Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A highly branched glucan in starch.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.
An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
An unbranched glucan in starch.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of six (6) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
A thick-rooted perennial (Cichorium intybus) native to Europe but widely grown for its young leaves used as salad greens and for its roots, dried and ground-roasted, used to flavor or adulterate coffee. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Polysaccharide isolated from the edible mushroom LENTINULA EDODES. The exact composition is unknown.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.
Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.
Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people in EAST ASIA.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
A mitosporic fungal genus occasionally causing human diseases such as pulmonary infections, mycotic keratitis, endocarditis, and opportunistic infections. Its teleomorph is BYSSOCHLAMYS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
... glycosidic bonds. The point of attachment is O-glycosidic bonds, where a glycosidic oxygen links the glycoside to the reducing ... beta 1.3-glucans are complex glucose homopolymers binding together in a beta-1,3 configuration. The following are beta glucans ... 2004). "Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance ... Polyglucan's are a source of beta-glucans. Structurally, ... 3 Beta-D-Glucan Detection in non-HIV Immunocompromised ...
2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin. As ... Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl ... glucosamidinase, poly[1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide)] glycanohydrolase, (1->4)- ...
A glucan is a polysaccharide derived from D-glucose, linked by glycosidic bonds. Many beta-glucans are medically important. ... 3-glucan from Lentinus edodes lichenin, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan oat beta-glucan, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan pleuran, β-1,3- and β- ... The following are glucans: (The α- and β- and numbers clarify the type of O-glycosidic bond.) dextran, α-1,6-glucan with α-1,3- ... 6-glucans cellulose, β-1,4-glucan chrysolaminarin, β-1,3-glucan curdlan, β-1,3-glucan laminarin, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan ...
The majority of cereal β-glucan bonds consist of 3 or 4 beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds (trimers and tetramers) interconnected by 1,3 ... 1160/2011 of the Commission, foodstuffs through which 3 g/day of oat beta-glucan are consumed (1 g of oat beta-glucan per ... oat beta-glucans can achieve up to 95% extraction purity. In oats, β-glucan makes up the majority of the soluble fibre; however ... In November 2011, the EU Commission published its decision in favour of oat beta-glucans with regard to Article 14 of the EC ...
Typically, β-glucans form a linear backbone with 1-3 β-glycosidic bonds but vary with respect to molecular mass, solubility, ... Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. The ...
... forming glycosidic bonds. The family consists of various 1,3-beta-glucan synthase components including Gls1, Gls2, and Gls3 ... 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi. It serves as a ... 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34.) also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer ... The reaction catalysed is: UDP-glucose + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N) = UDP + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N+1). Echinocandin glucan ...
Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all ... Typically, β-glucans form a linear backbone with 1-3 β-glycosidic bonds but vary with respect to molecular mass, solubility, ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Main article: Oat beta-glucan. Cereal β-glucans from oat, barley, wheat, and rye have been studied for their effects on ...
... beta-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37); N-acetyl beta-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52); glucan beta-1,3-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.58); ... Glycoside hydrolases EC 3.2.1. are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more ... Varghese JN, Hrmova M, Fincher GB (February 1999). "Three-dimensional structure of a barley beta-D-glucan exohydrolase, a ... Glycoside hydrolase family 3 CAZY GH_3 comprises enzymes with a number of known activities; beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21); ...
Working from the non-reducing end, β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two ... Beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2, β-amylase, saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan ... 4-α-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase. Beta-amylase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology ... Beta-amylase is found in bacteria, fungi, and plants; bacteria and cereal sources are the most heat stable. ...
... made up of chains of glucose molecules connected by beta glycosidic bonds, as opposed to the alpha glycosidic bonds in starch. ... Should the brewer let this rest go on too long, it's possible that a large amount of β-glucan will dissolve into the mash, ... β-glucan is a general term for polysaccharides, such as cellulose, ...
In this cell-free biosystem, beta-1,4-glycosidic bond-linked cellulose is partially hydrolyzed to cellobiose. Cellobiose ... The enzyme glucan, water dikinase (GWD) phosphorylates at the C-6 position of a glucose molecule, close to the chains 1,6-alpha ... The enzyme starch synthase then adds the ADP-glucose via a 1,4-alpha glycosidic bond to a growing chain of glucose residues, ... Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This ...
Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, or rolled oats; or whole grain or dry-milled barley (3 grams per day) ... are so because humans lack the necessary enzymes to split the glycosidic bond and they reach the large intestine. Many foods ... Examples are beta-glucans (in oats, barley, and mushrooms) and raw guar gum. Psyllium - a soluble, viscous, nonfermented fiber ... 3 g or more per day of beta-glucan soluble fiber from either whole oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley ...
Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, oatrim, or rolled oats (3 grams per day) ... are so because humans lack the necessary enzymes to split the glycosidic bond and they reach the large intestine. Many foods ... 3 g or more per day of beta-glucan soluble fiber from either whole oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley ... Some viscous fibers may also be partially or fully fermented within the intestinal tract (guar gum, beta-glucan, glucomannan ...
Beta-glucan from oat bran, whole oats, or rolled oats (3 grams per day) Beta-glucan from whole grain or dry-milled barley (3 ... are so because humans lack the necessary enzymes to split the glycosidic bond and they reach the large intestine. Many foods ... Examples are beta-glucans (in oats, barley, and mushrooms) and raw guar gum. Psyllium - a soluble, viscous, nonfermented fiber ... Regular intake of soluble fibers, such as beta-glucans from oats or barley, has been established to lower blood levels of LDL ...
... pullulan to panose is catalyzed by three amino acid residues within neopullulanase's active site that cleave a glycosidic bond ... also known as an alpha/beta barrel), an alpha/beta protein fold structure consisting of eight parallel beta-strands connected ... 4-alpha-D-glucan branching enzyme (also known as glycogen branching enzyme). Like these enzymes, each monomer contains an ... A glycosidic oxygen is first protonated by the carboxyl group of a glutamate residue (TAA Glu-230) through generic acid ...
D-glucan glucohydrolase) will cleave α(1-6) glycosidic linkages, as well as the last α-1,4 glycosidic bond at the nonreducing ... Different temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and ... Random α-1,4 glycosidic bond Second α-1,4 glycosidic bond Last α-1,4 glycosidic bond ... Working from the non-reducing end, β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two ...
4-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin and cereal β-D-glucans. Xyloglucan-specific endo-beta-1,4-glucanase ... As they perform hydrolysis of the glucosidic bond, they are hydrolases. Used in enological practices during the aging process ... Glycoside hydrolases, a family of enzyme that cut a glycoside from a non-glycosidic molecule Glycoside hydrolase family 5 ... α-1,4-glucanase, an enzyme that breaks down α-1,4-glucans α-1,6-glucanase, an enzyme that breaks down α-1,6-glucans Pullulanase ...
Formation of beta-(1,4)-glucans from GDP-glucose and beta-(1,3)-glucans from UDP-glucose". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 138 (2): 620 ... 4-alpha-glycosidic bonds, whereas its two products are ADP and an elongated chain of glucose residues. Plants use these enzymes ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ADP-glucose:1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase. Other names in common ... FRYDMAN RB, CARDINI CE (1965). "Studies on adenosine diphosphate d-glucose: α-1,4-glucan α-4-glucosyltransferase of sweet-corn ...
... a beta-glucan polysaccharide.. Amylose is a linear polymer of glucose mainly linked with α(1→4) bonds. It can be made of ... If chitin is detected, they then produce enzymes to digest it by cleaving the glycosidic bonds in order to convert it to simple ... Cellulose is a polymer made with repeated glucose units bonded together by beta-linkages. Humans and many animals lack an ... They can be digested by breaking the alpha-linkages (glycosidic bonds). Both humans and animals have amylases, so they can ...
4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase) will cleave α(1-6) glycosidic linkages, as well as the last α-1,4 glycosidic bond at the ... Different temperatures optimize the activity of alpha or beta amylase, resulting in different mixtures of fermentable and ... 4-glycosidic bonds. The α-amylases (EC 3.2.1.1 ) (CAS 9014-71-5) (alternative names: 1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase; ... Working from the non-reducing end, β-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the second α-1,4 glycosidic bond, cleaving off two ...
6-glycosidic bond. This connection is catalyzed by a branching enzyme, generally given the name α-glucan branching enzyme. A ... insights of N-terminal beta-sandwich in substrate specificity and enzymatic activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 ... 4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme 1, plant branching enzyme, alpha-1,4-glucan:alpha-1,4-glucan-6-glycosyltransferase, and starch ... 6-glycosidic bond. The specific nature of this enzyme means that this chain of 7 carbons is usually attached to a glucose ...
This glucose is added to a growing glucan chain. Glucansucrase uses the energy released from bond cleavage to drive glucan ... First it cleaves a glycosidic bond to split sucrose. Products of the reaction are the constituent monosaccharides glucose and ... "A circularly permuted alpha-amylase-type alpha/beta-barrel structure in glucan-synthesizing glucosyltransferases". FEBS Letters ... These extracellular homopolysaccharides are called α-glucan polymers. Glucansucrase enzymes can synthesize a variety of glucans ...
At the places of origin of a side chain, the branching that takes place bears an α(1→6) Glycosidic bond , resulting in a ... Glucose / Glucan *Glycogen. *Hemicellulose. *Levan beta 2→6. *Lignin. *Mannan. *Pectin. *Starch *Amylopectin ... Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) Glycosidic bonds. Branching usually occurs at intervals of 25 residues. ... In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed more slowly, but ...
beta-glucan b-glucans have an important role in food supplement while b-glucans are also promising in health-related issues, ... Arabinogalactans can also be used as bonding agent for a bunch of things like sweeteners. Xylan The films based on xylan show ... Homoxylans has a backbone of D-xylopyranose residues linked by β(1→3) or mixed ,β(1→3, 1→4)-glycosidic linkages. Homoxylans ... Mixed linkage β-glucans The conformation of the mixed linkage glucan chains usually contains blocks of β-(1→4) D-Glucopyranose ...
... glycosidic linkages in cellulose, hemicellulose, lichenin, and cereal beta-D-glucans. Because cellulose molecules bind strongly ... Endocellulases (EC 3.2.1.4) randomly cleave internal bonds at amorphous sites that create new chain ends. ... beta-1,4-glucanase, beta-1,4-endoglucan hydrolase, endoglucanase D, 1,4-(1,3,1,4)-beta-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase), ... Separation and characterization of cellulases and beta-glucosidases". The Biochemical Journal. 177 (1): 9-19. doi:10.1042/ ...
... forms what are called glycosidic bonds.[8] Properties[edit]. The glycosidic bond can be formed between any hydroxyl group on ... or beta-) result in disaccharides that are diastereoisomers with different chemical and physical properties. ... Sucrose and trehalose are examples of non-reducing disaccharides because their glycosidic bond is between their respective ... The dehydration reaction that bonds monosaccharides into disaccharides (and also bonds monosaccharides into more complex ...
The enzyme on the membrane catalyzes glycosidic bond formations from the nucleotide sugar substrate, uridine diphospho-N-acetyl ... These fibers are embedded in an amorphous matrix consisting of proteins, glucans (which putatively cross-link the chitosan ... beta-carotene) and then "fires" them with an explosive squirt of high-pressure cytoplasm. Sporangia can be launched as far as 2 ... Chitin is built of β-1,4 bonded N-acetyl glucosamine. Fungal hyphae grow at the tip. Therefore, specialized vesicles, the ...
The bond is called a glycosidic linkage. Glucose exists predominantly as a mixture of α and β "pyranose" anomers, but sucrose ... These glucans allow the bacteria to adhere to the tooth surface and to build up thick layers of plaque. The anaerobic ... Two important sugar crops predominate: sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), in which sugar can account ... Unlike most disaccharides, the glycosidic bond in sucrose is formed between the reducing ends of both glucose and fructose, and ...
In the final enzymatic step, the glycosidic bond is cleaved through reaction with a phosphate group, yielding α-D-glucose-1- ... Isolation and properties of a beta-linked covalent glucose-enzyme complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 245 (5): 1020- ... the enzyme's stability in aqueous solutions indicates that the water site may be involved in hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond ... The carboxylate side chain of Asp-295 hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups at C-2 and C-3 of the glucosyl residue.[11] This ...
4-glycosidic bond. Glycogen phosphorylase is also studied as a model protein regulated by both reversible phosphorylation and ... 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase. *Ceramide glucosyltransferase. Galactosyl-. *Lactose synthase. *B-N-acetylglucosaminyl-glycopeptide b ... Glycogen phosphorylase can act only on linear chains of glycogen (α1-4 glycosidic linkage). Its work will immediately come to a ... Finally, the deprotonated inorganic phosphate acts as a nucleophile and bonds with the carbocation, resulting in the formation ...
... forms what are called glycosidic bonds.[8] Properties[edit]. The glycosidic bond can be formed between any hydroxyl group on ... or beta-) result in disaccharides that are diastereoisomers with different chemical and physical properties. ... Sucrose and trehalose are examples of non-reducing disaccharides because their glycosidic bond is between their respective ... The dehydration reaction that bonds monosaccharides into disaccharides (and also bonds monosaccharides into more complex ...
Methylations can occur by the formation of an ether bond on hydroxyl groups forming O-methylated polyphenols. In the case of ... "Profiling of phenolic glycosidic conjugates in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana using LC/MS". Metabolomics. 2 (4): 197-219. doi: ... Beta-glucan *Chitin. *Lentinan. *Fructan *Inulins. *Lignin. *Pectin. Misc:. List of phytochemicals and foods in which they are ... Phenolic lipids are long aliphatic chains bonded to a phenolic moiety. ...
2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin.[1] ... Chitinases (chitodextrinase, 1,4-beta-poly-N-acetylglucosaminidase, poly-beta-glucosaminidase, beta-1,4-poly-N-acetyl ... glucosamidinase, poly[1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide)] glycanohydrolase, (1-,4)- ...
2O) per bond.[56] Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating ... It is a biennial plant,[78] a cultivated variety of Beta vulgaris in the family Amaranthaceae, the tuberous root of which ... All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds ... are molecules composed of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic bond. Common examples are sucrose (table sugar) (glucose ...
β-glucans are glucose molecules linked via β-(1,3)- or β-(1,6)- bonds and provide rigidity to the cell wall while α-glucans are ... They share the 1,3-β-glucan synthesis pathway with plants, using homologous GT48 family 1,3-Beta-glucan synthases to perform ... and the two sugars are bonded with a β,1-3 glycosidic linkage instead of β,1-4. Additionally, the cross-linking peptides are L- ... 3-β-glucans via horizontal gene transfer. The pathway leading to 1,6-β-glucan synthesis is not sufficiently known in either ...
In this study, the effect of ,i,β,/i,-glucan-rich extract of ,i,P. sajor-caju,/i, (GE) on lipid lowering and antioxidant ... Beta-glucans are polysaccharides with glucose residue linked by beta glycosidic bonds. The fermentability of β-glucans and ... The β-glucan content was calculated by subtracting the α-glucan from the total glucan content. Glucan content was expressed as ... The concentration of total glucan in GE was 85.95% (w/w) meanwhile the concentrations of α-glucan and β-glucan were 5.4% (w/w) ...
A glucan is a polysaccharide derived from D-glucose, linked by glycosidic bonds. Many beta-glucans are medically important. ... 3-glucan from Lentinus edodes lichenin, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan oat beta-glucan, β-1,3- and β-1,4-glucan pleuran, β-1,3- and β- ... The following are glucans: (The α- and β- and numbers clarify the type of O-glycosidic bond.) dextran, α-1,6-glucan with α-1,3- ... 6-glucans cellulose, β-1,4-glucan chrysolaminarin, β-1,3-glucan curdlan, β-1,3-glucan laminarin, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan ...
β-Glucans (or beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. They occur most commonly as ... Beta-glucan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views. en.wikipedia.org/Beta-glucan beta-glucan info reference wikipedia ... β-Glucans (or beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. They occur most commonly as ... Definition of beta-glucan - National Cancer Institute Drug Dictionary - 0 views. www.cancer.gov/...drugdictionary.aspx NCI NIH ...
β-Glucans (or beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. They occur most commonly as ... Beta-glucan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - 0 views. en.wikipedia.org/Beta-glucan beta-glucan info reference wikipedia ... β-Glucans (or beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. They occur most commonly as ... Some forms of beta glucans are useful in human nutrition as texturing agents and as soluble fiber supplements, but problematic ...
Beta Glucans are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by b-glycosidic bonds. They occur most commonly as cellulose in ... Reishi or Maitake Mushrooms, or Beta Glucan combinations like Immune Essentials, Immunotix: ... Vitamin A: There are 2 types of vita min A: 1) Fat soluble from fish liver oil, and 2) water soluble from Beta Carotene. ... This software is in a public beta. read our privacy policy The Gilmer Mirror - News, Classifieds, Events and Businesses in ...
... forming glycosidic bonds. The family consists of various 1,3-beta-glucan synthase components including Gls1, Gls2, and Gls3 ... 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi. It serves as a ... 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34.) also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer ... The reaction catalysed is: UDP-glucose + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N) = UDP + {(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl}(N+1). Echinocandin glucan ...
Many beta-glucans are medically important. Types The α- and β- and numbers clarify the type of O-glycosidic bond. Alpha glucan ... Beta glucan cellulose, β-1,4-glucan curdlan, β-1,3-glucan laminarin, β-1,3- and β-1,6-glucan chrysolaminarin, β-1,3-glucan ... glucan 13 October 2009 Definition: A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. ... dextran, α-1,6-glucan glycogen, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan pullulan, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan starch, α-1,4- and α-1,6-glucan ...
Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all ... Typically, β-glucans form a linear backbone with 1-3 β-glycosidic bonds but vary with respect to molecular mass, solubility, ... β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Main article: Oat beta-glucan. Cereal β-glucans from oat, barley, wheat, and rye have been studied for their effects on ...
4-glycosidic bonds, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and barley beta-D-glucan (in vitro). Has no activity with cellobiose ... Has no activity with substrates containing beta-1,3-linked glycans, such as laminarin. Likewise, lacks activity with xylan, ... Thermostable endoglucanase that has high activity with soluble polymeric substrates containing beta-1, ... 4-glycosidic bonds, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and barley beta-D-glucan (in vitro). Has no activity with cellobiose ...
Beta-Glucanase is an endoglycosidase that hydrolyzes the -(1g3) glycosidic bonds in beta-glucan. Betaglucans are ... glycosidic bonds. Maltases ability to cleave ??-(1g6) glycosidic bonds allows it to breakdown isomaltose. Maltase has a ... glycosidic bonds, glucoamylase also efficiently hydrolyzes the ??-(1g6) glycosidic bonds at the branch points of amylopectin ... Lactase, a member of the beta-galactosidase enzyme family, hydrolyzes the -(1g4) glycosidic bond in lactose yielding its ...
Beta-glucans. Close They are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by β-glycosidic bonds and do have a protective action ... Alpha Glucan Oligosaccaride. Close Alpha Glucan Oligosaccaride Pre-biotic & Scalp activator. On the scalp there are some good ... also known as perm salt and reduces the disulfide cystine bonds in the cortex of the hair. ...
β-Glucanase represents a group of carbohydrate enzymes which break down glycosidic bonds ... "β-glucanases degrade β-1,4-glucans of cellulose, xyloglucan and β-1,4-xylan. ... β-Glucanase represents a group of carbohydrate enzymes which break down glycosidic bonds within beta-glucan. It forms the main ... β-glucanases degrade β-1,4-glucans of cellulose, xyloglucan and β-1,4-xylan. ...
... also beta-glucans) denotes polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by beta-glycosidic bonds where such glucans are also ... beta-1 ,4-glucanase, beta-1 ,4-endoglucan hydrolase, endoglucanase D, 1 ,4- (1 ,3,1 ,4)-beta-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase, ... Most useful water soluble glucans comprise: 1 ,3 β-glucan and/or 1 ,4 β-glucan. ... Even more usefully the water soluble fibre comprises glucan. As used herein the term glucans ( ...
Beta- D-glucan polysaccharides are composed of D-glucose monomers joined by glycosidic bonds and MOS have been used as ... Huff GR, Huff WE, Rath NC, Tellez G (2006) Limited treatment with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan improves production values of broiler ... The Biolex® MB40 contains high concentrations of beta-D-glucan and MOS that have been shown to bind substances detrimental to ... The prebiotic compounds that are derived from yeast cell walls include beta-D-glucan and Mannan-Oligosaccharides (MOS) and ...
Glucans (beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by -glycosidic bonds. -... ... Bata Glucan Transfer Point Raw Material Immune Support Cancer Tutor Beta Glucan -glucan Transfer Point Raw Material Immune ... Bata Glucan Transfer Point Raw Material Immune Support Cancer Tutor Beta Glucan ...
... tied to one type of microbe but rather are the polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by Beta-glycosidic bonds, are used ... Use of beta-glucans against biological warfare weapons and pathogens including anthrax. By combining the continuing ... Beta-glucans seem to increase the efficacy of antibiotics and vaccines through similar mechanisms. Ifat Rubin-Bejerano started ...
... beta-xylosidase (EC:3.2.1.37); N-acetyl beta-glucosaminidase (EC:3.2.1.52); glucan beta-1,3-glucosidase (EC:3.2.1.58); ... O-Glycosyl hydrolases (EC:3.2.1.) are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more ... Three-dimensional structure of a barley beta-D-glucan exohydrolase, a family 3 glycosyl hydrolase.. Structure 7 179-90 1999 ... Glycoside hydrolase family 3 GH3 comprises enzymes with a number of known activities; beta-glucosidase (EC:3.2.1.21); ...
β-glucan and triterpenes are considered to have immunoregulatory properties in disease treatment for long years. The ... Thus, we hope to use β-glucan and triterpenes for difficult wound healing that possess immunomodulatory activity on the wound ... The results are clearly presented, with the immunomodulatory effects from mushroom β-glucan and triterpenes that involved in ... "β-Glucan and triterpenes are two important derivative compounds from traditional medicinal mushroom, such as Ganoderma lucidum ...
Beta Glucan Supplier and Manufacturer in China for more than 10 years, Buy Oat Glucan - Beta Glucan Food Grade and Feed Grade ... Beta Glucan Supplier, FOODCHEM is Top Oat Glucan - ... of D-glucose monomers linked by β-glycosidic bonds. β- ... 4, What is the price of Oat Glucan - Beta Glucan?. Foodchem is a famous supplier and manufacturer of Oat Glucan - Beta Glucan ... 3, What is the Min Order Quantity of Oat Glucan - Beta Glucan?. Different products have different MOQ, for Oat Glucan - Beta ...
Beta-glucans: Beta-glucans are polysaccharides linked by beta-glycosidic bonds. Beta-glucans help support a healthy immune ...
Beta Glucan Side Effects. September 26, 2012. February 8, 2015. admin English: Reference showing different glycosidic bonds of ... beta glucan cream, beta glucan cvs, Beta Glucan dangers, Beta Glucan review, Beta Glucan Scam, Beta Glucan Side Effects, Beta- ... beta glucan cancer treatment, beta glucan candida, beta glucan capsules, beta glucan cholesterol, beta glucan comparison, beta ... Just like many useful drugs, beta glucan has its own list of side effects. RxList prohibits the use of any type of beta glucan ...
The present invention relates to beta-glucan compositions having a honeycomb structure and the uses of the compositions as ... beta-1,6)-D-Glucans, e.g. pustulan; (beta-1,4)-D-Glucans; (beta-1,3)(beta-1,4)-D-Glucans, e.g. lichenan; Derivatives thereof ... compounds containing more than five saccharide radicals attached to each other by glycosidic bonds ... the micro-flora at the distal region of the human intestinal tract can ferment and digest beta-glucan, iv) beta-glucan is a ...
Methylation analysis revealed that these glucans are linked by 1,2-glycosidic bonds and one 1,6-glycosidic bond. Our 600-MHz ... 6-glycosidic linkage, whereas all other glucose residues are beta-1,2 linked. The presence of this single alpha-1,6 linkage, ... Cell-associated glucans of Burkholderia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri: a new family of periplasmic glucans. ... Cell-associated glucans of Burkholderia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri: a new family of periplasmic glucans. ...
... beta glycosidic bonds. The types of beta-linkages in a particular beta glucan can include beta (1, 3), beta (1, 4), beta (1, 6 ... 3-beta-D-glucan from Sparassis crispa (7, 9, 15). [0034]By "a beta glucan composition", "a beta glucan extract" or "a beta ... contains a beta glucan or beta glucans as the principal component(s) of the composition or preparation; i.e., the beta glucans ... 0033]Suitable sources of beta glucans include beta (1, 3)D glucan derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, beta ...
... glycosidic bonds. These linkages are not found in natural starch. Because of the presence of several types of chemical bonds, ... beta-glucans, tagatose, and resistant dextrins in general, besides resistant oligo-glucosaccharides. According to an embodiment ... which are connected by glycosidic bonds. Oligosaccharides include di-, tri-, tetra-, penta, hexa-, and so forth saccharides. ... Resistant dextrin also contains a(l→4), and/or a(l→6) glucosidic bonds, which are present in natural starch. However, in the ...
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by β-glycosidic bonds. Glucans are important because ... The issue of beta-glucans and the relationship of these substances to the LAL test remains an important area not described in ... Major groups: Beta-lactams (cephalosporins, penicillins). General mechanism of action: As the name implies, this group of ... Examples: Beta-lactum. 4. Broad spectrum:. Active against Gram positive and Gram negative except Pseudomonas and Mycobacteria. ...
Beta Glucanase. is a carbohydrate digesting enzyme that breaks down glycosidic bonds within beta-glucan. Glucans can create up ... The Beta-1, 3-D glucan is highly purified, over 93% pure, with a certified 1,3/1,6 carbohydrate content. The aloe vera is ... Not only high levels of vitamin C - C-food properties are rich in beta carotene,fatty acids calcium, iron, niacin, ... Dandelion is natures richest green vegetable source of beta-carotene, from which vitamin A is created, and the third richest ...
beta-glucanase represents a group of carbohydrate enzymes which break down glycosidic bonds within beta-glucan. ...
contains Beta-Glucan produced by agrobacterium fermentation, which heals 85% of 1-3 glycosidic bonds. ... contains Beta-Glucan produced by agrobacterium fermentation, which heals 85% of 1-3 glycosidic bonds. ... Beta-Glucan. These are complex carbohydrates found in yeast, mushroom, oats, and barley. Beta-Glucans are polysaccharides found ... Beta-Glucans are polysaccharides found to protect and support the bone marrow and trigger the mobilisation of stem cells from ...
Diabetes and medical info, English: reference showing different glycosidic bonds of a beta-glucan. (photo credit: wikipedia). ...
  • [4] Cellulose is not conventionally considered a β-glucan, as it is insoluble and does not exhibit the same physicochemical properties as other cereal or yeast β-glucans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thermostable endoglucanase that has high activity with soluble polymeric substrates containing beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and barley beta-D-glucan (in vitro). (uniprot.org)
  • Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose, lichenin and cereal beta-D-glucans. (uniprot.org)
  • β-glucanases degrade β-1,4-glucans of cellulose, xyloglucan and β-1,4-xylan. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Hydrolysis of (1->4)-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in cellulose and similar substrates, releasing cellobiose from the reducing ends of the chains. (genome.jp)
  • Cellulase is an enzyme that breaks down cellulose into beta glucose. (nootrofit.nl)
  • Cellulase breaks down cellulose into beta-glucose and hemicellulase metabolizes hemicellulose. (drjockers.com)
  • The primary role of these enzymes is to degrade the cellulose structure by hydrolysis process which mainly involves the synergistic action of two cellulases namely exo and endocellulases followed by a Beta-glucosidase that hydrolyzes the soluble cellodextrin oligomers to glucose. (biotecharticles.com)
  • The specific and effective xyloglucanases completely lack or very low activities toward Beta-glucan and carboxymethyl-cellulose of the plant. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Cellulases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose, can be classified into several different protein families. (rcsb.org)
  • Description: Hydrolyzes both internal and external β-glycosidic bonds in cellulose. (bio-cat.com)
  • Polysaccharides , which are linear or branched polymers of monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds and include starch, glycogen (animal starch), and fiber/cellulose. (jonbarron.org)
  • Shows relatively high activity toward barley beta-glucan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and lower activity toward lichenan, wheat arabinoxylan and other xylans. (mybiosource.com)
  • As a glucan , Cellulose , a source of insoluble fiber , as a polysaccharide, is either composed of unbranched chains or as cellobiose linked units of glucose. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • An unbranched polyglucose (glucan) in starch, similar to cellulose, containing α(1→4) linkages. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cellulose is a polymer of the simple sugar glucose covalently bonded by beta-1,4-linkages. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Hi LPMO9H was active on cellulose and oxidized the substrate at the C1 carbon of the pyranose ring at β-1,4-glycosidic linkages, whereas Hi LPMO9I cleaved cellulose with strict oxidization at the C4 carbon of glucose unit at internal bonds, and also showed activity against glucomannan. (megazyme.com)
  • Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) cleave glycosidic bonds in glycoconjugates, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides such as cellulose and various hemicelluloses. (dissertations.se)
  • A glucan is a polysaccharide derived from D-glucose, linked by glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definition: A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. (humpath.com)
  • On paper these products can tout high polysaccharide amounts (alpha-glucans + beta-glucans) but in reality the majority of those polysaccharides come from alpha-glucans in the form of starches and fillers. (realmushrooms.com)
  • It is quite concerning because many products on the market tout polysaccharide numbers yet fail to mention any beta-glucan numbers . (realmushrooms.com)
  • As the beta-glucans are the important polysaccharide in these fungi, it is vital that beta-glucan testing be done instead of polysaccharide testing to properly qualify medicinal mushroom products. (realmushrooms.com)
  • β-D-glucans (beta-Glucan), a water-soluble polysaccharide with diversity physiological activities for applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. (com.vn)
  • Beta gluc ans are a long-chain polysaccharide that are most commonly obtained from Saccharomyce scerevisiae yeast cells, and in nature they can be found in some edible mushrooms (reishi, maggot, shiitake, maitake), grains (oats and barley) and certain algae types. (hugyourlife.eu)
  • ß-Glucan is therefore not only a biologically active polysaccharide with strong immunomodulating effects, but is also considered to be an evolutionary and very old stimulant of a variety of immune reactions. (benthambooks.com)
  • Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds. (unionpedia.org)
  • Callose is a plant polysaccharide, it is made by the Glucan Synthase-Like gene (GLS) in various places within a plant. (unionpedia.org)
  • The active polysaccharide fractions in aloe are called galacto-mannans or beta-glucomannans. (jonbarron.org)
  • Linear β-1,3-1,4-glucans are the polysaccharide components of Poaceae, lower plants, and fungi cell walls, and are abundant in the endosperm cell walls of cereals (especially in barley, rye, oats, and wheat) [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • 1. polysaccharide of d-glucose containing α-1→4 glycosidic bonds. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They are part of a effort to create anti-caries enzymes because of Streptococcus mutans , as well as making a prebiotic and promoting the growth of friendly gut-bacteria like from the bacteria-derived extra-cellular polysaccharide known as insoluble glucan, or mutan (that dentists tell you is plaque --turns out to be a sugar construct). (everything2.com)
  • This assay was also be adopted for high-throughput screening of a wide variety of sugar acceptor - sugar phosphate donor combinations in order to probe the promiscuity of the enzymes which can be useful tools for creating other types of glycosidic linkages. (robfieldlab.uk)
  • This means the bonds between the D-glucose units are either beta-(1→3) linkages or beta-(1→4) linkages. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. (unionpedia.org)
  • Hi, maybe a stupid question and I should already know this, but when linkages in polysaccharides are mentioned it has either alpha or beta mentioned before them. (protocol-online.org)
  • e.g. α (1→4) linkages in glucans and β-1,4 linkage in chitin. (protocol-online.org)
  • Glucans are polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units, consisting of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • In carbohydrate science , Starches are a group of storage polysaccharides composed of a long-chain polymers of glucose in which glucopyranose units are bonded by alpha-linkages. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • They can be digested by hydrolysis, catalyzed by enzymes called amylases, which can break the alpha-linkages ( glycosidic bonds ). (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • The purified recombinant enzyme hydrolyzed beta-1,4 but not beta-1,3 glucosidic linkages and had the highest specific activity on cellopentaose (degree of polymerization [DP] = 5) and cellohexaose (DP = 6) oligosaccharides. (bvsalud.org)
  • β-glucans were first discovered in lichens, and shortly thereafter in barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • The approved health claim was later amended to include these sources of β-glucan: rolled oats (oatmeal), oat bran, whole oat flour, oatrim (the soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour), whole grain barley and barley beta-fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-glucans form a natural component of the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, yeast, and cereals such as oat and barley. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three-dimensional structure of a barley beta-D-glucan exohydrolase, a family 3 glycosyl hydrolase. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Beta glucans are a good example, which are soluble fibers usually extracted from cell walls of bacteria, algae, fungi, yeasts and even parts of certain plants like oats and barley. (healthindexx.com)
  • Beta-glucan is a soluble fiber found in certain types of algae, bacteria, fungi, and yeast, and in particular plants such as barley and oats. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • The endo-β-1,3-1,4-glucanases have been found widely in bacteria, fungi, algae and plants, and have been applied to the hydrolysis of barley β-1,3-1,4-glucans in the beer brewing industry. (omicsonline.org)
  • Enzymatic assays show that recombinant PEGase1 expressed by T. reesei was more efficient when hydrolyzing barley β-1,3- 1,4-glucans specifically, suggesting that modifications have a dramatic effect on the activity of PEGase1. (omicsonline.org)
  • Although they share the same substrate specificity for barley β-1,3-1,4-glucans, plant and microorganism EGases are quite unrelated to each other from the points of view of amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. (omicsonline.org)
  • 2) The difference of β-amylase and α-amylase( Alpha Amylase ) is that the α-1,4-glucan chain is cleaved in units of maltose from the non-reducing end, which is mainly found in higher plants (barley, wheat, sweet potatoes, soybeans, etc.), but also reported in bacteria, milk, mold. (shingenzymes.com)
  • The highest specific activity toward polysaccharides occurred with mixed-linkage beta-glucans such as barley beta-glucan and lichenan. (bvsalud.org)
  • Their broad specificity can be rationalized from X-ray crystallographic data obtained from a barley beta-d-glucan glucohydrolase in complex with non-hydrolysable S-glycoside substrate analogues, and from molecular modelling of enzyme-substrate complexes. (agrisera.com)
  • Structure of barley beta-amylase. (popflock.com)
  • Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. (fruitarians.net)
  • Description: Randomly hydrolyzes glycosidic bonds within the starch chains. (bio-cat.com)
  • Maltohexaose-producing amylase, called G6-amylase (EC 3.2.1.98), from alkalophilic Bacillus sp.707 predominantly produces maltohexaose (G6) from starch and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (rcsb.org)
  • 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase is a glucosyltransferase enzyme involved in the generation of beta-glucan in fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • 18. An enzyme preparation comprising cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase, wherein said cellobiohydrolase comprises an amino acid sequence having at least 80% identity to SEQ ID NOS: 2, 4, 6 or 8, or to an enzymatically active fragment thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 26. The enzyme preparation of claim 18, wherein the beta-glucosidase comprises an amino acid sequence having at least 80% identity to SEQ ID NOS: 22, 24 or 26, or to an enzymatically active fragment thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Glucan 1,4-alpha-maltotriohydrolase ( EC 3.2.1.116 , exo-maltotriohydrolase , maltotriohydrolase , 1,4-alpha-D-glucan maltotriohydrolase ) is an enzyme with systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan maltotriohydrolase . (wikivisually.com)
  • Substrates which do not require protonic assistance for initial bond cleavage exhibit kcat/Km values similar to those of wild-type enzyme, whereas substrates which do require assistance have kcat/Km values over 6000-fold smaller. (nih.gov)
  • In the presence of sodium azide a new product, beta-cellobiosyl azide, is formed with these mutants whereas only cellobiose is formed with wild-type enzyme or the Glu127Asp mutant under similar conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Basically, it is a group of carbohydrate enzyme which breaks the glycosidic bonds within the glucan. (supplementsglobal.com)
  • As a multifunctional growth promoter, beta mannanase enzyme can promote the secretion of insulin-like growth factor IGF-I, protein synthesis, lean meat rate and growth.Effect:1. (shingenzymes.com)
  • Kinetics studies with cellooliogsaccharides and p-nitrophenyl-cellooligosaccharides indicated that the enzyme had three glucose binding subsites (-I, -II, and -III) for the nonreducing end and two glucose binding subsites (+I and +II) for the reducing end from the scissile glycosidic linkage. (bvsalud.org)
  • The broad specificity for glycosidic linkage type would enable the enzyme to perform diverse functions during plant development. (agrisera.com)
  • Alpha amylase (α-Amylase) is a faster-acting enzyme than beta amylase (β-amylase). (healthjade.com)
  • These enzymes catalyse the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to specific acceptor molecules, forming glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some β-glucan molecules have branching glucose side-chains attached to other positions on the main D-glucose chain, which branch off the β-glucan backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most promising molecules is ß-glucan. (benthambooks.com)
  • The polysaccharides, usually termed "ß-glucans", and referred throughout this eBook, are non-cellulosic polymers of ß-D-glucose, with glycosidic bonds in position ß-(1-3) and with a certain portion of ß-(1-6) bound glucose molecules. (benthambooks.com)
  • This occurs because heat increases the kinetic energy and causes the molecules to vibrate so rapidly and violently that the bonds are disrupted . (fruitarians.net)
  • Biopolymers are polymeric biomolecules which contain monomeric units that are covalently bonded to form larger molecules. (intechopen.com)
  • It hydrolyzes xylan by hydrolyzing the β-1,4-glycosidic bonds of xylan molecules, xylooligosaccharides such as small oligosaccharides and xylulose, as well as a small amount of xylose and arabinose. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The GTs are a large group of enzymes that are centrally involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls, catalyzing the transfer of sugar moieties from activated donor molecules to acceptor molecules to form glycosidic bonds. (springer.com)
  • A disaccharide could be consists of two same sugar particles like maltose, which will be made up of two D-glucose molecules linked through a glycosidic bond , or two different hexose sugars like lactose formed with D-glucose and D-galactose. (silt3.com)
  • Each type of beta-glucan comprises a different molecular backbone, level of branching, and molecular weight which affects its solubility and physiological impact. (wikipedia.org)
  • RxList prohibits the use of any type of beta glucan for over eight weeks. (healthindexx.com)
  • If you did, then you have consumed a certain type of beta-glucan which has been shown to lower cholesterol, boost immunity and lower blood glucose. (crvitality.com)
  • Each type of beta-glucan can have amazing and diverse physiological effects on the human body with some overlapping beneficial effects. (crvitality.com)
  • The family consists of various 1,3-beta-glucan synthase components including Gls1, Gls2, and Gls3 from yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast and fungal β-glucans contain 1-6 side branches, while cereal β-glucans contain both β-1,3 and β-1,4 backbone bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most common sources of β(1,3)D-glucan for supplement use is derived from the cell wall of baker's yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ). (wikipedia.org)
  • β-glucans found in the cell walls of yeast contain a 1,3 carbon backbone with elongated 1,6 carbon branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prebiotic compounds that are derived from yeast cell walls include beta-D-glucan and Mannan-Oligosaccharides (MOS) and these have been evaluated for their impact on poultry gut microflora [ 1 , 14 , 15 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Beta glucan is known by various names like amylodextrins, baker's yeast, beta glycans, GD and lentinan. (healthindexx.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein said beta glucan composition is prepared from an organism selected from the group consisting of bacteria, yeast, mushrooms, seaweed, and grains. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • In this paper, we report the use of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl on the extraction and isolation of β-glucan from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (com.vn)
  • This method can be used to prepare purified beta-glucan from baker's yeast. (com.vn)
  • Branched ?1,3 / ?1,6, Dietary Supplement, Jarrow Formulas Beta Glucan is made from a special ?1,3 / ?1,6 glucan extract of the Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell walls. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • Many beta-glucan supplements source their beta-glucan from substances like baker's yeast. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • Beta-glucans derived from yeast and fungi typically have a (1,3) β- backbone with a small number of (1,6) β -linked side chains. (crvitality.com)
  • Beta-glucans derived from yeast and fungi tend to be effective in modulating the immune system. (crvitality.com)
  • β-Glucans (beta- glucans ) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals , fungi, and more specifically yeast where it is found in it's most abundant quantity. (betaexpress.com)
  • These include the plant xyloglucan:xyloglucosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.207 , a.k.a. xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases, XETs) [ 2 ] and yeast chitin/beta-glucan crosslinking enzymes Crh1 and Crh2 [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. (cazypedia.org)
  • Our 600-MHz homonuclear and 1H-13C heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance experiments revealed the presence of a single alpha-1,6-glycosidic linkage, whereas all other glucose residues are beta-1,2 linked. (asm.org)
  • The presence of this single alpha-1,6 linkage, however, induces such structural constraints in these cyclic glucans that all individual glucose residues could be distinguished. (asm.org)
  • Oat beta glucan i s composed of mixed-linkage polysaccharides. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Other enzymes act on the cell wall polysaccharides, mixed-linkage β-glucan and arabinoxylan, reducing the viscosity and thus aiding filtration, and reducing the possibility of subsequent precipitation of polymeric material (Bamforth, 1982). (megazyme.com)
  • Pseudo-maltononaose occupies subsites -6 to +3 and induces the conformational change of Glu266 and Asp333 to form a salt linkage with the N-glycosidic amino group and a hydrogen bond with secondary hydroxyl groups of the cyclitol residue bound to subsite -1, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • If the glycosidic linkage is within between a carbohydrate residue and another molecule however saccharide, is named as an aglycone. (silt3.com)
  • Glycosidic linkage is assigned regarding basis place of carbon atom involves in linkage because it's an acetal linkage between carbon atoms of two monomer products. (silt3.com)
  • The C-1 of glucose is quite near C-5 in 3d area arrangements, thus it could organize in band form in the place of open string by the bond formation between H-OH of C-5 with C-1 by hemiacetal linkage and form a cyclic construction. (silt3.com)
  • Generally glucose flow in bloodstream by means of sugar or kind disaccharides, in which two Monosaccharides associated with glycosidic linkage which formed by a condensation reaction between the hydroxyl selection of the first-position carbon plus the hydroxyl group of the fourth-position carbon of each and every monosaccharide devices. (silt3.com)
  • Glycosidic linkage named following the anomers of monosaccharide units (alpha and beta units) involve within linkage. (silt3.com)
  • If alpha-form of monosaccharides requires in glycosidic linkage, it really is generally alpha-glycosidic linkage that can easily be represented because of the position of carbon atoms involve in bond development. (silt3.com)
  • Including in maltose sugar, two glucose devices get condense and bonded with glycosidic linkage. (silt3.com)
  • Since C-1 and C-4 of two alpha devices involve in glycosidic linkage, it known as alpha1-4-glycosidic linkage. (silt3.com)
  • also known as callose synthase catalyses the formation of a beta-1,3-glucan polymer that is a major component of the fungal cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • A beta glucan collagen matrix used for covering partial thickness burns have also yielded good results, while bodily levels of beta glucan can also help doctors detect and monitor fungal infections. (healthindexx.com)
  • Decline of white blood cell count has been observed in some patients receiving beta glucan therapy, making them more prone to fungal, viral and bacterial infection. (healthindexx.com)
  • These glucans also create up to 60% of the cell wall of many forms of fungal organisms such as C. albicans and candidal biofilm (the common experience of candida in the gut). (drjockers.com)
  • Fungal endo-1,4-Beta-xylanases cleave the glycosidic bonds of backbone chain of xylan. (biotecharticles.com)
  • In spite of the fact that the introductory chapter Structural Analysis of Fungal Glucans deals with ß-glucans isolated from fungi, described methodological approaches are common for all types of ß-glucans, irrespective of their origin. (benthambooks.com)
  • In this chapter, modern chemical, spectroscopic and separation methods commonly applicable in structural analysis of (not merely fungal) glucans are summarized. (benthambooks.com)
  • Although cytokine responses to ß-glucan particles were similar in NADPH oxidase-competent and NADPH oxidase-deficient mouse and human neutrophils, stimulation with zymosan, a more complex fungal particle, induced elevated cytokine production in NADPH oxidase-deficient neutrophils. (bvsalud.org)
  • Understanding the host anti-fungal immunity induced by beta-glucan has been one of the most challenging conundrums in the field of biomedical research. (bvsalud.org)
  • During the last couple of decades, insights on the role of beta-glucan in fungal disease progression, susceptibility, and resistance have been greatly augmented through the utility of various beta-glucan cognate receptor-deficient mouse models. (bvsalud.org)
  • Analysis of dectin-1 knockout mice has clarified the downstream signaling pathways and adaptive effector responses triggered by beta-glucan in anti-fungal immunity. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the other hand, assessment of CR3-deficient mice has elucidated the compelling action of beta-glucans in neutrophil-mediated fungal clearance, and the investigation of EphA2-deficient mice has highlighted its novel involvement in host sensing and defense to oral mucosal fungal infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • β-Glucanase represents a group of carbohydrate enzymes which break down glycosidic bonds within beta-glucan. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • 4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucan glycanohydrolase) are hydrolytic enzymes that break down glycosidic bonds in chitin. (unionpedia.org)
  • B. solanacearum synthesizes only a neutral cyclic glucan containing 13 glucose residues, and X. campestris pv. (asm.org)
  • citri synthesizes a neutral cyclic glucan containing 16 glucose residues. (asm.org)
  • Beta-xylosidase catalyzes the release of xylose residues by hydrolyzing the end of xylooligosaccharides. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The enzymes catalyse the hydrolytic removal of beta-d-glucosyl residues from non-reducing termini of a range of beta-d-glucans and beta-d-oligoglucosides. (agrisera.com)
  • The glucosyl residue occupying binding subsite -1 is tightly locked into a fixed position through extensive hydrogen bonding with six amino acid residues near the bottom of an active site pocket. (agrisera.com)
  • The relative flexibility of binding at subsite +1, coupled with the projection of the remainder of bound substrate away from the enzyme's surface, means that the overall active site can accommodate a range of substrates with variable spatial dispositions of adjacent beta-d-glucosyl residues. (agrisera.com)
  • From the NMR and FTIR data, it has been confirmed that curdlan was exclusively composed of β (1 → 3)-D-glucan residues. (springeropen.com)
  • Similarly a Trisaccharide like Maltotriose consists of comprising three sugar residues which are bonded with $\alpha$1-4 glycosidic bonds. (silt3.com)
  • Some forms of beta glucans are useful in human nutrition as texturing agents and as soluble fiber supplements, but problematic in brewing as excessive levels make the wort too viscous. (diigo.com)
  • [1] β-glucans are used as texturing agents in various nutraceutical and cosmetic products, and as soluble fiber supplements. (wikipedia.org)
  • A serving of oatmeal supplies 0.75 grams of the 3.0 g of β-glucan soluble fiber necessary per day to have this effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oat is a rich source of the water-soluble fiber (1,3/1,4) β-glucan , and its effects on health have been extensively studied over the last 30 years. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Oat beta glucan is a natural soluble fiber. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Meanwhile, extensive researches about potential benefits of beta glucans are still in progress. (healthindexx.com)
  • Now that you know the key benefits of beta-glucans on skin health, you might be interested in learning about some of the research which has been done over the years. (crvitality.com)
  • Primary methods employ defined oligosaccharides or highly purified polysaccharides and measure the rate of hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds using a reducing-sugar method. (megazyme.com)
  • There are 2 types of vita min A: 1) Fat soluble from fish liver oil, and 2) water soluble from Beta Carotene. (gilmermirror.com)
  • Cellobiose is a water-soluble beta-1,4-linked dimer of glucose. (allindianpatents.com)
  • It is very easy to get 500 milligrams of beta glucan by taking transfer point beta glucan 1,3d because this supplement is in a concentrated form. (foodpharmacy.blog)
  • Topological characterization of an inner membrane (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan (curdlan) synthase from Agrobacterium sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oats also contain beta-glucans, but they have a different branching structure, which are (1-4)beta-d-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • If you're anything like me, you'll want to read some of the evidence behind these amazing claims before going out and rubbing some oats on your face or buying some kind of product which contain beta glucans. (crvitality.com)
  • Fungi will contain small amounts of glycogen, but the primary polysaccharides are beta-D-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • Glycogen can be either an α-1,4-glucan or α-1,6-glucan. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • β-Glucans ( beta- glucans ) comprise a group of β- D -glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals , bacteria , and fungi , with significantly differing physicochemical properties dependent on source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some examples of polysaccharides would be chitin and beta-glucans, which make up the cell walls of fungi. (realmushrooms.com)
  • Description: Hydrolyzes the β1,3-gylocsidic bonds found in beta-glucans in cell walls. (bio-cat.com)
  • Chapter Insights into the Physicochemical Characterization, Chemistry, Structure and Synthesis of (1-3,1-6)-ß-Glucans summarizes the physicochemical information of ß-glucans derived from natural sources and provides a foundation for the development of methods for the organic synthesis of ß-glucan-based oligosaccharides. (benthambooks.com)
  • Description: Hydrolyzes the terminal α-1,6-glycosidic bonds in oligosaccharides liberating simple sugars. (bio-cat.com)
  • In 1997, the FDA approved of a claim that intake of at least 3.0 g of β-glucan from oats per day decreased absorption of dietary cholesterol and reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3. Oat Beta Glucan lowers the risk of coronary heart disease by significantly lowering LDL cholesterol. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Polysaccharides are long chain carbohydrates that are made up of various monosaccharides connected by glycosidic bonds. (realmushrooms.com)
  • are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In carbohydrate science , Dextrans are a group of glucose polymers ( glucans ) made by certain bacteria. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • We are primarily interested in the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) which synthesize, re-arrange, and degrade glycosidic bonds. (ubc.ca)
  • Glucans are polysaccharides derived from glucose monomers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The monomers are linked by glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Glucans (or beta-glucans) are polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. (diigo.com)
  • Beta-glucans, which are not specifically tied to one type of microbe but rather are the polysaccharides of D-glucose monomers linked by Beta-glycosidic bonds, are used in medicine. (documentaryheaven.com)
  • It serves as a pharmacological target for antifungal drugs such as caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin, deemed 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1,3-Beta-glucan synthase (EC 2.4.1.34. (wikipedia.org)
  • Echinocandin glucan EC 2.4.1.34 glucan+synthase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) CAZy Campbell JA, Davies GJ, Bulone V, Henrissat B (September 1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • They typically consist of glucose polymers with a backbone of 1-3 beta-glycosidic bonds and different variation of side chains: Oat beta-glucans having (1-4)-d-glucopyranose units which are separated every 2-3 units be single beta glucan (1-3) glucose units. (crvitality.com)
  • Other important mannan-degrading enzymes comprise Beta-mannanase and Beta-mannosidase in which Beta-mannosidase contains enzymes with Beta-1,3-xylanase activity, whereas these enzymes belonging to this family characterized from fungi viz. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Here we find that while under steady state, ß-1,3-glucan-containing polysaccharides potentiate pro-inflammatory properties, a relatively less abundant class of cell surface polysaccharides, dubbed mannan/ß-1,6-glucan-containing polysaccharides (MGCP), is capable of exerting potent anti-inflammatory effects to the immune system. (bvsalud.org)
  • Another group of polysaccharides are alpha-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • What we've discovered is that the polysaccharides in many so-called mushroom products are made up of alpha-glucans and not beta-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • This particular sample tests high in alpha-glucans and very low in beta-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • It expresses high amounts of alpha-glucans and little if any beta-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • ascomycete), which is dominated by high alpha glucans and small amounts of beta-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • Those alpha-glucans provide no medicinal benefit. (realmushrooms.com)
  • It detects soluble and insoluble (1-3)(1-6)beta-D-glucans and even quantifies the alpha-glucans, which are starches, so we can see if products contain fillers like grain. (realmushrooms.com)
  • A covalent bond which bonded a carb molecule to a different molecule is known as as glycosidic relationship. (silt3.com)
  • Description: Sequentially hydrolyzes terminal α-1,4 and α-1,6-glycosidic bonds from the non-reducing ends. (bio-cat.com)
  • Description: Hydrolyzes the α-1-6 glycosidic bonds in dextran. (bio-cat.com)
  • The exoglucanase/xylanase Cex from Cellulomonas fimi hydrolyzes beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds with net retention of anomeric configuration, releasing the disaccharides beta-cellobiose or beta-xylobiose. (nih.gov)
  • Hydrolyzes internal beta-1,4-glucosidic bonds. (mybiosource.com)
  • Beta-glucans come in various forms, but the main one in fungi have what is known as 1-3,1-6 branching also referred to as (1-3)(1-6)beta-d-glucans. (realmushrooms.com)
  • Fungi use both specific and nonspecific groups of endo-Beta-(1,4)-glucanases for thorough hydrolysis of the backbone chain of xyloglucan. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Beta-glucans can also be found in bacteria and fungi, but these have different properties than oat beta glucans. (crvitality.com)
  • ß-Glucans are isolated from numerous fungi and from sources such as seaweeds, bacteria, or cereals as well. (benthambooks.com)
  • Beta Glucans are polysaccharides composed solely of glucose. (betaexpress.com)
  • Also known as Endoglucanase 22 (Endo-1,4-beta glucanase 22) (Glycosyl hydrolase 9B16). (mybiosource.com)
  • From the above-mentioned modes of action of α-amylase and β-amylase, the names of α-1,4-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase and α-1, 4-glucan-maltose hydrolase (α-1,4-glucan maltohydrolase) etc. were proposed respectively and used. (shingenzymes.com)
  • Side chain hydrolases such as phenolic esterase formed by acids (such as ferulic acid or coumaric acid), which act on glycosidic bonds between xylose and side chain substituents, and cooperate with the main chain hydrolase. (selfgrowth.com)
  • GH88 unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases use an atypical glycoside hydrolase mechanism that involves the hydration of the double bond between carbons 4 and 5 of the non-reducing terminal sugar of their substrates and subsequent rearrangement. (cazypedia.org)
  • Also known as Endoglucanase (Abscission cellulase) (Endo-1,4-beta-glucanase). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Endoglucanase 25 (Cellulase homolog OR16pep) (Endo-1,4-beta glucanase 25) (Protein KORRIGAN) (Protein RADIALLY SWOLLEN 2). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Endoglucanase 5 (Cellulase V) (Endo-1,4-beta-glucanase V) (Endoglucanase V). Endoglucanase with some exoglucanase activity. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Endoglucanase 9 (Cellulase 3) (AtCEL3) (Endo-1,4-beta glucanase 9). (mybiosource.com)
  • Protease are enzymes that break the peptide bonds that link amino acids into polypeptide chains forming proteins, and can also help digest the cellular walls of unwanted wastes like toxins, undigested proteins, and other cellular debris. (nootrofit.nl)
  • Protease are enzymes that break the peptide bonds that link amino acids into polypeptide chains forming proteins. (nootrofit.nl)
  • 1. A method for treating cellulosic material with cellobiohydrolase, endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase, whereby said cellobiohydrolase comprises an amino acid sequence having at least 80% identity to SEQ ID NOS: 2, 4, 6 or 8, or to an enzymatically active fragment thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The method of claim 1, wherein the beta-glucosidase comprises an amino acid sequence having at least 80% identity to SEQ ID NOS: 22, 24 or 26, or to an enzymatically active fragment thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Since denaturation reactions are not strong enough to break the peptide bonds, the primary structure (sequence of amino acids) remains the same after a denaturation process. (fruitarians.net)
  • The translated nucleotide sequences for the beta-mannanase genes (man5) encoded polypeptides with an M(r) of 76 kDa that exhibited 84% amino acid sequence identity. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some invertebrate GH16 proteins have lost their catalytic amino acids and are involved in immune response activation through the Toll pathway upon binding of β-1,3 glucan. (cazypedia.org)
  • The bond of an amino group or other nitrogen-containing group with the sugar is also called as a glycosidic relationship. (silt3.com)
  • When it acts on amylopectin or dextran, the reaction before the cleavage to the α-1,6-bond is stopped, so that a limit dextrin having a relatively large molecular weight is formed. (shingenzymes.com)
  • Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds , by convention not all β- D -glucose polysaccharides are categorized as β-glucans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In tertiary structure there are four types of bonding interactions between "side chains" including: hydrogen bonding, salt bridges, disulfide bonds, and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. (fruitarians.net)
  • The results are clearly presented, with the immunomodulatory effects from mushroom β-glucan and triterpenes that involved in modulating the cell-mediated immune system to cause cellular proliferation and further to introduce healing performance of the chronic inflammation wounds. (intechopen.com)
  • Beta-glucans help support a healthy immune system response. (wildalaskachaga.com)
  • Beta Glucan is one thing we can take internally or apply on our skin to prevent skin aging and enhance our immune system and skin's healing capacity. (crvitality.com)
  • As already mentioned, beta glucans significantly improve the immune system and its response to pathogens. (crvitality.com)
  • In a natural way, that is safe, safe and beyond safe, beta glucan from this one source will turn your Woody Allen immune system into Arnold Schwarzenegger type power. (betaexpress.com)
  • Beta-Glucan-Rich Extract from Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, the effect of β -glucan-rich extract of P. sajor-caju (GE) on lipid lowering and antioxidant potential was assessed in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet. (hindawi.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein said beta glucan composition is an extract prepared from maitake. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. The method of claim 13 wherein the beta glucan is an extract prepared from maitake. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Denaturation occurs because the bonding interactions responsible for the secondary structure (hydrogen bonds to amides) and tertiary structure are disrupted. (fruitarians.net)
  • Heat disrupts hydrogen bonds and non-polar hydrophobic interactions. (fruitarians.net)
  • Hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole, and dispersion. (brainscape.com)
  • The rearrangement produces alpha glucose when the hydroxyl group is on the opposite side of the -CH 2 OH group, or beta glucose when the hydroxyl group is on the same side as the -CH 2 OH group. (blogspot.com)
  • A glycosidic relationship may be created between the hemiacetal set of a saccharides additionally the hydroxyl number of some natural element like an alcohol. (silt3.com)
  • In line with the place of OH team at C-1, there's two possible forms, in alpha form the hydroxyl team (OH) on C-1 falls and in beta kind it increases. (silt3.com)
  • Typically, β-glucans form a linear backbone with 1-3 β- glycosidic bonds but vary with respect to molecular mass, solubility, viscosity, branching structure, and gelation properties, causing diverse physiological effects in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internationally recognized associations, such as the European Society of Cardiology and the US National Cholesterol Education Program, and the recent meta-analysis, support the role of oat beta-glucan, and specifically its viscosity in lowering blood cholesterol levels. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Xylanase can decompose raw material cell wall and β-glucan in brewing or feed industry, reduce the viscosity of materials in brewing, and promote the release of effective substances. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Glucanase Glucans at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Berman, E.L., Gorkovenko A.A., Zubov, V.P., and Ponomarenko, V.A.,"Regio and Stereospecific Synthesis of Polyglucose with Novel Type BondSoviet J.Bioorg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta glucans have also been found to boost collagen synthesis, which results in fewer signs of aging like fine lines and crows feet. (crvitality.com)
  • The book further discusses the biological effects of tailored oligomers and synthetic beta-glucans, including innovative use of enzymatic processes in the synthesis of these compounds. (benthambooks.com)
  • To this end, the genes encoding beta-mannosidase (man2) and beta-mannanase (man5) from the hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga neapolitana 5068 and Thermotoga maritima were isolated, cloned, and expressed in Escherichia coli. (bvsalud.org)
  • β-Glucan and triterpenes are two important derivative compounds from traditional medicinal mushroom, such as Ganoderma lucidum and Antrodia cinnamomea. (intechopen.com)
  • If the important compounds are beta-glucans, why are companies still measuring polysaccharides? (realmushrooms.com)
  • Despite of the efforts of pharmaceutical researchers to find new medicaments, nature offers many substances with healing properties-beta-glucans belong to this group of compounds. (benthambooks.com)
  • It liberates cellobiose units from the reducing end by hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, employing an inverting reaction mechanism [2]. (genome.jp)
  • Beta-glucosidases hydrolyze cellobiose to glucose. (allindianpatents.com)
  • It is concluded that proteins bound to the cell wall are stable and that there is no precursor-product relationship among those linked by non-covalent bonds and the covalently bound ones. (meta.org)
  • A particular interest in oat β-glucan arose after a cholesterol lowering effect from oat bran reported in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-glucan is extracted from oat bran and is a multi-functional addictive to active cosmetics. (rainbowextract.com)
  • Exocellulases (cellobiohydrolases) and endocellulases (endo-Beta-1,4-glucanases) both are widely distributed throughout the glycoside hydrolases (GH) family. (biotecharticles.com)
  • Members of GH16 enzymes are retaining enzymes, as first shown by NMR [ 8 ] on an endo -1,3-1,4-β-D-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase from Bacillus licheniformis . (cazypedia.org)
  • Oat beta Glucan has a particularly good hydrophilicity, and its solution is transparent gelatinous material, it will be turned into a viscous paste when the powder in water, when hot water is become mushy viscous material directly. (rainbowextract.com)
  • The viscous properties of oat beta glucan was the key to provide health role. (rainbowextract.com)
  • C-glycosyl bonds possess glycosidic carbon instead of oxygen. (silt3.com)
  • These enzymes include endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases, and beta-glucosidases. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Glucans are arranged in six-sided D-glucose rings connected linearly at varying carbon positions depending on the source, although most commonly β-glucans include a 1-3 glycosidic link in their backbone. (wikipedia.org)

No images available that match "glycosidic bonds beta glucans"