Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Group of lysosomal storage diseases each caused by an inherited deficiency of an enzyme involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). The diseases are progressive and often display a wide spectrum of clinical severity within one enzyme deficiency.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Systemic lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDURONIDASE) and characterized by progressive physical deterioration with urinary excretion of DERMATAN SULFATE and HEPARAN SULFATE. There are three recognized phenotypes representing a spectrum of clinical severity from severe to mild: Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome and Scheie syndrome (formerly mucopolysaccharidosis V). Symptoms may include DWARFISM; hepatosplenomegaly; thick, coarse facial features with low nasal bridge; corneal clouding; cardiac complications; and noisy breathing.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Genetic defects in the selective or non-selective transport functions of the KIDNEY TUBULES.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 3.1.6.12.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Genetic disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism characterized by skeletal abnormalities, joint instability, development of cervical myelopathy, and excessive urinary keratan sulfate. There are two biochemically distinct forms, each due to a deficiency of a different enzyme.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes iduronosidic linkages in desulfated dermatan. Deficiency of this enzyme produces Hurler's syndrome. EC 3.2.1.76.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A sex-linked recessive disorder affecting multiple systems including the EYE, the NERVOUS SYSTEM, and the KIDNEY. Clinical features include congenital CATARACT; MENTAL RETARDATION; and renal tubular dysfunction (FANCONI SYNDROME; RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS; X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA or vitamin-D-resistant rickets) and SCOLIOSIS. This condition is due to a deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase leading to defects in PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL metabolism and INOSITOL signaling pathway. (from Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p60; Am J Hum Genet 1997 Jun;60(6):1384-8)
Mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by excessive dermatan and heparan sulfates in the urine and Hurler-like features. It is caused by a deficiency of beta-glucuronidase.
An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 3.1.6.13.
Mucopolysaccharidosis with excessive CHONDROITIN SULFATE B in urine, characterized by dwarfism and deafness. It is caused by a deficiency of N-ACETYLGALACTOSAMINE-4-SULFATASE (arylsulfatase B).
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Compounds of silver and proteins used as topical anti-infective agents.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by heparitin sulfate in the urine, progressive mental retardation, mild dwarfism, and other skeletal disorders. There are four clinically indistinguishable but biochemically distinct forms, each due to a deficiency of a different enzyme.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.
A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
Therapeutic replacement or supplementation of defective or missing enzymes to alleviate the effects of enzyme deficiency (e.g., GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE replacement for GAUCHER DISEASE).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various sulfate bonds of chondroitin sulfate. EC 3.1.6.-.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A member of the serpin family of proteins that is found in plasma and urine. It is dependent on heparin and is able to inhibit activated PROTEIN C; THROMBIN; KALLIKREIN; and other SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
An antiviral agent used as its hydrochloride. It is the first recognized synthetic, low-molecular-weight compound that is an orally active interferon inducer, and is also reported to have antineoplastic and anti-inflammatory actions.
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.

Variations in 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans along canine coronary arteries. A possible index of artery wall stress. (1/3510)

Focal areas of accentuated wall stress along the course of canine coronary arteries may be revealed by the level of 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In the anterior descending artery, 35SO4 incorporation in higher in the proximal than in the distal region and may be extraordinarily high as the vessel enters a proximally located muscle bridge and at the takeoff region of multidirectional branches. In the circumflex artery, the incorporation also is higher in the proximal than in the distal region and is high at the genu where the posterior descending artery forms. There are differences in uptake of 35SO4 in vessels even when the arteries arise from the same vascular bed.this was shown by the higher incorporation in the left coronary artery than in the right coronary artery. A general anatomical agreement exists between these sites of high 35SO4 incorporation and previously described locations of interval elastic disruption ans proliferation of intimal connective tissue in the dog.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (2/3510)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Transport of solutes through cartilage: permeability to large molecules. (3/3510)

A review of the transport of solutes through articular cartilage is given, with special reference to the effect of variations in matrix composition. Some physiological implications of our findings are discussed. Also, results of an experimental study of the permeability of articular cartilage to large globular proteins are presented. Because of the very low partition coefficients of large solutes between cartilage and an external solution new experimental techniques had to be devised, particularly for the study of diffusion. The partition coefficients of solutes were found to decrease very steeply with increase in size, up to serum albumin. There was, however, no further decrease for IGG. The diffusion coefficient of serum albumin in cartilage was relatively high (one quarter of the value in aqueous solution). These two facts taken together suggest that there may be a very small fraction of relatively large pores in cartilage through which the transport of large molecules is taking place. The permeability of cartilage to large molecules is extremely sensitive to variations in the glycosaminoglycan content: for a threefold increase in the latter there is a hundredfold decrease in the partition coefficient. For cartilage of fixed charge density around 0-19 m-equiv/g, there is no penetration at all of globular proteins of size equal to or larger than serum albumin.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (4/3510)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 are distinct in oligomerization in the presence of heparin-like glycosaminoglycans. (5/3510)

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 and FGF-2 are prototypic members of the FGF family, which to date comprises at least 18 members. Surprisingly, even though FGF-1 and FGF-2 share more than 80% sequence similarity and an identical structural fold, these two growth factors are biologically very different. FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in their ability to bind isoforms of the FGF receptor family as well as the heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (HLGAG) component of proteoglycans on the cell surface to initiate signaling in different cell types. Herein, we provide evidence for one mechanism by which these two proteins could differ biologically. Previously, it has been noted that FGF-1 and FGF-2 can oligomerize in the presence of HLGAGs. Therefore, we investigated whether FGF-1 and FGF-2 oligomerize by the same mechanism or by a different one. Through a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking, we show here that, under identical conditions, FGF-1 and FGF-2 differ in the degree and kind of oligomerization. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of FGF-1 and FGF-2 uncomplexed and HLGAG complexed crystal structures enables us to readily explain why FGF-2 forms sequential oligomers whereas FGF-1 forms only dimers. FGF-2, which possesses an interface capable of protein association, forms a translationally related oligomer, whereas FGF-1, which does not have this interface, forms only a symmetrically related dimer. Taken together, these data show that FGF-1 and FGF-2, despite their sequence homology, differ in their mechanism of oligomerization.  (+info)

Neonatal gene transfer leads to widespread correction of pathology in a murine model of lysosomal storage disease. (6/3510)

For many inborn errors of metabolism, early treatment is critical to prevent long-term developmental sequelae. We have used a gene-therapy approach to demonstrate this concept in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII). Newborn MPS VII mice received a single intravenous injection with 5.4 x 10(6) infectious units of recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the human beta-glucuronidase (GUSB) cDNA. Therapeutic levels of GUSB expression were achieved by 1 week of age in liver, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, and retina. GUSB expression persisted in most organs for the 16-week duration of the study at levels sufficient to either reduce or prevent completely lysosomal storage. Of particular significance, neurons, microglia, and meninges of the central nervous system were virtually cleared of disease. In addition, neonatal treatment of MPS VII mice provided access to the central nervous system via an intravenous route, avoiding a more invasive procedure later in life. These data suggest that gene transfer mediated by adeno-associated virus can achieve therapeutically relevant levels of enzyme very early in life and that the rapid growth and differentiation of tissues does not limit long-term expression.  (+info)

Characterization of proteoglycans synthesized by cultured corneal fibroblasts in response to transforming growth factor beta and fetal calf serum. (7/3510)

A culture system was developed to analyze the relationship between proteoglycans and growth factors during corneal injury. Specifically, the effects of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) and fetal calf serum on proteoglycan synthesis in corneal fibroblasts were examined. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis and sulfation were determined using selective polysaccharidases. Proteoglycan core proteins were analyzed using gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. Cells cultured in 10% dialyzed fetal calf serum exhibited decreased synthesis of more highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate compared with cells cultured in 1% dialyzed fetal calf serum. The amount and sulfation of the glycosaminoglycans was not significantly influenced by TGF-beta1. The major proteoglycan species secreted into the media were decorin and perlecan. Decorin was glycanated with chondroitin sulfate. Perlecan was linked to either chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate, or both chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate. Decorin synthesis was reduced by either TGF-beta1 or serum. At early time points, both TGF-beta1 and serum induced substantial increases in perlecan bearing chondroitin sulfate and/or heparan sulfate chains. In contrast, after extended periods in culture, the amount of perlecan bearing heparan sulfate chains was unaffected by TGF-beta1 and decreased by serum. The levels of perlecan bearing chondroitin sulfate chains were elevated with TGF-beta1 treatment and were decreased with serum. Because both decorin and perlecan bind growth factors and are proposed to modulate their activity, changes in the expression of either of these proteoglycans could substantially affect the cellular response to injury.  (+info)

Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 5: relationship between cholesterol deposition and glycosaminoglycans. (8/3510)

Concentrations of various lipids and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the intima of the grossly normal and atherosclerotic cerebral arteries were compared with those of the aorta and coronary arteries. The lowest percentage of esterified cholesterol (EC) in total cholesterol, and of chondroitin sulfate-4/6 (CS-4/6) in total glycosaminoglycans and the highest percentage of heparin sulfate (HS) in total GAG are the characteristic features of the normal intima of normal cerebral arteries when compared with those in the aorta and coronary artery. In the cerebral arterial intimas, but not in the aorta or coronary arteries, there was a significant positive correlation between contents of EC and percentage and total content of CS-4/6. Atherogenesis in cerebral arteries is discussed in comparison to that of the aorta and coronary vessels.  (+info)

Pathobiochemical Significance of Granulocyte Elastase Complexed with Proteinase Inhibitors: Effect on Glycosaminoglycan Metabolism in Cultured Synovial ...
The dimethylmethylene blue assay for sulphated glycosaminoglycans has found wide acceptance as a quick and simple method of measuring the sulphated glycosaminoglycan content of tissues and fluids. The available assay methods have lacked specificity for sulphated glycosaminoglycans in the presence of other polyanions, however, and have not discriminated between the different sulphated glycosaminoglycans. We now describe a modified form of the dimethylmethylene blue assay that has improved specificity for sulphated glycos-aminoglycans, and we show that in conjunction with specific polysaccharidases, the dimethylmethylene blue assay can be used to quantitate individual sulphated glycosaminoglycans ...
Sulfated glycosaminoglycans were isolated from 23 species of 13 phyla of invertebrates and characterized by their electrophoretic migration in three different buffer systems coupled with enzymatic degradation using bacterial heparinase, heparitinases and chondroitinase AC. Heparan sulfate is a ubiquitous compound present in all species analyzed whereas chondroitin sulfate was present in 20 species and heparin-like compounds in 12 species of the invertebrates. the heparin-like compounds were purified from the echinoderm Mellita quinquisperforata (sand dollar) and the crustacean Ucides cordatus (crab) with anticoagulant activities of 60 and 52 IU/mg, respectively. Degradation of these heparins with heparinase produced significant amounts of the trisulfated disaccharide typical of mammalian heparins. This was confirmed by C-13-NMR spectroscopy of the crab heparin. An updated phylogenetic tree of the distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom is also presented. (C) 2000 ...
The human body actually produces its own glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). They work in part to regenerate and hydrate the dermal layer from the inside. Hydrolized glycosaminoglycans are slightly altered to enhance their water retentive ability. This sounds complicated, and the science involved probably is pretty complicated. The takeaway is that products containing hydrolized glycosaminoglycans are like super moisturizers that can penetrate where simple surface moisturizers cant go. Once absorbed into the skin, they also help repair and revitalize skin tissue, making it look softer, smoother, younger and healthier. Glycosaminoglycans are considered safe and effective, and youll find them in skin care as well as some hair care products.. Youre probably beginning to notice the important role proteins (and their constituent amino acids) play in the health of your skin. In addition to good hygiene and a consistent skin cleansing regimen, eating a diet high in protein can help your body make many of the ...
Methods and Results-chP3R99 mAb recognized sulfated glycosaminoglycans, mainly chondroitin sulfate (CS), by ELISA. This mAb blocked ≈70% of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-CS association and ≈80% of LDL oxidation in vitro, and when intravenously injected to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6, 1 mg/animal), it inhibited LDL (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally, 1 hour later) retention and oxidation in the artery wall. Moreover, subcutaneous immunization of New Zealand White rabbits (n=19) with chP3R99 mAb (100 μg, 3 doses at weekly intervals) prevented Lipofundin-induced atherosclerosis (2 mL/kg, 8 days) with a 22-fold reduction in the intima-media ratio (P,0.01). Histopathologic and ultrastructural studies showed no intimal alterations or slight thickening, with preserved junctions between endothelial cells and scarce collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans. In addition, immunization with chP3R99 mAb suppressed macrophage infiltration in aorta and preserved redox status. The atheroprotective effect was associated ...
OBJECTIVES. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are mucopolysaccharides (heparan, dermatan and chondroitin sulphates and hyaluronic acid), which can be found in different tissues of the body. In urinary tract, GAGs allow the formation of a layer of water/urine in the surface of the mucosa, protecting and also facilitating the elimination of bacteria during micturition. In women and cats, alteration of GAGs layer as well as reduction of urinary excretion of GAGs is mentioned in interstitial cystitis (IC). In dogs, low concentrations of urinary GAGs seem to be associated with recurrence of urinary infections and urolithiasis. Disorders of GAGs degradation and presence of large amount in urine can be observed in mucopolysaccharidosis. Most of GAGs laboratorial colorimetric methods reported develop in acid pH solution with DMB (colorant), but in this condition, DMB can also react with other urinary proteins. Jong (1992) mentioned a modified method, in which DMB reacts only with GAGs, forming a steady complex, ...
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HSGAG and CSGAG modified proteoglycans first begin with a consensus Ser-Gly/Ala-X-Gly motif in the core protein. Construction of a tetrasaccharide linker that consists of -GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-(Ser)-, where xylosyltransferase, β4-galactosyl transferase (GalTI),β3-galactosyl transferase (GalT-II), and β3-GlcA transferase (GlcAT-I) transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. The first modification of the tetrasaccharide linker determines whether the HSGAGs or CSGAGs will be added. Addition of a GlcNAc promotes the addition of HSGAGs while addition of GalNAc to the tetrasaccharide linker promotes CSGAG development.[5] GlcNAcT-I transfers GlcNAc to the tetrasaccahride linker, which is distinct from glycosyltransferase GlcNAcT-II, the enzyme that is utilized to build HSGAGs. EXTL2 and EXTL3, two genes in the EXT tumor suppressor family, have been shown to have GlcNAcT-I activity. Conversely, GalNAc is transferred to the linker by the enzyme GalNAcT ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS ON BASAL AND STIMULATED TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-{beta}1 EXPRESSION IN MESANGIAL CELLS: BIOCHEMICAL AND STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS.. AU - Gambaro, Giovanni. AU - Bacilieri, Magdalena. AU - Naggi, Annamaria. AU - Ceol, Monica. AU - Schleicher, Erwin D.. AU - Tosetto, Enrica. AU - Comoli, Maura. AU - Torri, Giangiacomo. AU - Moro, Stefano. AU - Palumbo, Manlio. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - A number of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) species related to heparin, dermatan sulfate (DeS) and chondroitin sulfate were tested for their ability to interfere with the physiological expression and/or pathological overexpression of the TGF-β1 gene. The influence of the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, degree of sulfation and location of the sulfate groups was examined in an attempt to unveil fine relationships between structure and activity. The nature of the polysaccharide plays a major part, heparins proving able to inhibit both basal and ...
Quantitative biosynthetic studies with cultures highly enriched for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) cells of neonatal mammalian brain demonstrated production of four proteoglycans: hyaluronate (HA), heparan sulphate (HS), chondroitin sulphate (CS), and dermatan sulphate (DS). The glycosaminoglycans were present in cell conditioned medium and in the cellular compartment. There were qualitative differences in the subcellular disposition of the various proteoglycans. The ratio of HS to CS/DS in cell extracts was 1:1, while in medium this ratio was 1:6. All of the glycosaminoglycans were associated with core proteins that were integral to the cell membrane and associated with the cell surface by non-covalent interactions involving glycosaminoglycans. Less than 20% of the HS was non-covalently associated with the astrocyte cell surface reflecting in part the proportionately smaller amounts of this proteoglycan released to astrocyte conditioned medium. HS released to medium was undersulphated relative
Proteoglycans (PGs) are composed of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans chains (GAGs) attached to specific core proteins. They are present in extracellular matrices, on the cell surface and in storage granules of hematopoietic cells. Heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) GAGs play indispensable roles in a wide range of biological processes, where they can serve as protein carriers, be involved in growth factor or morphogen gradient formation and act as co-receptors in signaling processes. Protein binding abilities of GAGs are believed to be predominantly dependent on the arrangement of the sugar modifications, sulfation and epimerization, into specific oligosaccharide sequences. Although the process of HS and CS/DS assembly and modification is not fully understood, a set of GAG biosynthetic enzymes have been fairly well studied and several mutations in genes encoding for this Golgi machinery have been linked to human genetic disorders.. This thesis focuses on the zebrafish ...
What are Glucosamine Chondroitin and msm?. Articular cartilage is a connective tissue composed of specialized cells (chondrocytes) embedded in a matrix of protein fibers (mostly collagen) and clusters of complex proteoglycan molecules that consist of a protein core with numerous side chains. These side chains, chiefly chondroitin sulfate and keratin sulfate, are long polysaccharide molecules called glycosaminoglycans. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and the other glycosaminoglycans strongly attract water due to the negative charges of their sulfate groups. These negative charges also repel each other, creating spaces between glycosaminoglycan side chains where water can enter. This combination of solid and liquid gives cartilage a compressible quality that allows it to function as a shock absorber for joints.1 Glucosamine is a fundamental building block for proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. Glucosamine sulfate (GS) helps to maintain joint health through its ability to both act as a component of and ...
What are Glucosamine Chondroitin and msm?. Articular cartilage is a connective tissue composed of specialized cells (chondrocytes) embedded in a matrix of protein fibers (mostly collagen) and clusters of complex proteoglycan molecules that consist of a protein core with numerous side chains. These side chains, chiefly chondroitin sulfate and keratin sulfate, are long polysaccharide molecules called glycosaminoglycans. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and the other glycosaminoglycans strongly attract water due to the negative charges of their sulfate groups. These negative charges also repel each other, creating spaces between glycosaminoglycan side chains where water can enter. This combination of solid and liquid gives cartilage a compressible quality that allows it to function as a shock absorber for joints.1 Glucosamine is a fundamental building block for proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. Glucosamine sulfate (GS) helps to maintain joint health through its ability to both act as a component of and ...
Arterial glycosaminoglycans are considered to be important in atherogenesis due to their ability to trap lipid inside the vessel wall and to influence cellular migration and proliferation. Atherosclerotic lesions have displayed an altered glycosaminoglycan content and distribution. Diabetes is a rec …
Since the work of Watson & Pearce (1949) it has been known that subnormal thyroid activity affects the glycosaminoglycans (GAG) of skin. The changes reported were an increase in the hyaluronic acid and a decrease in the dermatan sulphate content of the skin (Schiller, Slover & Dorfman, 1962; Kofoed & Bozzini, 1967). These results seem to be independent of thyrotrophin because the same changes are noted after hypophysectomy as in hypothyroidism (Schiller et al. 1962). Since hypophysectomy has a different effect on skin and tracheal cartilage GAG (Kofoed & Bozzini, 1969), experiments were done to study the distribution of these compounds in cartilage of thyroidectomized rats and to compare this with the distribution in skin.. Female Wistar rats, weighing approx. 200 g., were used throughout these experiments. Thyroid destruction was accomplished by administration of 700 μc of 131I. Six months after radioactive iodine administration, rats were divided into three ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have been extensively studied for their role in extracellular signaling. HSPGs interact with and regulate growth factors, chemokines, and cytokines. Signaling pathways for apoptosis, cellular development, and adhesion are regulated by proteoglycans. Genetic defects in heparan synthesis and modifying enzymes may affect growth factor signaling and produce morphological defects.8 Drosophila mutants and gene knockout mouse models have been used to eliminate critical heparan synthesis and modification enzymes, and subsequently identify the developmental processes disrupted. Experiments that use Drosophila containing mutations of the protein core of proteoglycans have been performed and have shown that the protein core also affects development. It has been theorized that both the HS and the protein core have roles in the mediation of growth factor binding and cell signaling.6. HS and HSPGs participate in fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) activation in response to ...
This study demonstrated that bovine sperm exposure to GAGs positively affected sperm fertilizing ability, in vitro embryo developmental potential, and embryonic gene expression. This is the first report to determine concurrently the effects of four different GAGs (HP, HA, CD, and DS). HP was the most potent GAG for enhancing sperm motility and inducing the acrosome reaction. HP exposed sperm exhibited improved 2 PN formation, cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, and embryo cell numbers relative to the control (p,0.05). Additionally, in embryos developing from fertilization with HP-treated sperm significant changes in gene expression were detected in genes involved in pluripotency (Oct4, upregulated), apoptosis (Bax inhibitor, upregulated; Caspase 3, downregulated), and cell growth (Glut5, upregulated), relative to control embryo gene expression (p,0.05). Sperm exposure to HA resulted in intermediate levels of changes, and, similar to HP, HA treatment of sperm resulted in significantly ...
Proteoglycans (PGs) are glycosylated proteins of biological importance at cell surfaces, in the extracellular matrix, and in the circulation. PGs are produced and modified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains in the secretory pathway of animal cells. The most common GAG attachment site is a serine residue followed by a glycine (-ser-gly-), from which a linker tetrasaccharide extends and may continue as a heparan sulfate, a heparin, a chondroitin sulfate, or a dermatan sulfate GAG chain. Which type of GAG chain becomes attached to the linker tetrasaccharide is influenced by the structure of the protein core, modifications occurring to the linker tetrasaccharide itself, and the biochemical environment of the Golgi apparatus, where GAG polymerization and modification by sulfation and epimerization take place. The same cell type may produce different GAG chains that vary, depending on the extent of epimerization and sulfation. However, it is not known to what extent these differences are caused by
The tetra-branched peptide NT4 is a potential cancer theranostic, which very selectively binds to human cancer tissues in different malignancies and can efficiently and selectively deliver drugs or liposomes for cancer cell imaging or therapy, in vitro and in vivo. By using NT4 conjugated to methotrexate or 5FdU we obtained significant reduction of tumor growth in xenografted nude mice. Very recently we reported that conjugation of paclitaxel to NT4 leads to increased therapeutic activity of the drug in an orthotopic model of breast cancer in mice and produces tumor regression which is not achieved with unconjugated paclitaxel in identical experimental conditions. We demonstrated that NT4 specifically binds to sulfated glycosaminoglycans and LRP receptors on cancer cells and tissues.. Considering the role of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in cancer cell interaction with the extracellular matrix, we have analyzed the effect of NT4 in cancer cell adhesion and migration on different supports. NT4 ...
Glycosaminoglycan chains that project from proteoglycans of the arterial wall are responsible for the formation of complexes with plasma LDL.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 This is a step in the normal exchange of components between the circulating plasma and the arterial wall. However, during atherosclerosis, this process contributes to continuous focal deposition of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, mainly LDL, in lesions.12 13 14 In turn, glycosaminoglycan-LDL complexes are more easily internalized by macrophages than LDL alone,15 thereby enhancing the formation of foam cells. Also, glycosaminoglycans induce structural alterations in LDL molecules that may potentiate their atherogenic effects.9 Therefore, the nature of the glycosaminoglycan-LDL interaction has been extensively studied. It is known that certain glycosaminoglycan species, including particular populations of a given species, have greater affinity for LDL.6 11 16 The occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions is associated with a number of risk ...
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Cavalcanti, Alexandre B.; Berwanger, Otavio; Suzumura, Erica A.; Amato, Marcelo B. P.; Tallo, Fernando S.; Rezende, Ederlon A. C.; Telles, Jose M. M.; Romano, Edson; Guimaraes, Helio P.; Regenga, Marisa M.; Takahashi, Luzia N.; Teixeira, Cassiano; Oliveira, Roselaine P.; Carvalho, Vitor O.; Diaz-Quijano, Fredi A.; Carvalho, Carlos R. R.; Kodama, Alessandra A.; Ribeiro, Gisele F. M.; Abreu, Matheus O.; Oliveira, Ivonaldo M.; Guyatt, Gordon; Ferguson, Niall; Walter, Stephen; Vasconcelos, Marcia O. M.; Segundo, Valerio J.; Ferraz, Iris L.; Silva, Rosicley S.; Oliveira Filho, Wilson de; Silva, Nelson B.; Heirel, Debora C. B.; Takatani, Rodrigo R.; Sousa Neto, Jefferson A.; Neto, Jeronimo C. B.; Almeida, Samara D.; Chamy, Gauco; Goncalves Neto, Graciliano J. L.; Dias, Alysson P.; Silva, Rozangela R.; Tavares, Roberta C.; Souza, Marcia L. V. D.; Decio, Janaina C.; Lima, Cyntia M. L. S.; Ferreira Neto, Fleury; Oliveira, Katia R.; Dias, Polyana P. L. C.; Brandao, Andre L. S. B.; Ramos, Joroastro E.; ...
Chemokine cooperativity has previously been suggested to be caused by convergence of intracellular signaling pathways downstream of receptor activation (5-7, 11, 12). Our data indicate that chemokine cooperativity is not strictly dependent on the receptor of the cooperative chemokine. For example, mtCXCL12 and mtCXCL11 fully activate their respective G protein-coupled receptors (Supplemental Fig. 4) but do not cooperate with CCL21 (Fig. 4). Furthermore, RT-PCR analyses and cAMP measurements indicated that CHO-CCX-CKR cells do not express CXCR5 or CXCR4, the cognate Gαi-coupled receptors for CXCL13 and CXCL12, respectively (data not shown). Our data concur with previous evidence suggesting that activation of the receptor for the cooperative chemokine is not necessary for cooperativity (8, 9).. Alternatively, chemokine cooperativity has been suggested to originate from chemokine heterodimerization (9, 10). Our observation that both monomeric and dimeric CXCL12 species can induce chemokine ...
อ่านรีวิว Lasis Abalone Collagen Glycosaminoglycans จากผู้ใช้จริงทั่วประเทศ | V A N I L L A เว็บรีวิวเครื่องสำอางใหญ่ที่สุดในประเทศไทยจากผู้ใช้จริง มีทั้งหมด 331,832 รีวิว, 1,232 แบรนด์ และสินค้า 60,002 รายการ
The endothelium plays a crucial role in regulating vascular tone, inflammatory responses, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Part of these activities is regulated by the presence of glycosaminoglycans...
Studies were conducted on the mucopolysaccharide (MPS) composition of kidneys from seventeen diabetic patients and from six control individuals presumably without renal disease. Thekidney tissues were divided by gross dissection into cortical and medullary portions, and the MPSwere isolated and quantitated from these sections. The contents of hyaluronic acid, heparitin sulfate, and chondroitin sulfates were compared to the clinical and pathological observations on thepatients. According to the MPS pattern of heparitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid, the diabetic kidneys were divided into three groups. Heparitin sulfate was increased fairly consistently in most of the diabetic samples, and was particularly increased in one group with clinically severe diabetes showing the nodular diabetic (Kimmelstiel-Wilson) lesion. Seven of the samples demonstrated a MPS composition somewhat similar to controls, and these were observed to have fewer abnormal changes histologically. A third group showed an increase ...
How GAGs in TWO STEP Work: When your pig consumes the patented blend of cartilage contained in TWO STEP the GAGs are absorbed from your pigs stomach into the body. The GAGs are probably broken down into proteoglycans first. The six different basic GAGs are similar in structure and composed of the same proteoglycans, so the various GAGs are somewhat interchangeable. After leaving the stomach, the GAGs reappear in the cartilage of the joints after having been carried by the blood system to the site near the cartilage and then migrating across cell membranes into the cartilage. There is no blood system in the cartilage which is why GAGS are somewhat slow acting. To help you better understand this, please find a diagram below of a synovial joint.. ...
adhesamine: synthetic diaryldispirotripiperazine that targets selective cell-surface glycosaminoglycans,especially heparan sulfate, for increasing cell adhesion and growth; a useful reagent for culturing neuronal cells
Development and use of sulodexide in vascular diseases: implications for treatment Sergio Coccheri,1 Ferdinando Mannello2 1Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, 2Department of Biomolecular Sciences (Section Clinical Biochemistry and Cell Biology), University 'Carlo Bo', Urbino, Italy Abstract: Sulodexide (SDX), a sulfated polysaccharide complex extracted from porcine intestinal mucosa, is a blend of two glycosaminoglycan (GAG) entities, namely a fast-moving heparin (HP) fraction and a dermatan sulfate (DS; 20%) component. The compound is unique among HP-like substances in that it is biologically active by both the parenteral and oral routes. A main feature of the agent is to undergo extensive absorption by the vascular endothelium. For this reason, in preclinical studies, SDX administered parenterally displays an antithrombotic action similar to that of HPs but associated with fewer alterations of the blood clotting mechanisms and tests, thus being much less conducive to
Heparin is an acidic mucopolysaccharide with the ability to prevent blood clotting. It is used in treating thrombosis. See also histamine ...
Miracle 10 is a Toronto based skincare line created by Dr. Frank Lista. Promoted as a conservatively aggressive skincare line that can stimulate collagen, elastin and glycosaminoglycan production in the skin. Miracle 10 is really just another doctor created skincare line that is becoming very popular with consumers. It is important to note that, regardless of the ad copy, these products are topical cosmetics and as such, will provide results similar to any well-formulated product. There is not one single ingredient used in Miracle 10 that cannot be found in countless product ranges ...
Miracle 10 is a Toronto based skincare line created by Dr. Frank Lista. Promoted as a conservatively aggressive skincare line that can stimulate collagen, elastin and glycosaminoglycan production in the skin. Miracle 10 is really just another doctor created skincare line that is becoming very popular with consumers. It is important to note that, regardless of the ad copy, these products are topical cosmetics and as such, will provide results similar to any well-formulated product. There is not one single ingredient used in Miracle 10 that cannot be found in countless product ranges ...
(A) The mechanical stretch (4% or 8%) increased the contents of hydroxyproline at the indicated times; (B) the mechanical stimulus for 7 days or 9 days enhanced GAG levels of the ECM, and treatment with hyaluronidase II reduced GAG levels remarkably; (C) Van Gieson straining showed more collagen fibers (which were stained red) in stretched.
Blockage from the metastasis procedure remains a substantial clinical problem requiring innovative therapeutic techniques. N6L inhibited Matrigel invasion of MDA-MB-435 cells inside a revised Boyden chamber model. This is associated with a rise in TIMP-3 within the cell tradition medium with out a modification in TIMP-3 mRNA manifestation suggesting its launch from cell surface area and/or extracellular matrix. This can be described by our proven N6L discussion with sulfated glycosaminoglycans and therefore the managed bioavailability of glycosaminoglycan-bound TIMP-3. The Rabbit Polyclonal to OR4A16. implication of TIMP-3 in N6L-induced inhibition of cell invasion was evidenced by siRNA silencing tests showing that the increased loss of TIMP-3 manifestation abrogated the result of N6L. The inhibition of tumor cell invasion by N6L proven in this research furthermore to its previously founded inhibitory influence on tumor development and angiogenesis shows that N6L represents a guaranteeing ...
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A synthetic disaccharide and component of glycosaminoglycans Heparan sulfate (HS) and Heparin, components of proteoglycans. HS, in close proximity to cell…
Interacting selectively and non-covalently with heparin, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans found mainly as an intracellular component of mast cells and which consist predominantly of alternating alpha-(1-|4)-linked D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-glu…
H. Tavakoli Nia, Ortiz, C., and Grodzinsky, A., Aggrecan: Approaches to Study Biophysical and Biomechanical Properties, in Glycosaminoglycans: Chemistry and Biology, vol. 1229, K. Balagurunathan, Nakato, H., and Desai, U. R. 2015, pp. 221 - 237. ...
Glucosamine is an important building block needed by the body to manufacture specialized molecules called glycosaminoglycans, found in cartilage.
Graham, G. J. , Handel, T. M. and Proudfoot, A. E.I. (2019) Leukocyte adhesion: reconceptualizing chemokine presentation by glycosaminoglycans. Trends in Immunology, 40(6), pp. 472-481 ...
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But this distinction was not located in G. Proteoglycan Wnt signaling pathway ranges The amounts of HA and GAG are revealed in Fig. In the seventy two h tradition non U0126 dealt with with IL 1, ...
The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. W. somnifera was shown to exert significant inhibitory effect on incorporation of /sup 35/S into the granulation tissue. The uncoupling effect on oxidative phosphorylation (ADP/O ratio reduction) was also observed in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. Further, Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent ATPase activity was found to be influenced by W. somnifera. W. somnifera also reduced the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in the mitochondria of granulation tissue. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of dexamethasone on glycosaminoglycans of human trabecular meshwork in perfusion organ culture. AU - Johnson, D. H.. AU - Bradley, J. M B. AU - Acott, Ted. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - The effect of dexamethasone treatment on glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the human trabecular meshwork was studied by placing 20 pairs of eyes in perfusion organ culture. One eye received 550 nM dexamethasone in addition to culture medium; the fellow eye received culture medium only. 3H-glucosamine and 35S-sulfate were added to the medium for the final 48 hr of culture. The meshwork was then dissected, and the GAGs were isolated and subjected to sequential enzymatic degradation. Active labeling of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate, and heparan sulfate was found in both control and steroid-treated eyes. Dexamethasone-treated eyes had an average 92% increase in the 3H-glucosamine incorporation rate in the undigestible GAG residue fraction after 14-21 days ...
Bovine heart valves metabolize up to 96% of exogenous |sup|14|/sup|C-glucose to lactate when incubated in vitro under appropriate conditions. Small proportions of the |sup|14|/sup|C-radioactivity are incorporated into glycogen, glycosaminoglycans and lipids and are oxydized to |sup|14|/sup|CO|sub|2|/sub|. Difference between the valves of the left ventricle (aortic and mitral valve) and of the right ventricle (pulmonary and tricuspid valve) were found in the rate of glycolysis as well as in the collagen, glycogen and glycosaminoglycan content. The in vitro incorporation of [U-|sup|14|/sup|C] glucose radioactivity into the total glycosaminoglycans resulted in a specific labelling of hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, but the specific radioactivities of the individual glycosaminoglycans and their relative rates of biosynthesis differed markedly. The relative rates of biosynthesis were 2.9-7.6 for hyaluronate, 1.0 for dermatan sulfate and 0.26-0.59 for chondroitin sulfate. After
Cartilage tissue specimens were obtained from the flexor surface of the navicular bone and distal radiocarpal bone articular surface (controls) from 8 horses 2 to 5 years old. Water, DNA, total collagen, total glycosaminoglycans, chondroitin sulphate, and keratan sulphate contents were determined. The results from each site were compared and the differences were analyzed by paired t-test (P < 0.05). Significant differences were determined between the water content of the navicular bone flexor surface cartilage (68.32± 3.46 % ) and the distal radiocarpal bone articular surface cartilage (60.60± 4.09%). The total DNA content, total glycosaminoglycan content, total chondroitin sulphate content, and total keratan sulphate for the flexor surface of the navicular bone was: 524.51± 92.89 ng, 0.1533± 0.0338 mg, 0.1018± 0.0197 mg 0.0800± 0.0176 mg, and 0.0092± 0.0037 mg per mg of dry weight cartilage, respectively. The total DNA content, total glycosaminoglycan content, total chondroitin sulphate ...
BBM restored cell surface GAGs and attenuated endothelial inflammation in diabetic HAECs. Blueberry might complement conventional therapies to improve vascular complications in diabetes.
Xenopus laevis is an excellent animal for analyzing early vertebrate development. Various effects of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on growth factor-related cellular events during embryogenesis have been demonstrated in Xenopus. To elucidate the relationship between alterations in fine structure and changes in the specificity of growth factor-binding during Xenopus development, heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) chains were isolated at four different embryonic stages and their structure and growth factor-binding capacities were compared. The total amounts of both HS and CS/DS chains decreased from the pre-midblastula transition to the gastrula stage, but increased exponentially during the following developmental stages. The length of HS chains was not significantly affected by development, whereas that of CS/DS chains increased with development. The disaccharide composition of GAGs in embryos also changed during development. The degree of sulfation of the HS chains ...
Loss of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans (PGs) is an early event of osteoarthritis (OA) resulting in cartilage degradation that has been previously demonstrated in both huma and experimental OA models. However, the mechanism of GAG loss and the role of xylosyltransferase-I (XT-I) that initiates GAG biosynthesis onto PG molecules in the pathogenic process of human OA are unknown. In this study, we have characterized XT-I expression and activity together with GAG synthesis in human OA cartilage obtained from different regions of the same joint, defined as normal, late-stage or adjacent to late-stage. The results showed that GAG synthesis and content increased in cartilage from areas flanking OA lesions compared to cartilage from macroscopically normal unaffected regions, while decreased in late-stage OA cartilage lesions. This increase in anabolic state was associated with a marked upregulation of XT-I expression and activity in cartilage next to lesion while a decrease in the
Background-Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, and the search for novel therapeutic approaches continues. In the monogenic disease mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI, loss of function mutations in arylsulfatase B (ASB) leads to myocardial accumulation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), manifesting as a myriad of cardiac symptoms. Here, we studied changes in myocardial CS in non-MPS failing hearts, and assessed its generic role in pathological cardiac remodeling. Methods-Healthy and diseased human and rat left ventricles were subjected to histological and immuno-staining methods to analyze for GAG distribution. GAGs were extracted and analyzed for quantitative and compositional changes using Alcian Blue assay and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Expression changes in 20 CS-related genes were studied in three primary human cardiac cell types and THP-1 derived macrophages under each of 9 in vitro stimulatory conditions. In two rat models of ...
Metachromasia (var. metachromasy) is a characteristic change in the color of staining carried out in biological tissues, exhibited by certain dyes when they bind to particular substances present in these tissues, called chromotropes. For example, toluidine blue becomes dark blue (with a colour range from blue-red dependent on glycosaminoglycan content) when bound to cartilage. Other widely used metachromatic stains are the haematological Giemsa and May-Grunwald stains that also contain thiazine dyes. The white cell nucleus stains purple, basophil granules intense magenta, whilst the cytoplasms (of mononuclear cells) stains blue. The absence of color change in staining is named orthochromasia.. The underlying mechanism for metachromasia requires the presence of polyanions within the tissue. When these tissues are stained with a concentrated basic dye solution, such as toluidine blue, the bound dye molecules are close enough to form dimeric and polymeric aggregates. The light absorption spectra of ...
Heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin (Hep) are glycosaminoglycans with repeating disaccharide units that consist of alternating residues of alpha-D-glucosamine (GlcN) and uronic acid, the latter being either beta-D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) or alpha-L-iduronic acid (IdoA). In these sugar residues, sulfation modification may be performed at various positions. Structural studies show that Hep possesses a higher degree of sulfation than HS. The biosynthesis of HS/Hep occurs with the addition of the first GlcNAc residue by EXTL3 glycosyltransferase after completion of tetrasaccharide linkage region attached to serine residue of a core protein. The chain polymeraization is then catalyzed by EXT1 and EXT2 transferases. As the chain polymerizes, HS/Hep undergoes a series of modification reactions including N-deacetylation, N-sulfation, epimerization, and subsequently O-sulfation. As final products of biosynthesis, HS is present in the form of hepran sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) whereas Hep exists as a sugar ...
Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are powerful nongenetic tools that allow intracellular delivery of conjugated cargoes to modify cell behavior. Their use in biomedicine has been hampered by inefficient delivery to nuclear and cytoplasmic targets. Here we overcame this deficiency by developing a series of novel fusion proteins that couple a membrane-docking peptide to heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a PTD. We showed that this GET (GAG-binding enhanced transduction) system could deliver enzymes (Cre, neomycin phosphotransferase), transcription factors (NANOG, MYOD), antibodies, native proteins (cytochrome C), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and nucleic acids [plasmid (p)DNA, modified (mod)RNA, and small inhibitory RNA] at efficiencies of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in cell types considered hard to transduce, such as mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), human ESCs (hESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This technology represents an ...
Adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) components has been implicated in the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. We investigated the ability of C6 glioma cells to attach to ECM components in vitro and described the regulatory role of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on their adhesion to the substrate, proliferation and migration. ECM proteins (type IV collagen, laminin and fibronectin) stimulate rat C6 glioma cell line adhesion in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner. The higher adhesion values were achieved with type IV collagen. Exogenous heparin or chondroitin sulfate impaired, in a dose-dependent manner the attachment of C6 glioma cell line to laminin and fibronectin, but not to type IV collagen. Dextran sulfate did not affect C6 adhesion to any ECM protein analyzed, indicating a specific role of GAGs in mediating glioma adhesion to laminin and fibronectin. GAGs and dextran sulfate did not induce C6 glioma detachment from any tested substrate suggesting specific effect in the initial step of
Description: The formation of a cross-link between peptide chains mediated by a chondroitin 4-sulfate glycosaminoglycan that originates from a typical O-glycosidic link to serine of one chain; the other chain is esterified, via the alpha-carbon of its C-terminal Asp, to C-6 of an internal N-acetylgalactosamine of the glycosaminoglycan chain.. ...
Controlled release systems for therapeutic molecules are vital to allow the sustained local delivery of their activities which direct cell behaviour and enable novel regenerative strategies. Direct programming of cells using exogenously delivered transcription factors can by-pass growth factor signalling but there is still a requirement to deliver such activity spatio-temporally. We previously developed a technology termed GAG-binding enhanced transduction (GET) to efficiently deliver a variety of cargoes intracellularly, using GAG-binding domains which promote cell targeting, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) which allow cell entry. Herein we demonstrate that GET system can be used in controlled release systems to mediate sustained intracellular transduction over one week. We assessed the stability and activity of GET peptides in poly(dl-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) prepared using a S/O/W double emulsion method. Efficient encapsulation (∼65%) and tailored ...
Methyl-Sulfonyl- Methane Suitable for Vegetarians USAGE: Take 1 scoop once or twice a day, or as directed by your qualified health consultant. Jarrow Formulas MSMSulfur is an organic source of bioavailable sulfur, an antioxidant mineral found in major structural molecules of the body such as cartilage. The sulfur from MSM is used to produce glycosaminoglycans (or mucopolysaccharides) such as chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and hyaluronic acid. These sulfur containing glycosaminoglycans are found in high concentrations in connective tissue, including joint cartilage, skin and collagen. Do NOT take if pregnant, lactating, trying to conceive, or have a medical condition. For best results, use with Jarrow Formulas BioSil, the concentrated, Biologically Active Silicon for stronger, healthier bones, joints and skin. Keep out of the reach of children. SUPPLEMENT FACTS Serving Size 1 Capsule Amount % DV -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Proteoglycans Proteoglycans are molecules composed of a polypeptide and one or several sulfated glycosaminoglycans attached by chemical bindings. They are found in every animal tissue. Almost every cell may synthesize proteoglycans, and then they are released, incorporated in the plasma membrane or stored in internals vesicles. They are essential molecules of the pericellular space. Proteoglycans are assembled inside the cell. The polypeptide is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where some monosaccharides are also added. However, the elongation of the glycosaminoglycan chains, as well as the addition of sulfate groups, occurs in the trans domain of the Golgi complex. Most of the proteoglycans are exocytosed to the extracellular space, but some of them will be part of the plasma membrane, where they are inserted among the fatty acid chains of lipids thanks to a sequence of hydrophobic amino acids of the polypeptide Different proteoglycans show different amino acid sequence and polypeptide ...
Chemokines are small immune system proteins mediating leukocyte migration and activation, and are important in many aspects of health and diseases. Some chemokines also have the ability to block HIV-1 infection by binding to the HIV-1 co-receptors CCR5 (CC chemokine receptor 5) and CXCR4 (CXC chemokine receptor 4). The first part of this work is to determine the mechanism of action of a human herpesvirus-8 encoded viral chemokine analog vMIP-II (viral macrophage inflammatory protein-II) by characterizing its interactions with endothelial surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and cell surface receptors. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mutagenesis and molecular-docking were conducted and results show that vMIP-II tightly binds glycosaminoglycans using residues distributed along one face of the protein, such as R18, R46 and R48, and that there is a shift in the GAG binding site between the monomer and dimer form of vMIP-II where the N-terminus is involved in GAG binding for the dimer. This study, for ...
My research is focused on the elucidation of the structure and function of connective tissue macromolecules in health and disease. I have a special interest in the study of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the proteoglycans (PGs) to which they are attached.. Glycosaminoglycans are a class of sulphated polysaccharides found in association with a protein core to form a PG. The structural diversity of GAGs is large and as novel systems are being examined and increasingly sensitive methods of detection and analysis are being used this diversity is expanding.. Important functionality is associated with GAGs and PGs and my work seeks to identify and examine these functions and their relationship with structural motifs especially within the GAG chondroitin / dermatan sulphate.. My work involves the development of GAG isolation and analysis methodologies and the application of these methods to several areas of investigation.. Development of methods for structural characterisation The development of rapid ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Hedgehog (Hh) morphogens play fundamental roles during embryogenesis and adulthood, in health and disease. Multiple cell surface receptors regulate the Hh signaling pathway. Among these, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of proteoglycans shape Hh gradients and signal transduction. We have determined crystal structures of Sonic Hh complexes with two GAGs, heparin and chondroitin sulfate. The interaction determinants, confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and binding studies, reveal a previously not identified Hh site for GAG binding, common to all Hh proteins. The majority of Hh residues forming this GAG-binding site have been previously implicated in developmental diseases. Crystal packing analysis, combined with analytical ultracentrifugation of Sonic Hh-GAG complexes, suggests a potential mechanism for GAG-dependent Hh multimerization. Taken together, these results provide a direct mechanistic explanation of the observed correlation between disease and impaired Hh gradient formation. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family, enzymes that exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product catalyzes the formation of the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage by way of a glucuronyl transfer reaction in the final step of the biosynthesis of the linkage region of proteoglycans. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013 ...
MEGA GLUCOSAMINE delivers a good dose, 1000 mg Glucosamine Sulfate·2KCl per capsule. Glycosaminoglycans are the major polymers of the ground substance of connective tissue. Glucosamine is a structural component of several glycosaminoglycans.
The citation for the published article is: Cameron, Ewan, and Linus Pauling. Ascorbic Acid and the Glycosaminoglycans: An Orthomolecular Approach to Cancer and Other Diseases. Oncology 27, 2 (1973): 181-92 ...
Chondroitin Sulfate is classified as a biopolymer an acidic mucopolysaccharide. It is typically extracted from animal sources.. ...
Background: Therapeutic strategies that successfully combine autologous micrografting and biodegradable scaffolds offer great potential for improved wound repair. In this study we evaluate the efficacy of a novel modification of a collagen-glycosaminoglycan scaffold (CGS) with autologous micrografts using a murine dorsal wound model.. Methods: db/db mice underwent a full thickness 1.0cm2 dorsal wound excision and were treated with a CGS, a modified CGS (CGS+MG) or simple occlusive dressing (Blank). The modified scaffold was created by harvesting full thickness micrografts and transplanting these into the CGS membrane. Parameters of wound healing, including cellular proliferation, collagen deposition, keratinocyte migration, and angiogenesis were assessed.. Results: The group treated with the micrograft-modified scaffold healed at a faster rate, showed greater cellular proliferation (63.2±27.3µm vs. 624.4±284.3µm, p,0.0001), collagen deposition (18.7±2.9 vs. 34.5±5.2%; p,0.0001), with ...
A process for preparing a crosslinked collagen-glycosaminoglycan composite material which comprises forming an uncrosslinked composite material from collagen and a glycosaminoglycan and contacting the uncrosslinked composite with a gaseous aldehyde until a crosslinked product having an Mc of from about 800 to about 60,000 is disclosed along with composite materials prepared by this process. Artificial skin produced by this process is more stable toward long-term storage than similar materials prepared using other methods of crosslinking.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the carbohydrate moieties of proteoglycans, are thought to be positive and negative regulators of axonal growth. The physiological role of GAGs is controversial as some studies have shown that GAGs inhibit cell adhesion and neurite elongation (Exp Neurol 109:111, 1990) whereas other studies have reported a growth stimulatory effect of GAGs (Development 114:17, 1992). These and other studies have examined the effects of GAGs using different types of neurons and different substrate conditions thereby making a direct comparison of the experimental data difficult. To resolve the controversy concerning the ability of exogenous GAGs to modulate neurite growth, we examined the effects of a panel of structurally different GAGs on the growth of postnatal rat cerebellar granule neurons and embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons on substrates of either laminin or the L1 glycoprotein. Here we show that chondroitin 4-sulfate (CS4), chondroitin 6-sulfate (CS6), and keratan ...
The physical properties of cartilage depend on electrostatic bonds between type II collagen fibrils, hyaluronan, and the sulfated GAGs on densely packed proteoglycans. Its semi-rigid consistency is attributable to water bound to the negatively charged hyaluronan and GAG chains extending from proteoglycan core proteins, which in turn are enclosed within a dense meshwork of thin type II collagen fibrils. The high content of bound water allows cartilage to serve as a shock absorber, an important functional role. ...
A method and a pharmaceutical composition for non-topical wound, scar and keloid treatment is described which contains cross-linked glycosaminoglycans and conventional pharmaceutical auxiliary and/or carrier substances. The pharmaceutical composition is preferably administered intralesionally e.g. by injection in the form of a gel containing water. The cross-linked glycosaminoglycans are also suitable for use as cosmetics and skin care products.
Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of GAGs (glycosaminoglycans, or mucopolysaccharides) due to the impaired functions of lysosomal enzymes. It is the mucopolysaccharides which help in building bones, cartilage, skin, tendons, corneas, and the fluid responsible for lubricating joints.
Treatment of vascular diseases should be based on established pathophysiological concepts, and this also applies to chronic venous disease (CVD). On the basis of the latest research in this field, this paper summarizes the most advanced pathophysiological knowledge regarding the hemodynamics of the large veins and of the microcirculation, the endothelial function and inflammation, and the use of sulodexide in the treatment of CVD. The emerging theories on the pathophysiology of CVD consider inflammation, endothelial glycocalyx dysfunction, and the consequent changes in the extracellular matrix to play key roles in the development of CVD, and support a renewed interest in the research and application of sulodexide. As part of active approach to the treatment of CVD including edema and trophic venous alterations, sulodexide could help to alleviate progressive signs and symptoms of disease in any clinical CEAP class of CVD, from C1 to C6.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effect of TGF-\beta1 on Cell Proliferation and Proteoglycan Production in Human Melanoma Depends on the Degree of Cell Differentiation. AU - Heredia, A.. AU - Villena, J.. AU - Romarís, M.. AU - Molist, A.. AU - Bassols, A.. PY - 1998/1/1. Y1 - 1998/1/1. M3 - Article. VL - 0. SP - 1. EP - 1. IS - 0. ER - ...
In the present study, we focused on the roles of the glycosaminoglycan component of the cell-surface glycome in modulating vasculogenesis. As the first step, we recapitulated vasculogenesis from ESC-EBs. The primary vascular plexus formed in the embryonic body undergoes remodeling from day 6 or 7 onward via sprouting angiogenesis.12,13 Interestingly, comparison of the compositional analysis of the cell-surface HSGAGs of a day 3 and a day 7 ESC-EB revealed distinct profiles that led to an increase in highly sulfated disaccharide residues with differentiation. These sulfate residues are introduced into the nascent polymer through a series of sequential enzyme-induced modifications. The bifunctional activity of the NDST family appears to be a key regulator in this process, because most of the other modifications, namely, C5 epimerization and 2O, 3O, and 6O sulfations, predominate around the N-sulfated regions. Interestingly, both mRNA transcripts and total NDST1 protein levels were upregulated ...
1] For drug development, the clinical phases start with testing for safety in a few human subjects, then expand to many study participants (potentially tens of thousands) to determine if the treatment is effective. Genetic testing is common, particularly when there is evidence of variation in metabolic rate. The purpose of clinical trials is to find ways to more effectively prevent, diagnose, or treat disease. Pilot studies and feasibility studies are small versions of studies which are sometimes done before a large trial takes place. [3] Phase 0 trials are also known as human microdosing studies and are designed to speed up the development of promising drugs or imaging agents by establishing very early on whether the drug or agent behaves in human subjects as was expected from preclinical studies. There is a history of clinical research done on glycosaminoglycans, especially glucosamine and chondroitin, for the treatment of arthritis. Clinical trials were first introduced in Avicennas The ...
Papillomaviruses (PVs) infect epithelial cells and are the main causative agent of cervical carcinoma. There are today more than a hundred different PV types and these can be divided into high risk and low risk types. They infect differentiating epithelial cells which make it cumbersome to propagate and produce human papillomavirus (HPV) virions. A common method to study HPV infection is to use HPV virus like particles (VLPs) produced in recombinant eukaryotic expression systems. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been described as an initial attachment receptor for several viruses. Our aim was to study the interactions between HPV VLPs and different GAGs to determine how these could affect binding and internalization. We found that soluble heparin was the best GAG inhibitor of HPV-16 VLP binding followed by heparan sulfate of mucosal origin. We could also see that CHO cells deficient in GAG expression had a reduced ability to bind VLPs, as did cells pretreated with heparinase III. Our results ...
In 2002, Barnes got accepted into Boston University as a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major. While working towards his Bachelors degree, Barnes worked as an Undergraduate Student Researcher at the university. He worked independently to investigate the role of glycosaminoglycan modification in embryo development. After graduating with his Bachelors degree, he received his MS in Cellular & Developmental Biology from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. While finishing his degrees, Barnes worked as both a Research Associate and Staff Scientist. To say this was a busy time for Barnes is an understatement. In 2012, Barnes graduated with his Ph.D. in Biochemistry and began his professional career in the industry ...
Blyscan Glycosaminoglycan Economy Assay Kit - Biocolor Kits | Assay Kit - Blyscan Glycosaminoglycan Economy Assay Kit from Accurate Chemical & Scientific Corporation Laboratory Research Products
Study subjects will be asked to take Sulodexide twice a day. The Sulodexide will be taken in addition to the regular medications the subject is on. There will be no change in these other medications. The subject will also be asked to have blood tests each month to follow kidney function. The frequency of these tests is the normal/standard frequency for persons with MPGN II/DDD and is neither increased nor decreased because of participation in this study. The study will occur over 6 months for each subject ...
Study subjects will be asked to take Sulodexide twice a day. The Sulodexide will be taken in addition to the regular medications the subject is on. There will be no change in these other medications. The subject will also be asked to have blood tests each month to follow kidney function. The frequency of these tests is the normal/standard frequency for persons with MPGN II/DDD and is neither increased nor decreased because of participation in this study. The study will occur over 6 months for each subject ...
Proteoglycans (PGs) modulate numerous signaling pathways during development through binding of their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains to various signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). A majority of PGs possess two or more GAG side chains, suggesting that GAG multivalency is imperative for biological functions in vivo. However, only a few studies have examined the biological significance of GAG multivalency. In this report, we utilized a library of bis- and tris-xylosides that produce two and three GAG chains on the same scaffold, respectively, thus mimicking PGs, to examine the importance of GAG valency and chain type in regulating FGF/FGFR interactions in vivo in zebrafish. A number of bis- and tris-xylosides, but not mono-xylosides, caused an elongation phenotype upon their injection into embryos. In situ hybridization showed that elongated embryos have elevated expression of the FGF target gene mkp3 but unchanged expression of reporters for other pathways, ...
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Mesoglycan 60 mg daily endovenous for 10 days then 100 mg daily orally for 20 days, repeated for two months then oral mesoglycan for 12 ...
When youre in the middle of a longer workout or race, your body is constantly jettisoning critical electrolytes that are key to good blood hydration. Clif Shots Electrolyte Hydration Drink Mix allows you to fortify your water so your bodys cooling system keeps doing its job. With 250g of electrolytes and a nice, balanced boost in carbs and sugars (19g/10g respectively), youll get a recharge in the two most important areas for performance: hydration and energy.
Glucosamine is produced by the body and helps build cartilage, the connective tissues found in joints. Glucosamine makes glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, the building blocks for ligaments, cartilage, tendons, and synovial fluid in the joints.
We report a case of naevus mucinosus, a recently described condition. Clinically, the lesions presented as unilateral, multiple, firm, 3-5-mm-diameter, coalescent papules in a linear arrangement on the back of a 23-year-old man. Histologically, large amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides (proteoglycans) were demonstrated in the superficial dermis. As far as we ...
Glucosamine is used to help synthesize glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans. These components are the core materials used by the body to make cartilage, synovial fluid and other elements of the skeletal system. Degradation of the bodys cart
Matrixyl is a peptide commonly used in anti-ageing products. Peptides are small fragments of protein that have the ability to interact with and affect cells. It promotes growth of collagen, elastin and glycosaminoglycans, which results in firmer skin with the appearance of wrinkles minimised. Combines with Hyaluronic Acid which binds moisture to the skin, the result is a smoother, more youthful appearance. ...
Glycosaminoglycans. Indiana University School of Medicine Accessed December 31, 2006.. *Glycosaminoglycans at the US National ... Glycosaminoglycans[1] (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides[2] are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating ... Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. ... Glycosaminoglycans have high degrees of heterogeneity with regards to molecular mass, disaccharide construction, and sulfation ...
King, M.W. (2014-02-10). "Glycosaminoglycans". Retrieved 2014-10-22. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)[unreliable medical ... and glycosaminoglycans. They are located on the perichondrium because the perichondrium, located on the outside of developing ...
Proteoglycans consist of a protein with one or more sugar side chains, known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), attached to the ... Pomin VH, Mulloy B (February 2018). "Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans". Pharmaceuticals. 11 (1): 17. doi:10.3390/ph11010027 ...
Hiebert Linda M.; Han Juying & Mandal Anil Kumar (2014). "Glycosaminoglycans, Hyperglycemia, and Disease". Antioxidants & Redox ...
Heparin, heparan sulfate and other glycosaminoglycans and plant glycans. Polysaccharides such as cellulose, amylose, chitin and ... "Chemical Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycans". Chemical Reviews. 116 (14): 8193-8255. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.6b00010. PMID ...
It is a mix of low-molecular weight glycosaminoglycans made from bovine trachea and lung. It is labeled to be used every 4 days ... Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan. Proc. AAEP 2001 (47): 201-206. Caron JP, Kaneene JB, Miller R. Results of a survey of equine ... Effects of glycosaminoglycan-polysulfate and two nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on prostaglandin E2 synthesis in Chinese ... Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans (PSGAGs) are drugs originally labeled for intra-articular use, but are commonly given ...
Yip GW, Smollich M, Götte M (September 2006). "Therapeutic value of glycosaminoglycans in cancer". Molecular Cancer ... consists of an extracellular domain which can be substituted with heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan ...
2000). "Glycosaminoglycans promote HARP/PTN dimerization". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 266 (2): 437-42. doi:10.1006/bbrc. ...
Differential effect of glycosaminoglycans on enzyme activity". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (42): 26307-14. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.42.26307 ...
The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s ... Proteoglycans are categorized by their relative size (large and small) and the nature of their glycosaminoglycan chains. Types ... Such polysaccharides are also known as glycosaminoglycans. Proteoglycans at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... The inactivity of specific lysosomal enzymes that normally degrade glycosaminoglycans leads to the accumulation of ...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are chains of sugar molecules. They are found in the extracellular matrix and the cell membrane, or ... It is caused by a buildup of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (AKA GAGs, or mucopolysaccharides) in the body's ... "Genistein-mediated inhibition of glycosaminoglycan synthesis as a basis for gene expression-targeted isoflavone therapy for ...
It is an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans. Condoliase is derived from the enzyme mucopolysaccharidase from the bacteria ...
Hydrostatic forces exerted by Glycosaminoglycans and Hyaluronan; Mesenchymal reorganisation; Mesenchyme cell contraction; ...
Facilitates virus attachment through interactions with glycosaminoglycans. L - RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Required for ... "Role of Cellular Glycosaminoglycans and Charged Regions of Viral G Protein in Human Metapneumovirus Infection". Journal of ...
Oral glycosaminoglycans may have a similar effect. Bisphosphonates can be useful in cases where bone remodeling is causing pain ... The use of intramuscular glycosaminoglycans has been shown to decrease pain in horses with navicular disease, but this effect ... 1993) "Evaluation of polysulfated glycosaminoglycan for treatment of navicular disease", Proceedings of the American ...
It is a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan. It has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. In ... Heparin is a member of the glycosaminoglycan family of carbohydrates (which includes the closely related molecule heparan ... Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is a medication and naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan. As a medication ... 2000). "Distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom: widespread occurrence of heparin-like compounds in ...
Such polysaccharides are also known as glycosaminoglycans. A variety of methods used in detection, purification, and structural ...
In Hurler's, only glycosaminoglycans would be present. Diagnostic measures can include the following. Before birth: Abnormally ... The presence of lipids, glycosaminoglycans (GAG's) and carbohydrates in the blood provide for the distinguishing characteristic ... and glycosaminoglycans) in various tissues throughout the body (i.e. fibroblasts). As a result, a buildup of these substances ...
Differential effect of glycosaminoglycans on enzyme activity". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (42): 26307-14. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.42.26307 ... The central domain of Versican is decorated with glycosaminoglycans. The structural and functional diversity of Versican is ... Dours-Zimmermann MT, Zimmermann DR (1995). "A novel glycosaminoglycan attachment domain identified in two alternative splice ... and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding regions. The N-terminal (G1) globular domain consists of Ig-like loop and two link modules ...
... s are glycosaminoglycans which are derivatives of heparin. They include oligosaccharides and sulfated polysaccharides ... and instead heparin binding protein actually interact with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains or mucins bound to the heparin ...
... is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and ... Exactly how proteins are selected for attachment of glycosaminoglycans is not understood. Glycosylated serines are often ... Proteoglycan Heparin sulfate - a glycosaminoglycan of major pharmaceutical importance for many decades Heparan sulfate - a ... "Glycosaminoglycans from marine sources as therapeutic agents Authors". Biotechnology Advances. 35 (6): 711-725. doi:10.1016/j. ...
In vitro control of neuronal polarity by glycosaminoglycans. par Lafont F, Rouget M, Triller A, Prochiantz A, Rousselet A. dans ...
Viral proteins attach to the host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This brings about endocytosis which allows the virus penetration ...
For instance, polypeptides, glycosaminoglycans, and DNA are polyelectrolytes. Both natural and synthetic polyelectrolytes are ...
These cells are star-shaped and synthesize glycosaminoglycans. As glycosaminoglycans are produced, water is drawn in between ...
... s produce a colloid secretion containing glycosaminoglycans; this secretion protects the epithelium against urine ...
"Enzymes responsible for synthesis of corneal keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (41 ...
"Enzymes responsible for synthesis of corneal keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (41): 30085-96. doi: ...
... s make collagen fibres, glycosaminoglycans, reticular and elastic fibers. Growing individuals' fibroblasts are ...
Glycosaminoglycans. Indiana University School of Medicine Accessed December 31, 2006.. *Glycosaminoglycans at the US National ... Glycosaminoglycans[1] (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides[2] are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating ... Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g. ... Glycosaminoglycans have high degrees of heterogeneity with regards to molecular mass, disaccharide construction, and sulfation ...
Media in category "Glycosaminoglycans". The following 31 files are in this category, out of 31 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Glycosaminoglycans&oldid=257447280" ...
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG), sold under the brand name Adequan, is an injectable drug for dogs and horses that is ... The glycosaminoglycan side chains are polyanionic, which causes adjacent side chains to push each other away and create a " ... It is made of repeat disaccharide units (comprising hexosamine and hexuronic acid), and is similar to glycosaminoglycans ... Normally, joint cartilages have proteoglycan complexes, which are proteins with side chains made of glycosaminoglycans such as ...
Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in stem cell glycomics.. Li B1, Liu H, Zhang Z, Stansfield HE, Dordick JS, Linhardt RJ. ... Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play a critical role in the binding and activation of growth factors in cell signal transduction ...
Products containing GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS made by company: Lash Advance There are no products in the database that match your ...
Glycosaminoglycan definition, any of a class of polysaccharides derived from hexosamine that form mucins when complexed with ... glycosaminoglycan in Medicine Expand. glycosaminoglycan gly·cos·a·mi·no·gly·can (glīkōs-ə-mēnō-glīkān). n. See ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
... Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2010 Jan 1;15:645-60. doi: 10.2741/3638 ... Secreted chemokines can be immobilized on the luminal and abluminal endothelial cell surfaces by glycosaminoglycans. In order ... The interceptor-mediated transport or elimination of chemokines, together with their immobilization by glycosaminoglycans, lead ...
... Dragana Nikitovic,1 Katerina Kouvidi,1 Kallirroi ... Importantly, cell-associated and tumor microenvironment glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/proteoglycan (PG) content and distribution ...
Glycosaminoglycans are among the most complex polysaccharide chains that are either covalently linked to protein cores (to form ... Glycosaminoglycans are among the most complex polysaccharide chains that are either covalently linked to protein cores (to form ... Glycosaminoglycans: Structure and Biological Functions. James D San Antonio, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, ... Antonio, James D San, and Iozzo, Renato V(Apr 2001) Glycosaminoglycans: Structure and Biological Functions. In: eLS. John Wiley ...
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparan sulfate (HS), are expressed on the surface of nearly all cells, linked to ... Interaction between respiratory syncytial virus and glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate.. Hallak LK1, Kwilas SA, ...
... Shibnath Ghatak,1 Edward V. Maytin,2 Judith A. ... Ariana Vasconcelos, and Vitor Pomin, "The Sea as a Rich Source of Structurally Unique Glycosaminoglycans and Mimetics," ... Alina D. Zamfir, "Applications of capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in glycosaminoglycan ... A Powerful Combination for the Success of Current Glycosaminoglycan Interactomics," ChemMedChem, 2017. View at Publisher · View ...
The biological interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other biomolecules are heavily influenced by structural ... Chiu, Y.L., Huang, R.R., Orlando, R., Sharp, J.S.: GAG-ID: heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin glycosaminoglycan high-throughput ... Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear, polydisperse carbohydrates consisting of a repeating uronic sugar and amino sugar ... Gandhi, N.S., Mancera, R.L.: The structure of glycosaminoglycans and their interactions with proteins. Chem. Biol. Drug Des. 72 ...
Glycosaminoglycans compositional analysis of Urodele axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and Porcine Retina. *So Young Kim1. , ... Kim, S.Y., Kundu, J., Williams, A. et al. Glycosaminoglycans compositional analysis of Urodele axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) ... Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interaction with FGF is required for signal transduction in this pathway. GAGs are anionic ... Clark, S.J., Bishop, P.N., Day, A.J.: Complement factor H and age-related macular degeneration: the role of glycosaminoglycan ...
... glycosaminoglycan that is normally restricted to placental trophoblast cells. This ofCS-modification can be detected in bladder ... Plasma glycosaminoglycans as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in surgically treated renal cell carcinoma. Eur. Urol. Oncol. ... Glycosaminoglycans in the urinary bladder mucosa, tumor tissue and mucosal tissue around tumor. Vojnosanitetski Pregl. Mil. Med ... Sulfation patterns of glycosaminoglycans encode molecular recognition and activity. Nat. Chem. Biol.2, 467-473 (2006). ...
PGs are produced and modified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains in the secretory pathway of animal cells. The most common GAG ... PGs are produced and modified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains in the secretory pathway of animal cells. The most common GAG ... Prydz , K. Determinants of Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) Structure. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 2003-2022. ... Keywords: Proteoglycans; glycosaminoglycans; PAPS; 3-phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate; Golgi apparatus; secretory pathway; ...
Iwafune M, Kakizaki I, Yukawa M, Kudo D, Ota S, Endo M, Takagaki K (2002) Reconstruction of glycosaminoglycan chains in decorin ... Ishido K, Takagaki K, Iwafune M, Yoshihara S, Sasaki M, Endo M (2002) Enzymatic attachment of glycosaminoglycan chain to ... Takagaki K, Ishido K, Kakizaki I, Iwafune M, Endo M (2002) Carriers for enzymatic attachment of glycosaminoglycan chains to ... Kakizaki I., Takagaki K. (2008) Endoglycosidases (Glycosaminoglycans). In: Taniguchi N., Suzuki A., Ito Y., Narimatsu H., ...
The ratio of HS to CS/DS in cell extracts was 1:1, while in medium this ratio was 1:6. All of the glycosaminoglycans were ... Glycosaminoglycans / biosynthesis*. Heparitin Sulfate / biosynthesis. Hyaluronic Acid / biosynthesis. Proteoglycans / ... 0/Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0/Glycosaminoglycans; 0/Proteoglycans; 24967-94-0/Dermatan Sulfate; 9004-61-9/Hyaluronic ... The glycosaminoglycans were present in cell conditioned medium and in the cellular compartment. There were qualitative ...
... composite material which comprises forming an uncrosslinked composite material from collagen and a glycosaminoglycan and ... A process for preparing a crosslinked collagen-glycosaminoglycan ... The glycosaminoglycan is dissolved in, for example, a citric ... A glycosaminoglycan (mucopolysaccharide) solution can be prepared from any source of a glycosaminoglycan, for example sodium ... Glycosaminoglycan-antithrombin III/heparin cofactor II conjugates. US20040054414 *. Sep 18, 2002. Mar 18, 2004. Trieu Hai H.. ...
Glycosaminoglycans are major structural components of cartilage and are also found in the cornea of the eye. ... glycosaminoglycan listen (GLY-koh-suh-MEE-noh-GLY-kan) A type of long, unbranched polysaccharide molecule. Glycosaminoglycans ...
Targeting Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans to Treat Cardiac Fibrosis in Pathological Remodeling. Rong-Rong Zhao, Matthew ... Targeting Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans to Treat Cardiac Fibrosis in Pathological Remodeling. Rong-Rong Zhao, Matthew ... Targeting Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans to Treat Cardiac Fibrosis in Pathological Remodeling. Rong-Rong Zhao, Matthew ... glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), manifesting as a myriad of cardiac symptoms. Here, we studied changes in myocardial CS in non-MPS ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Glycosaminoglycan xylosylkinaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,R4GE25,R4GE25_DANRE Glycosaminoglycan xylosylkinase (Fragment) OS=Danio rerio OX=7955 GN=fam20b PE=1 SV=1 ...
Differential effects of glycosaminoglycans on neurite growth on laminin and L1 substrates. CL Dou and JM Levine ... Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the carbohydrate moieties of proteoglycans, are thought to be positive and negative regulators of ... Differential effects of glycosaminoglycans on neurite growth on laminin and L1 substrates ... Differential effects of glycosaminoglycans on neurite growth on laminin and L1 substrates ...
... the cell-penetrating ability of cationic peptide hormones in the context of the expression of cell surface glycosaminoglycans ( ... Cell-Penetrating Ability of Peptide Hormones: Key Role of Glycosaminoglycans Clustering. Armelle Tchoumi Neree 1,2. ... "Cell-Penetrating Ability of Peptide Hormones: Key Role of Glycosaminoglycans Clustering." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, no. 11: 27391- ... Tchoumi Neree, A.; Nguyen, P.T.; Bourgault, S. Cell-Penetrating Ability of Peptide Hormones: Key Role of Glycosaminoglycans ...
At Bioibérica we produce the main glycosaminoglycans which are chrondroitin sulphate, glucosamine… ... A glycosaminoglycan is a type of biomolecule that is both functional and structural, and is mainly present in the connective, ... A glycosaminoglycan is a type of biomolecule that is both functional and structural, and is mainly present in the connective, ... At Bioibérica we produce the main glycosaminoglycans which are chrondroitin sulphate, glucosamine and hyaluronic acid. ...
The metabolic activity of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate are known to decrease as ...
The hypothesis of genetic defects in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) regulation among patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus ... Possible Genetic Defects in Regulation of Glycosaminoglycans in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy. ... Possible Genetic Defects in Regulation of Glycosaminoglycans in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy ... Possible Genetic Defects in Regulation of Glycosaminoglycans in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy ...
Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans.. [Katarzyna Gurzawska, Rikke Svava, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Klaus Gotfredsen] ... Based on existing literature, surface modification with polysaccharide and glycosaminoglycans appears to be an effective way to ... was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating with focus on polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans, and ...
  • Glycosaminoglycans [1] ( GAGs ) or mucopolysaccharides [2] are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long linear polysaccharides consisting of repeating disaccharide units (i.e. two-sugar units). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play a critical role in the binding and activation of growth factors in cell signal transduction required for biological development. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, cell-associated and tumor microenvironment glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)/proteoglycan (PG) content and distribution are markedly altered during tumor pathogenesis and progression. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), including heparan sulfate (HS), are expressed on the surface of nearly all cells, linked to transmembrane proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The biological interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and other biomolecules are heavily influenced by structural features of the glycan. (springer.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear, polydisperse carbohydrates consisting of a repeating uronic sugar and amino sugar copolymer. (springer.com)
  • We focused on the transglycosylation activity of endoglycosidases acting on proteoglycan and developed methods for the reconstruction of their sugar chains, glycosaminoglycan (GAG), and for attachment of GAGs to protein. (springer.com)
  • In the monogenic disease mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VI, loss of function mutations in arylsulfatase B (ASB) leads to myocardial accumulation of chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), manifesting as a myriad of cardiac symptoms. (ahajournals.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the carbohydrate moieties of proteoglycans, are thought to be positive and negative regulators of axonal growth. (jneurosci.org)
  • In this study, we evaluated the cell-penetrating ability of cationic peptide hormones in the context of the expression of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (mdpi.com)
  • The metabolic activity of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate are known to decrease as skin ages. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • PURPOSE: To determine the ultrastructural localisation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) of patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) and to see whether the quantity and type of GAGs present in blood and urine are markers of the disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It has been suggested that an important component of this process is the formation of a haptotactic gradient by immobilization of chemokines on cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (pnas.org)
  • The immobilization of chemokines on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of the extracellular matrix and endothelial cell surfaces is thought to be an essential part of this process ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are made up of disaccharide units that are distinguished from each other by the monosaccharide units of which they are composed and by the degree and position of sulfation. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) are composed of highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans chains (GAGs) attached to specific core proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • The positional information required for such migratory behavior is governed by the binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which establishes a chemokine concentration gradient. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokine receptor activation mediates leukocyte chemotaxis toward lymphoid organs or sites of inflammation along a chemokine gradient that is established by binding of chemokines to membrane-tethered and extracellular matrix-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Chemokines' recruitment activity is regulated by monomer-dimer equilibrium and binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (portlandpress.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are composed of highly sulphated sugars joined together to form long polymeric chains. (europa.eu)
  • The human body actually produces its own glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (howstuffworks.com)
  • Part of these activities is regulated by the presence of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the vessel wall and in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding it. (springer.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are distributed in the whole body and play a variety of important physiological roles associated with inflammation, growth, coagulation, fibrinolysis, lipolysis, and cell-matrix biology. (omicsonline.org)
  • 1. Orbital accumulation of hydrophilic, interstitial glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and subsequent expansion of retrobulbar tissue lead to the clinical manifestation of exophthalmos in patients with Graves' eye disease. (portlandpress.com)
  • Oxime click reaction is used for the synthesis of diblock copolymers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with different molecular weights ( M w ) and sulfation degrees. (rsc.org)
  • Many investigations have reported that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) present in the oviduct play a major role in sperm capacitation, influence sperm motility, and improve the fertilizing ability of sperm in various species, including bovine, pig, rat, ovine, and human (Handrow et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Heparin (Hp) 1 and heparan sulfate (HS) are linear, polydisperse, and highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), with a repeating disaccharide building block composed of a 1-4-linked glucosamine and a uronic acid residue ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Sequencing studies have implicated positively charged amino acids on the surface of the E2 envelope glycoprotein in the acquisition of equine virulence and viremia potential, suggesting that changes in binding to cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may mediate VEE emergence. (asm.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play a central role in embryonic development by regulating the movement and signaling of morphogens. (biologists.org)
  • Chilkunda, Nandini 2017-12-05 00:00:00 Routine isolation, estimation, and characterization of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is quite challenging. (deepdyve.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are highly negatively charged sugar chains that are covalently bound to a protein core to form aggrecan, which is one of the primary matrix molecules of cartilage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polymers of repeated disaccharides, in most cases containing an O-sulphated N-acetylhexosamine and an hexuronic acid, commonly expressed in a variety of tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are mucopolysaccharides (heparan, dermatan and chondroitin sulphates and hyaluronic acid), which can be found in different tissues of the body. (vin.com)
  • Here we report a mild and simple method to graft aldehydes groups on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in a site-selective manner without compromising the structural integrity of the biopolymer. (diva-portal.org)
  • The glycocalyx is a jelly layer covering the endothelium constituted by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), proteoglycans and adsorbed plasma proteins. (minervamedica.it)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear polysaccharide chains of repeating disaccharide units, which are often substituted with sulfate groups. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) which are covalently linked membrane proteins at the cell surface have recently been suggested to involve in not only endocytic cellular uptake but also non-endocytic direct cell membrane translocation of arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides (CPPs). (acs.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are long, unbranched polysaccharides containing a repeating disaccharide unit composed of a hexosamine (either N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) or N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)) and a uronic acid (glucuronate or iduronate). (reactome.org)
  • RICHMOND, Calif. , Sept. 5, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Sangamo Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: SGMO) today reported 16 week reductions in urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a key biomarker of Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPS II) disease pathophysiology, in Cohort 2 of the Phase 1/2 CHAMPIONS Study evaluating SB-913. (sangamo.com)
  • MPS II is a genetic lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) enzyme which is needed to break down or recycle glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. (sangamo.com)
  • This study examined systematic antibodies reactive to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), the carbohydrate components of proteoglycans that are released in large amounts from degrading cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study focuses on NAbs that are reactive to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), important molecular constituents of both cell surface proteoglycans and large and small proteoglycans of the extracellular matrix of hyaline cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans are among the most complex polysaccharide chains that are either covalently linked to protein cores (to form proteoglycans) or free as unsulfated hyaluronan. (els.net)
  • Proteoglycans in bladder tumors are modified with a distinct oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan that is normally restricted to placental trophoblast cells. (nature.com)
  • Chondroitin Sulfate (CS) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) linked to specific proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the cell membranes, or secreted into the extracellular matrix and bodily fluids 6 . (nature.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycan chains that project from proteoglycans of the arterial wall are responsible for the formation of complexes with plasma LDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • The spirochete bacterium colonization is partly attributed to the binding of the bacterial outer-surface proteins to the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of host proteoglycans. (medworm.com)
  • Some peaks in the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry were not characterized as fragments of sugars, indicating the presence of fragments of the protein structure of proteoglycans generated during the glycosaminoglycan purification. (scielo.br)
  • Homeostasis of extracellular matrix depends on the integrity and assembly of collagens, glycoproteins, proteoglycans (PG), and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (S-GAG). (scielo.br)
  • Heparin is a glycosaminoglycan. (dictionary.com)
  • Both heparin binding and binding to PBLs are considerably abrogated by mutation of the BBXB motif in the 40s loop suggesting an essential role of the CCL18-glycosaminoglycan interaction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effective substrates displayed heparin-binding peptides, which can interact with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans and could be used with a defined medium to culture hES cells for more than 3 months. (nih.gov)
  • Hydrazinolysis of heparin and other glycosaminoglycans. (currentprotocols.com)
  • SpyCEP-cleaved CXCL8 had similarly impaired binding to the glycosaminoglycan heparin. (jimmunol.org)
  • The highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan oligosaccharides derived from heparin and heparan sulfate have been a highly intractable class of molecules to analyze by tandem mass spectrometry. (mcponline.org)
  • Our biosensor analyses showed that both heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate inhibited gB2 binding (ED50 = 1 to 5 microg/ml), indicating that gB2 interacts with both heparin-like and dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. (asm.org)
  • Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was also performed to estimate the molecular weights of the SPs fractions by comparison with the electrophoretic mobility of standard glycosaminoglycans unfractionated heparin (UHEP, ~ 14 kDa), chondroitin-4-sulfate (C-4-S, ~ 40 kDa), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C-6-S, ~ 60 kDa) and dextran sulfate (Dex, ~ 8 kDa) (Quindere et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To characterize this heparin-binding site, the extrinsic fluorescence of fluorescein-labeled, active site-blocked factor Xa was monitored as it was titrated with glycosaminoglycans of various sulfate content and chain length. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Structural glycobiology of heparin dynamics on the exosite 2 of coagulation cascade proteases: Implications for glycosaminoglycans antithrombotic activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In a rat model of diabetes mellitus-induced glomerulosclerosis, daily administration of a modified heparin (mH) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) preparation with low anticoagulant activity prevented glomerular and tubular matrix accumulation, as well as overexpression of TGF-β1 mRNA and albuminuria, without obvious side effects. (asnjournals.org)
  • Interaction between respiratory syncytial virus and glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate. (nih.gov)
  • ( 5 , 8 , 9 ) Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and dermatan sulfate (DS), both galactosaminoglycans, and heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan, are S-GAG involved in these biological events. (scielo.br)
  • Heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans have each been suggested as cell surface receptors for HSV. (asm.org)
  • The affinity and specificity of gB2 binding to glycosaminoglycans demonstrated in these studies support its role in the initial binding of HSV-2 to cells bearing heparan sulfate or dermatan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. (asm.org)
  • Abstract -Glycosaminoglycans were extracted from the intima and media layers of normal human thoracic aortas from donors of different ages. (ahajournals.org)
  • To determine the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissues, since it has a central role in tumor development and progression. (scielo.br)
  • The interactions of glycosaminoglycans with collagens and other glycoproteins in extracellular matrix play important roles in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix assembly. (researchmap.jp)
  • The TRR 67 intends to change this situation completely through the basic research oriented investigation and development of glycosaminoglycan based artificial extracellular matrices (aECM) for wound healing in skin and bone injuries. (ipfdd.de)
  • Glycosaminoglycans have high degrees of heterogeneity with regards to molecular mass, disaccharide construction, and sulfation due to the fact that GAG synthesis, unlike proteins or nucleic acids, is not template driven, and dynamically modulated by processing enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally, joint cartilages have proteoglycan complexes, which are proteins with side chains made of glycosaminoglycans such as keratan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate attached to strands of hyaluronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of the glycosaminoglycans were associated with core proteins that were integral to the cell membrane and associated with the cell surface by non-covalent interactions involving glycosaminoglycans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins: a potential target for new therapeutics against Lyme disease. (medworm.com)
  • Statistics for "Interactions between M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes and glycosaminoglycans promote bacterial adhesion to host cells. (lu.se)
  • 35 S-glycosaminoglycan metabolism by glomeruli isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats was studied in vivo and in vitro. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Kleesiek, K. 1993-01-01 00:00:00 Introduction Glycosaminoglycans, which are widely distributed in human tissues and fluids (1), are intimately related to proteoglycan metabolism. (deepdyve.com)
  • Evaluation of the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans in patients with interstitial cystis. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, it is not known to what extent these differences are caused by compartmental segregation of protein cores en route through the secretory pathway or by differential recruitment of modifying enzymes during synthesis of different PGs. (mdpi.com)
  • Total 35 S-glycosaminoglycan synthesis and retention in the matrix by diabetic glomeruli was reduced while degradation was increased. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These studies suggest that synthesis of 35 S-glycosaminoglycans and 35 S-glycopeptides by diabetic glomeruli are altered by disturbances of both synthetic as well as degradative pathways. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The effect of W. somnifera on glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the granulation tissue of carrageenin-induced air pouch granuloma was studied. (osti.gov)
  • Glycosaminoglycan synthesis and the stimulation of haemopoiesis by beta-D-xylosides. (rupress.org)
  • Yam-Containing Serum Promotes Proliferation and Chondrogenic Differentiation of Rabbit Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycan. (stembook.org)
  • Plasma LDL-affinity chromatography of dermatan sulfate+chondroitin 4/6-sulfate fractions allowed the separation of LDL high- and low-affinity glycosaminoglycan species. (ahajournals.org)
  • Expressions of heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, dermatan sulphate and their fragments were analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, with the technique for extraction and quantification of glycosaminoglycans after proteolysis and electrophoresis. (scielo.br)
  • The glycosaminoglycan side chains are polyanionic, which causes adjacent side chains to push each other away and create a "bottle brush", where hyaluronic acid is the stem and the side chains are the bristles. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGs are produced and modified by glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains in the secretory pathway of animal cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Takagaki K, Ishido K, Kakizaki I, Iwafune M, Endo M (2002) Carriers for enzymatic attachment of glycosaminoglycan chains to peptide. (springer.com)
  • Under the many methods of ion activation, this class of molecules generally exhibits SO 3 loss as the most significant fragmentation pathway, interfering with the assignment of the location of sulfo groups in glycosaminoglycan chains. (mcponline.org)
  • Substitution of bovine dentine sialoprotein with chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recently, the existence of a highly glycosylated form of porcine DSP has been reported and it was shown to possess glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Keratan sulfate (KS) is a glycosaminoglycan with the basic disaccharide unit of N-acetyllactosamine, Gal(b1-4)GlcNAc(b1-3), with sulfate esters at C-6 of GlcNAc and Gal residues. (genome.jp)
  • Various laboratories have demon^ , ~' . x strated Al presence of glycosaminoglycans in 1human the plasma or serum (2-5). (deepdyve.com)
  • Characterization of glycosaminoglycans produced by primary astrocytes in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Many of these studies were undertaken two or three decades ago, when methods available for identification and characterization of the various glycosaminoglycans were less specific. (ahajournals.org)
  • Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed characteristic disaccharide fragments from glycosaminoglycans, indicating their structural characterization in the tissues analyzed. (scielo.br)
  • The proposed sub-project concerns the design, characterization and application of a set of novel biohybrid polymer hydrogels that consist of naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans connected by different crosslinking schemes with or without incorporation of functional (MMP-cleavable and or selfassembling) peptides in varying degrees of crosslinking. (ipfdd.de)
  • Secreted chemokines can be immobilized on the luminal and abluminal endothelial cell surfaces by glycosaminoglycans. (nih.gov)
  • The interceptor-mediated transport or elimination of chemokines, together with their immobilization by glycosaminoglycans, lead to chemokine patterning at the blood-tissue interface and within tissues. (nih.gov)
  • At Bioibérica we produce the main glycosaminoglycans which are chrondroitin sulphate, glucosamine and hyaluronic acid. (bioiberica.com)
  • Bacterial hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural non-sulphated high molecular weight glycosaminoglycan that may be used to study formulations of non-animal gels potentially useful for procedures such as soft tissue augmentation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2. Degradation of Glycosaminoglycans and Glycoproteins by Redox Systems and Radiation L. Sundblad (Stockholm, Sweden) and W . Pigman (New York, U.S.A.) spoke about the effect of X-rays on the viscosity of hyaluronic acid and on the redox depolymerization of the same substance and other polymers. (docme.ru)
  • Serum Levels of glycosaminoglycans and chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid disaccharides as diagnostic markers for liver diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Elevated stromal chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan predicts progression in early-stage prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of the present systematic review was to describe organic molecules used for surface nanocoating with focus on polysaccharides including glycosaminoglycans, and how these molecules change surface properties, cell reactions and affect on osseointegartion. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We here put forward a strategy to sequence glycosaminoglycans, long linear polysaccharides involved in many biochemical processes. (ru.nl)
  • Composite materials made of collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) have been shown to be highly useful for certain biochemical applications. (google.com)
  • The overall aim of the present study was to develop and characterise a reinforced natural scaffold using fibrin, collagen and glycosaminoglycan (FCG), and to examine the cell-mediated contraction of this scaffold in comparison to fibrin gels. (dit.ie)
  • Hurler syndrome , also known as mucopolysaccharidosis type I ( MPS I ), Hurler's disease , also gargoylism , is a genetic disorder that results in the buildup of glycosaminoglycans (formerly known as mucopolysaccharides) due to a deficiency of alpha-L iduronidase, an enzyme responsible for the degradation of mucopolysaccharides in lysosomes. (intelligentdental.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans in urine from patients representing the major different mucopolysaccharidoses were separated and measured by use of a procedure that requires only 2 mL of urine. (elsevier.com)
  • Moser, H. W. / Direct quantitation of glycosaminoglycans in 2 mL of urine from patients with mucopolysaccharidoses . (elsevier.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) interaction with FGF is required for signal transduction in this pathway. (springer.com)
  • An alteration of 35 S-glycosaminoglycans interaction with matrix components in diabetes is postulated. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 9 Therefore, the nature of the glycosaminoglycan-LDL interaction has been extensively studied. (ahajournals.org)
  • Glycoprotein B of HSV-2 can potentially mediate the interaction between the virion and cell surface glycosaminoglycans. (asm.org)
  • Interaction of the coiled-coil domain with glycosaminoglycans protects angiopoietin-like 4 from proteolysis and regulates its antiangiogenic activity. (inserm.fr)
  • Glycosaminoglycans vary greatly in molecular mass, disaccharide construction, and sulfation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jackson RL, Busch SJ and Cardin AD (1991) Glycosaminoglycans: molecular properties, protein interactions, and role in physiological processes. (els.net)
  • The binding of glycosaminoglycans to factor Xa appears to be charge-dependent because affinity is correlated with degree of glycosaminoglycan sulfation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of metabolic disorders in which abnormal accumulations of glycosaminoglycans occur because of enzyme deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-protein interactions modulate many important biological processes. (ovid.com)
  • Histological, biochemical (Glycosaminoglycans/total protein) and biomechanical (cartilage stiffness) evaluations were performed at the end of the 1st and 2nd week after OA induction. (medsci.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycans are major structural components of cartilage and are also found in the cornea of the eye. (cancer.gov)
  • A glycosaminoglycan is a type of biomolecule that is both functional and structural, and is mainly present in the connective, epithelial and bone tissues, as well as in the intercellular environment. (bioiberica.com)
  • Also, glycosaminoglycans induce structural alterations in LDL molecules that may potentiate their atherogenic effects. (ahajournals.org)
  • The method allowed the determination of the glycosaminoglycans structural profile in colorectal tissue from neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. (scielo.br)
  • They were identified by co-migration with standard glycosaminoglycans, by digestion with specific glycosidases, and by specific degradation with HNO 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycans Glycoproteins and Glycolipids. (docme.ru)
  • Glycosaminoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids At the suggestion of R . W. Jeanloz the Retina Foundation of Boston organized an international symposium on the chemistry of the three title substances at Swampscott, Mass. (U.S.A.) from July 22nd to July 2Sth, 1964. (docme.ru)
  • There were no preferential metabolic alterations of species of 35 S-glycosaminoglycans by diabetic glomeruli or aortas. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The disaccharides formed by deaminative cleavage of N‐deacetylated glycosaminoglycans. (currentprotocols.com)
  • To clarify contradictory data reported in the literature, 22 23 24 25 26 27 we employed methodologies that assure high yields in extraction and purification of arterial glycosaminoglycans. (ahajournals.org)
  • We conclude, therefore, that SpyCEP cleavage of CXCL8 results in chemokine inactivation because of a requirement for glycosaminoglycan binding in productive chemokine:receptor interactions. (jimmunol.org)
  • To determine the specificity, kinetics, and affinity of these interactions, we used plasmon resonance-based biosensor technology to measure HSV-2 glycoprotein binding to glycosaminoglycans in real time. (asm.org)
  • In order to clarify the chemical bases for these interactions, glycosaminoglycan solutions were injected onto sensor surfaces on which collagens, fibronectin, laminin, and vitronectin were immobilized. (researchmap.jp)
  • Ishido K, Takagaki K, Iwafune M, Yoshihara S, Sasaki M, Endo M (2002) Enzymatic attachment of glycosaminoglycan chain to peptide using the sugar chain transfer reaction with endo-beta-xylosidase. (springer.com)
  • Enzymatic removal of neutrophil glycosaminoglycans was observed to ablate neutrophil navigation of a CXCL8 gradient, whereas navigation of an fMLF gradient remained largely intact. (jimmunol.org)
  • Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) interacts with cell surface glycosaminoglycans during virus attachment. (asm.org)
  • Specificity and affinity of binding of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein B to glycosaminoglycans. (asm.org)
  • 35 S-glycosaminoglycan content of isolated GBM was similarly decreased. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whereas 35 S-glycosaminoglycan content of glomeruli and GBM was decreased after in vitro incubation with 35 SO 4 , a larger proportion of total 35 S-glycosaminoglycans was found in the incubation medium from diabetic glomeruli. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Total glycosaminoglycan content increases during the first 40 years of life. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, assessment of both total arterial glycosaminoglycan content, 23 24 and changes in individual glycosaminoglycan species with age gave conflicting results. (ahajournals.org)
  • Positive effects of moderate exercise on glycosaminoglycan content in knee cartilage: a four-month, randomized, controlled trial in patients at risk of osteoarthritis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However the high detergent effects of using SDS with decellularization degrades glycosaminoglycan content (GAG). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The invention relates to a biodegradable construct comprising chondrocytes and a chitosan-based composite material which is complexed with a glycosaminoglycan molecule. (google.com)
  • Also, a method of transplanting chondrocytes to a patient can be accomplished by placing chondrocytes in the construct which comprises a chitosan material which is complexed with a glycosaminoglycan molecule and placing said construct containing said chondrocytes in said patient. (google.com)
  • Additionally, damaged articular cartilage can be repaired by administering, to the site of said damage, a therapeutically effective amount of chondrocytes in a construct comprising the chitosan-based composite material which is complexed with a glycosaminoglycan molecule. (google.com)
  • Painful bladder syndrome / interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) pathogenesis is not fully known, but evidence shows that glycosaminoglycans (GAG) of bladder urothelium can participate in its genesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Remarkably, only glycosaminoglycan species with low affinity for plasma LDL increase with age in the disease-free areas of human thoracic aortas studied. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is known that certain glycosaminoglycan species, including particular populations of a given species, have greater affinity for LDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • 18 19 20 21 We have demonstrated that glycosaminoglycans from different locations vary in composition and in binding affinity for plasma LDL. (ahajournals.org)
  • The hypothesis of genetic defects in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) regulation among patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and nephropathy was assessed by studies in tissue cultures of fibroblasts obtained from 7 patients with normal urinary albumin excretion, 11 patients with diabetic nephropathy, and 6 nondiabetic control subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We previously reported that chronic therapy with glycosaminoglycans (GAG) may prevent or cure experimental diabetic nephropathy ( 19 , 20 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • The results indicate that a great quantitative variability may exist among different methods for determination of blood glycosaminoglycans. (deepdyve.com)
  • The present invention relates to recombinant Gram-positive host cells containing a Gram-negative glycosaminoglycan synthase gene, and methods of producing glycosaminoglycans using such recombinant host cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Ballinger ML, Nigro J et al (2004) Regulation of glycosaminoglycan structure and atherogenesis. (springer.com)
  • Caughey B (1994) Scrapie‐associated PrP accumulation and agent replication: effects of sulphated glycosaminoglycan analogues. (els.net)
  • Cardoso LE, Mourao PA (1994) Glycosaminoglycan fractions from human arteries presenting diverse susceptibilities to atherosclerosis have different binding affinities to plasma LDL. (springer.com)
  • 2014) Assay for Glycosaminoglycans by Tandem Mass Spectrometry and its Applications. (omicsonline.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine if a single time point estimation of chondroitin sulphate (CS) or keratan sulphate (KS) epitopes, hyaluronan (HA), or total glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in knee synovial fluid at time of hospital referral can predict subsequent radiographic progression of knee osteoarthritis. (bmj.com)
  • Jargin, "Supplementation of glycosaminoglycans and their precursors in osteoarthritis versus diet modification," International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Naveen SV, Ahmad RE, Hui WJ, Suhaeb AM, Murali MR, Shanmugam R, Kamarul T. Histology, Glycosaminoglycan Level and Cartilage Stiffness in Monoiodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis: Comparative Analysis with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection in Rat Model and Human Osteoarthritis. (medsci.org)
  • Effect of glycosaminoglycans on in vitro fertilizing ability and in vitro developmental potential of bovine embryos. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. Effect of glycosaminoglycans on in vitro fertilizing ability and in vitro developmental potential of bovine embryos. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in stem cell glycomics. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention relates to a method for the preparation of biocompatible collagen-glycosaminoglycan composite materials by vapor phase crosslinking with aldehydes. (google.com)