The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Any of the enzymatically catalyzed modifications of the individual AMINO ACIDS of PROTEINS, and enzymatic cleavage or crosslinking of peptide chains that occur pre-translationally (on the amino acid component of AMINO ACYL TRNA), co-translationally (during the process of GENETIC TRANSLATION), or after translation is completed (POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING).
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A group of enzymes that catalyze an intramolecular transfer of a phosphate group. It has been shown in some cases that the enzyme has a functional phosphate group, which can act as the donor. These were previously listed under PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.7.-). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.4.2.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Dystrophin-associated proteins that play role in the formation of a transmembrane link between laminin-2 and DYSTROPHIN. Both the alpha and the beta subtypes of dystroglycan originate via POST-TRANSLATIONAL PROTEIN PROCESSING of a single precursor protein.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Phosphoric acid esters of dolichol.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Oligosaccharides containing various types of glycosidic linkages that yield branching or antennae. The number of antennae (such as bi-, tri-, tetra-, or penta-antennary) in the oligosaccharides on the PROTEOGLYCANS; GLYCOPROTEINS; or LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES contribute to their biological activities, such as receptor binding and metabolism.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of N-acetylgalactosamine for glycoproteins, sulfatides and cerebrosides.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A lipophilic glycosyl carrier of the monosaccharide mannose in the biosynthesis of oligosaccharide phospholipids and glycoproteins.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Rare autosomal recessive lissencephaly type 2 associated with congenital MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY and eye anomalies (e.g., RETINAL DETACHMENT; CATARACT; MICROPHTHALMOS). It is often associated with additional brain malformations such as HYDROCEPHALY and cerebellar hypoplasia and is the most severe form of the group of related syndromes (alpha-dystroglycanopathies) with common congenital abnormalities in the brain, eye and muscle development.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
These compounds function as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. Include the pyrophosphates.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
These compounds function as activated monosaccharide carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and oligosaccharide phospholipids. Obtained from a nucleoside diphosphate sugar and a polyisoprenyl phosphate.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Compounds functioning as activated glycosyl carriers in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycophospholipids. They include the polyisoprenyl pyrophosphates.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CWH8 gene is required for full levels of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in the endoplasmic reticulum and for efficient N-glycosylation. (1/9988)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant cwh8 was previously found to have an anomalous cell wall. Here we show that the cwh8 mutant has an N -glycosylation defect. We found that cwh8 cells were resistant to vanadate and sensitive to hygromycin B, and produced glycoforms of invertase and carboxypeptidase Y with a reduced number of N -chains. We have cloned the CWH8 gene. We found that it was nonessential and encoded a putative transmembrane protein of 239 amino acids. Comparison of the in vitro oligosaccharyl transferase activities of membrane preparations from wild type or cwh8 Delta cells revealed no differences in enzyme kinetic properties indicating that the oligosaccharyl transferase complex of mutant cells was not affected. cwh8 Delta cells also produced normal dolichols and dolichol-linked oligosaccharide intermediates including the full-length form Glc3Man9GlcNAc2. The level of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides in cwh8 Delta cells was, however, reduced to about 20% of the wild type. We propose that inefficient N -glycosylation of secretory proteins in cwh8 Delta cells is caused by an insufficient supply of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide substrate.  (+info)

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (2/9988)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (3/9988)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species. (4/9988)

Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport.  (+info)

Possible role for ligand binding of histidine 81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat prostaglandin F2alpha receptor. (5/9988)

For the five principal prostanoids PGD2, PGE2, PGF2alpha, prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 eight receptors have been identified that belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. They display an overall homology of merely 30%. However, single amino acids in the transmembrane domains such as an Arg in the seventh transmembrane domain are highly conserved. This Arg has been identified as part of the ligand binding pocket. It interacts with the carboxyl group of the prostanoid. The aim of the current study was to analyze the potential role in ligand binding of His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the rat PGF2alpha receptor, which is conserved among all PGF2alpha receptors from different species. Molecular modeling suggested that this residue is located in close proximity to the ligand binding pocket Arg 291 in the 7th transmembrane domain. The His81 (H) was exchanged by site-directed mutagenesis to Gln (Q), Asp (D), Arg (R), Ala (A) and Gly (G). The receptor molecules were N-terminally extended by a Flag epitope for immunological detection. All mutant proteins were expressed at levels between 50% and 80% of the wild type construct. The H81Q and H81D receptor bound PGF2alpha with 2-fold and 25-fold lower affinity, respectively, than the wild type receptor. Membranes of cells expressing the H81R, H81A or H81G mutants did not bind significant amounts of PGF2alpha. Wild type receptor and H81Q showed a shallow pH optimum for PGF2alpha binding around pH 5.5 with almost no reduction of binding at higher pH. In contrast the H81D mutant bound PGF2alpha with a sharp optimum at pH 4.5, a pH at which the Asp side chain is partially undissociated and may serve as a hydrogen bond donor as do His and Gln at higher pH values. The data indicate that the His-81 in the second transmembrane domain of the PGF2alpha receptor in concert with Arg-291 in the seventh transmembrane domain may be involved in ligand binding, most likely not by ionic interaction with the prostaglandin's carboxyl group but rather as a hydrogen bond donor.  (+info)

N-Linked glycosylation and sialylation of the acid-labile subunit. Role in complex formation with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 and the IGFs. (6/9988)

Over 75% of the circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) are bound in 140-kDa ternary complexes with IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the 84-86-kDa acid-labile subunit (ALS), a glycoprotein containing 20 kDa of carbohydrate. The ternary complexes regulate IGF availability to the tissues. Since interactions of glycoproteins can be influenced by their glycan moieties, this study aimed to determine the role of ALS glycosylation in ternary complex formation. Complete deglycosylation abolished the ability of ALS to associate with IGFBP-3. To examine this further, seven recombinant ALS mutants each lacking one of the seven glycan attachment sites were expressed in CHO cells. All the mutants bound IGFBP-3, demonstrating that this interaction is not dependent on any single glycan chain. Enzymatic desialylation of ALS caused a shift in isoelectric point from 4.5 toward 7, demonstrating a substantial contribution of anionic charge by sialic acid. Ionic interactions are known to be involved in the association between ALS and IGFBP-3. Desialylation reduced the affinity of ALS for IGFBP-3. IGF complexes by 50-80%. Since serum protein glycosylation is often modified in disease states, the dependence of IGF ternary complex formation on the glycosylation state of ALS suggests a novel mechanism for regulation of IGF bioavailability.  (+info)

Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells. (7/9988)

The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Mnn10p/Bed1p is a subunit of a Golgi mannosyltransferase complex. (8/9988)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae many of the N-linked glycans on cell wall and periplasmic proteins are modified by the addition of mannan, a large mannose-containing polysaccharide. Mannan comprises a backbone of approximately 50 alpha-1,6-linked mannoses to which are attached many branches consisting of alpha-1,2-linked and alpha-1,3-linked mannoses. The initiation and subsequent elongation of the mannan backbone is performed by two complexes of proteins in the cis Golgi. In this study we show that the product of the MNN10/BED1 gene is a component of one of these complexes, that which elongates the backbone. Analysis of interactions between the proteins in this complex shows that Mnn10p, and four previously characterized proteins (Anp1p, Mnn9p, Mnn11p, and Hoc1p) are indeed all components of the same large structure. Deletion of either Mnn10p, or its homologue Mnn11p, results in defects in mannan synthesis in vivo, and analysis of the enzymatic activity of the complexes isolated from mutant strains suggests that Mnn10p and Mnn11p are responsible for the majority of the alpha-1, 6-polymerizing activity of the complex.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - NIST interlaboratory study on glycosylation analysis of monoclonal antibodies. T2 - comparison of results from diverse analytical methods. AU - De Leoz, Maria Lorna A.. AU - Duewer, David L.. AU - Fung, Adam. AU - Liu, Lily. AU - Yau, Hoi Kei. AU - Potter, Oscar. AU - Staples, Gregory O.. AU - Furuki, Kenichiro. AU - Frenkel, Ruth. AU - Hu, Yunli. AU - Sosic, Zoran. AU - Zhang, Peiqing. AU - Altmann, Friedrich. AU - Grünwald-Grube, Clemens. AU - Shao, Chun. AU - Zaia, Joseph. AU - Evers, Waltraud. AU - Pengelley, Stuart. AU - Suckau, Detlev. AU - Wiechmann, Anja. AU - Resemann, Anja. AU - Jabs, Wolfgang. AU - Beck, Alain. AU - Froehlich, John W.. AU - Huang, Chuncui. AU - Li, Yan. AU - Liu, Yaming. AU - Sun, Shiwei. AU - Wang, Yaojun. AU - Seo, Youngsuk. AU - An, Hyun Joo. AU - Reichardt, Niels Christian. AU - Ruiz, Juan Echevarria. AU - Archer-Hartmann, Stephanie. AU - Azadi, Parastoo. AU - Bell, Len. AU - Lakos, Zsuzsanna. AU - An, Yanming. AU - Cipollo, John F.. AU - ...
Abstract. Many West Nile (WN) virus isolates associated with significant outbreaks possess a glycosylation site on the envelope (E) protein. E-protein glycosylated variants of New York (NY) strains of WN virus are more neuroinvasive in mice than the non-glycosylated variants. To determine how E protein glycosylation affects the interactions between WN virus and avian hosts, we inoculated young chicks with NY strains of WN virus containing either glycosylated or non-glycosylated variants of the E protein. The glycosylated variants were more virulent and had higher viremic levels than the non-glycosylated variants. The glycosylation status of the variant did not affect viral multiplication and dissemination in mosquitoes in vivo. Glycosylated variants showed more heat-stable propagation than non-glycosylated variants in mammalian (BHK) and avian (QT6) cells but not in mosquito (C6/36) cells. Thus, E-protein glycosylation may be a requirement for efficient transmission of WN virus from avian hosts to
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The site-specific glycosylation of soluble recombinant variants of human and rat CD4 (sCD4) expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been characterized. The presence of identical oligosaccharides at the conserved glycosylation site in domain 3 of rat and human sCD4 and the greater abundance of oligomannose and hybrid type glycans at the non-conserved glycosylation site of rat sCD4 clearly indicate that the protein structure influences oligosaccharide processing. Comparisons of rat sCD4 glycopeptides with mutant molecules with only single glycosylation sites and with a truncated form containing only the two NH2-terminal domains, indicate that independent processing occurs at each glycosylation site and that domain interactions can also affect oligosaccharide processing. These and other analyses of sCD2 expressed in CHO cells and Thy-1 purified from various tissues suggest that the diversity of oligosaccharide structures on a protein is regulated by the location of the glycosylation sites and
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Glycosylation in S2 cells is very similar to that of SF9, Sf21, and High Five cells. The nature of Drosophila N-linked glycosylation is less complex than mammalian glycosylation - it is generally of the paucimannose type and is not trimmed and sialylated.. O-linked glycosylation is similar, although not identical, to that obtained in mammalian cells. However, human glycosylation profiles are difficult to obtain, also glycosylation from CHO and HEK293 differ from human glycosylation. Human O-glycosylation can be divided into N-acetylGalactosamine linked (mucin type), N-acetylGlucosamine lined (O-GlcNAc type) and xylose linked (proteoglycans) families. The most abundant form is the mucin type, while O-GlcNac has only been found for cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, the proteoglycans are of less interest here.. In CHO cells, O-glycosylation results in terminally sialated mucin type glycans, with a low percentage core-1 structure (T-antigen) reported. In Drosophila S2, cell O-glycosylation is less ...
N-linked glycosylation has a profound effect on the proper folding, oligomerization and stability of glycoproteins. These glycans impart many properties to proteins that may be important for their proper functioning, besides having a tendency to exert a chaperone-like effect on them. Certain glycosylation sites in a protein however, are more important than other sites for their function and stability. It has been observed that some N-glycosylation sites are conserved over families of glycoproteins over evolution, one such being the tyrosinase related protein family. The role of these conserved N-glycosylation sites in their trafficking, sorting, stability and activity has been examined here. By scrutinizing the different glycosylation sites on this family of glycoproteins it was inferred that different sites in the same family of polypeptides can perform distinct functions and conserved sites across the paralogues may perform diverse functions.. ...
Production of the soluble portion of the transferrin receptor (sTFR) by baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells is described, and the effect of glycosylation on the biological function of sTFR is evaluated for the first time. The sTFR (residues 121−760) has three N-linked glycosylation sites (Asn251, Asn317, and Asn727). Although fully glycosylated sTFR is secreted into the tissue culture medium (∼40 mg/L), no nonglycosylated sTFR could be produced, suggesting that carbohydrate is critical to the folding, stability, and/or secretion of the receptor. Mutants in which glycosylation at positions 251 and 727 (N251D and N727D) is eliminated are well expressed, whereas production of the N317D mutant is poor. Analysis by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry confirms dimerization of the sTFR and the absence of the carbohydrate at the single site in each mutant. The effect of glycosylation on binding to diferric human transferrin (Fe_2 hTF), an authentic monoferric hTF with iron in the C-lobe ...
A majority of all biologically active proteins are glycosylated and various diseases have proven to correlate with alterations in protein glycosylation. Sensitive identification of different glycoprotein glycoforms is therefore of great diagnostic value. Here we describe a method with potential for glycoprotein profiling, based on lectins as capture probes immobilized on particulate substrates in the nm-range. The nanoparticles present high concentrations of attachment sites for specific ligands and cause minimal steric hindrance to binding. In the present model study the mannose-binding lectin ConA has been coupled to polystyrene nanoparticles via a poly(ethyleneoxide) linker which protects the protein conformation and activity and prevents unspecific protein adsorption. The ConA-coated particles are accommodated at different spots on the analytical surface via oligonucleotide linkage. This attachment, which relies on the hybridization of complementary oligonucleotides, allows firm fixation of ...
HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) and the focus for design of an antibody-based HIV vaccine. The Env trimer is covered by ∼90N-linked glycans, which shield the underlying protein from immune surveillance. bNAbs to HIV develop during infection, with many showing dependence on glycans for binding to Env. The ability to routinely assess the glycan type at each glycosylation site may facilitate design of improved vaccine candidates. Here we present a general mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy that uses specific endoglycosidases to introduce mass signatures that distinguish peptide glycosites that are unoccupied or occupied by high-mannose/hybrid or complex-type glycans. The method yields ,95% sequence coverage for Env, provides semi-quantitative analysis of the glycosylation status at each glycosite. We find that most glycosites in recombinant Env trimers are fully occupied by glycans, varying in the proportion of ...
Glycosylation, or the attachment of glycans (sugars) to proteins, is the most abundant post-translational modification in nature and plays a pivotal role in protein folding and activity. Glycans are involved in almost every human disease and biological process. Glycosylation is also important in biotechnology; about 70% of protein therapeutics approved or in development are glycosylated. By merging bottom-up engineering design principles with innovative molecular biology methodologies in a cell-free environment, we seek to create a simplified framework for studying and engineering glycosylation. Our envisioned platform will broaden the glycoengineering toolkit, facilitate discovery of the structural and functional consequences of glycan attachment, and enable a new era of applications in glycoprotein therapeutics and conjugate vaccines.. ...
Flavocytochrome b558 of the NADPH oxidase which generates superoxide in phagocytic cells, is a α1β1 heterodimer of gp91phox and p22phox, which together form a membrane-spanning electron-transport chain that transfers electrons from NADPH in the cytosol to oxygen. The C-terminal portion of gp91phox is a member of the ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase family of reductases. Little is known of the organization of the N-terminal section of this molecule, which is associated with the two haem structures. It is N-glycosylated, and site-directed mutagenesis has been used to eliminate the five potential N-linked glycosylation consensus sites. Mutated cDNAs were expressed in vitro. This approach provided evidence for glycosylation of residues Asn131, Asn148 and Asn239, but not of Asn96 and Asn429.. ...
Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to remove 15 of the 18 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, in 16 combinations, from the human exon 11-minus receptor isoform. The three glycosylation sites not mutated were asparagine residues 25, 397 and 894, which are known to be important in receptor biosynthesis or function. The effects of these mutations on proreceptor processing into α and β subunits, cell-surface expression, insulin binding and receptor autophosphorylation were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The double mutants 16+78, 16+111, 16+215, 16+255, 337+418, the triple mutants 295+337+418, 295+418+514, 337+418+514 and 730+743+881 and the quadruple mutants 606+730+743+881 and 671+730+743+881 seemed normal by all criteria examined. The triple mutant 16+215+255 showed only low levels of correctly processed receptor on the cell surface, this processed receptor being autophosphorylated in response to insulin. The quadruple mutant 624+730+743+881 showed normal processing and ligand ...
Kathrin Stavenhagen: Glycopeptide analysis remains challenging because of its sample heterogeneity resulting from the degree of glycosylation site occupancy (macroheterogeneity) and the different glycoforms attached to individual glycosylation sites (microheterogeneity).. With respect to the latter one, qualitative site-specific glycosylation information of glycoproteins can be obtained by unspecific protease treatment resulting in small amino acid stretches carrying the glycan. This improves determination of the glycosylation sites. However, detecting these glycopeptides by 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS is challenging due to insufficient or irreversible retention on the stationary phase and thus multiple analyses with different LC-setups are required. Since biological sample amounts are usually limited, methods for acquiring comprehensive information in a single run are necessary.. To obtain qualitative information of the glycosylation site we set up an integrated C18-porous graphitized carbon ...
Abnormal glycosylation is a hallmark of many cancers that contributes to tumor growth and invasion. There are many protein receptors that are regulated abnormally in cancer due to mutations and/or alterations in glycosylation. Studies to link specific glycosylation changes to signaling outcomes have primarily focused on studies of individual receptors or specific pathways.
The structure of N-linked glycosylation is a very important quality attribute for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Different carbon sources in cell culture media, such as mannose and galactose, have been reported to have different influences on the glycosylation patterns. Accurate prediction and control of the glycosylation profile are important for the process development of mammalian cell cultures. In this study, a mathematical model, that we named Glycan Residues Balance Analysis (GReBA), was developed based on the concept of Elementary Flux Mode (EFM), and used to predict the glycosylation profile for steady state cell cultures. Experiments were carried out in pseudo-perfusion cultivation of antibody producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with various concentrations and combinations of glucose, mannose and galactose. Cultivation of CHO cells with mannose or the combinations of mannose and galactose resulted in decreased lactate and ammonium production, and more matured glycosylation ...
Following the footsteps of genomics and proteomics, recent years have witnessed the growth of large-scale experimental methods in the field of glycomics. In parallel, there has also been growing interest in developing Systems Biology based methods to study the glycome. The combined goals of these endeavors is to identify glycosylation-dependent mechanisms regulating human physiology, check points that can control the progression of pathophysiology, and modifications to reaction pathways that can result in more uniform biopharmaceutical processes. In these efforts, mathematical models of N- and O-linked glycosylation have emerged as paradigms for the field. While these are relatively few in number, nevertheless, the existing models provide a basic framework that can be used to develop more sophisticated analysis strategies for glycosylation in the future. The current review surveys these computational models with focus on the underlying mathematics and assumptions, and with respect to their ...
Two urea transporters, UT-A1 and UT-A3, are expressed in the kidney terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and are important for the production of concentrated urine. UT-A1, as the largest isoform of all UT-A urea transporters, has gained much attention and been extensively studied; however, the role and the regulation of UT-A3 are less explored. In this study, we investigated UT-A3 regulation by glycosylation modification. A site-directed mutagenesis verified a single glycosylation site in UT-A3 at Asn279. Loss of the glycosylation reduced forskolin-stimulated UT-A3 cell membrane expression and urea transport activity. UT-A3 has two glycosylation forms, 45 and 65 kDa. Using sugar-specific binding lectins, the UT-A3 glycosylation profile was examined. The 45-kDa form was pulled down by lectin concanavalin A (Con A) and Galant husnivalis lectin (GNL), indicating an immature glycan with a high amount of mannose (Man), whereas the 65-kDa form is a mature glycan composed of ...
Two urea transporters, UT-A1 and UT-A3, are expressed in the kidney terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) and are important for the production of concentrated urine. UT-A1, as the largest isoform of all UT-A urea transporters, has gained much attention and been extensively studied; however, the role and the regulation of UT-A3 are less explored. In this study, we investigated UT-A3 regulation by glycosylation modification. A site-directed mutagenesis verified a single glycosylation site in UT-A3 at Asn279. Loss of the glycosylation reduced forskolin-stimulated UT-A3 cell membrane expression and urea transport activity. UT-A3 has two glycosylation forms, 45 and 65 kDa. Using sugar-specific binding lectins, the UT-A3 glycosylation profile was examined. The 45-kDa form was pulled down by lectin concanavalin A (Con A) and Galant husnivalis lectin (GNL), indicating an immature glycan with a high amount of mannose (Man), whereas the 65-kDa form is a mature glycan composed of ...
In this study, we examined the potential N-glycosylation sites of RCL, and then discussed the functional significance of N-glycosylation on its secretion and enzymatic properties. RCL has four potential glycosylation sites in its gene sequence, three of which lie in the prosequence and the fourth of which is in the mature sequence (Figure 1B). Although the potential N-glycosylation sites of a protein can be predicted from the consensus sequence Asn-Xaa-Ser/Thr, not all such sites are fully occupied [33]. When RCL was expressed in P. pastoris, its N-terminal was truncated by Kex2. Thus, the three potential glycosylation sites in its prosequence were removed and only one glycosylation site at N-263 was retained in the truncated lipase r27RCLC (Figure 1). Enzymatic deglycosylation, which removed both high-mannose, hybrid-and complex-type N-linked glycans, was performed using glycosidases to investigate whether the potential glycosylation sites were glycosylated or not [3]. Endo Hf cleaved within ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nutritional therapies in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). AU - Witters, Peter. AU - Cassiman, David. AU - Morava-Kozicz, Eva. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of more than 130 inborn errors of metabolism affecting N-linked, O-linked protein and lipid-linked glycosylation. The phenotype in CDG patients includes frequent liver involvement, especially the disorders belonging to the N-linked protein glycosylation group. There are only a few treatable CDG. Mannose-Phosphate Isomerase (MPI)-CDG was the first treatable CDG by high dose mannose supplements. Recently, with the successful use of D-galactose in Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1)-CDG, other CDG types have been trialed on galactose and with an increasing number of potential nutritional therapies. Current mini review focuses on therapies in glycosylation disorders affecting liver function and dietary intervention in general in N-linked glycosylation disorders. We ...
Looking for online definition of protein glycosylation in the Medical Dictionary? protein glycosylation explanation free. What is protein glycosylation? Meaning of protein glycosylation medical term. What does protein glycosylation mean?
In the field of biochemistry, O-linked glycosylation is the attachment of a sugar molecule to an oxygen atom in an amino acid residue in a protein. O-linked glycosylation is a form of glycosylation that occurs in the Golgi apparatus in eukaryotes. It also occurs in archaea and bacteria. O-linked glycosylation occurs at a later stage during protein processing, probably in the Golgi apparatus. This is the addition of N-acetyl-galactosamine to serine or threonine residues by the enzyme UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC number 2.4.1.41), followed by other carbohydrates (such as galactose and sialic acid). This process is important for certain types of proteins such as proteoglycans, which involves the addition of glycosaminoglycan chains to an initially unglycosylated proteoglycan core protein. These additions are usually serine O-linked glycoproteins, which seem to have one of two main functions. One function involves secretion to form components of ...
Advanced Glycosylation End Products: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of glucose and proteins in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.
Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ...
The N-linked glycosylation in recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) occurs at Asn297 on the Fc region in the CH2 domain. Glycosylation heterogeneities have been well documented to affect biological activities such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) through their interaction with Fc-receptors. Hence, it is critical to monitor and characterize the N-linked glycosylation profile in a therapeutic protein such as a mAb for product consistency. In one approach, the glycans are first released from the mAb using an enzyme specific digestion, such as Protein N-Glycosidase F (PNGase) and subsequently they are labeled using a fluorophore, for example, 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (APTS) . Here we have applied this approach and used Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to analyze a recombinant mAb produced in murine myeloma (NS0) cells. The technique provides short analysis times, efficient separations, and
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2A (CDG 2A) is a part of a group of rare inherited conditions that are present at birth (congenital) and involve defects in the glycosylation process. Glycosylation involves the joining of sugars and proteins (to form glycoproteins) by enzymes (proteins that function to convert specific substances in the body) in the cells of our bodies. These sugars (glycans) must be properly attached to specific proteins in the cells in order for the cells to function correctly. Due to the many functions of these glycoproteins throughout the body, if an error occurs in one of the many steps of the process, a wide variety of health problems may occur beginning in infancy. Symptoms can include psychomotor delays (movement, coordination, dexterity), mental retardation, and distinct physical features including thin lips, large gums, low-set rotated ears, and small head circumference. Some affected individuals may have gastrointestinal problems like diarrhea and reflux. ...
The interactions of B7-1 with CD28 and CTLA-4 modulate the course of human immune responses, making B7-1 an important target for developing structure-based therapeutics. B7-1 is, however, one of the most heavily glycosylated proteins found at the leukocyte cell surface, complicating the structural analysis of this molecule. Methods for the production, crystallization and selenomethionine labelling of a soluble deglycosylated form of this molecule are described. The protein readily forms both tetragonal plate and bipyramidal crystals belonging to space groups I4(1)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 56.9, c = 298.7 A, and P4(1)22 (or P4(3)22), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 89.0, c = 261.9 A, respectively. The I4(1)22 and primitive crystal forms diffract to 2.7 and 3.5 A, respectively. Surface plasmon resonance-based assays indicate that the ligand-binding properties of sB7-1 are unaffected by deglycosylation. Since none of the methods relied on any special structural properties of sB7-1, it is
Protein instability remains the main factor limiting the development of protein therapeutics. The fragile nature (structurally and chemically) of proteins makes them susceptible to detrimental events during processing, storage, and delivery. To overcome this, proteins are often formulated in the solid-state which combines superior stability properties with reduced operational costs. Nevertheless, solid protein pharmaceuticals can also suffer from instability problems due to moisture sorption. Chemical protein glycosylation has evolved into an important tool to overcome several instability issues associated with proteins. Herein, we employed chemical glycosylation to stabilize a solid-state protein formulation against moisture-induced deterioration in the lyophilized state. First, we investigated the consequences of moisture sorption on the stability and structural conformation of the model enzyme α-chymotrypsin (α-CT) under controlled humidity conditions. Results showed that α-CT aggregates and
View Notes - Glycobiology_Course_lesson_4_diagnostics from WE BIBI000000 at Ghent University. Glycobiology Course IV Clinical diagnostics based on glycosylation Roland Contreras Nico Callewaert
TY - JOUR. T1 - Migration of keratinocytes is impaired on glycated collagen I. AU - Morita, Keisuke. AU - Urabe, Kazunori. AU - Moroi, Yoichi. AU - Koga, Tetsuya. AU - Nagai, Ryuji. AU - Horiuchi, Seiko. AU - Furue, Masutaka. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Advanced glycation end products are the chemical modification of proteins induced by sugars in a hyperglycemic condition. Extracellular matrix proteins are prominent targets of nonenzymatic glycation because of their slow turnover rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of nonenzymatic glycation of type I collagen on the migration of keratinocytes. The migration of keratinocytes was dramatically promoted on native type I collagen-coated dishes compared with that on uncoated dishes. When type collagen was glycated with glycolaldehyde, large amounts of advanced glycation end products were produced; the glycated collagen I-coated dishes did not promote the migration of keratinocytes. Glycated collagen I did not affect the ...
Looking for online definition of glycosylation in the Medical Dictionary? glycosylation explanation free. What is glycosylation? Meaning of glycosylation medical term. What does glycosylation mean?
The primary hypothesis in this study is that adding simple milk sugar (galactose) to the diet of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation patients will normalize the metabolic abnormalities. The secondary hypothesis posits that galactose intervention in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation patients will normalize specific physiological biomarkers of protein glycosylation that can be utilized for future phase II/III trial development. The knowledge gained from the investigation of these two aims will help the investigators learn more about the disrupted metabolic mechanism of this disease and should lead to the identification of new disease biomarkers that can be used to evaluate clinical efficacy in future therapeutic trials.. Over a two-year period, the investigators will enroll patients diagnosed with Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. The investigators propose to administer oral galactose supplementation for a period of 18 weeks in increasing dose to assess its effectiveness at normalizing ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters cells through the chemokine receptors CCR5 (R5 virus) and/or CXCR4 (X4 virus). Loss of N-linked glycans and increased net charge of the third variable loop (V3) of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein have been observed to be important steps towards CXCR4 use. All reported sequences using CCR5 or CXCR4 exclusively, or using both, were gathered from the Los Alamos HIV Database and analysed with regard to the V3 N-linked glycosylation motifs (sequons) and charge. The V3 loop glycan had a sensitivity of 0·98 and a 0·92 positive predictive value in the context of CCR5 use. The difference from X4 was remarkable (P<10−12). Especially, the sequon motif NNT within the V3 loop was conserved in 99·2 % of the major clades. The results suggest a close association between the V3 loop glycan and CCR5 use and may provide new insight into HIV-1 tropism and help to improve phenotype-prediction models.
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Glycosyl ortho-alkynylbenzoates have emerged as a new generation of donors for glycosidation under the catalysis of gold(I) complexes such as Ph3PAuOTf and Ph3PAuNTf2 (Tf= trifluoromethanesulfonate). A wide variety of these donors, including 2-deoxy sugar and sialyl donors, are easily prepared and shelf stable. The glycosidic coupling yields with alcohols are generally excellent; even direct coupling with the poorly nucleophilic amides gives satisfactory yields. Moreover, excellent alpha-selective glycosylation with a 2-deoxy sugar donor and beta-selective sialylation have been realized. Application of the present glycosylation protocol in the efficient synthesis of a cyclic triterpene tetrasaccharide have further demonstrated the versatility and efficacy of this new method, in that a novel chemoselective glycosylation of the carboxylic acid and a new one-pot sequential glycosylation sequence have been implemented ...
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In this work different horseradish transformed lines (tumour and teratoma) were compared with control samples of leaf tissue in electrophoretic pattern of total cell proteins and their glycosylation. Emphasis was put on the comparison of these tissues in structure and composition of N-glycans of endoplasmic reticulum proteins. Despite its central metabolic role, the endoplasmic reticulum is also a starting point of protein glycosylation in eukaryotic cells. Two forms of protein glycosylation are known, N- and Oglycosylation. N-glycosylation is a major modification of proteins in plant cells. Plant N-glycans can be classified into four basic groups: high-mannose-type, complex-type, paucimannosidic-type and hybrid-type. N-glycosylation is a well described process whereas O-glycosylatin is not well characterized. Glycoproteins were separated on SDS-PAGE and subsequently transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane. Glycosylated proteins were detected with Con A. N-glycans were further characterized by ...
article{04b8831a-870b-4baa-b2ba-da9ecd197697, abstract = {Activated Factor V (FVa) functions as a membrane-bound cofactor to the enzyme factor Xa (FXa) in the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, increasing the catalytic efficiency of FXa by several orders of magnitude. To map regions on FVa that are important for binding of FXa, site-directed mutagenesis resulting in novel potential glycosylation sites on FV was used as strategy. The consensus sequence for N-linked glycosylation was introduced at sites, which according to a computer model of the A-domains of FVa, were located at the surface of FV. In total, thirteen different regions on the FVa surface were probed, including sites that are homologous to FIXa-binding sites on FVIII. The interaction between the FVa variants and FXa and prothrombin were studied in a functional prothrombin activation assay, as well as in a direct binding assay between FVa and FXa. In both assays, the four mutants carrying a carbohydrate side chain at position ...
Samples can be sent for analysis by post or courier. Glycosylation is a stable modification and even in case of protein degradation, the corresponding glycoprofile can be determined. Depending on the analysis required, the proteins can be delivered at room temperature as lyophilised or precipitated samples, or on dry/wet ice when in solution. The results will be reported and discussed online, meaning no personal travel is required.. Analysis includes:. • Intact glycoprotein mass will be determined by MALDI TOF analysis using ultrafleXtreme MALDI TOF/TOF instrument (Bruker). The level of glycosylation can be estimated by comparison of the intact glycoprotein with its deglycosylated form.. • Analysis of N-glycoprofile includes protein denaturation, deglycosylation, isolation of released glycans with subsequent permethylation and analysis by MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (ultrafleXtreme, Bruker).. • The protein glycosylation sites will be determined by proteolytic cleavage, heavy atom ...
A glycosyl donor is a carbohydrate mono- or oligosaccharide that will react with a suitable glycosyl acceptor to form a new glycosidic bond. By convention, the donor is the member of this pair that contains the resulting anomeric carbon of the new glycosidic bond. The resulting reaction is referred to as a glycosylation or chemical glycosylation. In a glycosyl donor, a leaving group is required at the anomeric position. The simplest leaving group is the OH group that is naturally present in monosaccharides, but it requires activation by acid catalysis in order to function as leaving group (in the Fischer glycosylation). More effective leaving groups are in general used in the glycosyl donors employed in chemical synthesis of glycosides. Typical leaving groups are halides, thioalkyl groups, or imidates, but acetate, phosphate, and O-pentenyl groups are also employed. Natural glycosyl donors contain phosphates as leaving groups. The so-called armed-disarmed principle The concept of armed and ...
The selectin family of cell adhesion molecules mediates the tethering and rolling of leukocytes on blood vessel endothelium. It has been postulated that the molecular basis of this highly dynamic adhesion is the low affinity and rapid kinetics of selectin interactions. However, affinity and kinetic analyses of monomeric selectins binding their natural ligands have not previously been reported. Leukocyte selectin (L-selectin, CD62L) binds preferentially to O-linked carbohydrates present on a small number of mucin-like glycoproteins, such as glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule-1 (GlyCAM-1), expressed in high endothelial venules. GlyCAM-1 is a soluble secreted protein which, following binding to CD62L, stimulates beta2-integrin-mediated adhesion of lymphocytes. Using surface plasmon resonance, we show that a soluble monomeric form of CD62L binds to purified immobilized GlyCAM-1 with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 108 microM. CD62L dissociates from GlyCAM-1 with a very fast dissociation rate
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, whose end product is UDP-N acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), lies at the base of cellular glycosylation pathways, including glycosylation of lipids, formation of heparin sulfated proteoglycans, and N- and O-linked glycosylation of proteins. Forward genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed that mutations in genes encoding different enzymes of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway result in reduction of UDP-GlcNAc to different extents, with a consequent disruption of distinct glycosylation pathways and developmental processes. A maternal and zygotic loss-of-function screen has identified mutations in nesthocker (nst), which encodes an enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Embryos lacking maternal and zygotic nst gene products show defective O-GlcNAcylation of a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-specific adaptor protein, which impairs FGFR-dependent migration of mesodermal and tracheal cells.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - N-glycosylated proteins and distinct lipooligosaccharide glycoforms of Campylobacter jejuni target the human C-type lectin receptor MGL. AU - van Sorge, N.M.. AU - Bleumink, N.M.C.. AU - van Vliet, S.J.. AU - Saeland, E.. AU - van der Pol, W.L.. AU - van Kooyk, Y.. AU - van Putten, J.W.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. U2 - 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01370.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01370.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 19681908. VL - 11. SP - 1768. EP - 1781. JO - Cellular Microbiology. JF - Cellular Microbiology. SN - 1462-5814. IS - 12. ER - ...
The addition of specific monosaccharides to the oligosaccharide can mask the special sequence and prevent its recognition by microbial toxins or antibodies. Intracellular targeting of proteins may also depend on the glycan structure associated with the protein as was demonstrated for lyosomal enzymes. 5). Expression of specific types of glycosylation on different glycoconjugates in different tissues at different times during development imply that these structures have diverse roles in the same organism. Further, each potential glycosylation site in a given glycoprotein population is fully, partially, or not at all occupied. In fact, an eukaryotic glycoprotein is not isolated as a single structural entity, but rather as a set of glycosylated variants of a common polypeptide, which are referred to as glycoforms [11, 13]. The particular glycosylation pattern of a protein is not random and uncontrolled and reflects the balance of all activities of that glycoprotein in a particular physiological ...
Berg, Tore Julsrud; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Torjesen, Peter A.; Bucala, Richard & Hanssen, Kristian Folkvord (1996). Increased serum levels of Advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) in children and adolescents with IDDM. Show summary Increased Serum levels of Advanced Glycosylation End products (AGEs) in Children and Adolescents with IDDM. TORE J. BERG, KNUT DAHL-JØRGENSEN*, PETER A. TORJESEN, RICK BUCALA*4, KRISTIAN F. HANSSEN, Oslo, Norway and Manhasset, NY.We have developed a sandwich fluoremetric-immunoassay for measuring AGEs in serum utilizing polyclonal antibodies made from rabbit immunized with AGE-RNase. Using this assay we have earlier shown that AGEs in serum predict the progression of morphological pathology in the kidney of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether the serum levels of AGEs in a cohort of diabetic adolescent patients were different from normal subjects. IDDM patients (n=69) were compared with healthy ...
糖腎病是一種常見的慢性糖尿病併發症,也是造成末期腎臟衰竭的原因之一,伴隨的尿毒症狀更是讓洗腎人口數向上攀升。約有20-30%的糖尿病患者會發展成糖腎病,其中第一型糖尿病在10-15年內會演變成糖腎病,並具有50%的機會進展到末期腎病變;而第二型糖尿病則有20%-40%的糖腎病進程,然而20年後僅有20%的機率形成末期腎病變。根據美國腎臟資料系統的末期腎臟病年報中顯示,台灣糖腎病患者的盛行率位居世界第二,發生率則居全球之冠,在國人十大死因裡更是排名第五,為此研發出延緩或改善糖尿病腎病變的治療方法是極其迫切的議題。 糖尿病患者體內的高血糖環境會促進最終糖化蛋白的合成 (Advanced Glycosylation End Products, AGEs) ,進而引發體內細胞產生有害的活性氧物 (Reactive oxygen species, ROS) 以及釋放促發炎因子,造成內皮細胞受損並吸引巨噬細胞前來浸潤
Results We discovered that ACPA-IgG from RA patients have a higher apparent molecular weight as compared to other IgG molecules including antibodies against recall antigens and other autoantibodies. This higher molecular weight was explained by the overrepresentation of N-linked glycans in the variable domain (Fab region) of ACPA-IgG. Detailed structural analysis of these glycans demonstrated that ACPA-IgG linked Fab glycans are complex-type biantennary N-glycans that differ from the conventional Fc-linked N-glycans by a high degree of sialylation, galactosylation, and fucosylation together with the presence of bisecting N-acetylglucosamine. Using recombinant ACPA-IgG monoclonal antibodies with and without Fab-glycans, we found that Fab-glycans modulate binding affinity of ACPA-IgG for citrullinated antigens. Finally, lectin-immunoblotting showed that ACPA Fab-glycans can bind to sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins.. ...
Most subtypes of CDG are classified as disorders of N-glycosylation, which involves carbohydrates called N-linked oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides are created in a specific order to create specific sugar trees, which are then attached to proteins on various cells. Disorders of N-glycosylation are due to an enzyme deficiency or other malfunction somewhere along the N-glycosylation pathway.. As long as the defect is not identified, disorders of N-glycosylation are subdivided into defects of oligosaccharide assembly and transfer (CDG-Ix) and defects in oligosaccharide trimming and processing that occur after they are bound to proteins (CDG-IIx). As soon as the defect in an individual patient is clarified, a CDG name is given according to the current nomenclature.. Disorders of N-glycosylation include:. PMM2-CDG - This disorder is the most common type of CDG. More than 700 individuals have been identified. The disorder can be broken down into three stages: infantile multisystem, ...
To determine whether the N-terminal hydrophobic sequence is also responsible for retention, the N-terminal 29 amino acids of cytochrome P450 2C1, with and without an additional 29 amino acids containing an N-glycosylation site, were fused to a soluble cytoplasmic protein, Escherichia coli $\beta$-galactosidase, or to a secreted protein, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase, and the hybrid proteins were expressed in COS1 cells and cellular localization was determined by subcellular fractionation, immunolocalization and the glycosylation state of the proteins. Both the $\beta$-galactosidase and alkaline phosphatase hybrid proteins were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum establishing that a specific sequence or property in the N-terminal 29 amino acids is responsible for ER retention. To further examine the possibility that retention of proteins with a large cytoplasmic domain is the default pathway, the cellular distributions of a series of P450 2C1 and EGFR chimeric proteins were examined. ...
Autor: Guillard, Mailys et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2009-09; Keywords: Glycosylation; Cutis laxa; V-ATPase; Congenital disorders of glycosylation; OMIM 219200; Apolipoprotein C III; Titel: Vacuolar H+-ATPase meets glycosylation in patients with cutis laxa
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of glycosylation in the H-2-restricted cytolysis of virus-infected cells. AU - Black, P. L.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. AU - Forman, J.. AU - Kang, C. Y.. AU - May, R. D.. AU - Uhr, J. W.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - The role of the oligosaccharide portions of cell surface glycoproteins in the susceptibility of virus-infected cells to H-2-restricted cytolysis was investigated by using the antibiotic tunicamycin (TM). TM inhibits the addition of sugars to the polypeptides of glycoproteins. TM treatment of P 815 cells before and during infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) inhibited glycosylation of proteins and reduced by about 50% the lysis of infected P 815 cells by VSV-immune, H-2-identical killer cells. In contrast, TM treatment had a modest inhibitory effect on cytolysis of P 815 cells by alloimmune effector cells. TM treatment did not inhibit the surface expression of either H-2 or VSV glycoprotein. Thus, glycosylation of H-2 and/or viral glycoprotein is a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Killing of Trypanosoma brucei by Concanavalin A. T2 - Structural basis of resistance in glycosylation mutants. AU - Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro. AU - Cole, Robert N. AU - Englund, Paul T.. PY - 2000/12/8. Y1 - 2000/12/8. N2 - Concanavalin A (Con A) kills procyclic (insect) forms of Trypanosoma brucei by binding to N-glycans on EP-procyclin, a major surface glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein which is rich in Glu-Pro repeats. We have previously isolated and studied two procyclic mutants (ConA 1-1 and ConA 4-1) that are more resistant than wild-type (WT) to Con A killing. Although both mutants express the same altered oligosaccharides compared to WT cells, ConA 4-1 is considerably more resistant to lectin killing than is ConA 1-1. Thus, we looked for other alterations to account for the differences in sensitivity. Using mass spectrometry, together with chemical and enzymatic treatments, we found that both mutants express types of EP-procyclin that are either poorly ...
BACKGROUND: Mesangial IgA1 deposition is characteristic of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Structural abnormalities of the IgA1 glycoprotein may play a key role in its mesangial deposition, particularly the recently described abnormalities of O-glycosylation of the IgA1 hinge region. The mechanism of abnormal O-glycosylation has not yet been elucidated; it is not clear whether there is an alteration in the amino acid sequence of the hinge region, modifying the number of O-glycosylation sites available, or whether there is a post-translational defect in the glycosylation process. METHODS: The O-glycosylation of serum IgA1 from a series of patients with IgAN and matched controls was assessed by lectin binding assay. We then used dideoxy-sequencing of the PCR-amplified hinge region of the alpha1 heavy chain gene to compare the hinge region nucleotide sequence in IgAN and controls. We also compared cDNA transcripts of alpha1 hinge region mRNA to look for evidence for a transcriptional abnormality in IgAN. ...
I have a recombinant protein produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris that is partially glycosylated with O-linked sugar (it must be O-linked - there are no N-linked sites). I wish to remove the glycosylated protein from the non-glycosylated. I have tried using ConA-Sepharose (Pharmacia) and Glycine-Max (Sigma). Neither of these has appeared to bind. The ConA comes with instructions that have been followed. No instructions could be found for Gycine-MAx and Sigma were not forthcoming. Has anyone has experience with trying to purify O-linked sugars, with either of the above lectins, or using any other reagents, I would very much like to hear from you. Please reply to me by e-mail as I do not regularly read this newsgroup. Tim -- Tim Dudgeon British Biotech Phone: 0865 748747 FAX: 0865 717598 email: dudgeon at britbio.co.uk ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
Should you be thinking more about glycosylation? Glycosylation, which is the addition of carbohydrates to proteins or other molecules, plays a huge part in protein folding, protein stability, cell adhesion, cellular function and protection, recognition of self, pathogen invasion, and much more. From bacteria to yeast to mammals, it happens everywhere and it happens a lot. Yet in the light of biological research, it is often overlooked or even disregarded. This blog discusses a few of the many important roles for glycosylation in biology.
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in disruption of tissue integrity leading to a loss of function. There has been minimal success in treating these injuries clinically, due to the inhibitory environment which develops over time. In this work, we study the glycosylation response to SCI in two models: Xenopus laevis is used to compare successful to failed regeneration, by comparing the response to injury pre- and post-metamorphosis, while we use a rat model to understand the pathophysiology of the injury and how this may be modified by treatment with an aligned collagen hydrogel. We hypothesise that glycosylation is altered in response to injury, that it has a role in determining the success of regeneration, and that biomaterial treatment can influence this glycosylation response. Complete transection was used to model SCI in pre- and post-metamorphic stages of Xenopus laevis and in adult rat. Collagen hydrogels with aligned or non-aligned fibres were placed at the transection site in the ...
To help the researchers and pharmaceutical partners with discovering the most effective therapeutic glycoprotein, Creative Biolabs provides solutions on glycosylation, the most widely applied posttranslational modification (PTM) approach to change protein function and measure the recombinant biopharmaceutical immunogenicity. Based upon the efficient glycoengineered expression platforms (glyco-engineered mammalian cell expression system, glyco-engineered pichia pastoris expression system, and glyco-engineered plant-based expression system), Creative Biolabs is fully competent to handle the requests of therapeutic glycoprotein development and glycoengineering of antibody/cell line.. Creative Biolabs has updated the generally applied mammalian cell expression with glyco-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and glyco-engineered human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells for glycoprotein production, which can guarantee the natural folding and sugar chain composition of glycoprotein, and ...
METHOD FOR PRODUCING OXIDIZED GAMMA-GLUTAMYLCYSTEINE AND OXIDIZED GLUTATHIONE | USE OF METAL IONS FOR MODULATION OF PROTEIN GLYCOSYLATION PROFILES OF RECOMBINANT PROTEINS | SERUM ALBUMIN BINDING MOLECULES | METHODS FOR PRODUCING RECOMBINANT GLYCOPROTEINS WITH MODIFIED GLYCOSYLATION | Methods for producing polypeptides in enzyme-deficient mutants of fusarium venentatum |
IgG glycosylation is skewed toward proinflammatory G0 variants in healthy children, in particular during the first few years of life. This deviation is exaggerated in patients with JIA. The role for IgG glycan variation in immune function in children, including the predilection of JIA for early chil …
Sriram Neelamegham received grants to fund his research focused on developing a systems level understanding of cellular glycosylation processes, using a combination of mathematical modeling methods and experiments. Such work is important since glycans, or carbohydrates expressed on cells, either absolutely control or finely tune a number of biological processes in human during health and disease. The studies being pursued are thus important for biotechnology and medical research. Collaborators on the awards include Professor Jun Qu (Pharmaceutical Sciences), Michael Buck (Biochemistry), G. Ekin Atilla-Gokcumen (Chemistry) and Lara Mahal (Chemistry, New York University). ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Erandi Lira-Navarrete, Matilde de Las Rivas, Ismael Compañón, María Carmen Pallarés, Yun Kong, Javier Iglesias-Fernández, Gonçalo J L Bernardes, Jesús M Peregrina, Carme Rovira, Pau Bernadó, Pierpaolo Bruscolini, Henrik Clausen, Anabel Lostao, Francisco Corzana, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero].
CD24, also known as heat-stable antigen (HSA) in mice, is a small heavily glycosylated cell-surface protein that is linked to the membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI-) anchor (Pierres et al., 1987; Kay et al., 1990; Alterman et al., 1990). Mouse CD24 has a protein core of 27 amino acids with seven potential glycosylation sites, whereas human CD24 consists of 31 amino acids with 16 potential O- and N-glycosylation sites. Owing to this extensive glycosylation, CD24 has mucin-like characteristics (reviewed by Kristiansen et al., 2004b).. CD24 is expressed in mouse hematopoietic cell subpopulations including B lymphocytes, the majority of thymocytes, erythrocytes and neutrophils. Because of its lineage-specific and developmentally regulated expression, CD24 was traditionally used as a differentiation marker for B- and T-cell ontogeny (Poncet et al., 1996; Egerton et al., 1990; Lu et al., 1998). Later studies revealed that CD24 is not exclusively expressed by hematopoietic cells but is ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
Advanced glycosylation endproducts (AGEs), the glucose-derived adducts that form nonenzymatically and accumulate on tissue proteins, are implicated in many chronic complications associated with diabetes and aging. We have previously described a monocyte/macrophage surface receptor system thought to coordinate AGE protein removal and tissue remodeling, and purified a corresponding 90-kD AGE-binding protein from the murine RAW 264.7 cell line. To identify AGE-binding proteins in normal animals, the tissue distribution of 125I-AGE rat serum albumin taken up from the blood was determined in rats in vivo. These uptake studies demonstrated that the liver was a major site of AGE protein sequestration. Using a solid-phase assay system involving the immobilization of solubilized membrane proteins onto nitrocellulose to monitor binding activity, and several purification steps including affinity chromatography over an AGE bovine serum albumin matrix, two rat liver membrane proteins were isolated that ...
Long Abstract. Introduction. Glycoproteins account for approximately 80% of the proteins located at the cell surface and in the extracellular environment, and changes in cell surface glycosylation during tumorigenesis are well documented, including the major N-linked glycan class of glycosylated proteins. Most current FDA approved biomarkers of cancer are glycoproteins or glycan antigens. We have continued to optimize a MALDI mass spectrometry imaging method to spatially profile N-linked glycans in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections and tissue microarrays (TMAs) using MALDI-FTICR MS and a new rapid MALDI-TOF MS TissueTyper. Using primarily breast and prostate cancer tissues, nearly 1000 patient samples representing the clinical spectrum from benign to metastatic tumor tissues have been analyzed. The goal of the study was to define the tumor N-glycans associated with the most lethal forms of each cancer, which will be used to develop a prognostic assay for disease ...
O-linked glycosylation[edit]. Main article: O-linked glycosylation. O-linked glycosylation is a form of glycosylation that ... N-linked glycosylation[edit]. Main article: N-linked glycosylation. N-linked glycosylation is a very prevalent form of ... disorders of protein N-glycosylation, disorders of protein O-glycosylation, disorders of lipid glycosylation and disorders of ... Chemical glycosylation[edit]. Glycosylation can also be effected using the tools of synthetic organic chemistry. Unlike the ...
Glycosylation[edit]. In biology, glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to an organic ... N-linked glycosylation involves oligosaccharide attachment to asparagine via a beta linkage to the amine nitrogen of the side ... In N-glycosylation for eukaryotes, the oligosaccharide substrate is assembled right at the membrane of the endoplasmatic ... Peter-Katalinić J (2005). "Methods in enzymology: O-glycosylation of proteins". Methods in Enzymology. 405: 139-71. doi:10.1016 ...
Freeze HH, Hart GW, Schnaar RL (2015). "Glycosylation Precursors". In Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P (eds.). ...
Blough HA, Pauwels R, De Clercq E, Cogniaux J, Sprecher-Goldberger S, Thiry L (Nov 1986). "Glycosylation inhibitors block the ... Kozarsky K, Penman M, Basiripour L, Haseltine W, Sodroski J, Krieger M (1989). "Glycosylation and processing of the human ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (Mar 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... "Entrez Gene: GANC glucosidase, alpha; neutral C". Feizi T, Larkin M (Sep 1990). "AIDS and glycosylation". Glycobiology. 1 (1): ...
Drake RR, Jones EE, Powers TW, Nyalwidhe JO (2015). "Altered glycosylation in prostate cancer". In Drake RR, Ball LE (eds.). ... Glycosylation and Cancer. Advances in Cancer Research Vol. 126. 126. pp. 345-82. doi:10.1016/bs.acr.2014.12.001. ISBN ...
Feizi T, Larkin M (1990). "AIDS and glycosylation". Glycobiology. 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID 2136376. Németh ... Hart ML, Saifuddin M, Spear GT (2003). "Glycosylation inhibitors and neuraminidase enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...
Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (March 1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Feizi T, Larkin M (September 1990). "AIDS and glycosylation". Glycobiology. 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID ... implications for glycosylation and CD4 binding". Genetic Analysis, Techniques and Applications. 7 (6): 160-71. doi:10.1016/0735 ... effects of monensin on glycosylation and transport". Journal of Virology. 63 (6): 2452-6. doi:10.1128/jvi.63.6.2452-2456.1989. ...
1989). "Glycosylation and processing of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. ... 1987). "Glycosylation inhibitors block the expression of LAV/HTLV-III (HIV) glycoproteins". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 141 ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Feizi T, Larkin M (1992). "AIDS and glycosylation". Glycobiology. 1 (1): 17-23. doi: ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...
Genetic Glycosylation Diseases. 1792 (9): 881-887. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2009.07.001. PMC 2748147. PMID 19596068. Eisenberg I, ...
Alterations in glycosylation are often acquired in cases of cancer and inflammation, which may have important functional ... Rhodes J, Campbell BJ, Yu LG (2001). "Glycosylation and Disease". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi: ... Patterson MC (2005). "Metabolic mimics: the disorders of N-linked glycosylation". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology. 12 (3): 144- ... N-linked glycosylation can be seen in antibodies, on cell surfaces, and on various proteins throughout the matrix. ...
Genetic Glycosylation Diseases. 1792 (9): 915-920. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2008.12.005. PMID 19150496. "Ferritin: Reference Range ...
... hydroxylation on the P residues and subsequent glycosylation and in many cases addition of a GPI-anchor. Glycosylation of the ... These events occur prior to prolyl hydroxylation and glycosylation. The core glycan structure of GPI anchors is Man-α-1,2-Man-α ... Sequences that direct AG glycosylation (SO, TO, AO, VO) are called AGP glycomotifs. All AGP protein backbones contain a minimum ... Taken together, these studies provide evidence that proper glycosylation of AGPs is important to AGP function in plant growth ...
Kozarsky K, Penman M, Basiripour L, Haseltine W, Sodroski J, Krieger M (1989). "Glycosylation and processing of the human ... Blough HA, Pauwels R, De Clercq E, Cogniaux J, Sprecher-Goldberger S, Thiry L (1987). "Glycosylation inhibitors block the ... Feizi T, Larkin M (1992). "AIDS and glycosylation". Glycobiology. 1 (1): 17-23. doi:10.1093/glycob/1.1.17. PMID 2136376. Land A ... Dedera DA, Gu RL, Ratner L (1992). "Role of asparagine-linked glycosylation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...
Glycosylation and aggregation[edit]. Mucin genes encode mucin monomers that are synthesized as rod-shape apomucin cores that ... are post-translationally modified by exceptionally abundant glycosylation. The dense "sugar coating" of mucins gives them ...
"Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2019-08-01. "Mito Info". ... Placental insufficiency Craniosynostosis Genetic Inborn errors of metabolism Congenital disorder of glycosylation Mitochondrial ...
GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Overview GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on PMM2-CDG (CDG- ... Mutations in the gene have been shown to cause defects in the protein glycosylation pathway which manifest as congenital ... Jaeken J, Matthijs G (2002). "Congenital disorders of glycosylation". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 2: 129-51. ... "Mutations in PMM2 that cause congenital disorders of glycosylation, type Ia (CDG-Ia)". Human Mutation. 16 (5): 386-94. doi: ...
His research has largely focused on molecular cell biology and, in particular, how protein glycosylation contributes to the ... Marth's early studies of glycosylation and glycan linkages revealed a profound effect on immunity and contributed to the ... Marth, J.D.; Grewal, P.K. (2008). "Mammalian glycosylation in immunity". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8 (11): 874-887. doi:10.1038/ ... Ohtsubo, K.; Marth, J.D. (2006). "Glycosylation in cellular mechanisms of health and disease". Cell. 126 (5): 855-867. doi: ...
Dong DL, Xu ZS, Chevrier MR, Cotter RJ, Cleveland DW, Hart GW (August 1993). "Glycosylation of mammalian neurofilaments. ...
They are commonly used as glycosylation donors, meaning that they can react with other monosaccharides to form a longer chain ...
Congenital disorder of glycosylation MPI-CDG EBI Database, IPRO16305 Mannose-6-phosphate Isomerase. "1pmi". PDBe. Gao H, Yu Y, ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Overview Mannose-6-Phosphate+Isomerase at the US ... Jaeken J, Matthijs G (2001). "Congenital disorders of glycosylation". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 2: 129-51. ...
0-Beta-GlcNAc is presumably the only type of glycosylation occurring in the nucleus and/or cytoplasm of cells. There is a ... NetNGlyc predicted glycosylation sites; however, these sites were excluded because the protein is likely nuclear and would not ... undergo this form of glycosylation. There were no predicted acetylation sites at the N-terminus of the protein. This is unusual ... notable link between antigen activation by lymphocytes and dynamic 0-B-Glycosylation in nuclear proteins (Hart and Akimoto). ...
The most important of these to note are N-linked glycosylation and disulfide bond formation. N-linked glycosylation occurs as ... tunicamycin inhibits N-linked glycosylation. Dengue virus induces PERK dependent ER stress as part of virus induced response in ... targeting it for identification and re-glycosylation by the enzyme UGGT (UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase). If this ...
His thesis was entitled Glycosylation in Mice and Rats. After graduation he helped establish the first commercially focused ... He conducted research on the structure-function relationships of glycosylation. These specific efforts focused on evolution, ... Dennis, Jim W; Granovsky, Maria; Warren, Charles E (1999). "Glycoprotein glycosylation and cancer progression". Biochim Biophys ... ". "Dr Jim Dennis". Dennis, Jim W; Granovsky, Maria; Warren, Charles E (1999). "Protein glycosylation in development and ...
Reily C, Stewart TJ, Renfrow MB, Novak J (June 2019). "Glycosylation in health and disease". Nature Reviews. Nephrology. 15 (6 ... 4-galactosyltransferase I causes the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IId". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 109 ...
The two types of glycosylation events in the Golgi are N-linked glycosylation and O-linked glycosylation. Glycosylation of ... investigated glycosylation of serum proteins with individuals with WSS and found that they had defects in N-glycosylation at ... In order to retain the enzymes responsible for protein glycosylation in the correct regions of the Golgi, there must be ... "Vacuolar H+-ATPase meets glycosylation in patients with cutis laxa." Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of ...
1993). "Glycosylation of mammalian neurofilaments. Localization of multiple O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties on ...
2007). "Down-regulation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-V induces ER stress by changing glycosylation and function of GLUT1 ... "Glycoprotein glycosylation and cancer progression". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1473 (1): 21-34. doi:10.1016/s0304-4165(99)00167-1 ... induces tumor angiogenesis without mediation of glycosylation: a novel function of GnT-V distinct from the original ...
Initial glycosylation as assembly continues. This is N-linked (O-linking occurs in the Golgi). N-linked glycosylation: If the ...
This approach is not as popular as the linear strategy due to the poor reaction yields in the glycosylation step. Another ... Rudd P. M.; Elliott T.; Cresswell P.; Wilson I. A.; Dwek R. A. (2001). "Glycosylation and the immune system". Science. 291 ( ... Vliegenthart J. F. G.; Casset F. (1998). "Novel forms of protein glycosylation". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 8 (5): ... Carbohydrate chemistry Glycopeptide antibiotic Glycosylation Peptide synthesis Talbot P.; Shur B. D.; Myles D. G. (2003). "Cell ...
Glycosylation disorders are sometimes involved. Some genetically determined forms have recently been found to be due to ...
O-linked glycosylation[edit]. Main article: O-linked glycosylation. O-linked glycosylation is a form of glycosylation that ... N-linked glycosylation[edit]. Main article: N-linked glycosylation. N-linked glycosylation is a very prevalent form of ... disorders of protein N-glycosylation, disorders of protein O-glycosylation, disorders of lipid glycosylation and disorders of ... Chemical glycosylation[edit]. Glycosylation can also be effected using the tools of synthetic organic chemistry. Unlike the ...
... glycosylation is a site-specific modification. N-linked glycosylation is a very prevalent form of glycosylation and is ... disorders of lipid glycosylation and disorders of other glycosylation pathways and of multiple glycosylation pathways. No ... O-linked glycosylation is a form of glycosylation that occurs in eukaryotes in the Golgi apparatus, but also occurs in archaea ... Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to ...
Below are a few examples of some notable targets obtained via a series of glycosylation reactions. Glycosylation Glycosyl ... the mechanism of a glycosylation reaction must be considered. The stereochemical outcome of a glycosylation reaction may in ... A chemical glycosylation reaction involves the coupling of a glycosyl donor, to a glycosyl acceptor forming a glycoside. If ... The glycosylation reaction involves the coupling of a glycosyl donor and a glycosyl acceptor via initiation using an activator ...
Moreover, there is no magic bullet for analyzing glycosylation in monoclonal antibodies. The methods for identifying the ... Experts say glycosylation analysis is the most important and least precise area of chemical analysis. ... "Glycosylation analysis is the most important and least precise area of chemical analysis," Stein said. "The methods for ... "Were just trying to measure things better." Part of that involves glycosylation of mAbs, which make up a common class of ...
... Ivan J Delgado delgadoi at PILOT.MSU.EDU Mon Feb 3 16:02:11 EST 1997 *Previous message: Transfection of B cells ... A question regarding glycosylation of proteins and how that looks in a western. I have two different antibodies raised against ... Could this be glycosylation?. How could one test for it? Ivan ... Next message: glycosylation * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ ...
... Smeekens wbtmcbw at cc.ruu.nl Wed Nov 24 03:07:59 EST 1993 *Previous message: GUS RT-PCR ... Dear Netters I am looking for the GUS gene from which the glycosylation sites have been removed by site directed mutagenesis. I ...
... also known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia) is an inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. ... PMM2-congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG, also known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia) is an ... Glycosylation modifies proteins so they can perform a wider variety of functions. Mutations in the PMM2 gene lead to the ... Krasnewich D, OBrien K, Sparks S. Clinical features in adults with congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ia (CDG-Ia). Am ...
... formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Im) is an inherited condition that often affects the heart but can ... DOLK-congenital disorder of glycosylation (DOLK-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Im) is an ... Glycosylation changes proteins in ways that are important for their functions. During glycosylation, sugars are added to ... called alpha-dystroglycan, has been shown to have reduced glycosylation in people with DOLK-CDG. Impaired glycosylation of ...
Glycosylation. A process in which antibodies are decorated in a specific way with carbohydrates to make it acknowledgeable by ... The glycosylation of antibodies. Antibodies, like many other natural proteins, are normally decorated with sugars. Optimizing ... Drawn to Science cheat sheet for Glycosylation of antibodies. Antibodies. Y-shaped proteins that our bodies use to identify and ... Used in a process called glycosylation to make therapeutic antibodies acceptable to the human body. ...
Even though O-glycosylation has been expected on the spike protein of SARS-Cov-2, this is the first report of the site of O- ... Glycosylation of the S protein is also complex and important, as we can see from the previous studies. Different expressing ... 3. Deducing the N- and O- glycosylation profile of the spike protein of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2[3]. Azadis team from the ... In this article, a few recent studies are outlined in order to look at the more scientific details about the glycosylation of ...
This chapter provides an overview of glycosylation from the perspective of a single cell, taking into account the patterns of ... Cellular Organization of Glycosylation Review. In: Essentials of Glycobiology [Internet]. 3rd edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY ... This chapter provides an overview of glycosylation from the perspective of a single cell, taking into account the patterns of ... The focus is mostly on the organization of glycosylation in eukaryotic cells. Chapters 21 and 22 further address prokaryotic ...
Glycosylation RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Human Glycosylation RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes ... Glycosylation RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Mouse Glycosylation RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes ... Glycosylation RT2 Profiler PCR Array The Rat Glycosylation RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes ... The process of glycosylation adds and removes sugar residues to and from oligosaccharides covalently linked to proteoglycans, ...
Inherent differences in glycosylation (unique glycosylation signatures) among ion channel subunits and isoforms as described ... Regulated and aberrant glycosylation modulate cardiac electrical signaling. Marty L. Montpetit, Patrick J. Stocker, Tara A. ... Regulated and aberrant glycosylation modulate cardiac electrical signaling. Marty L. Montpetit, Patrick J. Stocker, Tara A. ... Regulated and aberrant glycosylation modulate cardiac electrical signaling Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
Glycosylation of membrane proteins plays a crucial role in various physiological events, including intercellular recognition ... Pavić T., Gornik O. (2017) Analysis of N-Glycosylation of Total Membrane Proteins. In: Lauc G., Wuhrer M. (eds) High-Throughput ... Glycosylation of membrane proteins plays a crucial role in various physiological events, including intercellular recognition ... Haltiwanger RS, Lowe JB (2004) Role of glycosylation in development. Annu Rev Biochem 73:491-537. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biochem. ...
In the past two decades more and more attention is being paid to changes in glycosylation and in this review we describe some ... Glycosylation of serum proteins in inflammatory diseases.. Gornik O1, Lauc G. ... but it is evident that glycosylation plays an important role in the inflammatory response. Maybe the greatest value of these ... clinical laboratories and further efforts have to be made to develop simple analytical tools to study changes in glycosylation. ...
Glycoprotein glycosylation and cancer progression.. Dennis JW1, Granovsky M, Warren CE. ... Glycosylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. GlcNAc ...
N-glycosylation, (2) O-glycosylation, (3) O-linked GlcNAc glycosylation, (4) proteoglycan biosynthesis, (5) glycolipid ... Glycosylation processes can be chemically regulated by inhibition of glycosyltransferases or glycosidases with natural and ... This review highlights recent developments in chemical regulation of glycosylation processes with specific targets including: ... These diverse structures are controlled by complex glycosylation processes in cells, which are mediated by various ...
Contact us today to find out how SGSs world-class Glycosylation Analysis can help determine how post-translational factors ... Home › Life Sciences › Biopharmaceutical Services › Laboratory Services › Glycosylation Analysis Life Sciences Glycosylation ... Glycosylation of Proteins: Structure, Function & Analysis. Download Glycosylation of Proteins: Structure, Function & Analysis ... Glycosylation site analysis. Our experts are always at hand to give advice on what may be most appropriate for you, whether you ...
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Direct Quantitative Determination of Ceramide Glycosylation in Vivo: A New Approach to Evaluate Cellular Enzyme Activity of ...
Van den Eijnden,D.H., Neeleman,A.P., Van der Knaap,W.P., Bakker,H., Agterberg,M., and van Die,I. (1995). Novel glycosylation ... van Die,I., Van Tetering,A., Bakker,H., Van den Eijnden,D.H., and Joziasse,D.H. (1996). Glycosylation in lepidopteran insect ... Startseite >Institute>Zentrum Biochemie>Institut für Klinische Biochemie>Research>Endoplasmic Reticulum glycosylation ...
Glycosylation is the process of attachment of carbohydrates (glycans) to proteins and lipids to form the glycoproteins and ... Glycosylation of proteins influences their half‐life in the serum.. *N‐ and O‐linked glycosylation have been reported to be ... N‐linked glycosylation occurs on asparagine residues in the consensus sequon Asn‐X‐Ser/Thr. O‐linked glycosylation occurs on ... N‐linked glycosylation commences in the endoplasmic reticulum and is completed in the Golgi apparatus. O‐linked glycosylation ...
The chromophores are believed to be intermediates in nonenzymatic polypeptide glycosylation. The measurement of this ... Advanced glycosylation end products and associated methods. USRE32095 *. Jan 13, 1984. Mar 25, 1986. Philip Morris Incorporated ... The degree of glycosylation in protein masses suspected of undergoing the same can be ascertained by the usual immunological ... 6. A test kit for the detection of the glycosylation products of polypeptides, comprising:. a. a known amount of a labeled ...
... J Neurochem. 2001 Dec;79(5):1080-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2001. ...
... it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can ... Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the ... Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram- ... the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation. ...
... Sevigny M.B., Li C.F., Alas M., Hughes-Fulford M. ... Thus, COX-2 turnover appears to depend upon glycosylation of the 72kDa glycoform. ... was mutated to determine the biological significance of this variable glycosylation. COS-1 cells transfected with the mutant ...
Importance of glycosylation on function of a potassium channel in neuroblastoma cells. *Hall M ... Hall, M. K., Cartwright, T. A., Fleming, C. M., & Schwalbe, R. A. (2011). Importance of glycosylation on function of a ... Electrophoretic migration of the various Kv3.1 proteins treated with PNGase F and neuraminidase verified that the glycosylation ...
The Fast Glycaneering process reportedly allows customized N-glycosylation to meet target profiles, specifically antibodies ... Home Topics Bioprocessing Building Therapeutic Proteins through Plant Glycosylation: A Sweet Solution ... N-Glycosylation is a critical component of many protein-based therapeutics, required for appropriate stability, immunogenicity ... The Fast Glycaneering process allows customized N-glycosylation to meet target profiles, specifically antibodies that harbor ...
Protein N-glycosylation is an ancient metabolic pathway that still exists in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and ... Alternative glycosylation modulates function of IgG and other proteins - Implications on evolution and disease ... Epigenetic regulation of protein glycosylation. Vlatka Zoldoš* Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University ... Studies of epigenetic modification of genes involved in protein glycosylation are still scarce, but their results indicate that ...
Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent ... We posit that glycosylation, instead of hindering cellulase engineering, can be used as an additional tool to enhance enzyme ... As the roles of glycosylation in enzyme function have not been fully elucidated, here we discuss the potential roles of ... Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent ...
  • In biology, glycosylation mainly refers in particular to the enzymatic process that attaches glycans to proteins , or other organic molecules . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] The majority of proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum undergo glycosylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to a target macromolecule , typically proteins and lipids . (wikipedia.org)
  • [5] Glycosylation also plays a role in cell-to-cell adhesion (a mechanism employed by cells of the immune system ) via sugar-binding proteins called lectins , which recognize specific carbohydrate moieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • A question regarding glycosylation of proteins and how that looks in a western. (bio.net)
  • The PMM2 enzyme is involved in a process called glycosylation, which attaches groups of sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) to proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glycosylation modifies proteins so they can perform a wider variety of functions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This compound is critical for a process called glycosylation, which attaches groups of sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) to proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glycosylation changes proteins in ways that are important for their functions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The other signs and symptoms of DOLK -CDG are likely due to the abnormal glycosylation of additional proteins in other organs and tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Glycosylation can also module the thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This showed the N-glycosylation profile of SARS-CoV-2 S proteins at the levels of intact N-glycopeptides and glycosites, in addition to the glycan composition and site-specific number of glycans, as seen in Figure 3. (news-medical.net)
  • Workflow for site-specific N-glycosylation characterization of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S proteins using two complementary proteases for digestion and simultaneous N-glycoproteomics analysis. (news-medical.net)
  • Such structural diversity is the result of the activity of nearly 250 known glycosylation-associated genes such as glycosyltransferases, glycosidases, and nucleotide sugar synthesis and transporter genes (glycogenes) that are responsible collectively for producing the glycans attached to lipids and proteins ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glycosylation of membrane proteins plays a crucial role in various physiological events, including intercellular recognition and intermolecular interactions on the cell surface (Gornik et al. (springer.com)
  • Gornik O, Pavić T, Lauc G (2012) Alternative glycosylation modulates function of IgG and other proteins - Implications on evolution and disease. (springer.com)
  • Pavić T., Gornik O. (2017) Analysis of N -Glycosylation of Total Membrane Proteins. (springer.com)
  • Glycosylation of serum proteins in inflammatory diseases. (nih.gov)
  • In the past two decades more and more attention is being paid to changes in glycosylation and in this review we describe some of the changes found on main serum proteins (alpha1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, transferrin, haptoglobin, alpha2-macroglobulin, C-reactive protein, and others). (nih.gov)
  • Glycosylation is the process of attachment of carbohydrates (glycans) to proteins and lipids to form the glycoproteins and glycolipids found in eukaryotic organisms. (els.net)
  • Glycosylation reactions are amongst the most common posttranslational modifications that have been reported on proteins, and they function to alter protein size, stability, charge and antigenicity. (els.net)
  • Glycosylation of proteins influences their half‐life in the serum. (els.net)
  • Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken all together, glycosylation is a Critical Quality Attribute (CQA) for antibodies and other proteins. (genengnews.com)
  • A carbohydrate metabolic disorder that involves deficient or defective glycosylation of a variety of tissue proteins and/or lipids. (yeastgenome.org)
  • Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the number and diversity of prokaryotic proteins shown to carry N- and/or O-glycans, with protein glycosylation now considered as fundamental to the biology of these organisms as it is in eukaryotic systems. (hindawi.com)
  • Like in eukaryotes, stepwise O-glycosylation occurs on diverse bacterial proteins including flagellins, adhesins, autotransporters and lipoproteins, with O-glycosylation chain extension often coupled with secretory mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Until recently it was widely believed that N-glycosylation of proteins is a eukaryotic phenomenon. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the most important of these modifications, N-linked protein glycosylation, is predicted to affect more than half of all eukaryotic protein species and is often essential for proper folding, pharmacokinetic stability, systemic half-life, immunogenicity and overall efficacy for a large number of human therapeutic proteins. (sbir.gov)
  • Recently, however, it has been reported that the Campylobacter jejuni asparagine-linked (Nlinked) protein glycosylation system can be functionally transferred into Escherichia coli, giving the recipient E. coli cells the ability to glycosylate proteins. (sbir.gov)
  • Towards this goal, the objective of this particular application is to begin the early stages of humanizing the bacterial glycosylation system via glycan engineering (specific aim 1) and site-specific transfer of novel glycans onto target proteins (specific aim 2). (sbir.gov)
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: N-linked glycosylation is predicted to affect more than half of all eukaryotic protein species and is often essential for proper folding, pharmacokinetic stability, systemic half-life, immunogenicity and overall efficacy for a large number of therapeutically relevant proteins (e.g., human erythropoietin). (sbir.gov)
  • Proteins which contain appropriate glycosylation sequons in their primary sequence have the potential to acquire N-(AsnXaaSer/Thr) or O-(Ser/Thr) linked oligosaccharides. (waterstones.com)
  • In harmony with their natural tasks, glycosyltransferases may in vitro complete the imperfect glycosylation pattern of proteins, recombinantly produced in pro- and eukaryotic hosts. (rsc.org)
  • Aberrant glycosylation of proteins is connected with cell immortalization, transformation, and metastasis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Due to its many biological functions, glycosylation is one of the most-studied PTMs of eukaryotic cell proteins. (thermofisher.com)
  • Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate the interplay of glycosylation and phosphorylation for these and other proteins may have important ramifications for the study of neuronal signaling and neurodegenerative disorders," write the authors. (alzforum.org)
  • We present the first large scale study characterizing both N - and O -linked glycosylation in a site-specific manner on hundreds of proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Our results reveal both the identity of the precise sites of glycosylation and information on the oligosaccharide structures possible on these proteins. (mcponline.org)
  • Furthermore, this hemoglobin is a useful model of nonenzymatic glycosylation of other proteins that may be involved in the long-term complications of the disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Eukaryotic protein glycosylation is usually via two major types of linkages to proteins: N- and O-linked. (hupo.org)
  • 2 ) explore a specific type of O-glycosylation for plant cell wall structural proteins and connect this modification to root hair growth. (sciencemag.org)
  • The polarized growth of plant root hair cells requires specific glycosylation of proteins in the plant cell wall. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is possible that this novel CBP-mediated post-translational N-glycosylation activity alters the conformation of CBP-interacting proteins, leading to regulation of gene expression, cell growth and differentiation. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Additionally, we know that many nuclear proteins are modified by O-glycosylation, and that this modification is often mutually exclusive with phosphorylation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Two different mechanisms for protein glycosylation can be distinguished by the mode in which the glycans are transferred to proteins. (asm.org)
  • The complexity and diversity of glycosylation significantly complicates the linkage between genetic sequence and mature, active proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a group of diseases characterized by an abnormal glycosylation of proteins, but that can also result from an abnormal synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, glycophospholipids or glycosylphosphatidylinositol or the abnormal synthesis or utilization of dolichols. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To suppress peptide loss, we engineered targeting peptide-Lamp2b fusion proteins to include a glycosylation motif at various positions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • N-linked glycosylation is the most important form of post-translational modification for proteins synthesized and folded in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (Stanley et al. (reactome.org)
  • 1999). It is now established that the majority of the proteins in the secretory pathway require glycosylation in order to achieve proper folding. (reactome.org)
  • A majority of all biologically active proteins are glycosylated and various diseases have proven to correlate with alterations in protein glycosylation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Corner F, Hart G (2000) 0-Glycosylation of nuclear and cytosolic proteins: dynamic interplay between O-G1cNAc and O-Phosphate. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, C. jejuni 81-176 has been shown to contain a general protein glycosylation ( pgl ) system affecting many other soluble and membrane-associated proteins ( 41 ). (asm.org)
  • The protein also shows homology to proteins involved in glycosylation of pilin in Neisseria spp. (asm.org)
  • It turns out that glycosylation, which is the addition of carbohydrates to proteins or other molecules, plays a huge part in protein folding, protein stability, cell adhesion, cellular function and protection, recognition of self, pathogen invasion, and much more. (biolegend.com)
  • The abundances of each glycan are summed into oligomannose-, hybrid, and complex-type glycosylation, showing the extensive heterogeneity in N-glycan composition and site occupancy. (news-medical.net)
  • Furthermore, as seen in Figure 2, the diverse signals which come from heterogeneous complex-type glycosylation are simplified by the summation of glycan intensities into a more limited variety of structural categories. (news-medical.net)
  • Using this method, they were able to identify partial N-glycan occupancy on 17 out of 22 N-glycosylation sites with a combination of high mannose and complex type, but no hybrid-type glycans, as seen in Figure 5. (news-medical.net)
  • However, determining glycan structures is still technically too complex for most clinical laboratories and further efforts have to be made to develop simple analytical tools to study changes in glycosylation. (nih.gov)
  • Chandler KB, Pompach P, Goldman R and Edwards N (2013) Exploring site‐specific N‐glycosylation microheterogeneity of haptoglobin using glycopeptide CID tandem mass spectra and glycan database search. (els.net)
  • Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent and heterogeneity of which depends on growth conditions, expression host, and the presence of glycan trimming enzymes in the secretome, all of which in turn impact enzyme activity. (rti.org)
  • Although the bacterial N-glycan is structurally different from its eukaryotic counterparts, it stands to reason that such glyco-enabled E. coli could be engineered to perform sequential glycosylation reactions that mimic the early processing of N-glycans in humans and other higher mammals. (sbir.gov)
  • Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are Nature's glycosylation reagents: enzymes that catalyse the transfer of a mono- or oligosaccharide from a glycosyl donor to a suitable acceptor, e.g. a glycan, peptide or lipid. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Hsiao ES, Chen JC, Tsai HY et al (2009) Determination of N-glycosylation site and glycan structures of pectin methylesterase in jelly fig ( Ficus awkeotsang ) achenes. (springer.com)
  • HCD or CID fragmentation provides glycan composition information, while ETD and EThcD is used to sequence the peptide and determine glycosylation sites. (thermofisher.com)
  • Glycopeptide data interpretation is challenging because it requires both peptide sequencing and characterization of the glycosylation site(s) and overall glycan composition. (thermofisher.com)
  • This results in an accurate portrayal of the peptide sequence, its site(s) of glycosylation, and its glycan composition. (thermofisher.com)
  • Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), formerly called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, are a rapidly expanding family of multisystem genetic diseases caused by defects in the biosynthesis of the glycan moiety of glycoproteins and other glycoconjugates. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Glycosylation involves enzymatic addition of a precursor oligosaccharide (or glycan) to certain sites in an expressed protein with known peptide motifs within a protein sequence. (rssl.com)
  • Due to the complex nature of glycosylation and structural characterisation, different analytical approaches are required to fully assess the glycan or glycoprotein structure. (rssl.com)
  • Cancer-associated glycosylation promotes the interaction of tumor cells within a microenvironment through glycan-binding receptors-lectins ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This mini review addresses the role of cell adhesion and glycan-mediated interactions during metastasis and tumor-induced immune suppression in the context of altered glycosylation as a ubiquitous characteristic of cancer progression with a focus on integrins, selectins, and siglecs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since N-glycosylation is involved in an great number of different processes, from cell-cell interaction to folding control, mutations in one of the genes involved in glycan assembly and/or modification can lead to severe development problems (often affecting the central nervous system). (reactome.org)
  • O-linked glycosylation typically occurs via an alpha linkage of the glycan to the hydroxyl group of a serine or threonine residue on a protein. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For the first time, the N-glycosylation patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgGs) isolated from the serum of two varieties of knockout pigs (lacking N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and/or α 1,3 galactose) were examined for the presence of potential glycan xenoantigens and compared to N- glycosylation patterns obtained for wild-type (WT) pig IgGs. (omicsonline.org)
  • PMM2 -congenital disorder of glycosylation ( PMM2 -CDG, also known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia) is an inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • DOLK -congenital disorder of glycosylation ( DOLK -CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Im) is an inherited condition that often affects the heart but can also involve other body systems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A congenital disorder of glycosylation type II that has_material_basis_in a mutation of COG7 on chromosome 16p12.2. (jax.org)
  • Pubertal development in ALG6 deficiency (congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ic). (wikipathways.org)
  • Deficiency of UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I causes the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IId. (wikipathways.org)
  • Guo M, Hang H, Zhu T et al (2008) Effect of glycosylation on biochemical characterization of recombinant phytase expressed in Pichia pastoris . (springer.com)
  • We analyzed the glycosylation efficiency of N-glycosylation sites in recombinant Amy2A mutants produced by HEK293 cells and found that glycosylation efficiencies of N427 and N476 were 3% - 18% and 40% - 52%, respectively, indicating that the major N-glycosylation site of glycosylated Amy2A produced by HEK293 cells is N476. (scirp.org)
  • In this work, we describe a model-based platform for understanding the culture factors that affect recombinant protein glycosylation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the workhorse of the biopharmaceutical industry. (aiche.org)
  • Congenital disorders in glycosylation result from autosomally dominant mutations in enzymes involved in glycosylation pathways. (els.net)
  • However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N -linked and O -linked glycosylation pathways. (mdpi.com)
  • This article overviews the major glycosylation pathways that are known to exist in eukarya, bacteria and archaea. (hindawi.com)
  • We show how the OST-mediated N- and O-glycosylation pathways share cytoplasmic assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides, flipping across the ER/periplasmic/cytoplasmic membranes, and transferring " en bloc " to the protein acceptor. (hindawi.com)
  • Together, our results link ubiquitination and glycosylation pathways with stringent regulation of PD-L1, proposing a new therapeutic strategy to enhance cancer immune therapy efficacy. (news-medical.net)
  • In vivo synthesis by installation of new glycosylation pathways in CHO-cells and in vitro synthesis of O-glycans using glycosyltransferases produced at an industrial scale in CHO-cells, combined with recycling pathways for sugar nucleotide substrates have been studied. (europa.eu)
  • Conclusions: The abnormal location of FLT3 caused by different glycosylation status leads to the distinguishing signaling pathways. (medworm.com)
  • Examples of pathways using this mechanism are protein O glycosylation in the Golgi apparatus in eukaryotic cells ( 28 ) and flagellin O glycosylation in several bacterial species ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Even though O-glycosylation has been expected on the spike protein of SARS-Cov-2, this is the first report of the site of O-glycosylation and identity of the O-glycans attached on the subunit S1. (news-medical.net)
  • In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O -linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation. (mdpi.com)
  • The Fast Glycaneering process allows customized N-glycosylation to meet target profiles, specifically antibodies that harbor afucosylated humanized N-glycans (with increased ADCC) or humanized N-glycans. (genengnews.com)
  • Owing to the complex nature of their biosynthesis, glycans are particularly versatile and apparently a large part of human variation derives from differences in protein glycosylation. (degruyter.com)
  • The specific hypothesis behind the proposed research is that reconstitution of a eukaryotic N-glycosylation pathway in E. coli will result in N-glycoproteins with structurally homogeneous human-like glycans. (sbir.gov)
  • A rather comprehensive characterization of protein glycosylation site and the fine details of these site-specific glycans (including composition, sequence, branching, linkage, and anomericity) 14 would require for glycoprotein characterization. (hupo.org)
  • Due to the plasticity of glycosylation, mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics characterizes glycoproteins at different levels, including glycosylation sites (glycosites), glycans, and glycosite-specific glycans 27 28 . (hupo.org)
  • In addition to the structural variety of N-glycans, there is a difference in the glycosylation pattern of human amylase isozymes [5,6]: both the N427 and N476 sites in human salivary amylase can be glycosylated to some extent, whereas those in human pancreatic amylase are either glycosylated to a lesser extent or not glycosylated. (scirp.org)
  • It is important to have an understanding of the structure of the glycans to reduce risks associated with patient safety (due to the formation of potentially allergenic structures), and loss of biological activity of the glycoprotein therapeutic (due to non-optimal glycosylation). (rssl.com)
  • Eight NSs and outlets for host cell protein N-linked and O-linked glycans as well as mAb glycosylation have been considered. (aiche.org)
  • Glycans are generally attached to serine or threonine (O glycosylation) or to asparagine (N glycosylation) residues. (asm.org)
  • RAGE has two N-glycosylation sites on the V-domain and both sites are occupied by complex and hybrid or high mannose N-glycans. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Recent studies have investigated the site occupancy of these types of glycosylation and also defined specific roles for these glycans on Notch structure and function. (springer.com)
  • Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) effector functions are regulated by the composition of glycans attached to a conserved N-glycosylation site in the Fc part. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Given the essential nature of glycosylation, defects in this process most often present as inherited congenital developmental disorders including lysosomal storage diseases, such as Gaucher's and Fabry disease. (qiagen.com)
  • The two NRP1 variants are generated by skipping exon 4 and exon 5, resulting in defects in N-linked glycosylation at asparagine (N) positions N150 and N261, respectively. (nature.com)
  • These disorders comprise defects in protein N - and O -glycosylation. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Disorders affecting O -glycosylation defects are associated with different forms of muscular dystrophy such as Walker-Warburg syndrome, muscle-eye-brain disease, Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I, and congenital muscular dystrophy type 1D. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Recently, patients with cutis laxa and neurologic deficits have been found to have combined N - and O -glycosylation defects. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • This testing method has greatly facilitated the detection of N -linked glycosylation defects. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Glycosylation defects alter insulin but not insulin-like growth factor 1 binding to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The clinical manifestations of CDGs are quite variable both within and among different types, and physicians from every specialty will likely encounter patients affected by glycosylation defects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Defects in this pathway lead to autosomal recessive disorders, called Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). (wikipathways.org)
  • Here, we will discuss molecular mechanisms of how O -glycosylation regulates Notch signaling and describe disorders associated with defects in Notch O -glycosylation. (springer.com)
  • Remarkably, in each instance, cellular pathology appears to arise from glycosylation defects in a single glycoprotein-dystroglycan. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mutations in 6 genes are now known to give rise to forms of congenital or limb-girdle muscular dystrophy where defects in O-linked glycosylation are responsible ( Table 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A genetically heterogeneous group of heritable disorders resulting from defects in protein N-glycosylation. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The influence of glycosylation on the folding and stability of glycoprotein is twofold. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Glycosylation is an important parameter in the optimization of many glycoprotein-based drugs such as monoclonal antibodies . (wikipedia.org)
  • Site-specific N-linked glycosylation of SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein. (news-medical.net)
  • Glycoprotein glycosylation and cancer progression. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the significance of protein glycosylation, the investigation of glycoproteome remains challenging due to the diversity of glycoprotein isoforms (glycoforms) when compared to other modifications. (hupo.org)
  • They carried out stepped collision energy (SCE) mass spectrometry following digestion with two complementary proteases to cover all potential N-glycosylation sequons and integrated N-glycoproteomics analysis. (news-medical.net)
  • Many large-scale mass spectrometry studies on extracellular glycosylation have been conducted in recent years, mainly targeting N -glycosylation ( 13 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 17 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Glycosylation analytical strategies require multiple technologies, including selective enzymatic cleavage, mass spectrometry and a range of HPLC-based chromatographic methods (SEC, HILIC, HIAX and IEX). (rssl.com)
  • Diagnostic screening for many of the disorders is performed by analyzing the glycosylation on serum transferrin, initially by isoelectric focusing, now by mass spectrometry, in specialized clinical diagnostic laboratories both in the United States and abroad. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Methods We applied mass spectrometry of tryptic Fc glycopeptides to analyze IgG Fc glycosylation (sialylation, galactosylation, fucosylation, and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)) in 48 paired CSF and serum samples from adult patients with MS or a first demyelinating event highly suggestive of MS (designated as MS cases), and from healthy volunteers and patients with other non-inflammatory diseases (control group). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The process of glycosylation adds and removes sugar residues to and from oligosaccharides covalently linked to proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids. (qiagen.com)
  • The Human Glycosylation RT² Profiler PCR Array profiles the expression of 84 key genes encoding enzymes that post-translationally add and remove sugar residues to and from proteoglycans and. (qiagen.com)
  • N‐ linked glycosylation occurs on asparagine residues in the consensus sequon Asn‐X‐Ser/Thr. (els.net)
  • O‐ linked glycosylation occurs on serine and threonine residues. (els.net)
  • NRP1 also undergoes post-translational glycosylation modifications including O-linked glycosylation at site Ser612 23 and N-linked glycosylation at several putative asparagine residues 24 , 25 . (nature.com)
  • Finally, we identified three examples of O -glycosylation on tyrosine residues. (mcponline.org)
  • In contrast, O-glycosylation is linked to the hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine residues without an obvious motif preference 16 . (hupo.org)
  • N‐ linked glycosylation commences in the endoplasmic reticulum and is completed in the Golgi apparatus. (els.net)
  • O‐ linked glycosylation commences and is completed in the Golgi apparatus. (els.net)
  • Dean N (1999) Asparagine-linked glycosylation in the yeast golgi. (springer.com)
  • Although ER/Golgi-derived glycosylation is one of the most frequently occurring classes of PTMs ( 6 ), these extracellular modifications continue to be a major challenge because of technical difficulties both in their structural characterization and in deciphering their biological roles. (mcponline.org)
  • The cargo trafficking mechanisms and the glycosylation activities of the Golgi have been studied extensively but separately, leading to the development of two rather distinct research fields, which have interacted poorly over the years. (embo.org)
  • What is the role of membrane trafficking in the organization of the glycosylation machinery in the Golgi? (embo.org)
  • How are the trafficking and glycosylation functions of the Golgi coordinated? (embo.org)
  • Applicants presenting work on the interface between trafficking and glycosylation at the Golgi will be given preference. (embo.org)
  • The lowest scale model is the del Val glycosylation model [4] describing the N-linked glycosylation process of the antibody heavy chain through the Golgi apparatus viewed as a plug flow reactor. (aiche.org)
  • A female patient with cystic fibrosis showed high %CDT as well as a type 2 Tf-IEF profile, supporting the hypothesis that altered function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) affects the compartmentalization of glycosyltransferases in the Golgi, thereby disturbing protein glycosylation (39). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Generally, N-glycosylation processes spread over three cellular compartments - cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. (wikipathways.org)
  • Genomic organization of the human phosphomannose isomerase (MPI) gene and mutation analysis in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ib (CDG-Ib). (wikipathways.org)
  • These diverse structures are controlled by complex glycosylation processes in cells, which are mediated by various glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. (go.jp)
  • Glycosylation processes can be chemically regulated by inhibition of glycosyltransferases or glycosidases with natural and synthetic molecules. (go.jp)
  • This review presents a detailed insight into the exciting possibilities of multiple glycosylation using enzymes, particularly glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4). (rsc.org)
  • Importantly, the use of PNGase F in these approaches results in the loss of all information regarding the oligosaccharide(s) present on specific glycosylation sites. (mcponline.org)
  • Heterogeneity due to cell specific glycosylation and tissue culture conditions are discussed with main emphasis on N- glycosylation sequon occupancy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This research program aimed at developing a conceptually novel technology that will allow straightforward identification of specific glycosylation patterns in biofluids and in live cells. (europa.eu)
  • A great deal of progress has been made in understanding prokaryotic glycosylation since the seminal review of Szymanski and Wren in 2005 [ 1 ] which focused on the discovery, five years earlier, of a general N-glycosylation system in Campylobacter jejuni . (hindawi.com)
  • Then, in the early years of the 21st century, groundbreaking research on the bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni , showed that this prokaryote has a general N-glycosylation system [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This mechanism has been described for N glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells ( 17 ) and in the general N glycosylation system of Campylobacter jejuni ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • We showed that Tspan-1, a tetraspanin overexpressed in many human cancers, harbours oligosaccharides at all four potential N-glycosylation sites. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • These amylases share a 97% - 99% amino acid sequence identity, and two potential N-glycosylation sites (N427 and N476) are commonly found in the C-terminal region. (scirp.org)
  • Although there are two potential N-glycosylation sites (N427 and N476) in the C-terminal region of these amylases, glycosylation of the amylases seems to occur in a tissuespecific manner. (scirp.org)
  • Chapters 21 and 22 further address prokaryotic glycosylation mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Brockhausen I, Yang JM, Burchell J, Whitehouse C and Taylor‐Papadimitriou J (1995) Mechanisms underlying aberrant glycosylation of MUC1 mucin in breast cancer cells. (els.net)
  • Although the presence of glycosylated pilins has been known for many years, the mechanisms of glycosylation are just starting to be understood. (asm.org)
  • Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation ) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate , i.e. a glycosyl donor , is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor ). (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings suggest that the changes in protein structures alter the efficiency of glycosylation in the SAA4 molecule. (hindawi.com)
  • This category of metabolic disorders can be divided into four basic groups depending on where the glycosylation process occurs on the molecule. (wikipathways.org)
  • We suggested that distinct glycosylation states will be differentiated by developing "artificial noses" the size of a single molecule, whereas selectivity toward specific glycoproteins can be obtained by attaching them to specific protein binders. (europa.eu)
  • Here, we explored differences in glycosylation of CA125 between serum from patients with ovarian cancer and healthy controls. (mdpi.com)
  • First, IgG1 glycosylation patterns were different in CSF vs. serum, in the MS group and even in control donors without intrathecal IgG synthesis. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Second, in MS patients vs. controls, IgG1 glycosylation patterns were altered in CSF, but not in serum. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The chromophores are believed to be intermediates in nonenzymatic polypeptide glycosylation. (google.com)
  • Aging and diabetes meliitus are associated with crosslinking and nonenzymatic glycosylation of collagen. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Incubation of tendon fibers with reducing sugars results in increased breaking time in urea similar to that seen in aging, and in nonenzymatic glycosylation and browning. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Used in a process called glycosylation to make therapeutic antibodies acceptable to the human body. (roche.com)
  • We have observed that CBP interacts with BRCA2 and mediates post-translational glycosylation of BRCA2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The focus is mostly on the organization of glycosylation in eukaryotic cells. (nih.gov)
  • Conditional glycosylation in eukaryotic cells using a biocompatible chemical inducer of dimerization. (biomedsearch.com)
  • B ) Gain-of-glycosylation mutations in an integrin subunit can cause a failure to reach the final conformation and thereby prevent α/β heterodimerization. (jci.org)
  • 1 As a consequence, there exists a high degree of functional redundancy such that null mutations in individual enzymes do not cause a glycosylation defect. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Haltiwanger RS, Lowe JB (2004) Role of glycosylation in development. (springer.com)
  • These studies are significant because they should (i) provide the necessary genetic tools to help elucidate the crucial role of glycosylation in a myriad of biological phenomena and (ii) enable the biotechnological synthesis of novel glycoconjugates and potential immunostimulating agents for research, industrial and therapeutic applications. (sbir.gov)
  • Here, we investigated the role of glycosylation in ASIC1a trafficking and acidosis-induced dendritic remodeling. (jneurosci.org)
  • Khidekel and colleagues also found that glycosylation is reversible, suggesting that it may serve a regulatory function akin to phosphorylation and other post-translational modifications. (alzforum.org)
  • Fourth, CSF IgG1 glycosylation correlated with the degree of intrathecal IgG synthesis and CSF cell count. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Fluorine-Directed Glycosylation Enables the Stereocontrolled Synthesis of Selective SGLT2 Inhibitors for Type II Diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Catalytic Glycosylations in Oligosaccharide Synthesis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Genes Involved in the Endoplasmic Reticulum N -Glycosylation Pathway of the Red Microalga Porphyridium sp. (mdpi.com)
  • Glycosylation seemed to be required for correct folding and subsequent transition through the endoplasmic reticulum. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Millions afflicted with Chagas disease and other disorders of aberrant glycosylation suffer symptoms consistent with altered electrical signaling such as arrhythmias, decreased neuronal conduction velocity, and hyporeflexia. (pnas.org)
  • In patients with eye, brain and skeletal muscle abnormalities, O -glycosylation disorders involving abnormal posttranslational processing of alpha-dystroglycan should be considered. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Disorders of O -glycosylation are not detected by this screening test. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • The goal of this study is to better characterize the metabolic alterations and sugar structure alterations (glycosylation abnormalities) in patients diagnosed with Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators aim to assess the safety and tolerability of oral galactose treatment in a small pilot group of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary hypothesis in this study is that adding simple milk sugar (galactose) to the diet of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation patients will normalize the metabolic abnormalities. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The secondary hypothesis posits that galactose intervention in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation patients will normalize specific physiological biomarkers of protein glycosylation that can be utilized for future phase II/III trial development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Over a two-year period, the investigators will enroll patients diagnosed with Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the effects of oral galactose supplementation for each participant, changes in participant growth, as well as blood sugar levels, coagulation parameters and liver function (the primary clinical features of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation) will be correlated with biomarkers derived from participant blood and urine samples obtained at key time points and then compared to standard normative ranges of data for each measure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • People with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) cannot attach these sugars or sugar chains properly. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A deficiency in dolichyl-P-glucose:Glc1Man9GlcNAc2-PP-dolichyl alpha3-glucosyltransferase defines a new subtype of congenital disorders of glycosylation. (wikipathways.org)
  • All the diseases in genes involved in glycosylation are collectively known as Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG) (Sparks et al. (reactome.org)
  • It has become clear in the past half decade that a number of forms of congenital muscular dystrophy are in fact congenital disorders of glycosylation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Unlike congenital disorders of glycosylation involving the N-linked pathway, these O-linked disorders possess distinctive muscle, eye, and brain phenotypes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for glycosylation research that enables analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. (qiagen.com)
  • 9. An indicator composition according to claim 8 for use in an assay procedure for the detection of advanced glycosylation end products in polypeptide samples, said composition comprising a chromophore which is a 1-alkyl-2-formyl-3,4-diglycosyl-pyrrole of the formula ##STR6## wherein R is R 1 . (google.com)
  • A chemical glycosylation reaction involves the coupling of a glycosyl donor, to a glycosyl acceptor forming a glycoside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its most abundant form contained only mannose-rich sugar chains but two distinct glycosylation sites could also contain complex carbohydrates. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The difference in the glycosylation efficiency of each N-glycosylation site also seemed to contribute in part to generate different glycosylation patterns of human amylases. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the glycosylation state of human amylase isozymes and found that the different glycosylation patterns of human amylases were related to the types of amylase-producing cells rather than the types of amylase isozymes. (scirp.org)
  • These findings seem to be highly related to the different glycosylation pattern of human amylases. (scirp.org)
  • Although it is too early to predict the full extent of prokaryotic glycosylation, it is clear from the diversity of prokaryotic glycoproteins discovered in recent years that glycosylation in these organisms is the norm rather than the exception. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, our primary aim is to articulate commonalities and differences in eukaryotic and prokaryotic glycosylation rather than provide full coverage of specific areas. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 In particular, scientists must characterize the addition of sugars-glycosylation-but that's no small feat. (genengnews.com)
  • During glycosylation, sugars are added to dolichol phosphate in order to build the oligosaccharide chain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It has been shown that the process of protein glycosylation can be partially driven by the intracellular availability of nucleotide sugars (NSs), which are the co-substrates to the glycosylation reactions. (aiche.org)
  • In both cases, sugars are transferred en bloc by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase) named PglL in N. meningitidis and PilO in P. aeruginosa . (asm.org)
  • Glycosylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Since CD24 comprises only a short protein core of approximately 30 amino acids and low conservation among species, it has been proposed that the functions of CD24 are mediated by its glycosylation pattern. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mutation caused an alanine-to-serine substitution in the integrin α3 subunit, thereby introducing an N-glycosylation motif at amino acid position 349. (jci.org)
  • The binding of CBP to the amino-terminal region of BRCA2 is necessary for the glycosylation at residue 272 of BRCA2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • A schematic diagram showing typical analysis protocols for evaluating protein glycosylation in vitro . (els.net)
  • Here we show that regulated and aberrant glycosylation modulate cardiac ion channel activity and electrical signaling through a cell-specific mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • A mechanism is described by which cardiac function is controlled and modulated through physiological and pathological processes that involve regulated and aberrant glycosylation. (pnas.org)
  • Glycosylation is a form of co-translational and post-translational modification . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylation is also present in the cytoplasm and nucleus as the O -GlcNAc modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, glycosylation is thought to be the most complex post-translational modification , because of the large number of enzymatic steps involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylation is a crucial post-translational modification in monoclonal antibodies, and it's inherently heterogeneous," De Leoz said. (genengnews.com)
  • Therefore, glycosylation is a site-specific modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of epigenetic modification of genes involved in protein glycosylation are still scarce, but their results indicate that this process might be very important for the regulation of protein glycosylation. (degruyter.com)
  • An equally important function of this organelle is modification of cargo by glycosylation. (embo.org)
  • In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. (rsc.org)
  • Cellectis' innovative nucleases have the potential to enable the modification of protein glycosylation patterns in plants with unprecedented control and uniformity, allowing for increased efficacy of therapeutic products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Protein glycosylation is an important posttranslational modification that occurs in all domains of life. (asm.org)
  • Protein glycosylation is a common posttranslational modification in bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Glycosylation is the most common postranslational modification. (wikipathways.org)
  • Protein N-glycosylation is an ancient metabolic pathway that still exists in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya). (degruyter.com)
  • The metabolic pathway of protein N-glycosylation is critical for SMG development and partial inhibition of DPAGT1, the gene that initiates N-glycosylation, drives cytodifferentiation of ductal structures. (umich.edu)
  • Objective: We investigated whether the Hippo pathway participated in SMG development and if it interacted with the metabolic pathway of N-glycosylation. (umich.edu)
  • Plus, labs use many methods to analyze glycosylation. (genengnews.com)
  • Based on these achievements, a functional glycosylation sensor that can analyze the glycosylation pattern of the Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) protein has already been developed and used to discriminate among glycoform mixtures.12 In addition to tracking glycosylation, the unique technologies that emerged from this research program have yielded new ideas and design principles that are relevant to various areas in chemistry. (europa.eu)
  • A Gly to Ser change at an N-glycosylation sequon at position 82, and two 5' flanking polymorphisms at position -374 and -429 lead to altered function and expression of RAGE. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • The E protein glycosylation motif previously identified in lineage 1 at positions 154-156 (NYS)(6) was present in all 4 South African strains. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Introduction of this glycosylation motif both protected the peptide from degradation and led to an increase in overall Lamp2b fusion protein expression in both cells and exosomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 Working with NIST fellow Stephen Stein and others, De Leoz explored reports from 76 laboratories around the world to compare various methods of analyzing glycosylation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)-particularly a NIST reference (NISTmAb PS) and a modified version of it. (genengnews.com)
  • In thinking about the reports analyzed for this study, De Leoz said, "There is no magic method for analyzing glycosylation in monoclonal antibodies. (genengnews.com)
  • NIST interlaboratory study on glycosylation analysis of monoclonal antibodies: Comparison of results from diverse analytical methods. (genengnews.com)
  • Glycosylation regulates turnover of cyclooxygenase-2. (uniprot.org)
  • While these results are interesting, no experiments have directly assessed whether N -glycosylation regulates ASIC1a surface expression. (jneurosci.org)
  • ASIC1a glycosylation further regulates ASIC1a pH sensitivity and acid-activated current density. (jneurosci.org)
  • Glycosyl iodides were first introduced for use in glycosylation reactions in 1901 by Koenigs and Knorr although were often considered too reactive for synthetic use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thioglycosides used in glycosylation reactions as donors can be activated under a wide range of conditions, most notably using NIS/AgOTf. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycosylation reaction involves the coupling of a glycosyl donor and a glycosyl acceptor via initiation using an activator under suitable reaction conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • To better understand this, the mechanism of a glycosylation reaction must be considered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stereochemical outcome of a glycosylation reaction may in certain cases be affected by the type of protecting group employed at position 2 of the glycosyl donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different protecting groups on either the glycosyl donor or the glycosyl acceptor may affect the reactivity and yield of the glycosylation reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • c. directions for the performance of said protocol for the detection and/or determination of one or more components of an immunochemical reaction between an advanced glycosylation end product and a specific binding partner thereto. (google.com)
  • A highly stereoselective and sterospecific palladium-catalyzed glycosylation reaction of a variety of alcohols is reported. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • VL - 125 IS - 41 N2 - A highly stereoselective and sterospecific palladium-catalyzed glycosylation reaction of a variety of alcohols is reported. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Catalytic glycosylation has been a central reaction in carbohydrate chemistry since its introduction by Fischer 125 years ago, but it is only in the past three to four decades that catalytic methods f. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Glycosylation mediates intercellular interactions and signalling, and is thus a key regulator of multicellularity. (embo.org)
  • This chapter provides an overview of glycosylation from the perspective of a single cell, taking into account the patterns of expression, topology, and other features of the biosynthetic and degradative enzymes that are common to most cell types. (nih.gov)
  • Many enzymes are involved in both N‐ and O‐ linked glycosylation. (els.net)
  • We describe the presence of the well-known mucin-type structures for O -glycosylation, an EGF-domain-specific fucosylation and a rare O -mannosylation on the transmembrane phosphatase Ptprz1. (mcponline.org)
  • 1 O-linked GalNAc can then be further modified by subsequent glycosylation events to generate more elaborate carbohydrate structures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chen MM, Glover KJ and Imperiali B (2007) From peptide to protein: comparative analysis of the substrate specificity of N‐linked glycosylation in C. jejuni. (els.net)
  • To date, the C. jejuni system is the only well-characterized bacterial N glycosylation system. (asm.org)
  • Campylobacter jejuni 81-176 pgl mutants impaired in general protein glycosylation showed reduced ability to adhere to and invade INT407 cells and to colonize intestinal tracts of mice. (asm.org)
  • Many cell adhesion molecules within the tumor microenvironment are changed and significant alterations of glycosylation are observed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Drift variants contained HA substitutions and alterations in the potential N-linked glycosylation sites of HA. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • This review highlights recent developments in chemical regulation of glycosylation processes with specific targets including: inhibition of (1) N -glycosylation, (2) O -glycosylation, (3) O -linked GlcNAc glycosylation, (4) proteoglycan biosynthesis, (5) glycolipid biosynthesis, and (6) terminal glycosylation. (go.jp)
  • A key aim of the review is to integrate information from the three domains of life in order to highlight commonalities in glycosylation processes. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycosylation is one of the most important protein modifications, playing an essential role in almost every aspect of biological processes. (hupo.org)
  • We studied here ASIC1a glycosylation and trafficking, two poorly understood processes pivotal in determining the functional outcome of an ion channel. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is important to emphasize that galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance, and chronic alcohol abuse (but not liver dysfunction per se) are the only conditions that have been shown to lead to secondary glycosylation abnormalities associated with an abnormal transferrin pattern. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Calo D, Kaminski L and Eichler J (2010) Protein glycosylation in Archaea: sweet and extreme. (els.net)
  • Over the ensuing three decades sporadic evidence emerged suggesting that N-glycosylation was likely to be common in the S-layers of archaea. (hindawi.com)
  • It soon became clear that all three domains of life (Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea) perform N-glycosylation in a similar manner. (hindawi.com)
  • The initiating monosaccharides for O-linked glycosylation include galactosamine (GalNAc), mannose, galactose, fucose, glucose, and glucosamine (GlcNAc) 16 , linear or branched oligosaccharide chains of various lengths could be further extended from the initiating monosaccharides. (hupo.org)
  • Glycosylation plays an important role in cancer, inherited diseases, pathogen-host interactions and immune recognition. (els.net)
  • Deficiencies of N -glycosylation represent multisystem diseases with involvement of the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as the gastrointestinal, endocrine, immune, and coagulation/anticoagulation systems. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • It is worth noting that they identified two unexpected O-glycosylation modifications on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein subunit S1. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we show by means of atomistic simulations of membrane-bound CD2, a small cell adhesion receptor expressed by human T-cells and natural killer cells, that the presentation of its ectodomain is highly dependent on membrane lipids and receptor glycosylation acting in apparent unison. (helsinki.fi)
  • Advanced Glycosylation End Product-specific Receptor ELISA Kits from Rockland Immunochemicals, Inc. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 3 Advanced Glycosylation End Product-specific Receptor ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. (biocompare.com)