ability to stand, ambulate, feed, and toilet. (medscape.com)
  • You're the only one who can make that determination about your own goals. (stevepavlina.com)
  • When someone sets a sprinkle goal, they haven't thought through much to the implementation side. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Learn more how the Task Force is implementing the current action plan goals . (epa.gov)
  • These actions, measured with conversion tracking, are now grouped together and categorized under conversion goals based on the category type you select for each action. (google.com)
  • At the conversion action level, you can decide whether or not an individual conversion action is used for bidding optimization, when the goal it's part of is used for bidding. (google.com)
  • If you'd like a "Purchase" conversion action to be used for bidding when campaigns are optimizing toward the "Purchase goal", you can indicate that it's a "primary" action. (google.com)
  • There isn't a sense of wanting to follow through into action when the goal is set. (stevepavlina.com)
  • Realistic therapeutic goals, as well as an appropriate plan of care, should be devised by the treatment team, including the patient and family. (medscape.com)
  • Klimatstudenterna urged the university management to make reality of the high goals in the sustainability plan. (lu.se)
  • You can achieve short-term financial goals within a few months to a year. (benzinga.com)
  • The first skills goal reiterates over-arching goal #3, but here my focus is on communication between peers, rather than purely on critiquing the science. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Over on FiveThirtyEight, they take a look at some of the research behind creativity and suggest shying away from using goals in an attempt to focus your ambition. (lifehacker.com)
  • Actions that you want your customers to take, or conversion actions, are grouped together based on related categories to form these conversion goals. (google.com)
  • For example, the "Purchase" conversion goal would automatically contain all conversion actions, from purchasing online on select websites to purchasing via select apps, that fall under the "Purchase" category type. (google.com)
  • Instead, PFA met and surpassed prospectively defined performance goals for efficacy and safety on the basis of published electrophysiology society standards for AF ablation. (medscape.com)
  • For patients with persistent AF, 55.1% met the efficacy endpoint against a performance goal of more than 40%, Verma reported. (medscape.com)
  • Here are examples of short-term financial goals to get you started brainstorming. (benzinga.com)
  • Learn more about the different plans and goals in the following sections. (epa.gov)
  • Learn more about using conversion goals for conversion tracking . (google.com)
  • With His will in mind, we can make a measurable impact in His Kingdom and significantly change our world by making goals that agree with God. (cbn.com)
  • Short-term goals are smart ways to make saving, earning and investing more fun. (benzinga.com)
  • You can also set up account-default conversion goals that you can apply to various campaigns to save time on managing conversion goals for each campaign. (google.com)
  • What if your only goal was to spend more time with your kids? (stevepavlina.com)
  • All the time that we pursue our goals, we remain mindful that He has ultimate say in our destiny. (cbn.com)
  • Together, these can put you on track for long-term goals that may take 20 years or more to reach - things like building a college fund for your kids or saving for retirement. (benzinga.com)
  • Overall, the goals of crisis resolution are to prevent violence in the short term, and in the long term, to assist the patient's return to normal cognitive, emotional and behavioral functioning and avoid crisis recurrence. (cdc.gov)
  • Plus, there's no way I can be expert on all of their fields of research, so I'm hoping to use peer review to lighten my own load as the student teams proceed with their proposals (see overarching goal 2). (scienceblogs.com)
  • As you're planning for your financial future and building retirement and college savings, it's important not to lose sight of short-term financial goals. (benzinga.com)
  • What are Short-Term Financial Goals? (benzinga.com)
  • Short-term goals can be built into mid-term financial goals that take one to three years to achieve. (benzinga.com)
  • Short-term goals also allow you to buy bigger things like a new computer or a special vacation without going over budget. (benzinga.com)
  • Choose one short-term financial goal or several. (benzinga.com)
  • Goal #5: The program will provide our healthcare community with quality radiologic technologists. (apsu.edu)

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