Malate Synthase: An important enzyme in the glyoxylic acid cycle which reversibly catalyzes the synthesis of L-malate from acetyl-CoA and glyoxylate. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.2.GlyoxylatesIsocitrate Lyase: A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.MalatesOxo-Acid-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.Glycolates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Acetyl Coenzyme A: Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.IsocitratesTransaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Haloferax volcanii: A species of halophilic archaea found in the Dead Sea.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Isocitrate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.Microbodies: Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Hydroxypyruvate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate in the presence of NADP.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Hyperoxaluria, Primary: A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Trematoda: Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.Methylobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.Methylobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Rhizobiales. Genera include METHYLOBACTERIUM, Protomonas, and Roseomonas.Methylobacterium extorquens: A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation: A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.Peroxisomal Disorders: A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Euglena gracilis: A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.Euglena: A genus of EUKARYOTES, in the phylum EUGLENIDA, found mostly in stagnant water. Characteristics include a pellicle usually marked by spiral or longitudinal striations.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
... the glyoxylate enzymes malate synthase and isocitrate lyase have been found in animal tissues. Genes coding for malate synthase ... Oxaloacetate is reduced to malate using NADH, a step required for its transportation out of the mitochondria. Malate is ... The existence of glyoxylate cycles in humans has not been established, and it is widely held that fatty acids cannot be ... The glyoxylate cycle produces four-carbon dicarboxylic acids that can enter gluconeogenesis. In 1995, researchers identified ...
In the glyoxylate cycle, malate synthase then catalyzes the condensation of glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to form malate so the ... By diverting isocitrate from the TCA cycle, the actions of ICL and malate synthase in the glyoxylate cycle result in the net ... threo-Ds-isocitrate glyoxylate-lyase, and isocitrate glyoxylate-lyase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate ... Together with malate synthase, it bypasses the two decarboxylation steps of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) and is ...
Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J. (1994). "Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in ... Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. ethos.bl.uk (PhD thesis). ... a PhD from the University of Edinburgh in 1989 for research investigating the structure and function of the malate synthase ...
... isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) which accomplish the glyoxylate cycle bypass. Thus, glyoxysomes (as all peroxisomes) ... Besides peroxisomal functions, glyoxysomes possess additionally the key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle ( ...
One was malate synthase, which condenses acetate with glyoxylate to form malate, and the other was isocitrate lyase, which ... These two reactions did not follow the normal citric acid cycle, and hence the pathway was named the glyoxylate bypass of the ... With Hans Kornberg, he also discovered the glyoxylate cycle, which is a slight variation of the citric acid cycle found in ... One hypothesis involving succinate, fumarate, and malate proved to be useful because all these molecules increased oxygen ...
It is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants and bacteria utilizing the enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. Some ... catalysed by citrate synthase. It is also involved in gluconeogenesis, urea cycle, glyoxylate cycle, amino acid synthesis, and ... A principal route is upon oxidation of L-malate, catalysed by malate dehydrogenase, in the citric acid cycle. Malate is also ... Fumarate can be transformed into malate by the actions of the enzyme fumarase. Malate is acted on by malate dehydrogenase to ...
Glyoxylate condenses with acetyl-CoA (a step catalyzed by malate synthase), yielding malate. Both malate and oxaloacetate can ... Evidence exists for malate synthase activity in humans due to a dual functional malate/B-methylmalate synthase of mitochondrial ... Glyoxylate is subsequently combined with acetyl-CoA to produce malate, catalyzed by MS. Malate is also formed in parallel from ... the detection of malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), key enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, in some animal ...
... works together with isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle to bypass two oxidative steps of Krebs cycle and ... In enzymology, a malate synthase (EC 2.3.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + H2O + glyoxylate ... glyoxylate transacetylase, glyoxylate transacetase, glyoxylic transacetase, malate condensing enzyme, malate synthetase, malic ... This enzyme participates in pyruvate metabolism and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Malate synthases fall into two ...
... malate synthase, 3-propylmalate glyoxylate-lyase (CoA-pentanoylating), beta-n-propylmalate synthase, and n-propylmalate ... synthase. This enzyme participates in glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. IMAI K, REEVES HC, AJL SJ (1963). "N- ... In enzymology, a 3-propylmalate synthase (EC 2.3.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pentanoyl-CoA + H2O + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is pentanoyl-CoA:glyoxylate C-pentanoyltransferase (thioester-hydrolysing, 1- ...
Its crucial enzymes are isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. However, alternate pathways have been proposed in organisms ... Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism describes a variety of reactions involving glyoxylate or dicarboxylates. Glyoxylate is ... "Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism". at KEGG. "Subsystem: Glyoxylate bypass". National Microbial Pathogen Data Resource. ... purine metabolism which provides glyoxylate, pyruvate metabolism which provides (S)-malate and formate, carbon fixation which ...
Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... particularly fatty acid beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle. Smith's current and most important contribution to plant ... Graham, Ian Alexander (1989). Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant ... including malate synthase, isocitrate lyase and PEP carboxykinase. He conceived an idea with Anthony Trewavas of creating ...
It is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants and bacteria utilizing the enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase. Some ... Glyoxylate cycleEdit. The glyoxylate cycle is a variant of the citric acid cycle.[3] ... A principal route is upon oxidation of L-malate, catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, in the citric acid cycle. Malate is also ... Fumarate can be transformed into malate by the actions of the enzyme fumarase. Malate is acted on by malate dehydrogenase to ...
... pyruvate synthase EC 1.2.7.2: 2-oxobutyrate synthase EC 1.2.7.3: 2-oxoglutarate synthase EC 1.2.7.4: carbon-monoxide ... malate dehydrogenase EC 1.1.1.38: malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) EC 1.1.1.39: malate dehydrogenase ( ... glyoxylate oxidase EC 1.2.3.6: pyruvate oxidase (CoA-acetylating) EC 1.2.3.7: indole-3-acetaldehyde oxidase EC 1.2.3.8: ... clavaminate synthase EC 1.14.11.22: flavone synthase EC 1.14.11.23: flavonol synthase EC 1.14.11.24: 2'-deoxymugineic-acid 2'- ...
Calvin cycle Glyoxylate cycle Reverse (Reductive) Krebs cycle Lowenstein JM (1969). Methods in Enzymology, Volume 13: Citric ... Similarly, the conversion of (S)-malate to oxaloacetate is catalyzed in eukaryotes by the NAD+-dependent EC 1.1.1.37, while ... When tested in vitro with TCA enzymes, ATP inhibits citrate synthase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase; however, ATP levels do ... The oxaloacetate is returned to mitochondrion as malate (and then converted back into oxaloacetate to transfer more acetyl-CoA ...
2-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.7: 3-ethylmalate synthase EC 2.3.3.8: ATP citrate synthase EC 2.3.3.9: malate synthase EC 2.3. ... alanine-glyoxylate transaminase EC 2.6.1.45: serine-glyoxylate transaminase EC 2.6.1.46: diaminobutyrate-pyruvate transaminase ... synthase EC 2.3.3.2: decylcitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.3: citrate (Re)-synthase EC 2.3.3.4: decylhomocitrate synthase EC 2.3.3.5: ... synthase EC 2.4.1.12: cellulose synthase (UDP-forming) EC 2.4.1.13: sucrose synthase EC 2.4.1.14: sucrose-phosphate synthase EC ...
malate dehydrogenase Ja 1.1.1.38 malate dehydrogenase (oxaloacetate-decarboxylating) Ja 1.1.1.40 malate dehydrogenase ( ... prostaglandin-F synthase Ja 1.1.1.189 prostaglandin-E2 9-reductase Ja 1.1.1.197 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (NADP+) ... glyoxylate reductase (NADP+) Ja 1.1.1.81 hydroxypyruvate reductase Ja 1.1.1.95 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase Ja ...
The above value of 3 H+/ATP for the synthase assumes that the synthase translocates 9 protons, and produces 3 ATP, per rotation ... 2.5 in case of malate-aspartate shuttle transferring hydrogen atoms from cytosolic NADH+H+ to mitochondrial NAD+ ... ATP synthase produces 1 ATP / 3 H+. However the exchange of matrix ATP for cytosolic ADP and Pi (antiport with OH− or symport ... This potential is then used to drive ATP synthase and produce ATP from ADP and a phosphate group. Biology textbooks often state ...
L-Malate Fumarase Hydration Hydration of C-C double bond 9 L-Malate + NAD+. Oxaloacetate + NADH + H+. Malate dehydrogenase ... Citrate synthase Aldol condensation This is the same as step 0 and restarts the cycle. The reaction is irreversible and extends ... Glyoxylate cycle. *Reverse (reductive) Krebs cycle. ReferencesEdit. *^ Lowenstein JM (1969). Methods in Enzymology, Volume 13: ... In the citric acid cycle all the intermediates (e.g. citrate, iso-citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, malate and ...
Bailey, CJ (2009). "Orotic aciduria and uridine monophosphate synthase: a reappraisal". Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease ... Glyoxylate. Photosystems. Pyruvate. Lactate. Acetyl. -CoA. Citrate. Oxalo-. acetate. Malate. Succinyl. -CoA ... Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ... and then is methylated by thymidylate synthase to create thymidine.[1] ...
Acetohydroxyacid synthase is the first enzyme for the parallel pathway performing condensation reaction in both steps - ... Glyoxylate Photosystems Pyruvate Lactate Acetyl. -CoA Citrate Oxalo-. acetate Malate Succinyl. -CoA ... acetohydroxyacid synthase, ketoacid reductoisomerase, dihydroxyacid dehygrogenase and aminotransferase.[3] Threonine ... isopropylmalate synthase, isopropylmalate isomerase, isopropylmalate dehydrogenase, and aminotransferase - are necessary for ...
Glycolysis → Pyruvate decarboxylation → Citric acid cycle → Oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain + ATP synthase) ... glyoxylate fermentation) as a way to regenerate NAD+ from NADH. Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin, which in turn is ...
... which is then reduced to malate. Decarboxylation of malate during the day releases CO2 inside the leaves, thus allowing carbon ... An ATP synthase enzyme uses that chemiosmotic potential to make ATP during photophosphorylation, whereas NADPH is a product of ... Glyoxylate. Cycle. Urea. Cycle. Fatty. Acid. Synthesis. Fatty. Acid. Elongation. Beta. Oxidation ... In addition, this creates a proton gradient (energy gradient) across the chloroplast membrane, which is used by ATP synthase in ...
2005). Molecular characterization of a bifunctional glyoxylate cycle enzyme, malate synthase/isocitrate lyase, in Euglena ... malate synthase and isocitrate lyase, suggesting that acetate is assimilated and metabolized through the glyoxylate pathway ( ... Woodward, J., and Merrett, M. (1975). Induction potential for glyoxylate cycle enzymes during the cell cycle of Euglena ... MDH, malate dehydrogenase; FRD, fumarate reductase; FUM, fumarase; IDH, isocitrate dehydrogenase; KGDC, α-ketoglutarate ...
Two enzymes unique to the glyoxylate cycle, namely malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), allow the decarboxylation ... The glyoxylate cycle markers ICL and MS are expressed not only in germinating oilseeds but also in pollen (34), developing ... Disruption of the glyoxylate cycle did not alter the total fatty acid content or composition of mature icl seeds (data not ... Therefore, the glyoxylate cycle may be less predominant over respiration in Arabidopsis because there is a reduced need for the ...
Malate synthase, glyoxysomal. This subpathway is part of the pathway glyoxylate cycle, which is itself part of Carbohydrate ... IPR011076. Malate_synth-like_sf. IPR006252. Malate_synthA. IPR001465. Malate_synthase. IPR019830. Malate_synthase_CS. ... IPR011076. Malate_synth-like_sf. IPR006252. Malate_synthA. IPR001465. Malate_synthase. IPR019830. Malate_synthase_CS. ... sp,P17432,MASY_GOSHI Malate synthase, glyoxysomal OS=Gossypium hirsutum OX=3635 PE=2 SV=1 ...
Malate synthase works together with isocitrate lyase in the glyoxylate cycle to bypass two oxidative steps of Krebs cycle and ... In enzymology, a malate synthase (EC 2.3.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + H2O + glyoxylate ... glyoxylate transacetylase, glyoxylate transacetase, glyoxylic transacetase, malate condensing enzyme, malate synthetase, malic ... This enzyme participates in pyruvate metabolism and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism. Malate synthases fall into two ...
The glyoxylate shunt (GS) is a two-step metabolic pathway (isocitrate lyase, aceA; and malate synthase, glcB) that serves as an ... 0 (Acetates); 0 (Glyoxylates); EC 2.3.3.9 (Malate Synthase); EC 4.1.3.1 (Isocitrate Lyase); JQ39C92HH6 (glyoxylic acid). ... Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase in glyoxylate cycle are required in the catabolism of ethoxylated surfactants. Our ... 0 (Acetates); 0 (Glyoxylates); EC 2.3.3.9 (Malate Synthase); EC 4.1.3.1 (Isocitrate Lyase). ...
GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. malate synthase. 2. YES. TIGR01344 (HMM): malate synthase A. TIGR01345 (HMM): malate synthase G. ... KEGG: Glyoxylate and Dicarboxylate Metabolism. IUBMB: Glyoxylate Cycle. Gene Ontology Term. GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle ( ... GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. GO:0006097: glyoxylate cycle. ... Glyoxylate plus an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA becomes malate, a second intermediate, for a gain of one. Acetyl groups, such ...
Glyoxylate condenses with acetyl-CoA (a step catalyzed by malate synthase), yielding malate. Both malate and oxaloacetate can ... Evidence exists for malate synthase activity in humans due to a dual functional malate/B-methylmalate synthase of mitochondrial ... Glyoxylate is subsequently combined with acetyl-CoA to produce malate, catalyzed by MS. Malate is also formed in parallel from ... the detection of malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), key enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, in some animal ...
... the glyoxylate enzymes malate synthase and isocitrate lyase have been found in animal tissues. Genes coding for malate synthase ... As such OAA is converted into malate by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH). After export into the cytosol, malate is ... which is the active form of glycogen synthase. Active glycogen synthase can decrease the blood glucose level after a full meal ... The existence of glyoxylate cycles in humans has not been established, and it is widely held that fatty acids cannot be ...
... malate synthase, condenses glyoxylate and another molecule of acetyl-CoA to malate. The subsequent oxidation of malate ... is cleaved to glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA. Condensation of glyoxylate and another molecule of acetyl-CoA yields malate; ... The Apparent Malate Synthase Activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Is Due to Two Paralogous Enzymes, (3S)-Malyl-Coenzyme A (CoA ... Malate Synthase and {beta}-Methylmalyl Coenzyme A Lyase Reactions in the Methylaspartate Cycle in Haloarcula hispanica ...
DR InterPro; IPR001465; Malate_synthase. DR InterPro; IPR006253; Malate_synthG. DR Pfam; PF01274; Malate_synthase; 1. DR SUPFAM ... Catalyzes the CC condensation and subsequent hydrolysis of acetyl-coenzyme A CC (acetyl-CoA) and glyoxylate to form malate and ... DE RecName: Full=Malate synthase G {ECO:0000256,HAMAP-Rule:MF_00641, ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003572}; DE EC=2.3.3.9 {ECO:0000256 ... DR GO; GO:0004474; F:malate synthase activity; IEA:UniProtKB-HAMAP. DR GO; GO:0046872; F:metal ion binding; IEA:UniProtKB-KW. ...
Differential expression of genes encoding glyoxylate cycle enzymes were also found, representing the first report of this in ... Two enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase (aceA) and malate synthase (aceB; Kornberg and Madsen, 1958) were ... citrate synthase; acnb, aconitase; acea, isocitrate synthase; aceb, malate synthase; mdh2, malate dehydrogenase; sdh, succinate ... malate synthase (aceB), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH2) were detected with differential expression in thermally stressed ...
MLS1 and DAL7 both encode malate synthase but they are regulated differently. The glyoxylate cycle gene MLS1 is glucose ... For example, glyoxylate, which is an intermediate in the DAL pathway (Fig. 4), is toxic to yeast [78]. Glyoxylate is produced ... Hartig A, Simon MM, Schuster T, Gaugherty JR, Yoo HS, Cooper TG (1992) Differentially regulated malate synthase genes ... castelli the genes have been organized into a cluster and the malate synthase gene MLS1 has been duplicated to produce DAL7. ...
Isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS) are peroxisomal glyoxylate cycle enzymes that enable carbon from acetyl-CoA to ... and seedling growth in Arabidopsis mutants lacking the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase. J. Biol. Chem. 279: 42916-42923 ... 2007 Arabidopsis peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase functions in β-oxidation but not in the glyoxylate cycle. Plant J. 50: 381- ... 2000a Postgerminative growth and lipid catabolism in oilseeds lacking the glyoxylate cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 5669 ...
Also acts as a beta-methylmalate synthase in vitro, by mediating conversion of glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA to beta- ... converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate. Also displays malyl-CoA thioesterase activity. ... Also has very weak citramalate synthase activity in vitro. ... Also acts as a malate synthase in vitro, ... Also acts as a malate synthase in vitro, converting glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA to malate. Also displays malyl-CoA thioesterase ...
... and malate synthase (MLS). Mutants of Candida albicans lacking ICL are markedly less virulent in mice than the wild-type. ... The glyoxylate cycle is a sequence of anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by the key enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) ... The glyoxylate cycle is a sequence of anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by the key enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate ... Inhibit Isocitrate Lyase in the Glyoxylate Cycle by So-Hyoung Lee 1, Tae Hyung Won 2, Heegyu Kim 1, Chan-Hong Ahn 1, Jongheon ...
Glyoxylate detoxification is an essential function of malate synthase required for carbon assimilation in Mycobacterium ... Discovery of small molecule probe that shows anti-tubercular activity via Mtb bioA (DAPA synthase) enzyme inhibition. ... Investigation of ( S)-(-)-Acidomycin: A Selective Antimycobacterial Natural Product That Inhibits Biotin Synthase. ...
Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli malate synthase G: differentiation with the malate synthase A isoenzyme. Eur J ... Erb TJ, Frerichs-Revermann L, Fuchs G, Alber BE (2010) The apparent malate synthase activity of Rhodobacter sphaeroides is due ... Vanderwinkel E, De Vlieghere M (1968) Physiologie et g´en´etique de lisocitritase et des malate synthases chez Escherichia ... Bramer CO, Steinbuchel A (2002) The malate dehydrogenase of Ralstonia eutropha and functionality of the C3/C4 metabolism in a ...
Glyoxylate detoxification is an essential function of malate synthase required for carbon assimilation in Mycobacterium ...
Graham, Ian A.; Smith, Laura M.; Brown, John W. S.; Leaver, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven M. (1989). "The malate synthase gene ... Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J. (1994). "Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in ... Structure and function of the cucumber malate synthase gene and expression during plant development. ethos.bl.uk (PhD thesis). ... a PhD from the University of Edinburgh in 1989 for research investigating the structure and function of the malate synthase ...
... isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, are active in the fasting rat liver. The enzymes were synthesized on day 3 after food ... Km of malate synthase for acetyl-CoA was 0.2 mM and Km for glyoxylate was 0.3 mM; optimal pH was 7.6. ... Key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, are active in the fasting rat liver. The enzymes were ... Purification and Properties of Isocitrate Lyase and Malate Synthase From Fasting Rat Liver] Biokhimiia. 1996 Oct;61(10):1898- ...
Germain V, Footitt S, Dieuaide-Noubhani M, Raymond P, Renaudin J-P, et al., Role of malate synthase and the glyoxylate cycle ... and seedling growth in Arabidopsis mutants lacking the glyoxylate cycle enzyme malate synthase, Journal of Biological ... Ismail I, Smith SM, Sugar effect on the malate synthase and isocitrate lyase gene expression at the level of mRNA stability, ... Graham IA, Smith LM, Brown JWS, Leaver CJ, Smith SM, The malate synthase gene of cucumber, Plant Molecular Biology, 13, (6) ...
... and malate synthase (MS), are not annotated in Leishmania genomes. We have re-examined this issue in promastigotes of ... AbstractEarly reports have demonstrated the occurrence of glyoxylate cycle enzymes in several Leishmania species. However, ... The glyoxylate cycle is required for fungal virulence. Nature, 412, 83-86. CrossrefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Major roles of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase in bacterial and fungal pathogenesis. Microbiology, 155, 3166-3175. ...
... and malate synthase (MS) in the bacteria. ICL and MS proteins are functionally participated in the glyoxylate cycle. The ... 1, cysteine synthase; 2, cysteine synthase; 3, universal stress protein A; 4, Helix-turn-helix; 5, isocitrate lyase. ... transcriptional control of the isocitrate lyase and malate synthase genes. Arch Microbiol. 1997;168:262-269 ... TCA cycle-independent acetate metabolism via glyoxylate cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast. 2011;28:153-166 ...
Transcript abundance for the glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase decreased more than 16-fold. In ... 4), largely from the glyoxylate cycle, hence giving rise to M2 Ser. In cells grown in N-deprived medium, we observed a markedly ... This enzyme is part of the fatty acid synthase II complex that catalyzes the acyl-ACP-dependent elongation steps from C4 to C14 ... Almost 80% of Gly was unlabeled (M0), indicating a very low activity of the glyoxylate cycle. Similarly, N-deprived cells had ...
... and the glyoxylate is then condensed with acetyl coenzyme A to produce malate by malate synthase (encoded by mls). The primary ... campestris, aceA and mls, genes encoding the glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, respectively, were ... The glyoxylate cycle is a truncated TCA cycle in which isocitrate is hydrolyzed to succinate and glyoxylate by isocitrate lyase ... The glyoxylate cycle is not required for virulence and in planta growth of X. campestris pv. campestris.. The involvement of ...
  • We engineered S. cerevisiae and K. lactis for glycolic acid production using the reactions of the glyoxylate cycle to produce glyoxylic acid and then reducing it to glycolic acid. (vtt.fi)
  • Publications] H.Mori: 'Purification of mRNA for malate synthase and glycolate oxidase by immunoadsorption of polysomes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The alpha/beta domain, which has no apparent function, is not seen in isoform A. The mechanism of malate synthase is a combination of a Claisen-Schmidt condensation and a hydrolysis of an acyl-CoA. (wikipedia.org)