An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate in the presence of NADP.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhizobiales. Genera include METHYLOBACTERIUM, Protomonas, and Roseomonas.
A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The glyoxylate shunt comprises two enzymes, malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, and is present in fungi, plants, and bacteria ... Genes coding for malate synthase alone (but not isocitrate lyase) have been identified in other metazoans including arthropods ... Mammals found to possess the malate synthase gene include monotremes (platypus) and marsupials (opossum), but not placental ... Oxaloacetate is reduced to malate using NADH, a step required for its transportation out of the mitochondria. Malate is ...
In the glyoxylate cycle, malate synthase then catalyzes the condensation of glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to form malate so the ... By diverting isocitrate from the TCA cycle, the actions of ICL and malate synthase in the glyoxylate cycle result in the net ... threo-Ds-isocitrate glyoxylate-lyase, and isocitrate glyoxylate-lyase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate ... Together with malate synthase, it bypasses the two decarboxylation steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and is ...
... isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) which accomplish the glyoxylate cycle bypass. Thus, glyoxysomes (as all peroxisomes) ... Besides peroxisomal functions, glyoxysomes possess additionally the key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle ( ...
Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J. (1994). "Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in ... Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. ethos.bl.uk (PhD thesis). ... a PhD from the University of Edinburgh in 1989 for research investigating the structure and function of the malate synthase ...
One was malate synthase, which condenses acetate with glyoxylate to form malate, and the other was isocitrate lyase, which ... These two reactions did not follow the normal citric acid cycle, and hence the pathway was named the glyoxylate bypass of the ... With Hans Kornberg, he also discovered the glyoxylate cycle, which is a slight variation of the citric acid cycle found in ... One hypothesis involving succinate, fumarate, and malate proved to be useful because all these molecules increased oxygen ...
It is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants and bacteria utilizing the enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. Some ... catalyzed by citrate synthase. It is also involved in gluconeogenesis, the urea cycle, the glyoxylate cycle, amino acid ... A principal route is upon oxidation of L-malate, catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, in the citric acid cycle. Malate is also ... Fumarate can be transformed into malate by the actions of the enzyme fumarase. Malate is acted on by malate dehydrogenase to ...
Glyoxylate is subsequently combined with acetyl-CoA to produce malate, catalyzed by malate synthase. Malate is also formed in ... Glyoxylate condenses with acetyl-CoA (a step catalyzed by malate synthase), yielding malate. Both malate and oxaloacetate can ... Evidence exists for malate synthase activity in humans due to a dual functional malate/B-methylmalate synthase of mitochondrial ... the detection of malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), key enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, in some animal ...
Traditionally, malate synthases are described in bacteria as part of the glyoxylate cycle, and malate synthase activity had not ... malate synthase prevents toxicity from buildup of glyoxylate produced by isocitrate lyase. Downregulation of malate synthase ... The structure and kinetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis malate synthase have been well categorized. Malate synthase is ... malate condensing enzyme, malate synthetase, malic synthetase, and malic-condensing enzyme. Malate synthases fall into two ...
... malate synthase, 3-propylmalate glyoxylate-lyase (CoA-pentanoylating), beta-n-propylmalate synthase, and n-propylmalate ... synthase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. IMAI K, REEVES HC, AJL SJ (1963). "N- ... In enzymology, a 3-propylmalate synthase (EC 2.3.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pentanoyl-CoA + H2O + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is pentanoyl-CoA:glyoxylate C-pentanoyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, 1- ...
Its crucial enzymes are isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. However, alternate pathways have been proposed in organisms ... Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism describes a variety of reactions involving glyoxylate or dicarboxylates. Glyoxylate is ... "Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism". at KEGG. "Subsystem: Glyoxylate bypass". National Microbial Pathogen Data Resource. ... purine metabolism which provides glyoxylate, pyruvate metabolism which provides (S)-malate and formate, carbon fixation which ...
Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... particularly fatty acid beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle. Smith's current and most important contribution to plant ... Graham, Ian Alexander (1989). Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant ... including malate synthase, isocitrate lyase and PEP carboxykinase. He conceived an idea with Anthony Trewavas of creating ...
One was malate synthase, which condenses acetate with glyoxylate to form malate, and the other was isocitrate lyase, which ... and hence the pathway was named the glyoxylate bypass of the citric acid cycle, but is now known as the glyoxylate cycle.[15][ ... Glyoxylate cycle[edit]. Krebs continued to add more details to his citric acid cycle. The discovery of acetyl-CoA in 1947 by ... With Hans Kornberg, he also discovered the glyoxylate cycle, which is a slight variation of the citric acid cycle found in ...
Calvin cycle Glyoxylate cycle Reverse (reductive) Krebs cycle Lowenstein JM (1969). Methods in Enzymology, Volume 13: Citric ... Similarly, the conversion of (S)-malate to oxaloacetate is catalyzed in eukaryotes by the NAD+-dependent EC 1.1.1.37, while ... When tested in vitro with TCA enzymes, ATP inhibits citrate synthase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase; however, ATP levels do ... The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as malate (and then converted back into oxaloacetate to transfer more acetyl-CoA ...
2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... alanine-glyoxylate transaminase EC 2.6.1.45: serine-glyoxylate transaminase EC 2.6.1.46: diaminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase ... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ...
malate dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.1.38 malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) Ja 1.1.1.40 malate dehydrogenase ( ... prostaglandin-F synthase Ja 1.1.1.189 prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase Ja 1.1.1.197 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NADP+) ... glyoxylate reductase (NADP+) Ja 1.1.1.81 hydroxypyruvate reductase Ja 1.1.1.95 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase Ja ...
Yoshida M, Muneyuki E, Hisabori T (2001). "ATP synthase--a marvellous rotary engine of the cell". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 2 ( ... Glyoxylate Photosystems Pyruvate Lactate Acetyl. -CoA Citrate Oxalo-. acetate Malate Succinyl. -CoA ... Capaldi RA, Aggeler R (2002). "Mechanism of the F(1)F(0)-type ATP synthase, a biological rotary motor". Trends Biochem. Sci. 27 ... Boyer PD (1997). "The ATP synthase--a splendid molecular machine". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 66: 717-49. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
The above value of 3 H+/ATP for the synthase assumes that the synthase translocates 9 protons, and produces 3 ATP, per rotation ... 2.5 in case of malate-aspartate shuttle transferring hydrogen atoms from cytosolic NADH+H+ to mitochondrial NAD+ ... ATP synthase produces 1 ATP / 3 H+. However the exchange of matrix ATP for cytosolic ADP and Pi (antiport with OH− or symport ... This potential is then used to drive ATP synthase and produce ATP from ADP and a phosphate group. Biology textbooks often state ...
Bailey, CJ (2009). "Orotic aciduria and uridine monophosphate synthase: a reappraisal". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease ... Glyoxylate. Photosystems. Pyruvate. Lactate. Acetyl. -CoA. Citrate. Oxalo-. acetate. Malate. Succinyl. -CoA ... Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ... and then is methylated by thymidylate synthase to create thymidine.[1] ...
Acetohydroxyacid synthase is the first enzyme for the parallel pathway performing condensation reaction in both steps - ... Glyoxylate Photosystems Pyruvate Lactate Acetyl. -CoA Citrate Oxalo-. acetate Malate Succinyl. -CoA ... acetohydroxyacid synthase, ketoacid reductoisomerase, dihydroxyacid dehygrogenase and aminotransferase.[3] Threonine ... isopropylmalate synthase, isopropylmalate isomerase, isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, and aminotransferase - are necessary for ...
Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ... glyoxylate fermentation) as a way to regenerate NAD+ from NADH. Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin, which in turn is ...
An ATP synthase enzyme uses that chemiosmotic potential to make ATP during photophosphorylation, whereas NADPH is a product of ... Decarboxylation of malate during the day releases CO. 2 inside the leaves, thus allowing carbon fixation to 3-phosphoglycerate ... 2 mostly in the form of malic acid via carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is then reduced to malate. ... In addition, this creates a proton gradient (energy gradient) across the chloroplast membrane, which is used by ATP synthase in ...
It is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants and bacteria utilizing the enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. Some ... Glyoxylate cycleEdit. The glyoxylate cycle is a variant of the citric acid cycle.[3] ... A principal route is upon oxidation of L-malate, catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, in the citric acid cycle. Malate is also ... Fumarate can be transformed into malate by the actions of the enzyme fumarase. Malate is acted on by malate dehydrogenase to ...
Two enzymes unique to the glyoxylate cycle, namely malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), allow the decarboxylation ... The glyoxylate cycle markers ICL and MS are expressed not only in germinating oilseeds but also in pollen (34), developing ... Disruption of the glyoxylate cycle did not alter the total fatty acid content or composition of mature icl seeds (data not ... Therefore, the glyoxylate cycle may be less predominant over respiration in Arabidopsis because there is a reduced need for the ...
Malate synthase, glyoxysomal. This subpathway is part of the pathway glyoxylate cycle, which is itself part of Carbohydrate ... IPR011076. Malate_synth-like_sf. IPR006252. Malate_synthA. IPR001465. Malate_synthase. IPR019830. Malate_synthase_CS. ... IPR011076. Malate_synth-like_sf. IPR006252. Malate_synthA. IPR001465. Malate_synthase. IPR019830. Malate_synthase_CS. ... sp,P17432,MASY_GOSHI Malate synthase, glyoxysomal OS=Gossypium hirsutum OX=3635 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Traditionally, malate synthases are described in bacteria as part of the glyoxylate cycle, and malate synthase activity had not ... malate synthase prevents toxicity from buildup of glyoxylate produced by isocitrate lyase. Downregulation of malate synthase ... The structure and kinetics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis malate synthase have been well categorized. Malate synthase is ... malate condensing enzyme, malate synthetase, malic synthetase, and malic-condensing enzyme. Malate synthases fall into two ...
The glyoxylate shunt (GS) is a two-step metabolic pathway (isocitrate lyase, aceA; and malate synthase, glcB) that serves as an ... 0 (Acetates); 0 (Glyoxylates); EC 2.3.3.9 (Malate Synthase); EC 4.1.3.1 (Isocitrate Lyase); JQ39C92HH6 (glyoxylic acid). ... Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase in glyoxylate cycle are required in the catabolism of ethoxylated surfactants. Our ... 0 (Acetates); 0 (Glyoxylates); EC 2.3.3.9 (Malate Synthase); EC 4.1.3.1 (Isocitrate Lyase). ...
GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. malate synthase. 2. YES. TIGR01344 (HMM): malate synthase A. TIGR01345 (HMM): malate synthase G. ... KEGG: Glyoxylate and Dicarboxylate Metabolism. IUBMB: Glyoxylate Cycle. Gene Ontology Term. GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle ( ... GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. ... Glyoxylate plus an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA becomes malate, a second intermediate, for a gain of one. Acetyl groups, such ...
Glyoxylate detoxification is an essential function of malate synthase required for carbon assimilation in Mycobacterium ... Glyoxylate shunt. An anaplerotic pathway that converts isocitrate into malate and succinate, bypassing the two decarboxylation ... 4: Identification of a small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of tryptophan synthase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. ... A small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis tryptophan synthase. Nat. Chem. Biol. 13, 943-950 (2017). ...
... the glyoxylate enzymes malate synthase and isocitrate lyase have been found in animal tissues. Genes coding for malate synthase ... As such OAA is converted into malate by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH). After export into the cytosol, malate is ... which is the active form of glycogen synthase. Active glycogen synthase can decrease the blood glucose level after a full meal ... The existence of glyoxylate cycles in humans has not been established, and it is widely held that fatty acids cannot be ...
... malate synthase, condenses glyoxylate and another molecule of acetyl-CoA to malate. The subsequent oxidation of malate ... is cleaved to glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA. Condensation of glyoxylate and another molecule of acetyl-CoA yields malate; ... The Apparent Malate Synthase Activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Is Due to Two Paralogous Enzymes, (3S)-Malyl-Coenzyme A (CoA ... Malate Synthase and {beta}-Methylmalyl Coenzyme A Lyase Reactions in the Methylaspartate Cycle in Haloarcula hispanica ...
Glyoxylate is subsequently combined with acetyl-CoA to produce malate, catalyzed by malate synthase. Malate is also formed in ... Glyoxylate condenses with acetyl-CoA (a step catalyzed by malate synthase), yielding malate. Both malate and oxaloacetate can ... Evidence exists for malate synthase activity in humans due to a dual functional malate/B-methylmalate synthase of mitochondrial ... the detection of malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), key enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, in some animal ...
DR InterPro; IPR001465; Malate_synthase. DR InterPro; IPR006253; Malate_synthG. DR Pfam; PF01274; Malate_synthase; 1. DR SUPFAM ... Catalyzes the CC condensation and subsequent hydrolysis of acetyl-coenzyme A CC (acetyl-CoA) and glyoxylate to form malate and ... DE RecName: Full=Malate synthase G {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00641, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003572}; DE EC=2.3.3.9 {ECO:0000256 ... DR GO; GO:0004474; F:malate synthase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-HAMAP. DR GO; GO:0046872; F:metal ion binding; IEA:UniProtKB-KW. ...
Differential expression of genes encoding glyoxylate cycle enzymes were also found, representing the first report of this in ... Two enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase (aceA) and malate synthase (aceB; Kornberg and Madsen, 1958) were ... citrate synthase; acnb, aconitase; acea, isocitrate synthase; aceb, malate synthase; mdh2, malate dehydrogenase; sdh, succinate ... malate synthase (aceB), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) were detected with differential expression in thermally stressed ...
MLS1 and DAL7 both encode malate synthase but they are regulated differently. The glyoxylate cycle gene MLS1 is glucose ... For example, glyoxylate, which is an intermediate in the DAL pathway (Fig. 4), is toxic to yeast [78]. Glyoxylate is produced ... Hartig A, Simon MM, Schuster T, Gaugherty JR, Yoo HS, Cooper TG (1992) Differentially regulated malate synthase genes ... castelli the genes have been organized into a cluster and the malate synthase gene MLS1 has been duplicated to produce DAL7. ...
Isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS) are peroxisomal glyoxylate cycle enzymes that enable carbon from acetyl-CoA to ... and seedling growth in Arabidopsis mutants lacking the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 42916-42923 ... 2007 Arabidopsis peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase functions in β-oxidation but not in the glyoxylate cycle. Plant J. 50: 381- ... 2000a Postgerminative growth and lipid catabolism in oilseeds lacking the glyoxylate cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 5669 ...
Also acts as a beta-methylmalate synthase in vitro, by mediating conversion of glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to beta- ... converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate. Also displays malyl-CoA thioesterase activity. ... Also has very weak citramalate synthase activity in vitro. ... Also acts as a malate synthase in vitro, ... Also acts as a malate synthase in vitro, converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate. Also displays malyl-CoA thioesterase ...
2005). Molecular characterization of a bifunctional glyoxylate cycle enzyme, malate synthase/isocitrate lyase, in Euglena ... malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, suggesting that acetate is assimilated and metabolized through the glyoxylate pathway ( ... Woodward, J., and Merrett, M. (1975). Induction potential for glyoxylate cycle enzymes during the cell cycle of Euglena ... MDH, malate dehydrogenase; FRD, fumarate reductase; FUM, fumarase; IDH, isocitrate dehydrogenase; KGDC, α-ketoglutarate ...
Glyoxylate detoxification is an essential function of malate synthase required for carbon assimilation in Mycobacterium ... Discovery of small molecule probe that shows anti-tubercular activity via Mtb bioA (DAPA synthase) enzyme inhibition. ... Investigation of ( S)-(-)-Acidomycin: A Selective Antimycobacterial Natural Product That Inhibits Biotin Synthase. ...
... and malate synthase (MLS). Mutants of Candida albicans lacking ICL are markedly less virulent in mice than the wild-type. ... The glyoxylate cycle is a sequence of anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by the key enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) ... The glyoxylate cycle is a sequence of anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by the key enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate ... Inhibit Isocitrate Lyase in the Glyoxylate Cycle by So-Hyoung Lee 1, Tae Hyung Won 2, Heegyu Kim 1, Chan-Hong Ahn 1, Jongheon ...
Malate synthase converts glyoxylate to malate, which enters the citric acid cycle. In the aldolase-independent pathway, KDX/KDA ... glycolate reductase and malate synthase, were more active in d-xylose cells (15). In S. acidocaldarius MW001, the homologues ... In the aldolase-dependent pathway, KDA/KDX is cleaved to pyruvate and glycolaldehyde, which is further oxidized to glyoxylate ... entering the citric acid cycle via glyoxylate) is not utilized under the chosen growth conditions. Enzymes transcriptionally ...
Interestingly, the glyoxylate cycle-specific malate synthase 1 (MAS1) and isocitrate lyase 1 (ICL1) show varying ratios. MAS1 ... malate synthase 1. MDH. malate dehydrogenase. NDA. NADH dehydrogenase. METC. cystathionine β-lyase. PAT. phosphate ... mitochondrial ATP synthase β subunit. CAT1. catalase. CHL. magnesium chelatase subunit. CIS. citrate synthase. CPX1. ... 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase. Lhca. light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b protein of photosystem I. LhcbM. light- ...
Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli malate synthase G: differentiation with the malate synthase A isoenzyme. Eur J ... Erb TJ, Frerichs-Revermann L, Fuchs G, Alber BE (2010) The apparent malate synthase activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is due ... Vanderwinkel E, De Vlieghere M (1968) Physiologie et g´en´etique de lisocitritase et des malate synthases chez Escherichia ... Bramer CO, Steinbuchel A (2002) The malate dehydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha and functionality of the C3/C4 metabolism in a ...
Glyoxylate detoxification is an essential function of malate synthase required for carbon assimilation in Mycobacterium ...
... isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, are active in the fasting rat liver. The enzymes were synthesized on day 3 after food ... Km of malate synthase for acetyl-CoA was 0.2 mM and Km for glyoxylate was 0.3 mM; optimal pH was 7.6. ... Key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, are active in the fasting rat liver. The enzymes were ... Purification and Properties of Isocitrate Lyase and Malate Synthase From Fasting Rat Liver] Biokhimiia. 1996 Oct;61(10):1898- ...
Germain V, Footitt S, Dieuaide-Noubhani M, Raymond P, Renaudin J-P, et al., Role of malate synthase and the glyoxylate cycle ... and seedling growth in Arabidopsis mutants lacking the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase, Journal of Biological ... Ismail I, Smith SM, Sugar effect on the malate synthase and isocitrate lyase gene expression at the level of mRNA stability, ... Graham IA, Smith LM, Brown JWS, Leaver CJ, Smith SM, The malate synthase gene of cucumber, Plant Molecular Biology, 13, (6) ...
... and malate synthase (MS), are not annotated in Leishmania genomes. We have re-examined this issue in promastigotes of ... AbstractEarly reports have demonstrated the occurrence of glyoxylate cycle enzymes in several Leishmania species. However, ... The glyoxylate cycle is required for fungal virulence. Nature, 412, 83-86. CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Major roles of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase in bacterial and fungal pathogenesis. Microbiology, 155, 3166-3175. ...
... and malate synthase (MS) in the bacteria. ICL and MS proteins are functionally participated in the glyoxylate cycle. The ... 1, cysteine synthase; 2, cysteine synthase; 3, universal stress protein A; 4, Helix-turn-helix; 5, isocitrate lyase. ... transcriptional control of the isocitrate lyase and malate synthase genes. Arch Microbiol. 1997;168:262-269 ... TCA cycle-independent acetate metabolism via glyoxylate cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2011;28:153-166 ...
Transcript abundance for the glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase decreased more than 16-fold. In ... 4), largely from the glyoxylate cycle, hence giving rise to M2 Ser. In cells grown in N-deprived medium, we observed a markedly ... This enzyme is part of the fatty acid synthase II complex that catalyzes the acyl-ACP-dependent elongation steps from C4 to C14 ... Almost 80% of Gly was unlabeled (M0), indicating a very low activity of the glyoxylate cycle. Similarly, N-deprived cells had ...
Operation of glyoxylate cycle in halophilic archaea: presence of malate synthase and isocitrate lyase in Haloferax volcanii. ... The silencing of ppc in the aceE-silenced strain increased the flux of the glyoxylate pathway and the reaction of malate ... Transcript analysis of the citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase genes of Escherichia coli K-12. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132: ... encoding a subunit of CTP synthase) (41). Therefore, when targeting a gene within an operon, data should be interpreted ...
... and the glyoxylate is then condensed with acetyl coenzyme A to produce malate by malate synthase (encoded by mls). The primary ... campestris, aceA and mls, genes encoding the glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, were ... The glyoxylate cycle is a truncated TCA cycle in which isocitrate is hydrolyzed to succinate and glyoxylate by isocitrate lyase ... The glyoxylate cycle is not required for virulence and in planta growth of X. campestris pv. campestris.. The involvement of ...
... coelicolor MS had a Km value for glyoxylate that is approximately sixfold higher than S. clavuligerus MS. ... Malate synthases (MS) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and S. clavuligerus NRRL3585 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction ... Purification and characterization of recombinant malate synthase enzymes from streptomyces coelicolor a3(2) and s. clavuligerus ... Purification and characterization of recombinant malate synthase enzymes from streptomyces coelicolor a3(2) and s. clavuligerus ...
Genes coding for isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, the key enzymes of the anaplerotic glyoxylate cycle, were also ... Figures S7. Allantoin degradation to glyoxylate, glyoxylate metabolism via the D-glycerate pathway. Figures S8. Urea ... Consistent with the predicted glyoxylate cycle proteins, acetate and glyoxylate were readily used as carbon sources. However, ... candidate genes for allantoate conversion to urea and glyoxylate, or to ammonia, carbon dioxide, urea and glyoxylate, were not ...
  • The glyxoylate shunt consists of two enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. (jcvi.org)
  • Malate synthase , GLcB, initially was characterized as an important enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt involved in carbon assimilation as energy source to bacilli [6]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The operation of the glyoxylate shunt in the strains was precluded resulting from the deletion of the aceA, aceB, and glcB genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthases A and G. The constitutive activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase was ensured due to deletion of isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase gene, aceK. (deepdyve.com)
  • Functional activity of the synthetic bypass in the strain with the inactivated glyoxylate shunt and opened tricarboxylic acid cycle led to 2.7-fold increase in succinate yield from glucose. (deepdyve.com)
  • The glyoxylate shunt (GS), involving isocitrate lyase (encoded by aceA) and malate synthase G (encoded by glcB), is known to play important roles under several conditions including oxidative stress, antibiotic defense, or certain carbon source metabolism (acetate and fatty acids). (elsevier.com)
  • The genome of the important industrial host Bacillus subtilis does not encode the glyoxylate shunt, which is necessary to utilize overflow metabolites, like acetate or acetoin, as carbon source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A combined transcript, protein and metabolite analysis indicated a functional expression of the native glyoxylate shunt of B. lichenifomis in B. subtilis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The glyoxylate shunt of B. licheniformis can be functionally transferred to B. subtilis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isocitrate lyase of this shunt prevents a carbon loss by cleaving isocitrate into glyoxylate and succinate, thus avoiding the decarboxylation of isocitrate and 2-oxoglutarate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA are joined to malate by the malate synthase, the second enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, which allows for the regeneration of oxaloacetate that is henceforth available for anabolic activities via the TCA cycle or gluconeogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, evidence for the existence of a functional glyoxylate shunt in cyanobacteria has long been contradictory and unclear. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Genes coding for isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase were recently identified in two strains of the genus Cyanothece , and the existence of the complete glyoxylate shunt was verified in a strain of Chlorogloeopsis fritschii . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • PCC 7424 encodes an enzymatically active protein that catalyses the reaction of ICL, an enzyme that is specific for the glyoxylate shunt. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Furthermore, our results indicate that, despite the presence of a glyoxylate shunt, acetate does not support continued heterotrophic growth and cell proliferation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The functional validation of the ICL is supplemented with a bioinformatics analysis of enzymes that co-occur with the glyoxylate shunt. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We hypothesize that the glyoxylate shunt in Cyanothece sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and the glyoxylate shunt. (cam.ac.uk)
  • A bioinformatic survey across known bacterial genomes showed that only microorganisms capable of aerobic metabolism possess the glyoxylate shunt. (elsevier.com)
  • Process for the Preparation of a Aspartate and Derived Amino Acids Like Lysine, Threonine, Isoleucine, Methionine, or Homoserine Employing Microorganism with Enhanced Isocitrate Lyase and/or Malate Synthase Expression - The present invention relates to increasing the product of aspartate or aspartate-derived metabolites by boosting the activity of the glyoxylate shunt. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • This is accomplished by increasing the activity of glyoxylate shunt specific enzymes and decreasing the activity of reactions consuming glyoxylate and its precursors. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The observed metabolic responses could be explained to a large degree by upregulation of gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate shunt as well as changes in amino acid catabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Isocitrate lyase (AOLE_14300) and malate synthase G (AOLE_10740) constituting the glyoxylate shunt had been previously discovered (16). (perlierusa.com)
  • The glyoxylate cycle utilizes five of the eight enzymes associated with the tricarboxylic acid cycle: citrate synthase, aconitase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, and malate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two initial steps of the glyoxylate cycle are identical to those in the citric acid cycle: acetate → citrate → isocitrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eidels L, Preiss J (1970) Citrate synthase. (springer.com)
  • Citrate synthase catalyzes the transfer of acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetate with the formation of citrate. (lecturio.com)
  • The abundant organic acid in the scutellum was citrate, while malate concentration declined during the first three days of germination, and succinate concentration was low both in scutellum and endosperm. (gc.ca)
  • before citrate became predominant, indicating that malate may be the main acid acidifying the endosperm. (gc.ca)
  • ne reaction of the glyoxylate cycle is formally analogous to the reaction catalyzed by citrate synthase of the Krebs cycle. (docplayer.net)
  • Argentilactone inhibited the enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. (asm.org)
  • The text points out that the inhibition of citrate synthase is species specific. (knowt.io)
  • The activity of the citric acid cycle was high on acetate, intermediate on acetate plus glucose, and low on glucose, corresponding to in vivo activities of citrate synthase of 413, 219, and 111 nmol (mg of protein)(-1) min(-1), respectively. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This subpathway is part of the pathway glyoxylate cycle, which is itself part of Carbohydrate metabolism. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the subpathway that synthesizes (S)-malate from isocitrate , the pathway glyoxylate cycle and in Carbohydrate metabolism . (uniprot.org)
  • In addition to its established role in the postgerminative growth of oilseeds, the glyoxylate cycle has also been reported to operate as a salvage pathway in senescing plant tissues ( 6 ) and to have an anaplerotic role in carbohydrate-starved tissue ( 7 ), similar to the role that was described in microorganisms ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Fifty years ago, Kornberg and Krebs established the glyoxylate cycle as the pathway for the synthesis of cell constituents from C 2 -units. (pnas.org)
  • The glyoxylate cycle is an anaplerotic pathway of the TCA cycle that allows growth on C2 compounds by bypassing the CO 2 -generating steps of the TCA cycle (Dunn et al. (ukessays.com)
  • Isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) and malate synthase (EC 2.3.3.9) are the sole enzymes for this metabolic pathway. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among these, we have identified orthologs of the glyoxylate cycle enzymes, a metabolic pathway involved in the virulence of bacteria and fungi. (funpecrp.com.br)
  • ArcA is a global regulator that regulates genes involved in different metabolic pathways, while IclR as a local regulator, controls the transcription of the glyoxylate pathway genes of the aceBAK operon. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Due to iclR gene deletion, the glyoxylate pathway is activated resulting in a redirection of 30% of the isocitrate molecules directly to succinate and malate without CO 2 production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under glucose limiting conditions the flux through the glyoxylate pathway is further increased in the Δ iclR knockout strain, but this effect was not observed in the double knockout strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also a striking correlation between the glyoxylate flux data and the isocitrate lyase activity was observed for almost all strains and under both growth conditions, illustrating the transcriptional control of this pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finally, similar central metabolic fluxes were observed in E. coli K12 Δ arcA Δ iclR compared to the industrially relevant E. coli BL21 (DE3), especially with respect to the pentose pathway, the glyoxylate pathway, and the TCA fluxes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The deletion of arcA results in a decrease of repression on transcription of TCA cycle genes under glucose abundant conditions, without significantly affecting the glyoxylate pathway activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IclR clearly represses transcription of glyoxylate pathway genes under glucose abundance, a condition in which Crp activation is absent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, a ΔglcB mutant showed no growth defect in acetate or hexadecane and no susceptibility to H 2 O 2 , suggesting the presence of an alternative pathway to eliminate glyoxylate toxicity. (elsevier.com)
  • Both organelles contain enzymes of glyoxylate pathway. (differencebetween.com)
  • S1): 1) assimilation to central metabolism via the glycerate pathway, which depends on the activity of a CoA-acylating glyoxylate dehydrogenase (in the reverse direction of that required for growth on glycolate), and 2) complete oxidation of oxalate, which can be followed by carbon fixation via the Calvin cycle. (maylocnuocsmartviet.com)
  • However, no CoA-acylating glyoxylate dehydrogenase (catalyzing the first reaction of the pathway) is annotated in the genome of C. necator. (maylocnuocsmartviet.com)
  • Malate is also formed in parallel from succinate by the action of succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bramer CO, Steinbuchel A (2002) The malate dehydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha and functionality of the C3/C4 metabolism in a Tn5-induced mdh mutant. (springer.com)
  • A lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, encoded by a ldh) could possibly mediate the conversion from glyoxylate to oxalate based on our RNA-seq profiles. (elsevier.com)
  • The assay of enzymes showed that the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase was active during the phase of growth on glucose, whereas the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, were active during the phase of growth on hexadecane. (jbsdonline.com)
  • enzyme activity (expressed in U/mg of protein) of GK (glycerolkinase), PC (pyruvate carboxylase), PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase), IL (isocitrate lyase) and MS (malate synthase). (jbsdonline.com)
  • 2PG is first dephosphorylated to glycolate and then oxidized, by the glycolate dehydrogenase complex, to give glyoxylate. (maylocnuocsmartviet.com)
  • The production was further improved by deleting genes encoding malate synthase and the cytosolic form of isocitrate dehydrogenase. (vtt.fi)
  • In other words, malate synthase works together with isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle to bypass two oxidative steps of Krebs cycle and permit carbon incorporation from acetate or fatty acids in many microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the glyoxylate cycle cannot be the sole solution for acetyl-CoA assimilation, because several organisms that require such an anaplerotic reaction sequence lack isocitrate lyase activity ( 4 - 8 ) or show a labeling pattern after growth on acetate inconsistent with the operation of the glyoxylate cycle in acetate assimilation ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • In microorganisms, the glyoxylate cycle allows cells to utilize two carbons (C2 compounds), such as acetate, to satisfy cellular carbon requirements when simple sugars such as glucose or fructose are not available. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants and bacteria employ a modification of the TCA cycle called the glyoxylate cycle to produce four carbon dicarboxylic acid from two carbon acetate units. (wikipedia.org)
  • To utilize acetate from fat for biosynthesis of carbohydrates, the glyoxylate cycle, whose initial reactions are identical to the TCA cycle, is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • In these organisms, in the absence of available carbohydrates (for example, in certain microbial environments or during seed germination in plants), the glyoxylate cycle permits the synthesis of glucose from lipids via acetate generated in fatty acid β-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants, to be specific, in seedlings, the glyoxylate cycle can be used to convert fatty acids (acetate) into the primary carbon source of the organism. (wikibooks.org)
  • Alber BE, Spanheimer R, Ebenau-Jehle C, Fuchs G (2006) Study of an alternate glyoxylate cycle for acetate assimilation by Rhodobacter sphaeroides . (springer.com)
  • N deprivation led to a marked redirection of metabolism: the primary carbon source, acetate, was no longer converted to cell building blocks by the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis but funneled directly into fatty acid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. (ijbs.com)
  • Oxalate production during hexadecane degradation and impaired growth of a ΔldhΔglcB double mutant in both acetate and hexadecane-supplemented media suggested that LDH is a potential detoxifying enzyme for glyoxylate. (elsevier.com)
  • Our constructed LDH-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain also showed an important role of LDH under lactate, acetate, and glyoxylate metabolisms. (elsevier.com)
  • In conclusion, the GS is a main player, but alternative glyoxylate pathways exist during acetate and hexadecane metabolism in A. oleivorans DR1. (elsevier.com)
  • Surprisingly, the anaplerotic function was fulfilled completely by the glyoxylate cycle (50 nmol [mg of protein](-1) min(-1)) on glucose plus acetate also. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Consistent with the predictions deduced from the metabolic flux analyses, a glyoxylate cycle-deficient mutant of C. glutamicum, constructed by targeted deletion of the isocitrate lyase and malate synthase genes, exhibited impaired growth on acetate-glucose mixtures. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Differential expression of genes encoding glyoxylate cycle enzymes were also found, representing the first report of this in Symbiodinium . (frontiersin.org)
  • Genes coding for malate synthase gene have been identified in other [metazoans] including arthropods, echinoderms, and even some vertebrates. (wikibooks.org)
  • However, these results have been underestimated because genes for the two key enzymes of the cycle, isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), are not annotated in Leishmania genomes. (degruyter.com)
  • Two structural genes are encoding malate synthase isoenzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (ymdb.ca)
  • molecular organisation of the malate synthase genes of aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • the sequencing and comparison of the genes encoding the glyoxylate bypass enzyme malate synthase of aspergillus nidulans (acue) and neurospora crassa (acu-9) are presented. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • The glyoxylate cycle is a sequence of anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by the key enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS). (mdpi.com)
  • Catalyzes the formation of succinate and glyoxylate from isocitrate, a key step of the glyoxylate cycle, which operates as an anaplerotic route for replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (string-db.org)
  • and malate synthase, glcB) that serves as an alternative to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (elsevier.com)
  • The subsequent oxidation of malate regenerates the initial acetyl-CoA acceptor molecule oxaloacetate in the citric acid cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Both malate and oxaloacetate can be converted into phosphoenolpyruvate, which is the product of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the first enzyme in gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore species that lack intra-mitochondrial PEP, oxaloacetate must be converted into malate or asparate, exported from the mitochondrion, and converted back into oxaloacetate in order to allow gluconeogenesis to continue. (wikibooks.org)
  • Further, glyoxylate condenses with a second acetyl-CoA molecule in a reaction catalyzed by malate synthase , after the malate produced is oxidized to oxaloacetate and thus regenerating the intermediate (steps B-1 to B-5, Figure 1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • After oxaloacetate has been bound, the en zyme structure has rearranged to create a binding site for acetyl CoA. (knowt.io)
  • The condensation of glyoxylate and acetyl CoA is similar to the condensation of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA in the citric acid cycle. (knowt.io)
  • The citric acid cycle is modified to bypass the two decarboxylation steps by the action of its two key enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. (pnas.org)
  • Under such conditions the enzymes of the glyoxylate bypass, isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase are induced. (gla.ac.uk)
  • To allow efficient use of isocitrate via the glyoxylate bypass ICDH is phosphorylated on a single serine residue per subunit which completely inactivates it. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Activities of enzymes of glyoxylate bypass, isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MS), were assayed in strains of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium grown on different carbon sources. (go.jp)
  • Metabolic studies have shown Thermus aquaticus to be a complete tricarboxylic acid cycle, giving a glyoxylate bypass as well with isocitrate lyase and malate synthase (Pask-Hughes). (kenyon.edu)
  • This enzyme participates in pyruvate metabolism and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Originally delineated for bacteria, the glyoxylate cycle is also required for the metabolism of storage oil by plants during germination of seedlings ( 2 ) and for the conversion of triacylglycerols to carbohydrates in developing eggs of nematodes ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • This was confirmed by induction of the glyoxylate cycle required for C2 metabolism and gluconeogenesis in all rhizospheres. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glyoxylate cycle and metabolism of organic acids in scutellum of barley seeds during germination. (gc.ca)
  • 1 PRATIE SET 6 A. Questions on Lipid Metabolism and Glyoxylate ycle 1. (docplayer.net)
  • Lipase and the key enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase) and the glyoxylate cycle responsible for the metabolism of fatty acids (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) are induced just at the beginning of the growth phase and remain active in the course of further cultivation. (jbsdonline.com)
  • At the same time, the activities of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase were very low during the metabolism of glucose, but were rapidly induced (approximately in 10 times) after the exhaustion of glucose in the medium. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Glycerol kinase (the key enzyme of glycerol metabolism) and two key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle responsible for the metabolism of fatty acids (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) were induced from the fist hours of cultivation and remained active to the end of the cultivation period. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, are active in the fasting rat liver. (nih.gov)
  • Hence, some key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle are present in this organelle. (differencebetween.com)
  • β-Oxidation of fatty acids derived from triacylglycerol produces acetyl-CoA, which ultimately is converted to sucrose through the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The glyoxylate cycle produces four-carbon dicarboxylic acids that can enter gluconeogenesis. (wikibooks.org)
  • The first step of gluconeogenesis in bacteria is the synthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) through the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PckA) route and/or the malic enzyme-phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PpsA) route ( 13 , 17 , 24 , 25 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Rather, the glyoxylate produced in phosphoglycolate salvage can be condensed with acetyl-CoA generated from the carbon fixation process, and the resulting malate is assimilated into biomass (i.e., via the tricarboxylic acid [TCA] cycle, cataplerosis, and gluconeogenesis). (maylocnuocsmartviet.com)
  • Together, these two enzymes serve to produce succinate (which exits the cycle to be used for synthesis of sugars) and malate (which remains in the glyoxylate cycle). (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows the net synthesis of malate from two molecules of acetyl-CoA. (pnas.org)
  • The glyoxylate cycle centers on the conversion of acetyl-CoA to succinate for the synthesis of carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme ) An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyses the synthesis of l-malate from acetyl-coa and glyoxylate. (biology-online.org)
  • It is concluded that operation of the glyoxylate cycle in the scutellum of cereals may be important not only for conversion of fatty acids to carbohydrates, but also for the acidification of endosperm and amino acid synthesis. (gc.ca)
  • Besides the previously described a - and b -glucan synthases, orthologs to chitin synthase and mannosyl transferases, also important in cell wall synthesis and stabilization, were identified. (funpecrp.com.br)
  • Malate synthase (MS) is a key enzyme responsible for malic acid synthesis in the glyoxylate cycle, which functions to convert stored lipids to carbohydrates, by catalysing the glyoxylate condensation reaction with acetyl-CoA in the peroxisome. (nus.edu.sg)
  • An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Malate synthases fall into two major families, isoforms A and G. Isoform G is monomeric with a size of about 80-kD and found exclusively in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • A related cycle, called the glyoxylate cycle, is found in many bacteria and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glyoxylate cycle, facilitated by malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, allows plants and bacteria to subsist on acetyl-CoA or other two carbon compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, malate synthases are described in bacteria as part of the glyoxylate cycle, and malate synthase activity had not been reported for a human protein prior to a study by Strittmatter, et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, however, the detection of malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), key enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, in some animal tissue has raised questions regarding the evolutionary relationship of enzymes in bacteria and animals and suggests that animals encode alternative enzymes of the cycle that differ in function from known MS and ICL in non-metazoan species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to this work glycolic acid production through the glyoxylate cycle has only been reported in bacteria. (vtt.fi)
  • The glyoxylate cycle is a modified form of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that was initially discovered in microorganisms ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Two enzymes unique to the glyoxylate cycle, namely malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), allow the decarboxylation steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to be bypassed, resulting in the net conversion of two molecules of acetyl-CoA into one of succinate. (pnas.org)
  • The enzyme finally releases malate and coenzyme A. The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle or the Krebs cycle) is used by aerobic organisms to produce energy via the oxidation of acetyl-CoA, which is derived from pyruvate (a product of glycolysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • C. concisus has an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle, with no identifiable succinyl-CoA synthase or fumarate hydratase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This source can be provided by the glyoxylate cycle or, in its absence, by exogenous sucrose or photosynthesis. (pnas.org)
  • The active site, where the acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate bind to the enzyme, lies between the TIM barrel and C-terminal plug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalyzes the CC condensation and subsequent hydrolysis of acetyl-coenzyme A CC (acetyl-CoA) and glyoxylate to form malate and CoA. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • The second key enzyme, malate synthase, condenses glyoxylate and another molecule of acetyl-CoA to malate. (pnas.org)
  • Glyoxylate condenses with acetyl-CoA (a step catalyzed by malate synthase), yielding malate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is involved in step 2 of the subpathway that synthesizes (S)-malate from isocitrate. (uniprot.org)
  • Malate synthase is fused to the C-terminus of isocitrate lyase in C. elegans, resulting in a single bifunctional protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific activity of isocitrate lyase was 0.06 units/mg protein and specific activity of malate synthase was 0.03 units/mg protein. (nih.gov)
  • Epstein, Henry F. / Bifunctional glyoxylate cycle protein of Caenorhabditis elegans : A developmentally regulated protein of intestine and muscle . (utmb.edu)
  • The operation of the glyoxylate cycle coincided with an increase in the ATP/ADP ratio, a buildup of H 2 O 2 and changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione. (gc.ca)
  • In this cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase skip over the decarboxylation steps of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isocitrate lyase, the first key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, together with enzymes of the citric acid cycle, is responsible for the oxidation of acetyl-CoA to glyoxylate ( Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The glyoxylate cycle bypasses the steps in the citric acid cycle where carbon is lost in the form of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chapter ends with a summary of the biosynthetic roles of the citric acid cycle and its relationship to the glyoxylate cycle found in plants. (knowt.io)
  • The functions of the citric acid cycle are performed by the glyoxylate cycle in plants andbacteria. (knowt.io)
  • Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase are specific enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, used here as glyoxysomal markers. (termsreign.cf)
  • Results suggest that lipids can be used as a source of carbon for respiration in germinating oilseeds and that products of fatty acid catabolism can pass from the peroxisome to the mitochondrion independently of the glyoxylate cycle. (pnas.org)
  • Work carried out by van Roermund and coworkers ( 8 , 9 ) has demonstrated that the glyoxylate cycle is not required for growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on fatty acids. (pnas.org)
  • The aim of our work was to establish whether the glyoxylate cycle is equally important or whether an alternative mechanism exists that allows utilization of fatty acids in plants. (pnas.org)
  • The net result of the glyoxylate cycle is therefore the production of glucose from fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of glyoxylate cycles in humans has not been established, and it is widely held that fatty acids cannot be converted to glucose in humans directly. (wikibooks.org)
  • There are several important metabolic processes that take place in peroxisomes, which involve fatty acids β -oxidation, glyoxylate cycle, hydrogen peroxide detoxification and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, and so forth [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acetyl-CoA, produced from the peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, enters the glyoxylate cycle, which controls the carbon flow from fatty acid catabolism to organic acids. (plantcell.org)
  • reported insufficient fatty acid synthase activity to support growth in M. leprae . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The condensation of gly oxylate with acetyl CoA can be accomplished by Malate synthase. (knowt.io)
  • In enzymology, a malate synthase (EC 2.3.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + H2O + glyoxylate → {\displaystyle \rightarrow } (S)-malate + CoA The 3 substrates of this enzyme are acetyl-CoA, H2O, and glyoxylate, whereas its two products are (S)-malate and CoA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alpha/beta domain, which has no apparent function, is not seen in isoform A. The mechanism of malate synthase is an aldol reaction followed by thioester hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malate synthases (MS) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and S. clavuligerus NRRL3585 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction into a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion expression vector and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. (nus.edu.sg)
  • We engineered S. cerevisiae and K. lactis for glycolic acid production using the reactions of the glyoxylate cycle to produce glyoxylic acid and then reducing it to glycolic acid. (vtt.fi)
  • In plants, the glyoxylate cycle takes place in glyoxysomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within germinating plants, the glyoxylate cycle allows the conversion of reserve lipids into carbohydrates within glyoxysomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In plants the glyoxylate cycle occurs in special peroxisomes which are called glyoxysomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The degradation of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle is concomitant with the transition of ICL -positive seedling peroxisomes (formerly called glyoxysomes) to ICL -negative leaf peroxisomes, which participate in photorespiration. (plantcell.org)
  • Publications] H.Mori: 'Purification of mRNA for malate synthase and glycolate oxidase by immunoadsorption of polysomes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • First, we focused on the initial oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate, which is the first step in all glycolate-metabolizing routes. (maylocnuocsmartviet.com)
  • sequence of the nuclear atp synthase subunit 9 gene of podospora anserina: lack of similarity to the mitochondrial genome. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • the nuclear gene coding for the mitochondrial subunit 9 of the f0f1-atp synthase complex was isolated from a genomic library of podospora anserina. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Glyoxylate detoxification is an essential function of malate synthase required for carbon assimilation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (amedeo.com)
  • Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 15626759 The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) includes expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)2, whose products can kill Mtb in vitro with a molar potency greater than that of many conventional antitubercular agents. (jove.com)
  • Malate synthase gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The expression of a high affinity glyoxylate reductase alone already led to glycolic acid production. (vtt.fi)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis isocitrate lyase (MtbICL) is a key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle that catalyzes the cleavage of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate and is a potential antituberculosis drug target. (bireme.br)
  • Fig. 4: Identification of a small-molecule allosteric inhibitor of tryptophan synthase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (nature.com)
  • Biochemical and structural studies of malate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SIMILARITY: Belongs to the malate synthase family. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • The results indicated that the key enzymes included in namely phenylalanine ammonia lyase , flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone isomerase and chalcone synthase activities were markedly increased by GNT treatment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The glyoxylate cycle bypasses the two oxidative decarboxylation reactions of the TCA cycle and directly converts isocitrate through isocitrate lyase and malate synthase into malate and succinate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This year marks the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the glyoxylate cycle by Kornberg and Krebs ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • The glyoxylate cycle as proposed by Kornberg and Krebs 50 years ago. (pnas.org)