Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A cardiac glycoside sometimes used in place of DIGOXIN. It has a longer half-life than digoxin; toxic effects, which are similar to those of digoxin, are longer lasting. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p665)
A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glucoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins. Remifemin from C. racemosa is used to suppress LUTEINIZING HORMONE. It is reclassified by some to ACTAEA. The common name of black snakeroot is also used with ASARUM and SANICULA.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into four rings.
Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
The figwort plant family of the order Lamiales. The family is characterized by bisexual flowers with tubular corollas (fused petals) that are bilaterally symmetrical (two-lips) and have four stamens in most, two of which are usually shorter.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A genus of aerobic, gram-negative, motile, slightly curved, rod-shaped bacteria. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Thirteen-carbon butene cyclohexene degradation products formed by the cleavage of CAROTENOIDS. They contribute to the flavor of some FRUIT. Ionone should not be confused with the similarly named ionol.
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC 3.2.1.8 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.32 catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC 3.2.1.37 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC 3.2.1.72 catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.
A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Members contain phenylethanoid glycosides.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
The morning glory family of flowering plants, of the order Solanales, which includes about 50 genera and at least 1,400 species. Leaves are alternate and flowers are funnel-shaped. Most are twining and erect herbs, with a few woody vines, trees, and shrubs.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain genepin, from which geniposide is obtained for use as a crosslinking agent in ADHESIVES, and 3-caffeoyl-4-sinapoylquinic acid.
A plant genus of the family CORNACEAE. It is widely cultivated for the attractive flowers.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. Members contain steroidal glycosides and cytotoxic phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide alkaloids.
Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain scrosides (CINNAMATES) and phenylethanoid glycoside. P. kurrooa is the source of picroliv (a purified iridoid glycoside fraction from the roots having hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties).
A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.
3 beta,14-Dihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digitoxin. Synonyms: Cerberigenin; Echujetin; Evonogenin; Thevetigenin.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE that is a short plant with a distinct whorl of 3 broad leaves.
The milkweed plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes many tropical herbs and shrubby climbers; most with milky juice. Flowers have five united petals. Fruits are podlike, usually with tufted seeds.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Compounds with a core of 10 carbons generally formed via the mevalonate pathway from the combination of 3,3-dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. They are cyclized and oxidized in a variety of ways. Due to the low molecular weight many of them exist in the form of essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE).
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
The aglucon moiety of a saponin molecule. It may be triterpenoid or steroid, usually spirostan, in nature.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A flavanone glycoside found in CITRUS fruit peels.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
A plant genus of the family PYROLACEAE. The common name of wintergreen is more often used for GAULTHERIA.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A semisynthetic digitalis glycoside with the general properties of DIGOXIN but more rapid onset of action. Its cardiotonic action is prolonged by its demethylation to DIGOXIN in the liver. It has been used in the treatment of congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.
A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A cyanogenic glycoside found in the seeds of Rosaceae.
The aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES. The ring structure is basically a cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus attached to a lactone ring at the C-17 position.
A hexosaminidase with specificity for terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminides.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain the cardiotonic PROSCILLARIDIN. The common name of squill is also used for URGINEA.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains aquiledine, isoaquiledine and cycloartane-type glycosides.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Proteoglycan involvement in polyamine uptake. (1/2075)

We have evaluated the possible role of proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by human lung fibroblasts. Exogenous glycosaminoglycans behaved as competitive inhibitors of spermine uptake, the most efficient being heparan sulphate (Ki=0.16+/-0.04 microM). Treatment of fibroblasts with either heparan sulphate lyase, p-nitrophenyl-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside or chlorate reduced spermine uptake considerably, whereas chondroitin sulphate lyase had a limited effect. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis with alpha-difluoromethylornithine resulted in an increase of cell-associated heparan sulphate proteoglycans exhibiting higher affinity for spermine. The data indicate a specific role for heparan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by fibroblasts. Spermine uptake by pgsD-677, a mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell defective in heparan sulphate biosynthesis, was only moderately reduced (20%) compared with wild-type cells. Treatment of mutant cells with the above-mentioned xyloside resulted in a greater reduction of endogenous proteoglycan production as well as a higher inhibition of spermine uptake than in wild-type cells. Moreover, treatment with chondroitin sulphate lyase resulted in a selective inhibition of uptake in mutant cells, indicating a role for chondroitin/dermatan sulphate proteoglycans in the uptake of spermine by these cells. Fibroblasts, made growth-dependent on exogenous spermine by alpha-difluoromethylornithine treatment, were growth-inhibited by heparan sulphate or beta-D-xyloside, which might have future therapeutical implications.  (+info)

Determining anomericity of the glycosidic bond in Zn(II)-diethylenetriamine-disaccharide complexes using MSn in a quadrupole ion trap. (2/2075)

Zinc-diethylenetriamine (Zn-dien) N-glycoside complexes of four 1,4 and four 1,6 linked disaccharides are prepared. Each reaction mixture is ionized by electrospray and the resulting species [Zn(dien)(disaccharide)-H]+ is allowed to undergo collision-induced dissociation in a quadrupole ion trap. An MS3 analysis is used to differentiate alpha versus beta anomericity of the glycosidic bond in the disaccharide moiety. In addition, the MS2 and MS3 spectra can be used together to determine the linkage position of this glycosidic bond.  (+info)

Characterization of a novel unconjugated pteridine glycoside, cyanopterin, in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. (3/2075)

A new pteridine glycoside, called cyanopterin, was isolated from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and its structure was elucidated as 6-[1-(4-O-methyl-(alpha-d-glucuronyl)-(1, 6)-(beta-d-galactosyloxy]methylpterin by chemical degradation and 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopic means. Cyanopterin is constitutively synthesized at a relatively high intracellular concentration that is comparable to that of chlorophyll a in a molar ratio of approximately 1 to 1.6. The in vivo oxidation state of cyanopterin is primarily the fully reduced 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro form. The cellular function is unknown at present. The findings have established a model system, using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, for studies of the physiological functions of unconjugated pteridine glycosides found mostly in cyanobacteria.  (+info)

Collagen synthesis and deposition in cartilage during disrupted proteoglycan production. (4/2075)

A simple system was developed to investigate in vitro the possible relationship between collagen and proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage. When production of complete proteoglycan molecules was effectively inhibited with 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside collagen synthesis and distribution were virtually unaffected.  (+info)

Stimulation of collagen galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities by lysophosphatidylcholine. (5/2075)

Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulated the activities of collagen galactosyl- and glucosyl-transferases in chick-embryo extract and its particulate fractions in vitro, whereas essentially no stimulation was noted in the high-speed supernatant, where the enzymes are soluble and membrane-free. The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine was masked by 0.1% Triton X-100. In kinetic experiments lysophosphatidylcholine raised the maximum velocities with respect to the substrates and co-substrates, whereas no changes were observed in the apparant Km values. Phospholipase A preincubation of the chick-embryo extract resulted in stimulation of both transferase activities, probably gy generating lysophosphatides from endogenous phospholipids. No stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine was found when tested with 500-fold-purified glycosyltransferase. The results suggest that collagen glycosyltransferases must be associated with the membrane structures of the cell in order to be stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine could have some regulatory significance in vivo, since its concentration in the cell is comparable with that which produced marked stimulation in vitro.  (+info)

Initiation of galactosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Separate galactosylation and dephosphorylation pathways for phosphoxylosylated decorin protein and exogenous xyloside. (6/2075)

By using various radiolabelled precursors, glycosylation and phosphorylation of decorin in a rat fibroblast cell line was investigated in the presence of increasing concentrations of p-nitrophenyl-O-beta-d-xylopyranoside. Decorin core protein glycanation was suppressed to approximately 25% of the normal level in the presence of 2 mm and 3 mm xyloside. Glycans/saccharides were released from the core protein and size-separated by gel chromatography. The intracellular decorin obtained from cells treated with 2 mm xyloside was substituted with Xyl and also with Gal-Xyl and Gal-Gal-Xyl, but not with longer saccharides. Only the trisaccharide contained an almost fully phosphorylated Xyl. We conclude that galactosylation of endogenous, xylosylated decorin and exogenous xyloside probably follow separate pathways or that xylosides and early decorin glycoforms are kept separated. At the addition of the first glucuronic acid the two pathways seem to merge and dephosphorylation of decorin takes place. Xyloside-primed and secreted galactosaminoglycan chains produced simultanously retained phosphorylated Xyl. Inadequate dephosphorylation could be due to excess substrate or to a short transit.time. As shown previously [Moses, J., Oldberg, A., Eklund, E. & Fransson, L.-A. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 248, 767-774], brefeldin A-arrested decorin is substituted with the linkage-region extended with an undersulphated and incomplete galactosaminoglycan chain. In cells treated with this drug, xylosides were unable to prime galactosaminoglycan synthesis and unable to inhibit glycosylation and phosporylation of decorin.  (+info)

Fusicoccin, 14-3-3 proteins, and defense responses in tomato plants. (7/2075)

Fusicoccin (FC) is a fungal toxin that activates the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase by binding with 14-3-3 proteins, causing membrane hyperpolarization. Here we report on the effect of FC on a gene-for-gene pathogen-resistance response and show that FC application induces the expression of several genes involved in plant responses to pathogens. Ten members of the FC-binding 14-3-3 protein gene family were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to characterize their role in defense responses. Sequence analysis is suggestive of common biochemical functions for these tomato 14-3-3 proteins, but their genes showed different expression patterns in leaves after challenges. Different specific subsets of 14-3-3 genes were induced after treatment with FC and during a gene-for-gene resistance response. Possible roles for the H+-ATPase and 14-3-3 proteins in responses to pathogens are discussed.  (+info)

Characterization of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases involved in the glucuronidation of an antithrombotic thioxyloside in rat and humans. (8/2075)

To investigate the glucuronidation on the hydroxyl group of carbohydrate-containing drugs, the in vitro formation of glucuronides on the thioxyloside ring of the antithrombotic drug, LF 4.0212, was followed in rat and human liver microsomes and with recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). The reaction revealed a marked regioselectivity in rat and humans. Human liver microsomes glucuronidated the compound mainly on the 2-hydroxyl position of the thioxyloside ring, whereas rat was able to form glucuronide on either the 2-, 3-, or 4- hydroxyl group of the molecule, although to a lower extent. LF 4.0212 was a much better substrate of human UGT than the rat enzyme (Vmax/Km 30.0 and 0.06 microl/min/mg, respectively). Phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, and clofibrate enhanced the glucuronidation of LF 4.0212 on positions 2, 3, and 4 of the thioxyloside ring, thus indicating that several UGT isoforms were involved in this process. The biosynthesis of the 2-O-glucuronide isomer was catalyzed by the human UGT1A9 and 2B4, but not by UGT1A6 and 2B11. By contrast, the rat liver recombinant UGT1A6 and 2B1 failed to form the 2-O-glucuronide isomers. From all the recombinant UGTs tested, none catalyzed the formation of the 3-O-glucuronide isomer. Interestingly, glucuronidation on the 4-position was found in all the metabolic competent V79 cell lines considered, including the nontransfected V79 cells, suggesting the presence of an endogenous UGT in fibroblasts able to actively glucuronidate the drug. This activity, which was nonsensitive to the inhibitory effect of 7,7,7-triphenylheptanoic acid, a potent UGT inhibitor, could reflect the existence of a different enzyme.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of rat brain Na+-K+-ATPase by triterpene glycosides from holothurians. AU - Gorshkova, I. A.. AU - Gorshkov, B. A.. AU - Stonik, V. A.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - I. A. Gorshkova, B. A. Gorshkov and V. A. Stonik. Inhibition of rat brain Na+-K+-ATPase by triterpene glycosides from holothurians. Toxicon 27, 927-936, 1989.-The effect of triterpene glycosides from holothurians on Na+-K+-ATPase of rat brain was investigated. The marine glycosides are irreversible inhibitors of the enzyme with an average I50 value of 10-4 M. ATP had a low protective effect against inhibition. The inhibitory effect was increased by preincubation with MgCl2. There was alteration of the activation curve of Na+-K+-ATPase by NaCl and KCl in the presence of glycosides. Triterpene glycosides inhibited the K+-phosphatase activity, but to a smaller degree than the ATPase activity. Na+-K+-ATPase of pig kidney was less sensitive to the marine triterpene glycosides than the brain enzyme. The ...
3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl, 28-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl (1-6) (alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2))-beta-d-glucopyranosyl, 16-deoxybarringtogenol ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alpha- and beta-xylosides modulate the synthesis of fibronectin and thrombospondin-1 by endothelial cells. AU - Canfield, A E. AU - Sutton, A B. AU - Hiscock, D R. AU - Gallagher, J T. AU - Schor, A M. PY - 1994/8/18. Y1 - 1994/8/18. N2 - We have previously shown that both p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-xylopyranoside (alpha-xyloside) and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside (beta-xyloside) inhibit endothelial morphogenesis in vitro. In order to determine the mechanism for this inhibition, we have now investigated the effects of these compounds on the synthesis of proteoglycans and proteins by bovine aortic endothelial cells. Consistent with their well-recognised modes of action, beta-xyloside, but not alpha-xyloside, enhanced the secretion of free glycosaminoglycans into the medium. Furthermore, although both xylosides inhibited proteoglycan deposition into the cell layer/matrix, only beta-xyloside altered the nature of the proteoglycans synthesised by the cells. Both alpha- and ...
But, of course, glucosides are glycosides.. Glycosides are constituents bound to a sugar, and in a glucoside the sugar is glucose. In a fructoside the sugar is fructose, in a galactoside the sugar is galactose (dunno how youd get milk sugar into a plant, though), and so on.. Because of that sugar glycosides usually start working in the gut, after the sugar has been stripped away.. Glycosides are water- and alcohol-soluble.. The cyanoglycosides are found in most if not all rose family plants. You get cyanide from cyanoglycosides; theyll stop you breathing if you ingest large enough amounts of them.. Youll find heart glycosides in foxglove (Digitalis spp.) and a lot of other plants which act on the heart. The glycosides digitoxin, digitalein, digitonin, digitalin and so on are cumulative and toxic; they work in doses rather too close to the deadly dose, and they will kill people who regularly take them -- if these folks suddenly get much weaker. The thing is, though, that without these toxic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two different modes of inhibition of the rat brain Na+, K+-ATPase by triterpene glycosides, psolusosides A and B from the holothurian Psolus fabricii. AU - Gorshkova, Irina A.. AU - Kalinin, Vladimir I.. AU - Gorshkov, Boris A.. AU - Stonik, Valentin A.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - Effects of two triterpene glycosides, isolated from the holothurian Psolus fabricii, on rat brain Na+, K+-ATPase (Na, K-pump; EC 3.6.1.3) were investigated. Psolusosides A and B (PsA and PsB) inhibited rat brain Na+, K+-ATPase with I50 values of 1 x 10-4 M and 3 x 10-4 M, respectively. PsA significantly stimulated [3H]ATP binding to Na+, K+-ATPase, weakly increased [3H]ouabain binding to the enzyme, and inhibited K+-phosphatase activity to a smaller degree than the total reaction of ATP hydrolysis. In contrast, PsB decreased [3H]ATP binding to Na+, K+-ATPase, and had no effect on [3H]ouabain binding to the enzyme. K+-Phosphatase activity was inhibited by PsB in parallel with Na+, K+-ATPase ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Enzymatic Approaches to O-Glycoside Introduction. T2 - Glycosyltransferases. AU - Chokhawala, H. A.. AU - Chen, Xi. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79951603384&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79951603384&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/B978-044451967-2/00012-X. DO - 10.1016/B978-044451967-2/00012-X. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:79951603384. SN - 9780444519672. VL - 1-4. SP - 415. EP - 451. BT - Introduction to Glycoscience; Synthesis of Carbohydrates. PB - Elsevier. ER - ...
In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 79 is a family of glycoside hydrolases. Glycoside hydrolases EC 3.2.1. are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycoside hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of >100 different families. This classification is available on the CAZy(http://www.cazy.org/GH1.html) web site, and also discussed at CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycoside hydrolase family 79 includes endo-beta-N-glucuronidase EC 3.2.1.31 and heparanase (CAZY GH_79). Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a key role in the self- assembly, insolubility and barrier properties of basement membranes and extracellular matrices. Hence, cleavage of heparan sulphate (HS) affects the integrity and functional state of tissues and thereby fundamental normal and pathological phenomena ...
In molecular biology, Glycoside hydrolase family 14 is a family of glycoside hydrolases. Glycoside hydrolases EC 3.2.1. are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycoside hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of >100 different families. This classification is available on the CAZy(http://www.cazy.org/GH1.html) web site, and also discussed at CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate active enzymes. Glycoside hydrolase family 14 CAZY GH_14 comprises enzymes with only one known activity; beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2). A Glu residue has been proposed as a catalytic residue, but it is not known if it is the nucleophile or the proton donor. Beta-amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in starch-type polysaccharide substrates so as to remove successive maltose units from the non-reducing ends of ...
Glycoside Hydrolase Family 31, 978-620-0-10221-8, Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. In molecular biology, glycoside hydrolase family 31 is a family of glycoside hydrolases. Glycoside hydrolases EC 3.2.1. are a widespread group of enzymes that hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. A classification system for glycoside hydrolases, based on sequence similarity, has led to the definition of |100 different families. This classification is available on the CAZy(http://www.cazy.org/GH1.html) web site, and also discussed at CAZypedia, an online encyclopedia of carbohydrate active enzymes.
Weng, A, et al. (2015) Improved intracellular delivery of peptide- and lipid-nanoplexes by natural glycosides. J Control Release. 2015 May 28; 206:75-90. PM ID: ...
quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-alpha-L-(4-O-trans-p-coumaroylrhamnopyranosyl)-(1-6))-beta-D-galactopyranoside-7-O-alpha-L- ...
glycoside hydrolase family 2 protein; FUNCTIONS IN: carbohydrate binding, cation binding, beta-galactosidase activity, hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds, catalytic activity; INVOLVED IN: carbohydrate metabolic process; LOCATED IN: chloroplast; EXPRESSED IN: male gametophyte, guard cell; CONTAINS InterPro DOMAIN/s: Glycoside hydrolase family 2, immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich (InterPro:IPR006102), Glycoside hydrolase, catalytic core (InterPro:IPR017853), Glycoside hydrolase, family 42, domain 5 (InterPro:IPR004199), Glycoside hydrolase family 2, TIM barrel (InterPro:IPR006103), Glycoside hydrolase, family 2 (InterPro:IPR006101), Glycoside hydrolase-type carbohydrate-binding (InterPro:IPR011013), Glycoside hydrolase-type carbohydrate-binding, subgroup (InterPro:IPR014718), Glycoside hydrolase family 2, carbohydrate-binding (InterPro:IPR006104), Glycoside hydrolase, subgroup, catalytic core (InterPro:IPR013781), Glycoside hydrolase, families 2 and 20, immunoglobulin-like ...
Rationale: Although phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) occur widely in plants, their characterisation by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is l...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Triterpene glycosides from the tubers of Leontice smirnowii. AU - Tabatadze, N.. AU - Tabidze, B.. AU - Mshvildadze, V.. AU - Elias, R.. AU - Dekanosidze, G.. AU - Balansard, G.. AU - Kemertelidze, E.. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=69249202266&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=69249202266&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1007/s10600-009-9313-2. DO - 10.1007/s10600-009-9313-2. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:69249202266. VL - 45. SP - 453. EP - 454. JO - Chemistry of Natural Compounds. JF - Chemistry of Natural Compounds. SN - 0009-3130. IS - 3. ER - ...
When a monosaccharide interacts with alcohol in the presence of acid catalyst called glycosides. When naming of glycosides, the (ose) suffix of the sugar name is replaced by (oside), and the alcohol group name is placed first. It is most common in acetals, glycoside formation involves the loss of an equivalent of water. The diether product is stable to base and alkaline oxidants such as Tollens reagent. Since acid-catalyzed aldolization is reversible, glycosides may be hydrolyzed back to their alcohol and sugar components by aqueous acid. ...
diabetes medication glycoside for sale - 52 - Manufacturer diabetes medication glycoside wholesalers & diabetes medication glycoside manufacturers from China manufacturers.
The methyl glycosides of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (d-GlcNAc) and N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (d-GalNAc) have been used as model glycan analogs to study the effects of lithium cation binding on glycan structure in gas-phase experiments. Infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectra for the two Li+-complexed anomers of methyl-d-GlcNAc revealed a difference of 10 cm−1 between their respective carbonyl stretching band positions. A corresponding 11 cm−1 shift was observed for the two Li+-complexed anomers of methyl-d-GalNAc. Theoretical calculations indicate that the position of the methyl group (α and β, or axial and equatorial, respectively) on carbon 1 of the sugar and its close proximity to the carbonyl of the acetamido group on carbon 2 cause the average orientation of the carbonyl to change in order to minimize steric hindrance. This change in orientation is postulated to be the cause of the observed Cdouble bond; length as m-dashO stretching band shift. The calculations also predict ...
Improved pharmacokinetics and stability properties of catalase by chemical glycosidation with end-group activated dextran Journal of Applied Polymer Science Wiley 0021-8995 1097-4628 10.1002/APP.25019
Saccharide is also called carbohydrate, consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.. A glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store ...
Saccharide is also called carbohydrate, consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components. The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA. The related deoxyribose is a component of DNA. Saccharides and their derivatives include many other important biomolecules that play key roles in the immune system, fertilization, preventing pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.. A glycoside is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store ...
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
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ChemInform Abstract: Direct Chemical Synthesis of β-Mannopyranosides and Other Glycosides via Glycosyl Triflates.|span||/span| | D. CRICH; S. SUN | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
The glycoside hydrolases of this family are lytic transglyosylases (also referred to as peptidoglycan lyases) of bacteriophage origin and they constitute family 4 of the classification scheme of Blackburn and Clarke [1]. Unfortunately, the origin of many of the hypothetical enzymes listed in GH104 is misleading because they are encoded within prophages which have been integrated into the chromosome of their bacterial host. In other cases, the phage enzyme has been acquired by pathogenicity islands on the bacterial chromosome. The prototype for this family is the enzyme from lambda phage. These enzymes cleave the β-1,4 linkage between N-acetylmuramoyl and N-acetylglucosaminyl residues in peptidoglycan (Figure 1). No other activities have been observed. ...
Cationic lipids have long been known to serve as antibacterial and antifungal agents. Prior efforts with attachment of cationic lipids to carbohydrate-based surfaces have suggested the possibility that carbohydrate-attached cationic lipids might serve as antibacterial and antifungal pharmaceutical agents. Toward the understanding of this possibility, we have synthesized several series of cationic lipids attached to a variety of glycosides with the intent of generating antimicrobial agents that would meet the requirement for serving as a pharmaceutical agent, specifically that the agent be effective at a very low concentration as well as being biodegradable within the organism being treated. The initial results of our approach to this goal are presented.
Synthesis and Characterization of Glycosides von Marco Brito-Arias und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf ReadRate.com. Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
U.S. exports of Glycosides, natural or synthetic, and salts, ether decreased 25.84 percent from $7.95 million to $5.9 million through the first two months of 2020 when compared to the same period the previous year, according to WorldCity analysis of the latest U.S. Census Bureau data.
Disclosed is a process for purifying an impure anthracyclinone glycoside by selective adsorption of a slightly acidic aqueous solution of an impure glycoside on at least one resin and subsequent de-absorption of the purified glycoside by elution with acidic water or a mixture of water and a polar solvent.
Extra info for Carbohydrate chemistry Volume 34. Example text. 4~ HO OH 29 0 31 Me Amino-sugar glycosides. The torsionally constrained 2-azidoglycosyl donor 32 was used in the preparation of the a-linked glucosaminyl inositol (Scheme 3), and in the course of the same work alternative access to a-linked compounds of this type was obtained via a p-orthoester as indicated in Scheme 4? New work has been reported on the preparation of P-D-glucosaminides from the 1,2oxazoline hydrochloride 31 made from the p-glycosyl chloride. ~More specifically, compounds 33 were made from the corresponding ally1 glycosides by OBn - a-Linked glycoside (60%) N3 32 L-J Reagent: i, NBS Scheme 3 BnO&Ro- BnO j 0 Reagents: i, NIS; ii, Tf20, DMAP; iii, TMSN3, Bu4NF Scheme 4 OBn N3 20 Carbohydrate Chemistry initial epoxidations and nucleophilic epoxide ring openings,& and diosgenyl 2-amino-2-deoxy-f3-~-g~ucopyranosides with trichloroacetyl and tetrachlorophthaloyl N-protection were made from the corresponding 2-acetylated ...
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RUI: Functionalized bis (morindone-C, O-glycosides) for the molecular recognition of DNA in the major groove. Investigators in the field of molecular recognition study the non-covalent interactions between two (or more) molecules with the aim of understanding the driving forces behind these associations. With this information in hand, it is possible to develop a set of rules for the design of molecules (ligands) capable of specific binding interactions with other target molecules (receptors). DNA.... ...
28 UDP-alpha-D-galactofuranose + beta-D-galactofuranosyl-(1-,5)-beta-D-galactofuranosyl-(1-,4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-,3)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans,octacis-decaprenol = 28 UDP + [beta-D-galactofuranosyl-(1-,5)-beta-D-galactofuranosyl-(1-,6)]14-beta-D-galactofuranosyl-(1-,5)-beta-D-galactofuranosyl-(1-,4)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-,3)-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminyl-diphospho-trans,octacis- ...
As part of Natural Medicine Week, accredited registered practitioners of the Australian Traditional-Medicine Society and partners are hosting a number of events throughout Australia. Find out if there is an event near to learn, hear or experience natural medicine for yourself.. Find Out More. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Three new flavonol glycosides from Fissistigma pallens. AU - Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan. AU - Thinh, Ngo Sy. AU - Thu, Nguyen Thi Bich. AU - Anh, Luu The. AU - Ngoc, Tran Minh. AU - Tai, Bui Huu. AU - Yen, Pham Hai. AU - van Kiem, Phan. AU - van Minh, Chau. AU - Park, Seonju. AU - Kim, Seung Hyun. N1 - Funding Information: This research is funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 104.01-2015.79 and by National Research Foundation of (NRF) grant [NRF-2016R1A2B4006742] funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Republic of Korea; NAFOSTED [104.01-2015.44]; NRF [2016R1A2B4006742].. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Three new flavonol glycosides, fissflavosides A-C (1-3), together with six known flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rham-nopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-galactopyranoside (5), kaempferol ...
RATIONALENegative ESI-QIT-MS of several subtypes of flavonoid O-glycosides is known to produce deprotonated molecular ions which undergo homolytic fragmentation at the glycosidic bond upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). However, these subtypes have never been simultaneously compared under unified MS conditions.. METHODSThe (-)-ESI-MSn fragmentations of 69 flavonoid O-glycosides, involving eight subtypes, were analyzed using a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer with collision energies varying from 18-44%. Factors influencing the homolytic glycosidic bond fragmentation, such as collision energy, hydroxylation of aglycone, and glycosylation pattern, were comprehensively studied.. RESULTSUnder the unified CID-QIT-MS2 conditions, the precursor deprotonated molecular ions [M-H](-) for 3-O-glycosyl, 3,7-di-O-glycosyl and 3,6,7-tri-O-glycosyl flavonols experienced homolytic fragmentation at the glycosidic bond and generated the radical aglycone ion [Y-0-H](-center dot). This gas-phase CID ...
The receptor for the wilt-inducing phytotoxin fusicoccin was purified to homogeneity from plasma membranes of Commelina communis as a complex with the radioligand [3H]9-nor-8-hydroxyfusicoccin. The preparation consisted of two polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 30.5 kDa and 31.5 kDa an …
Examination of the bulbs of Lilium pumilum (Liliaceae) led to the isolation of four novel steroidal glycosides (1-4) with a 2,3,4-trisubstituted β-d-glucopyranosyl unit. In 1 and 3, the α-L-arabinopyranosyl moiety is linked to C-3 of the inner trisubstituted β-D-glucopyranosyl group and is present as an usual 4C1 conformation. In contrast, in 2 and 4, the α-L-arabinopyranosyl moiety, which is attached to C-4 of the inner trisubstituted β-D-glucopyranosyl group, is present as a 1C4 conformation. The structures of the new steroidal glycosides were determined based on the results of spectroscopic analyses, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR data and hydrolysis.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decorosides A and B, cytotoxic flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Rhododendron decorum. AU - Rateb, Mostafa E. AU - Hassan, Hossam M. AU - Arafa, El-Shaimaa A. AU - Jaspars, Marcel. AU - Ebel, Rainer. AU - Rateb, Mostafa Ezzat Mohamed. PY - 2014/4. Y1 - 2014/4. N2 - Bioassay and NMR-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of Rhododendron decorum leaves resulted in the isolation of two new flavonoid glycosides, 5,7-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethyldihydroflavanone-7-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl(1--,6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (decoroside A, 1) and its 3-hydroxy congener (decoroside B, 2), along with five known compounds myricitrin (3), afzelin (4), (-)-epicatechin (5), (+)-catechin (6), and ampeloptin (7). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive interpretation of their spectral data. Biological evaluation using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed promising cytotoxic activities of these compounds against ...
Abstract: Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca, to assist in genet identification and the analysis of spatial genetic structure. • Methods and Results: Using an enrichment cloning protocol, eight microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in a North American population of A. syriaca. The primers amplified di- and tri-nucleotide repeats with 4-13 alleles per locus. • Conclusions: The primers will be useful for studies of clonality and gene flow in natural populations. Abstract: Chapter 3 Spatial genetic structure (SGS) is largely determined by the reproductive strategies of species. Many plant species, including Asclepias syriaca, the common milkweed, reproduce both sexually and asexually and there can be great variation in SGS among species that reproduce by both methods. SGS was assessed within an old field population of A. syriaca in northern Michigan. Strong SGS was detected to 38 m when multiple identical ...
Absolute most potent extract of Cistanche available. Known for immune action and reduction of the markers of aging. 60% Phenylethanoid Glycosides, 22% Echinacoside, 8% Acetoside
Glycosides are classified based on the following: 1) Chemical nature of aglycone part 2)Therapeutic activity of aglycone part. 3)Type of linkage between glycone and aglycone part. REF:PHARMACOGNOSY:NEERALI PRAKASHAN PUBLICATIONS. 34 edition, page-167 ...
The aim of this study was to identify and elucidate the vasorelaxant activity of echinacoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the medicinal herb Cistanche tubulosa, and its possible underlying mechanism on isolated rat thoracic aortic rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE, 1 mu M) and KCI (60 mM). Echinacoside (30-300 mu M) exhibited an acute relaxation in endothelium-intact rings in a concentration-dependent manner, while this relaxation was significantly inhibited in endothelium-denuded condition and in the presence of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor, N-w-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NNA, 100 mu M), an unselective Soluble guanylate cyclase blocker, methylene blue (10 mu M), the selective sGC inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 1 mu M); in addition, atropine (1 mu M), a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, partially affected the relaxation. However, the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 mu M) had no influence on the ...
AbstractActein is a triterpene glycoside isolated from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga foetida (Chinese herb shengma) which could inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells. Nevertheless, the effect of actein on angiogenesis, which is an essential step for tumor growth and metastasis, has never been reported. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of actein on angiogenesis using human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), matrigel plug and tumor-bearing mouse models. Our results showed that actein significantly inhibited the proliferation, reduced the migration and motility of endothelial cells, and it could suppress the protein expressions of VEGFR1, pJNK and pERK, suggesting that JNK/ERK pathways were involved. In vivo results showed that oral administration of actein at 10 mg/kg for 7 days inhibited blood vessel formation in the growth factor-containing matrigel plugs. Oral actein treatments (10-15 mg/kg) for 28 days resulted in decreasing mouse 4T1 breast ...
Pharmacological Investigations of Phenylethanoid Glycosides in Blue Light and N-Retinylidene-N-Retinylethanolamine Induced Retinal Degeneration and Their Protective Effects in ...
Chemical investigation of Maesa lanceolata leaves aqueous MeOH extract has led to the isolation of eight new triterpene glycosides identified as 16-oxo-28-hydroxyolean-12-ene 3- O - β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -glucopyranoside 1 , 16 α , 28-dihydroxyolean-12-ene 3 - O - β -[(6- O -galloylglucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)][ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]- β -glucopyranoside 2, 16 α , 22 α , 28-trihydroxyolean-12-ene 3- O -[ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)] [ α -rhamnopyranosyl- (1 → 6]- β -glucopyranoside 3 , 22 α -acetyl-16 α -hydroxyolean-12-en-28-al 3- O -[ α -rhamnopyranosyl- (1  6)- β -glucopyranosyl-(1  3)] [ β -glucopyranosyl-(1  2)]- β -arabinopyranoside 4 , 22 α -acetyl-16 α ,21 β -dihydroxyoleanane-13 β :28-olide 3- O -[ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)] [6- O -coumaroylglucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]- β -glucopyranoside 5 , 16 α ,22 α -diacetyl-21 β - angeloyloleanane-13 β :28-olide 3 β - O -[ β -glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)][ ...
The known flavonoid chrysin-7-O-(β-D-glycopyranoside) (chrysin glucoside,1) as a major fraction and a new glycoside flavone, chrysin-7-O-β-D-[(6
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential apoptosis-inducing effect of quercetin and its glycosides in human promyeloleukemic HL-60 cells by alternative activation of the caspase 3 cascade. AU - Shen, Shing Chuan. AU - Chen, Yen Chou. AU - Hsu, Feng-Lin. AU - Lee, Woan Rouh. PY - 2003/8/1. Y1 - 2003/8/1. N2 - Flavonoids were demonstrated to possess several biological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities in our previous studies. However, the effect of glycosylation on their biological functions is still undefined. In the present study, the apoptosis-inducing activities of three structure-related flavonoids including aglycone quercetin (QUE), and glycone rutin (RUT; QUE-3-O-rutinoside), and glycone quercitrin (QUI; QUE-3-O-rhamnoside) were studied. Both RUT and QUI are QUE glycosides, and possess rutinose and rhamnose at the C3 position of QUE, respectively. Results of the MTT assay showed that QUE, but not RUT and QUI, exhibits significant cytotoxic effect on HL-60 cells, ...
This family of glycoside hydrolases exclusively contains phosphorylases that cleave β-glycosidic bonds. The substrate specificities found in GH94 are: cellobiose (Glc-β1,4-Glc) phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.20), cellodextrin ((Glc-β1,4-)n-1Glc; n ≥ 3) phosphorylase (EC 2.4.1.49), and N,N-diacetyl chitobiose (GlcNAc-β1,4-GlcNAc) phosphorylase. Moreover, a phosphorylase domain belonging to this family is found in cyclic β-1,2-glucan synthase, a modular protein that also contains a glycosyltransferase domain from Glycosyltransferase Family 84 [1]. The GH94 domain is thought to phosphorolyze protein-bound β-1,2-glucans synthesized from UDP-glucose by the GT84 domain. GH94 enzymes were initially classified in Glycosyltransferase Family 36 because none of them show hydrolytic activity. However because of the evolutionary, structural and mechanistic relatedness with clan GH-L glycoside hydrolases, the family was re-assigned to family GH94 [2]. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Gaining insight into the inhibition of glycoside hydrolase family 20 exo-β-N-acetylhexosaminidases using a structural approach.. AU - Sumida, Tomomi. AU - Stubbs, Keith A.. AU - Ito, Makoto. AU - Yokoyama, Shigeyuki. PY - 2012/4/7. Y1 - 2012/4/7. N2 - One useful methodology that has been used to give insight into how chemically synthesized inhibitors bind to enzymes and the reasons underlying their potency is crystallographic studies of inhibitor-enzyme complexes. Presented here is the X-ray structural analysis of a representative family 20 exo-β-N-acetylhexosaminidase in complex with various known classes of inhibitor of these types of enzymes, which highlights how different inhibitor classes can inhibit the same enzyme. This study will aid in the future development of inhibitors of not only exo-β-N-acetylhexosaminidases but also other types of glycoside hydrolases.. AB - One useful methodology that has been used to give insight into how chemically synthesized inhibitors bind ...
Plant-derived cardiac glycosides particularly digoxin can be used for the treating congestive heart failure along with other cardiac disorders (1).05) Figure 1: Cardiac glycoside items of detoxified TSM...
Glycosides are compounds which contain two parts: a sugar component which is in its cyclic (ring) form, and another component attached to the sugar at the number 1 (or glycosidic carbon). Some of these companion molecules can also be sugars, so sucrose, being a 2-sugar molecule (disaccharide) made of one glucose unit and one fructose unit attached through the appropriate carbon, is an example of one of these types of glycosides. The glycosides which appear to influence beer flavor are found in hops and have aromatic compounds bonded to the carbohydrates. In their combined state, the glycosides have no flavor; no sweetness and no aroma. However, once this glycosidic bond is broken the aromatic compound is free to volatilize into the headspace of the beer and ultimately into your nose ...
Caldicellulosiruptor glycoside hydrolase inventory.As mentioned above, only two (C. bescii and C. saccharolyticus) of the nine described Caldicellulosiruptor species currently have publically available genome sequences (29, 51). Due to renewed interest in biomass-degrading microbes, five additional genome sequencing projects are under way, three of which are finished (for C. hydrothermalis, C. kronotsyensis, and C. owensensis), to help pinpoint what makes some species more cellulolytic than others in the genus. Draft and finished versions of these genome sequences were examined for GH family diversity.. Previous studies looking into Caldicellulosiruptor diversity have identified glycoside hydrolases, mostly cellulases and xylanases, produced by selected species (4, 19). Here, the biomass deconstruction-related GH inventory, inferred from each draft and finished genome sequence, was examined to provide insights into the observed differential responses to microcrystalline cellulose. Based on the ...
Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Lavandulifolioside: A New Phenylpropanoid Glycoside from Stachys lavandulifolia
Robb, CS, Mystkowska, AA and Hehemann, JH (2017) Crystal structure of a marine glycoside hydrolase family 99-related protein lacking catalytic machinery. Protein Science, 26(12). 2445-2450. doi:10.1002/pro.3291 ...
As a rule, about 1% of genes in a given genome encode glycoside hydrolases and their homologues. On the basis of sequence similarity they have been grouped into more than ninety GH families during the last 15 years. The GH97 family has been established very recently and initially included only 18 bacterial proteins. However, the evolutionary relationship of the genes encoding proteins of this family remains unclear, as well as their distribution among main groups of the living organisms. The extensive search of the current databases allowed us to double the number of GH97 family proteins. Five subfamilies were distinguished on the basis of pairwise sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis. Iterative sequence analysis revealed the relationship of the GH97 family with the GH27, GH31, and GH36 families of glycosidases, which belong to the α-galactosidase superfamily, as well as a more distant relationship with some other glycosidase families (GH13 and GH20). The results of this study show an
A comparative discussion of the signals in the13C NMR spectra of acetylated methyl α- and β-D-xylopyranosides, α- and β-D-glucopyranosi
Healthy circulation formula. Natural extract of ginkgo biloba herbs with a minimum of 24% glycosides and 6% ginkgoglides. Helps maintain normal brain and nervous system function.
I found this link trying to explain it: Why pyranosides do not mutarotate? however, I dont understand a step of the reasoning.. Why is it that acetalisation needs a stronger acid than for hemi-acetalisation? I was wondering why cant the mechanism be similar to the the one for the mutarotation of glucose as shown below: ...
The treatment of cardiac failure is complicated by the difficulty in determining the optimal therapeutic response and undesirable side-effects. The side-effects of cardiac glycosides can be...
High-level prescribing trends for Cardiac glycosides (BNF section 2.1.1) across all GP practices in NHS England for the last five years. You can explore prescribing trends for this section by CCG, or learn more about this site.. View all matching dm+d items.. ...
hoodia oxypregnane, steroidal, glycoside, Bushmans hat,Xhoba, Hoodia has received publicity in recent times for its natural appetite suppressant properties..
If the shape of the health-care team in this syndrome. [note exercises to improve his or her own beliefs about an area of the source of ie is social security. Or do you often have indigestion, if others are discussed extensively in other parts of the dark or black. Repeat doses of 190-280 mg. Patients may also need to be available in his or her problem. 57 the caregiver in identifying environmental stimuli (light, sounds, and disorientation. In all situations there is raised blood pressure, an effect on the system fights back and you may need only to the possibility of recurrence and for the client will spend [number] minutes with the client, meeting needs in an acid and oxalate raphides oxalates strychnine and brucine carboxylic acid none glycosides: Other cyanogenic glycoside apple western choke cherry wild black cherry elderberry failure (chap. Dilutional therapy should be discontinued prior to teaching sessions. Exaggerated startle response 15. It may occur and can bypass the blockage. ...
Treatment of peracetylated alkyl and aryl 1,2-trans-glycosides with iodine in the presence of HMDS has been found to result in the anomerization leading to the formation of the respective 1,2-cis-glycosides. In the case of alkyl glycosides with aglyc
An alkenyl glycoside is prepared by reacting a metathesis-derived unsaturated fatty alcohol containing 10 to 30 carbon atoms with either (1) a reducible monosaccharide or composition hydrolyzable to
This highlight introduces the development of hydrogelators consisting of nucleobases, amino acids, and glycosides (i.e., molecular trinity), or nucleobases and amino acids (i.e., nucleopeptides). These novel small molecule hydrogelators self-assemble
Detail záznamu - Glycosides of benzodioxole-indole alkaloids from Narcissus having axial chirality - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Jekk inti qed jippjanaw li terpenoids bl-ingrossa, glycosides, sesquiterpenes, estratt tal-pjanti minn wieħed mill-fabbrikanti ta l-psoralen Ċina professjonali u fornituri, Nitolbok li tħossok liberu li tikkuntattja Baoji Herbest Bio bpotenzal Co., Ltd.
12822997] The complete gene cluster of the antitumor agent gilvocarcin V and its implication for the biosynthesis of the gilvocarcins. (J Am Chem Soc. , 2003 ...
Rutin is classified as a natural glycoside and bioflavonoid. Rutin is culled from the fruits of the FavaDAnta tree which is found in the north-eastern areas of Brazil.
... (or isolanid) is a cardiac glycoside, a type of drug that can be used in the treatment of congestive heart failure ... Desai UR (2005). "Cardiac Glycosides". VCU School of Pharmacy.. ...
Cham BE, Daunter B (1990). "Solasodine glycosides. Selective cytotoxicity for cancer cells and inhibition of cytotoxicity by ... Cham BE, Daunter B (1990). "Solasodine glycosides. In vitro preferential cytotoxicity for human cancer cells". Cancer Letters. ... Other researchers have also demonstrated antiproliferative activity of steroidal glycosides against cancer cells. During 2005 ... "Steroidal glycosides from the underground parts of Solanum sodomaeum". Chem Pharm Bull. 54 (2): 230-3. doi:10.1248/cpb.54.230. ...
Catalpa glycosides. 1. The chararctization of catalposide. Journal of Organic Chemistry Vol. 26, 1961, 2230. J. M. Bobbitt, J. ... J. M. Bobbitt and K.-P. Segebarth: The Iridoid Glycosides and Similar Substances, in Cyxlopentanoterpine Derivatives, W. I. ... at the University of Zürich in Switzerland on iridoid glycosides. Bobbitt also worked as a visiting lecturer; from 1964 to 1965 ...
Glycosides[edit]. Further information: Glycosides. Anthraquinone glycosides are found in medicinal plants such as rhubarb, ... "Anthraquinone glycosides". ScienceDirect. Elsevier. 2017. Retrieved 26 September 2017.. *^ a b Hietala, P.; Marvola, M.; ... The cardiac glycosides are powerful drugs from medicinal plants including foxglove and lily of the valley. They include digoxin ... Cardiac Glycoside". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 26 February 2017. The man credited with the introduction of digitalis into ...
Glycosides[edit]. *Morin-3-O-arabinoside[1]. *Morin-3-O-lyxoside[1] ...
Flavor precursors and glycosides[edit]. Researchers in the wine industry are developing new ways to objectively measure ... Through this method glycosides from the grape juice are isolated and then hydrolysized to yield glucose. The amount of glucose ... The relationship between the presence of glycosides in wine grapes and the potential for quality in the resulting wine is not ... A sizable amount of research has gone into studying methods to determine the presence of flavor precursors and glycosides in ...
Glycosides of anthocyanidins[edit]. The anthocyanins, anthocyanidins with sugar group(s), are mostly 3-glucosides of the ... Most frequently occurring in nature are the glycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and ... Anthocyanins are glycosides of anthocyanidins, the basic chemical structure of which is shown here ... The anthocyanins are subdivided into the sugar-free anthocyanidin aglycones and the anthocyanin glycosides. As of 2003, more ...
1999). Naturally occurring glycosides. Chichester: John Wiley. ISBN 0-471-98602-X. Type strain of Streptomyces catenulae at ...
Simon, A. S.; Tóth, G. B.; Duddeck, H.; Soliman, H. S. M.; Mahmoud, I. I.; Samir, H. (2006). "Glycosides fromBougainvillea ...
ISBN 3-0348-7038-8. Ikan, edited by Raphael (1999). Naturally occurring glycosides. Chichester: John Wiley. ISBN 0-471-98602-X. ...
Vetter J (January 2000). "Plant cyanogenic glycosides". Toxicon. 38 (1): 11-36. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(99)00128-2. PMID ...
... is a marine diterpene glycoside with in vitro anticancer activity. Singh R, Sharma M, Joshi P, Rawat DS (2008). " ... Berrué, F; McCulloch, M. W; Kerr, R. G (2011). "Marine diterpene glycosides". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 19 (22): 6702- ...
Dolder, F.; Tamm, Ch.; Reichstein, T. (1955). "Glycosides and aglycons. CL. The glycosides of Antiaris toxicaria". Helvetica ... Antiarins are cardiac glycoside poisons produced by the upas tree (Antiaris toxicaria). There are two forms, α-antiarin and β- ... If the dosage of cardiac glycoside (i.e. beta-antiarin) doubles, then the substance becomes a poison. The earliest known use of ... β-Antiarin, a cardiac glycoside steroid, can be isolated from upas tree latex (Antiaris toxicaria). Its use ranges from medical ...
In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and defend the plant against ... Vetter, J. (2000). "Plant cyanogenic glycosides". Toxicon. 38 (1): 11-36. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(99)00128-2. PMID 10669009. ... also contain cyanogenic glycosides. The Madagascar bamboo Cathariostachys madagascariensis produces cyanide as a deterrent to ... "Straightforward rapid spectrophotometric quantification of total cyanogenic glycosides in fresh and processed cassava products ...
The bark contains glycosides and alkaloids.[citation needed] Stem: The stems contain the glycoside naringenin-4'-0-β- ... Leaves: The leaves contain D-mannitol, β-sitosterol, flavanol glycosides, astragalin, nicotiflorin, oleanolic acid, nyctanthic ... glycosides including β-monogentiobioside ester of α-crocetin (or crocin-3), β-monogentiobioside-β-D monoglucoside ester of α- ... iridoid glycosides, and benzoic acid.[citation needed] Flowers: The flowers contain essential oils, nyctanthin, D-mannitol, ...
As a result, many peoples of South America and Africa used arrows poisoned with these glycosides to fight and hunt more ... It is the least favored by monarch caterpillars though because it has very little toxin (cardiac glycosides) in its leaves, but ... Unlike other milkweeds, this plant has a clear sap, and the level of toxic cardiac glycosides is consistently low (although ... Many milkweed species also contains cardiac glycoside poisons that inhibit animal cells from maintaining a proper K+, Ca2+ ...
Foxglove contains cardiac glycosides. Poisonous hemlock (conium) has medicinal uses.[citation needed] Prions, resulting in ...
Cardiac glycosides from D. lanata and other natural sources have toxic effects, producing ventricular automaticity and vagal ... Drought stress also reduces the quantum yield of photosystem 2. More than 70 bitter glycosides with cardiac activity, with five ... The medical uses of Digitalis glycosides in veterinary care has been controversial because of its relatively low therapeutic to ... Digitalis lanata contains a powerful cardiac glycoside that may be used by patients with heart conditions. Digoxin (digitalin) ...
... present as cyanogenic glycosides. Hydrangea is derived from Greek, meaning 'water vessel', in reference to the shape of the ...
Naturally Occurring Cardiac Glycosides'; The Medical Journal of Australia; issue 144, pp. 540-543 R. E. McFadyen, J. J. ...
It also contains oleanolic acid, ß- sitosterol, and glycosides of asclepin. Flower from flower biew Fruits Seeds Seed with ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Singh, Bhagirath; Rastogi, R.P. (February 1970). "Cardenolides-glycosides and genins". ... Asclepias curassavica contains several cardiac glycosides which include asclepin, calotropin, uzarin and their free genins, ... "Structure of asclepin and some observations on the NMR spectra of Calotropis glycosides". Phytochemistry. 11 (2): 757-762. doi: ...
It contains stilbenoid glycosides. Dezhao Chen, Dianxiang Zhang & Ding Hou. "Lysidice". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical ... "Structural characterization of trace stilbene glycosides in Lysidice brevicalyx Wei using liquid chromatography/diode-array ...
The use of D. purpurea extract containing cardiac glycosides for the treatment of heart conditions was first described in the ... "Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning: Medscape reference". Retrieved 3 July 2012. Anon. "Notes on poisoning:Digitalis purpura". ... Both molecules include a lactone and a triple-repeating sugar called a glycoside. Digitalis works by inhibiting sodium- ... The term digitalis is also used for drug preparations that contain cardiac glycosides, particularly one called digoxin, ...
Manufacture of glycosides and disaccharides]. Angewandte Chemie. 92: 763-764. Schmidt, R. R. (1986). "Neue Methoden zur ... Since an inversion occurs at the anomeric center, the reaction leads to β-O-glycosides (when using α-trichloroacetimidates). ... Schmidt, R. R.; Kinzy, W. (1994). "Anomeric-oxygen activation for glycoside synthesis - the trichloroacetimidate method". ... The trichloroacetimidate method often produces sterically uniform glycosides under mild reaction conditions in very good yields ...
both of which contain (like Oleander) potent cardiac glycosides that have led to their use as arrow poisons in Africa. The ... Other mammals, however, such as dogs and humans, are relatively sensitive to the effects of cardiac glycosides and the clinical ... Newman, R. A; Yang, P; Pawlus, A. D; Block, K. I (2008). "Cardiac Glycosides as Novel Cancer Therapeutic Agents". Molecular ... Among these compounds are oleandrin and oleandrigenin, known as cardiac glycosides, which are known to have a narrow ...
Mutated isolates of E. cheiranthoides with altered cardiac glycoside content have been identified. Cardiac glycosides, which ... Lei, Zhen-Huan; Yahara, Shoji; Nohara, Toshihiro; Tai, Bao-Shan; Xiong, Jin-Zhe; Ma, Ying-Li (2000). "Cardiac Glycosides form ... In contrast, another cardiac glycoside, erycordin, was inactive in this oviposition assay. Pieris rapae tarsal sensilla respond ... Lei, Zhen-Huan; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Tai, Bao-Shan; Nohara, Toshihiro (2002). "Cardiac Glycosides from ...
R)-prunasin is a cyanogenic glycoside related to amygdalin. Chemically, it is the glucoside of (R)-mandelonitrile. Prunasin is ... Peter R. Cheeke (1989). Toxicants of Plant Origin: Glycosides. 2. CRC Press. p. 137.. ... prunasin and other cyanogen glycosides may be utilized for nitrogen storage and nitrogen recycling without generating HCN. In ... "A recycling pathway for cyanogenic glycosides evidenced by the comparative metabolic profiling in three cyanogenic plant ...
"Cyanogenic glycosides - Information Sheet" (PDF). New Zealand Food Safety Authority. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on ...
The Easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides. It also contains bitter principles such as 3,6′-diferuloylsucrose. ... Munafo, JP; Gianfagna, TJ (2011). "Quantitative analysis of steroidal glycosides in different organs of Easter lily (Lilium ... Shoyama, Yukihiro; Hatano, Koji; Nishioka, Itsuo; Yamagishi, Takashi (1987). "Phenolic glycosides from Lilium longiflorum". ...
There is a rather large homology in structure between arenobufagin and cardiac glycosides. Cardiac glycosides are natural ... Structure of Arenobufagin Structure of a Cardiac Glycoside Although a low dosis of arenobufagin can be used as a medicine of ... Arenobufagin works like Cardiac glycosides. It inhibits the sodium-potassium pump because it stabilises the E2-P transition ...
Glycosides can be linked by an O- (an O-glycoside), N- (a glycosylamine), S-(a thioglycoside), or C- (a C-glycoside) glycosidic ... glycosides are classified as α-glycosides or β-glycosides. Some enzymes such as α-amylase can only hydrolyze α-linkages; others ... Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. ... The two primary glycosides, stevioside and rebaudioside A, are used as natural sweeteners in many countries. These glycosides ...
P57 is an oxypregnane steroidal glycoside isolated from the African cactiform Hoodia gordonii. P57 is hypothesized to be the ... studies of the anorectic mechanism of a plant steroidal glycoside". Brain Research. 1020 (1-2): 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.brainres. ...
Glycoside hydrolases are classified into EC 3.2.1 as enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of O- or S-glycosides. Glycoside ... Mutant glycoside hydrolases termed glycosynthases have been developed that can achieve the synthesis of glycosides in high ... a b CAZy Family Glycoside Hydrolase *^ Henrissat B, Callebaut I, Mornon JP, Fabrega S, Lehn P, Davies G (1995). "Conserved ... whereby retaining glycoside hydrolases can catalyze the transfer of a glycosyl moiety from an activated glycoside to an ...
Resin glycosides are well known as purgative ingredients, which are characteristic of certain crude drugs such as Mexican ... Noda N, Nishi M, Miyahara K, Kawasaki T (1988) Resin glycosides. IV. Two new resin glycosides, muricatins VII and VIII, from ... Ono M, Kuwabata K, Kawasaki T, Miyahara K (1992) Resin glycosides. XIV. Quamoclins I-IV, new ether-soluble resin glycosides (" ... Ono M, Nakagawa K, Kawasaki T, Miyahara K (1993) Resin glycosides. XIX. Woodrosins I and II, ether-insoluble resin glycosides ...
Glycoside Coumarin Sugar Residue Esculetin Pyranose Form Institute of the Chemistry of Plant Substances, Academy of Sciences of ...
... dangerous cyanide compounds called cyanogenetic glycosides (glycosides capable of releasing hydrogen cyanide gas upon ... Other articles where Cyanogenetic glycoside is discussed: Rosales: Chemicals: ... dangerous cyanide compounds called cyanogenetic glycosides (glycosides capable of releasing hydrogen cyanide gas upon ...
... Geeta Gupta gg218 at cam.ac.uk Thu Jul 27 07:58:08 EST 2000 *Previous message: ~ FREEDOM From Financial Headache ~ ...
Cardiac glycosides are medicines for treating heart failure and certain irregular heartbeats. They are one of several classes ... The medicine digoxin contains cardiac glycosides.. Besides the foxglove plant, cardiac glycosides also occur naturally in ... Cardiac glycoside overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be ... Cardiac glycoside is a chemical that has effects on the heart, stomach, intestines, and nervous system. It is the active ...
The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger is essential for the action of cardiac glycosides. Circ Res. 2002; 90: 305-308. ... The presence of endogenous cardiac glycosides, including marinobufagenin (MBG)3 and endogenous ouabain (EO)4 in the human ... Taken together, these data strongly support an important role for endogenous glycoside, EO and MBG, in the pathogenesis of ... a growing number of studies suggest that elevated levels of endogenous cardiac glycosides, such as EO,4 may have a primary role ...
Kochs glycoside: background - William F. Koch, MD, PhD, a graduate of the University of Michigan developed a substance known ...
Exposure estimates calculated for the adults UK population give a mean dietary exposure to steviol glycosides, expressed as ... The mean anticipated dietary exposure to steviol glycosides expressed as steviol equivalents in European children (aged 1-14 ... Revised exposure assessment for steviol glycosides for the proposed uses as a food additive. ... carried out a revised exposure assessment of steviol glycosides from its use as a food additive, for children and adults, based ...
Glycoside hydrolase superfamily (IPR017853). Short name: Glycoside_hydrolase_SF Overlapping entries *Glycoside hydrolase family ... Glycoside hydrolase, family 3, N-terminal domain superfamily (IPR036962). *Alpha-glucuronidase, C-terminal domain superfamily ( ... Glycoside hydrolase, family 2, active site (IPR023232). *Uncharacterised protein family, glycosyl hydrolase catalytic domain ( ... The mechanisms by which family 10 glycoside hydrolases bind decorated substrates.. J. Biol. Chem. 279 9597-605 2004 ...
Cardiac glycosides are a type of steroid medications used to treat heart failure. They can have both positive and negative ... Cardiac glycosides are a class of steroid medications used to treat heart failure. These medications can have both positive and ... Cardiac glycosides can be poisonous if taken in large amounts. Care should be taken in calculating dosage, because the correct ... Medications containing cardiac glycosides work directly on the tissues of the heart. A bitter taste is typical of both ...
EFSA evaluates the safety of steviol glycosides. The European Food Safety Authoritys scientific Panel on additives, the ANS ... The Panel set an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)[1] of 4 mg per kg body weight per day for steviol glycosides, a level consistent ... Steviol glycosides are intense sweeteners extracted from the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). These ... Scientific Opinion on the safety of steviol glycosides for the proposed uses as a food additive ...
T 0715/01 (Glycosides/COGNIS) of 24.9.2002. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:2002:T071501.20020924. ... g) recovering the aliphatic glycoside.. 12. A method for producing a dry mixture of a saccharide source and a fatty alcohol ... Document (1), which represents the closest prior art, discloses a process for making alkyl glycosides by acetalisation of ... C to form a reaction mixture and recovering the aliphatic glycoside from said mixture, which comprises:. (a) forming a slurry ...
... Benedetta Rizzo,1 Laura Zambonin,2 Cristina Angeloni,1 ... Benedetta Rizzo, Laura Zambonin, Cristina Angeloni, et al., "Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell ...
... Benedetta Rizzo,1 Laura Zambonin,2 Cristina Angeloni,1 ... Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and ... Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since ...
Improvement in the acid catalyzed process for preparing alkyl glycosides by reaction of an alcohol with a monosaccharide or ... Also the glycosides of the short chain (C1 -C4) alcohols, e.g., methyl glycosides and butyl glycosides can be used as reactants ... The invention pertains to the preparation of alkyl glycosides by the reaction of a (C1 -C30) alcohol with a monosaccharide, or ... The present invention is a process for preparing C1 -C30 alkyl glycosides, comprising reacting a monosaccharide (or a source of ...
Glycoside hydrolase, family 45 (IPR000334). Short name: Glyco_hydro_45 Domain relationships *RlpA-like protein, double-psi beta ... Glycoside hydrolase family 45 GH45 comprises enzymes with only one known activity; endoglucanase (EC:3.2.1.4). ...
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Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.. Seeram NP1, Momin RA, Nair MG, Bourquin ...
The absolute configuration of the glycosides was confirmed after hydrolysis and synthesis of O-(S)-methyl butyrated (SMB) sugar ... The absolute configuration of the glycosides was confirmed after hydrolysis and synthesis of O-(S)-methyl butyrated (SMB) sugar ... Keywords: Morella salicifolia; Myricaceae; diarylheptanoid glycosides; myricanol; juglanin Morella salicifolia; Myricaceae; ... Makule, E.; Schmidt, T.J.; Heilmann, J.; Kraus, B. Diarylheptanoid Glycosides of Morella salicifolia Bark. Molecules 2017, 22, ...
By extension, the terms N-glycosides and C-glycosides are used as class names for @[email protected] and for compounds having a @[email protected] ...
... glycosides were obtained. Of these glycosides, six were new. ...
Table 1: The occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides in major edible plants (Conn, 1979a,b) Cyanogenic Plant species glycosides ... glycoside-contaminated diets. There are grounds to suspect that cyanogenic glycoside-contaminated foodstuffs such as cassava ... only known activating enzyme of hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides in vivo (Dorr & Paxinas, 1978). Cyanogenic glycosides are ... glucosidase which in turn hydrolyses glycoside - or by hydrolysis of glycoside by the -glucosidase produced by the microflora ...
glycoside definition: any of a group of sugar derivatives, widely distributed in plants, which on hydrolysis yield a sugar and ... glycoside. gly·co·side. any of a group of sugar derivatives, widely distributed in plants, which on hydrolysis yield a sugar ... glycoside. noun. Any of a group of organic compounds, occurring abundantly in plants, that yield a sugar and one or more ... plural glycosides). *(organic chemistry, biochemistry) A molecule in which a sugar group (the glycone) is bound to a non-sugar ...
They are some type of glycosides that, ingested or chewed, produce hydrolyzed cyanide acid (HCN), that is what is commonly ... Cyanogenic glycosides in plants What are cyanogenic glycosides? ... Cyanogenic glycosides in plants. What are cyanogenic glycosides ... 1 Cyanogenic glycosides in plants*1.1 What are cyanogenic glycosides?. *1.2 How can you know you have been poisoned with ... Where cyanogenic glycosides can be found?. Cyanogenic glycosides are not unique to plants and can be found in other living ...
The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar (glycoside) and an R group.[4] ... "Cardiac Glycosides". www.people.vcu.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-25.. *^ a b Cheeke, Peter R. (1989-07-31). Toxicants of Plant Origin ... Glycosides. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849369919. .. *^ a b c "Cardiac Glycoside Plant Poisoning: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology ... Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function.[1] Normally, these ...
... as a major fraction and a new glycoside flavone, chrysin-7-O-β-D-[(6 ... Flavone Glycosides from Calycotome Villosa Subsp. Intermedia. Ali El Antri 1, Ibtissam Messouri 1, Rachida Chendid Tlemçani 2, ... Antri, A.E.; Messouri, I.; Tlemçani, R.C.; Bouktaib, M.; El Alami, R.; El Bali, B.; Lachkar, M. Flavone Glycosides from ... Antri AE, Messouri I, Tlemçani RC, Bouktaib M, El Alami R, El Bali B, Lachkar M. Flavone Glycosides from Calycotome Villosa ...
Find Variety Triterpene Glycosides 8% from steviol glycosides ra98 ,steviol glycoside ,ginkgo flavone glycosides, Suppliers ... China Triterpene Glycosides 8%, Triterpene Glycosides 8% from China Supplier - ... Located in China, Buy Triterpene Glycosides 8% Made in China on Alibaba.com ... ginkgo flavone glycosides, bitter glycosides, saponin glycosides, gonzalitosin cyanogic glycoside arbutin damiana, ginkgo ...
  • The most important cleavage enzymes are the glycoside hydrolases, and the most important synthetic enzymes in nature are glycosyltransferases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases (also called glycosidases or glycosyl hydrolases ) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in complex sugars . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases are found in essentially all domains of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the important occurrences of glycoside hydrolases in bacteria is the enzyme beta-galactosidase (LacZ), which is involved in regulation of expression of the lac operon in E. coli . (wikipedia.org)
  • In higher organisms glycoside hydrolases are found within the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus where they are involved in processing of N-linked glycoproteins , and in the lysosome as enzymes involved in the degradation of carbohydrate structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficiency in specific lysosomal glycoside hydrolases can lead to a range of lysosomal storage disorders that result in developmental problems or death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases are found in the intestinal tract and in saliva where they degrade complex carbohydrates such as lactose , starch , sucrose and trehalose . (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycoside hydrolases are involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of glycogen in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases are classified into EC 3.2.1 as enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of O- or S-glycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases can also be classified according to the stereochemical outcome of the hydrolysis reaction: thus they can be classified as either retaining or inverting enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] Glycoside hydrolases can also be classified as exo or endo acting, dependent upon whether they act at the (usually non-reducing) end or in the middle, respectively, of an oligo/polysaccharide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases may also be classified by sequence or structure based methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent progress in glycosidase sequence analysis and 3D structure comparison has allowed the proposal of an extended hierarchical classification of the glycoside hydrolases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manipulation of glycoside hydrolases may increase transformation and widen the host range of the bacterium. (asm.org)
  • Four novel multidomain glycoside hydrolases (GHs) from Caldicellulosiruptor morganii and Caldicellulosiruptor danielii were produced recombinantly in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and characterized. (osti.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Glycoside hydrolases" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Return to Template:Glycoside hydrolases . (wikidoc.org)
  • In this thesis, fungal glycoside hydrolases, cellulases and hemicellulases were studied with the aim of increasing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and lignocellulose. (lu.se)
  • The majority of fungal glycoside hydrolases are glycoproteins. (lu.se)
  • The general structure of a cardiac glycoside consists of a steroid molecule attached to a sugar (glycoside) and an R group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycoside overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cardiac glycoside is a chemical that has effects on the heart, stomach, intestines, and nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Older people are especially likely to suffer from problems of long-term (chronic) cardiac glycoside poisoning. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Symptoms of cardiac glycoside overdose vary. (wisegeek.com)
  • This image presents the general structure of a cardiac glycoside molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Example of the chemical structure of oleandrin , a potent toxic cardiac glycoside extracted from the Oleander bush. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycoside with direct inotropic effects in addition to indirect effects on cardiovascular system. (medscape.com)
  • How is poisoning with a natural occurring cardiac glycoside diagnosed? (calpoison.org)
  • Therefore, the management of patients with severe cardiac glycoside poisoning is generally difficult and costly in countries with limited resources. (calpoison.org)
  • This poor correlation could be due to several factors including variability in cardiac glycoside concentrations among seeds, limited absorption from the gut, vomiting in some patients after ingestion, and individual factors. (calpoison.org)
  • dij″ĭ-tal´is] dried leaf of a cardiac glycoside. (silt3.com)
  • a general term for cardiac glycoside. (silt3.com)
  • Conclusion: The identification and characterization of deregulated miRNAs after cardiac glycoside treatment could give insight in their gene regulation and thus help to clarify the molecular basis of their anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • these are the patients most often treated with digitalis glycosides. (ahajournals.org)
  • After more than 200 years of clinical use, the efficacy and safety of digitalis glycosides in all degrees of CHF remain controversial. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Risk factors for injurious falls: Among men there were positive associations between injurious falls and older age, absence of the Achilles reflex, absence of the quadriceps reflex, muscle weakness in the inferior extremities (iliopsoas, tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior and peroneal muscles), gait disturbances and the use of long-acting benzodiazepines, digitalis glycosides , calcium blockers and anti-inflammatory drugs (Table I). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both digitalis glycosides and -blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The exogenous digitalis glycosides, ouabain and digoxin, have been widely used in humans to treat congestive heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias. (jimmunol.org)
  • Digitalis glycosides have been used widely in the clinical treatment of congestive heart failure and certain cardiac arrhythmias for hundreds of years. (jimmunol.org)
  • Sensitivity of cardiac muscle to digitalis glycosides depends on the thyroid state. (jci.org)
  • 2. the digitalis glycosides or cardiac glycosides, collectively. (silt3.com)
  • Since transmural electric stimulation causes contraction by release of tissue catecholamines, these experiments demonstrate that digitalis glycosides sensitize the cutaneous veins of the dog to adrenergic stimulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Following a request from the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), carried out a revised exposure assessment of steviol glycosides from its use as a food additive, for children and adults, based on the revised proposed uses presented in the terms of reference. (europa.eu)
  • Revised exposures estimates have been calculated for Tier 2 using the same methodology used by the Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to food in its opinion on steviol glycosides with revised proposed use levels with the individual food consumption data for children and the adult population. (europa.eu)
  • The mean anticipated dietary exposure to steviol glycosides expressed as steviol equivalents in European children (aged 1-14 years) ranged from 0.4 to 6.4 mg/kg bw/day, and from 1.7 to 16.3 mg/kg bw/day at the 95th percentile. (europa.eu)
  • Exposure estimates calculated for the adults UK population give a mean dietary exposure to steviol glycosides, expressed as steviol equivalents of 1.9-2.3 mg/kg bw/day and of 5.6-6.8 mg/kg bw/day for high level consumers (97.5th percentile). (europa.eu)
  • The main contributors to the total anticipated exposure to steviol glycosides are non-alcoholic flavoured drinks (soft drinks) for both populations. (europa.eu)
  • The European Food Safety Authority's scientific Panel on additives, the ANS Panel, has assessed the safety of steviol glycosides, sweeteners extracted from plant leaves, and established an Acceptable Daily Intake for their safe use. (europa.eu)
  • The Panel set an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI)[1] of 4 mg per kg body weight per day for steviol glycosides, a level consistent with that already established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). (europa.eu)
  • Steviol glycosides are intense sweeteners extracted from the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni). (europa.eu)
  • Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , vol. 2013, Article ID 348169, 11 pages, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo , little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. (hindawi.com)
  • Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. (hindawi.com)
  • Then you should not miss the one in this issue - steviol glycosides. (gov.hk)
  • Not until the 70s, the extracts, steviol glycosides, were first commercialised as a sweetener in Japan. (gov.hk)
  • Today, stevia is cultivated in many countries and China is the largest grower of stevia as well as exporter of steviol glycosides. (gov.hk)
  • While "natural" is the strength of steviol glycosides,"taste"may be the weakness of this sweetener. (gov.hk)
  • Steviol glycosides in general have a slower onset and longer duration of sweetness than sugar. (gov.hk)
  • Furthermore, each steviol glycoside has different taste, for instance, stevioside has a slight herbal taste, rebaudioside-A has a clean sweet taste, and other minor steviol glycosides have bitter or licorice-like aftertaste. (gov.hk)
  • The composition of the steviol glycoside mixtures may differ according to the cultivar from which the steviol glycosides are extracted, and differences in the manufacturing process. (gov.hk)
  • Steviol glycosides are determined safe by both international and national food safety authorities based on the findings that they are of low toxicity and are not toxic to genes or cancer-causing. (gov.hk)
  • The Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) for steviol glycosides is 0-4 mg/kg body weight. (gov.hk)
  • Since only small amount of sweeteners is used in foods, the ADI is unlikely to be exceeded upon normal consumption of foods containing steviol glycosides. (gov.hk)
  • Based on the favourable safety assessment results of steviol glycosides by food safety authorities, the international food standard-setting body, Codex, is currently drafting provisions for steviol glycoside for use as a sweetener. (gov.hk)
  • In 2002, a large-scale food recall took place in the territory because of the presence of stevioside, the principal sweetening compound of the steviol glycosides, in a variety of food. (gov.hk)
  • Now, in view of the latest scientific development, the safety of steviol glycosides has been assured. (gov.hk)
  • We will soon be able to enjoy food with these natural sweeteners as the local regulation will shortly be amended to include steviol glycosides as permitted sweeteners. (gov.hk)
  • Fischer glycosidation refers to the synthesis of glycosides by the reaction of unprotected monosaccharides with alcohols (usually as solvent) in the presence of a strong acid catalyst. (wikipedia.org)
  • The absolute configuration of the glycosides was confirmed after hydrolysis and synthesis of O -( S )-methyl butyrated (SMB) sugar derivatives by comparison of their 1 H-NMR data with those of reference sugars. (mdpi.com)
  • Synthesis of C-cinnamoyl glycosides and their inhibitory activity against mammalian carbonic anhydrases. (nih.gov)
  • Eleven of these drugs were cardiac glycosides, including digoxin, ouabain, and proscillaridin A, which inhibited HIF-1α protein synthesis and expression of HIF-1 target genes in cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Enzymatic synthesis using glycoside phosphorylases. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Carbohydrate phosphorylases are readily accessible but under-explored catalysts for glycoside synthesis. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Synthesis of glyceryl glycosides related to A-type prymnesin toxins. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Reaction network for synthesis of hexane-tetrols and triols from methyl glycosides with cis-vicinal OH groups. (aiche.org)
  • Anomeric O-alkylation/arylation is applied to the synthesis of 2-deoxy-β-glycosides. (harvard.edu)
  • This market research report examines the foreign trade of Mexico and its perspectives on the global market for glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report will be of considerable interest primarily to relevant strategic planners, senior company officials and importers/exporters, since it features invaluable information on glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis export/import operations in Mexico. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report studies how Mexico behaves on the global market for glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis. (marketpublishers.com)
  • It also assesses the dynamics of country's foreign trade in glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis in 2006-2016. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report indicates major suppliers and consumers of glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis in Mexico. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The final chapter provides in-depth analysis of prospects for the country's foreign trade in glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis, as well the forecast for the development of the market for glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis up to 2021. (marketpublishers.com)
  • We present average price forecast for glycosides, natural or reproduced by synthesis. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Three stereogenic centers were created during the synthesis, with the anomeric center of the C -glycoside being generated first by addition of a Grignard reagent to 1 and subsequent reduction of the intermediate hemiacetal with triethylsilane. (diva-portal.org)
  • The medicine digoxin contains cardiac glycosides. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The prescription medicines deslanoside, digitoxin , and digoxin contain cardiac glycosides and are available only from a pharmacy. (wisegeek.com)
  • the glycosides of Digitalis purpurea (digitoxin, gitalin and gitoxin) and digoxin (from D. lanata ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The best-known cardiac glycosides come from digitalis and include the drug digoxin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Improvement in the acid catalyzed process for preparing alkyl glycosides by reaction of an alcohol with a monosaccharide or source of monosaccharide moiety, the improvement residing in the use of certain organic bases to neutralize the catalyst at the end of the reaction. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The invention pertains to the preparation of alkyl glycosides by the reaction of a (C 1 -C 30 ) alcohol with a monosaccharide, or other source of monosaccharide moiety in the presence of an acid catalyst, followed by neutralizaton with a base. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the case of alkyl glycosides with aglycons of short alkyl chain length complete anomerization to the alpha-glycosides was observed while with those of longer chain length the process was found to be incomplete. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDES First draft prepared by Dr G. Speijers, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection Laboratory for Toxicology Bilthoven, The Netherlands 1. (inchem.org)
  • EXPLANATION Cyanogenic glycosides are phytotoxins which occur in at least 2000 plant species, of which a number of species are used as food in some areas of the world. (inchem.org)
  • There are approximately 25 cyanogenic glycosides known. (inchem.org)
  • The major cyanogenic glycosides found in the edible parts of plants used for human or animal consumption are summarized in Table 1. (inchem.org)
  • Several factors are important in this toxicity: The first aspect is the processing of plant products containing cyanogenic glycosides. (inchem.org)
  • This enzyme hydrolyzes the cyanogenic glycosides to produce hydrogen cyanide and glucose and ketones or benzaldehyde. (inchem.org)
  • At least part of the potential hydrogen cyanide is released, and may be responsible for all or part of the toxic effect of cyanogenic glycosides in the cases of some foods. (inchem.org)
  • Table 1: The occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides in major edible plants (Conn, 1979a,b) Cyanogenic Plant species glycosides Common name Latin name Amygdalin almonds Prunus amygdalus. (inchem.org)
  • Due to several factors influencing hydrolysis of cyanogenic glycosides and the confounding influence of nutritional status (such as riboflavin, vit. (inchem.org)
  • In several studies both in animals and man the toxicity of cyanogenic glycosides is often expressed as mg releasable cyanide. (inchem.org)
  • What are cyanogenic glycosides? (botanical-online.com)
  • How can you know you have been poisoned with cyanogenic glycosides? (botanical-online.com)
  • Where cyanogenic glycosides can be found? (botanical-online.com)
  • Cyanogenic glycosides are not unique to plants and can be found in other living beings or can be produced by cigarette smoke or cars combustion. (botanical-online.com)
  • Why do plants produce cyanogenic glycosides? (botanical-online.com)
  • Current analysis methods for cyanogenic glycosides are based on generation and measurement of cyanide by spectroscopic techniques or by HPLC-UV. (wur.nl)
  • Nowadays, the intact cyanogenic glycosides can be measured by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This is more straightforward. (wur.nl)
  • In addition this allows determination of cyanogenic glycosides together with other toxins which is more efficient. (wur.nl)
  • The topic of the internship is the development of an LC-MS-based method for the determination of the most abundant cyanogenic glycosides in food products. (wur.nl)
  • The presence of endogenous cardiac glycosides, including marinobufagenin (MBG) 3 and endogenous ouabain (EO) 4 in the human circulation, should be taken into account. (ahajournals.org)
  • Strophanthin and ouabain are glycosides found in Strophanthus spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • dangerous cyanide compounds called cyanogenetic glycosides (glycosides capable of releasing hydrogen cyanide gas upon hydrolysis). (britannica.com)
  • Glycosides yield a sugar after undergoing hydrolysis . (yourdictionary.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides are a class of organic compounds that increase the output force of the heart and increase its rate of contractions by acting on the cellular sodium-potassium ATPase pump. (wikipedia.org)
  • By extension, the terms N -glycosides and C -glycosides are used as class names for @[email protected] and for compounds having a @[email protected] attached to a hydrocarbyl group respectively. (iupac.org)
  • All compounds are arranged according to the structure of the aglycone, and, in its own class, by the increasing molecular weight, making Spectroscopic Data of Steroid Glycosides extremely useful for the structure elucidation of new natural products, particularly glycosides. (waterstones.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Isolating glycoside flavour precursors from grapes is relatively simple, although the conventional method also extracts less desirable phenolic compounds, which contribute bitterness. (awri.com.au)
  • Apart from the free volatile compounds, the intact glycosides in the wines were also enhanced, with the concentration of geraniol glycoside increased more than 60-fold. (awri.com.au)
  • Cardioactive steroids or cardiac glycosides are naturally‐occurring compounds identified in various plant and animal species. (calpoison.org)
  • Some authors define glycosides as compounds obtained by replacing the hydroxy group on the hemiacetal carbon or on the hemiketal carbon with any ligand other than hydrogen and classify them as O -glycosides, N -glycosides, C -glycosides, etc. based on the element that attaches the ligand to the ring. (libretexts.org)
  • Such compounds frequently are referred to as O-glycosides to distinguish them from analogs having a sulfur (thio- or S -glycosides), nitrogen (amino- or N-glycosides), or carbon (anomalously called C-glycosides) as the exocyclic atom on the anomeric carbon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In conclusion, this study has enriched the information about the compounds of the title plant and further established that C. stauntonii is a significant source of steroidal glycosides. (garciniacambogiareport.us)
  • 2017. "Diarylheptanoid Glycosides of Morella salicifolia Bark. (mdpi.com)
  • 2VTC: The structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 member, Cel61B from the Hypocrea jecorina. (rcsb.org)
  • The structure of a glycoside hydrolase family 61 member, Cel61B from the Hypocrea jecorina. (rcsb.org)
  • Besides the foxglove plant, cardiac glycosides also occur naturally in plants such as Lily-of-the-Valley and oleander , among several others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Plants containing cardiac glycosides include Christmas rose, the highly toxic foxglove , and lily of the valley. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are multiple naturally occurring cardiac glycosides including Lily of the Valley ( Convallaria majalis) , Squill ( Drimia maritima) , Foxglove ( Digitalis sp ), Common Oleander ( Nerium oleander) , and the Cane Toad ( Rhinella marina) . (calpoison.org)
  • Flavone Glycosides from Calycotome Villosa Subsp. (mdpi.com)
  • The known flavonoid chrysin-7-O-(β-D-glycopyranoside) (chrysin glucoside,1) as a major fraction and a new glycoside flavone, chrysin-7-O-β-D-[(6"-acetyl)glycopyranoside] (2) were isolated from the flowers and leaves of CalycotomeVillosa Subsp. (mdpi.com)
  • 2004. "Flavone Glycosides from Calycotome Villosa Subsp. (mdpi.com)
  • Our Ginkgo extract is standardized to contain 24% flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones for guaranteed potency in each capsule. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • When the hydroxy group on the hemiacetal carbon or on the hemiketal carbon in the molecule of a cyclic monosaccharide is replaced with an alkoxy group, the resultant compound is called a glycoside. (libretexts.org)
  • An alkenyl glycoside is prepared by reacting a metathesis-derived unsaturated fatty alcohol containing 10 to 30 carbon atoms with either (1) a reducible monosaccharide or composition hydrolyzable to a reducible monosaccharide, or (2) a hydrocarbyl glycoside produced by reacting an alcohol containing up to 6 carbon atoms with a reducible monosaccharide or composition hydrolyzable to a reducible monosaccharide. (patents.com)
  • This book is an essential reference guide to spectroscopic, physical and biological activity data of over 3500 steroid glycosides, offering the structures and the data of the naturally occurring glycosides of steroids. (waterstones.com)
  • A process for preparing an edible aqueous dispersion of one or more steroidal glycosides, the edible dispersion comprising one or more steroidal glycoside, and a food product comprising the dispersion, as well as methods of controlling body weight or obesity by ingesting the food product. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 12. Process according to claim 11, wherein the extract comprises at least about 10% of steroidal glycosides. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 14. An edible aqueous dispersion comprising one or more steroidal glycosides and an emulsifier having a hydrophilic lipophilic balance value between about 7 and about 30, wherein the ratio (w/w) of the steroidal glycosides to the emulsifier in said edible dispersion is less than about 10:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 15. Edible dispersion according to claim 14 wherein said steroidal glycosides are dispersed to a mean particle size (D3,2) of less than about 15 micrometer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In recent years, only several papers have described phytochemical investigations of C. stauntonii and led to a small amount of steroidal glycosides being reported. (garciniacambogiareport.us)
  • Cyanide, released from a cyanogenic glycoside in food by -glucosidase either of plant or from gut microflora origin and taken up, follows the known cyanide metabolic pathway and toxicokinetics both for animals and man. (inchem.org)
  • They are some type of glycosides that, ingested or chewed, produce hydrolyzed cyanide acid (HCN) , that is what is commonly known as hydrogen cyanide, one of the most potent poisons. (botanical-online.com)
  • Serum Glycoside Concentrations in Digitalis Toxic Patients. (annals.org)
  • Material and Methods: Four renal cell carcinoma cell lines were treated with three different cardiac glycosides in the IC50 concentrations during 72h. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cyanidin 3-glycosides, glucoside and rutinoside, stimulated the regeneration, but the corresponding delphinidins showed no significant effect. (nih.gov)
  • There are four type of linkages present between glycone and aglycone: C-linkage/glycosidic bond, "nonhydrolysable by acids or enzymes" O-linkage/glycosidic bond N-linkage/glycosidic bond S-linkage/glycosidic bond Glycosides are also classified according to the chemical nature of the aglycone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosides are classified based on the following: 1) Chemical nature of aglycone part 2)Therapeutic activity of aglycone part. (pharmainfo.net)
  • Chemical analysis showed that the glycoside material greatly boosted free monoterpenes in the finished Chardonnay and Riesling wines. (awri.com.au)
  • The formation of glycosides is the principal manner in which monosaccharides are incorporated into more complex molecules. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Triterpenoid glycosides are molecules widely distributed in plants and have shown a wide range of biological activities against various diseases. (rsc.org)
  • As more phosphorylase enzymes are discovered, access to further difficult to synthesise glycosides will be enabled. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Herein we review reported phosphorylase enzymes and the glycoside products that they have been used to synthesise. (jic.ac.uk)
  • A comparison of the glycoside hydrolase and cellulosome functional genes revealed that in the rumen microbiome, initial colonization of fiber appears to be by organisms possessing enzymes that attack the easily available side chains of complex plant polysaccharides and not the more recalcitrant main chains, especially cellulose. (pnas.org)
  • In chemistry, a glycoside /ˈɡlaɪkəsaɪd/ is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • In formal terms, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosides can be linked by an O- (an O-glycoside), N- (a glycosylamine), S-(a thioglycoside), or C- (a C-glycoside) glycosidic bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Glycosides can be classified by the glycone, by the type of glycosidic bond, and by the aglycone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on whether the glycosidic bond lies "below" or "above" the plane of the cyclic sugar molecule, glycosides are classified as α-glycosides or β-glycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first of these lectures is devoted to the importance of sugars in the plant economy and the classification of glycosides including a series of definitions of terms. (annals.org)
  • Great stress is laid on the structure of the sugars isolated from the cardiac glycosides. (annals.org)
  • The first glycoside ever identified was amygdalin, by the French chemists Pierre Robiquet and Antoine Boutron-Charlard, in 1830. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the series of sweeteners, we have introduced to you neotame and steviol glycoside, along with the currently permitted sweeteners. (gov.hk)
  • Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides can be more specifically categorized based on the plant they are derived from, as in the following list. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides are found in several plants, including the leaves of the digitalis (foxglove) plant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force of contraction of heart muscle and to regulate heartbeats. (wordnik.com)
  • All parts of the plant containing cardiac glycosides are toxic, with the roots and seeds typically containing the highest percentage of toxins. (calpoison.org)
  • Ingestion of naturally occurring cardiac glycosides produces a clinically picture very similar to that of digitalis poisoning. (calpoison.org)
  • Human exposure to naturally occurring cardiac glycosides may result from accidental ingestion, intentional ingestion, ingestion of medicinal preparations, and criminal poisoning. (calpoison.org)
  • One class of naturally occurring glycosides is called the cardiac glycosides because they exhibit the ability to strengthen the contraction of heart muscles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets market report analyses the market growth, Market trends, market overview & market forecast from 2016-2021. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • In the first stage, triterpenoid glycosides were identified using liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry using UHPLC-QTOF-MS system. (rsc.org)
  • I. Isolation and structure elucidation of orizabin-I, II, III and IV, genuine resin glycosides from the root of Ipomoea orizabensis . (springer.com)
  • From the water-soluble portion of the methanol extract of the herbal medicine fennel [fruit of Foeniculum vulgare MILLER (Umbelliferae)], one ethyl, two propyl, two butyl and four isopentyl (hemiterpenoid) glycosides were obtained. (go.jp)
  • Bioactivity-directed fractionation of an extract of the leaves of Alvaradoa haitiensis, using the KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) cell line, led to the isolation and identification of 10 new anthracenone C-glycosides, alvaradoins E?N (1?10), along with the known compound chrysophanol (11). (rti.org)
  • This econometric study covers the world outlook for glycosides and ginseng extract across more than 200 countries. (marketresearch.com)
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the worldwide latent demand, or the P.I.E., for glycosides and ginseng extract. (marketresearch.com)
  • Cardiac glycosides are divided into two main types: bufadienolides and cardenolides. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cardenolides belong to the group of cardiac glycosides (CG) and attracted much interest in preclinical anticancer research. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thirteen substances had been separated by chromatography, and their particular frameworks determined is mainly flavonol glycosides and phenolic acids. (silt3.com)
  • The constituents from studied mulberry leaves were mainly flavonol glycosides and phenolic acids. (silt3.com)
  • It contains flavonol glycosides which may be helpful in treating addiction to opiates. (silt3.com)
  • Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular trinity' for soft nanomaterials: Integrating nucleobases, amino acids, and glycosides to construct multifunctional hydrogelators. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This is the first study in which α-CAs have been investigated for their interaction with C-glycosides, a novel carbohydrate scaffold in the design of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (nih.gov)
  • Many authors require in addition that the sugar be bonded to a non-sugar for the molecule to qualify as a glycoside, thus excluding polysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anomeric carbon atom can exist in either of two stereoisomeric configurations, a fact which is of immense importance to the chemistry and biochemistry of glycosides. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Resin glycosides are well known as purgative ingredients, which are characteristic of certain crude drugs such as Mexican Scammony Radix, Orizabae Tuber, and Jalapae Tuber, all of which originate from Convolvulaceae plants. (springer.com)
  • This review describes the isolation and structural elucidation of resin glycosides from some Convolvulaceae plants, including Ipomoea operculata , Pharbitis nil , Quamoclit pennata , Calystegia soldanella , and I. muricata . (springer.com)
  • When the edible parts of the plants are macerated, the catabolic intracellular enzyme -glucosidase can be released, coming into contact with the glycosides. (inchem.org)
  • [6] Below is a full list of plants from which cardiac glycosides can be derived. (wikipedia.org)
  • 6. Process according to claim 1, wherein the steroidal glycoside is obtained from plants of the Asclepiadaceae family. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These complex glycosides are present in the cell membranes of microbes, plants, and animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The important fruit flavour-enhancing compound β-damascenone was also substantially increased by the glycoside addition. (awri.com.au)
  • If the oxygen atom of the anomeric hydroxyl group becomes bonded to a carbon atom, other than that of a carbonyl (C ═ O) group, the resulting compound is a glycoside. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A glycoside thus consists of two parts (see illustration): the sugar (glycosyl) unit, which provides the anomeric carbon, and the moiety (the aglycon), which is the source of the exocyclic oxygen and carbon atoms of the glycosidic linkage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A small series of C-cinnamoyl glycosides incorporating the phenol moiety has been prepared by reaction of glycosyl ketones with the appropriate benzaldehydes. (nih.gov)
  • Following the monographs by STRAUB (1924) and LENDLE (1935), this is the third contribution to the "Pharmacology of Cardiac Glycosides" within the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, which was founded by ARTHUR HEFFTER and con- tinued by WOLFGANG HEUBNER. (springer.com)
  • Because of the need created by the length of time that had elapsed since LENDLE'S work, the editorial board requested the rapid ap- pearance of this 56th volume, which represents current knowledge of the pharma- cology and clinical pharmacology of cardiac glycosides. (springer.com)
  • citation needed] Much of the chemistry of glycosides is explained in the article on glycosidic bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroidal saponins obtained by biotransformation of total furostanol glycosides from Dioscorea zingiberensis with Absidia coerulea. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This paper describes the qualitative and quantitative analysis of triterpenoid glycoside (saponins) using a two-stage mass spectrometry approach in five samples of Fagonia indica collected from various parts of the country. (rsc.org)
  • hellebore) Cardiac glycosides affect the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in cardiac muscle cells to alter their function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides, however, inhibit this pump by stabilizing it in the E2-P transition state, so that sodium cannot be extruded: intracellular sodium concentration therefore increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac glycosides bind to and inactive the Na+/K+ ATPase that extrudes sodium and imports potassium into cardiomyocytes. (calpoison.org)
  • Effects of thyroid hormone on sodium pump sites, sodium content, and contractile responses to cardiac glycosides in cultured chick ventricular cells. (jci.org)
  • The increased tolerance of hyperthyroid cells and reduced tolerance of hypothyroid cells to cardiac glycosides can be explained by these changes in the number of sodium pump sites and cellular sodium content, and consequently, calcium influx via sodium-calcium exchange. (jci.org)
  • Fagonia indica has shown a wide range of biological activities and found to be rich in saponin or triterpenoid glycoside constituents. (rsc.org)