Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A strong oxidizing agent.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.
A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.

Neu differentiation factor stimulates phosphorylation and activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. (1/19351)

Neu differentiation factors (NDFs), or neuregulins, are epidermal growth factor-like growth factors which bind to two tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4. The transcription of several genes is regulated by neuregulins, including genes encoding specific subunits of the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we have examined the promoter of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit and delineated a minimal CA-rich sequence which mediates transcriptional activation by NDF (NDF-response element [NRE]). Using gel mobility shift analysis with an NRE oligonucleotide, we detected two complexes that are induced by treatment with neuregulin and other growth factors and identified Sp1, a constitutively expressed zinc finger phosphoprotein, as a component of one of these complexes. Phosphatase treatment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and an in-gel kinase assay indicated that Sp1 is phosphorylated by a 60-kDa kinase in response to NDF-induced signals. Moreover, Sp1 seems to act downstream of all members of the ErbB family and thus may funnel the signaling of the ErbB network into the nucleus.  (+info)

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (2/19351)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

A novel class of protein from wheat which inhibits xylanases. (3/19351)

We have purified a novel class of protein that can inhibit the activity of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. The inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) is a glycosylated, monomeric, basic protein with a pI of 8.7-8.9, a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a unique N-terminal sequence of AGGKTGQVTVFWGRN. We have shown that the protein can inhibit the activity of two family-11 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanases, a recombinant enzyme from Aspergillus niger and an enzyme from Trichoderma viride. The inhibitory activity is heat and protease sensitive. The kinetics of the inhibition have been characterized with the A. niger enzyme using soluble wheat arabinoxylan as a substrate. The Km for soluble arabinoxylan in the absence of inhibitor is 20+/-2 mg/ml with a kcat of 103+/-6 s-1. The kinetics of the inhibition of this reaction are competitive, with a Ki value of 0.35 microM, showing that the inhibitor binds at or close to the active site of free xylanase. This report describes the first isolation of a xylanase inhibitor from any organism.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (4/19351)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (5/19351)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

Antiphospholipid, anti-beta 2-glycoprotein-I and anti-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome. (6/19351)

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta 2-GPI) and anti-oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies are all implicated in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome. To investigate whether different autoantibodies or combinations thereof produced distinct effects related to their antigenic specificities, we examined the frequencies of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-related features in the presence of different antibodies [aPL, beta 2-GPI, anti-oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)] in 125 patients with APS. Median follow-up was 72 months: 58 patients were diagnosed as primary APS and 67 as APS plus systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta 2-GPI and anti-oxidized LDL antibodies were determined by ELISA; lupus anticoagulant (LA) by standard coagulometric methods. Univariate analysis showed that patients positive for anti-beta 2-GPI had a higher risk of recurrent thrombotic events (OR = 3.64, 95% CI, p = 0.01) and pregnancy loss (OR = 2.99, 95% CI, p = 0.004). Patients positive for anti-oxidized LDL antibodies had a 2.24-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis (2.24, 95% CI, p = 0.03) and lower risk of thrombocytopenia (OR = 0.41 95% CI, p = 0.04). Patients positive for aCL antibodies had a higher risk of pregnancy loss (OR = 4.62 95% CI, p = 0.001). When these data were tested by multivariate logistic regression, the association between anti-beta 2-GPI and pregnancy loss and the negative association between anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and thrombocytopenia disappeared.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (7/19351)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (8/19351)

Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions.  (+info)

Some common types of blood platelet disorders include:

1. Thrombocytopenia: This is a condition in which there are too few platelets in the blood. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including autoimmune disorders, bone marrow disorders, and certain medications.
2. Bernard-Soulier syndrome: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the function of platelets and causes easy bruising and prolonged bleeding.
3. Glanzmann's thrombasthenia: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the platelets' ability to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding.
4. Platelet dysfunction: This can be caused by a variety of factors, including certain medications, infections, and autoimmune disorders. It can lead to excessive bleeding or prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
5. Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the development of platelets in the bone marrow, leading to a lack of platelets in the blood.
6. Grey platelet syndrome: This is a rare inherited disorder that affects the structure of platelets, making them more prone to rupture and lead to easy bruising and prolonged bleeding.
7. Platelet-type von Willebrand disease: This is a mild bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together to form clots.
8. acquired platelet dysfunction: This can be caused by various conditions such as infections, medications, and autoimmune disorders.

These disorders can be diagnosed through blood tests, including a complete blood count (CBC) and a platelet function test. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Examples of inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism include:

1. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glucose-6-phosphate, a type of sugar. Symptoms can include seizures, developmental delays, and metabolic acidosis.
2. Galactosemia: This is a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to process galactose, a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Untreated, galactosemia can lead to serious health problems, including liver disease, kidney damage, and cognitive impairment.
3. Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII): This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to store and use glycogen, a complex carbohydrate found in the liver and muscles. Symptoms can include low blood sugar, fatigue, and muscle weakness.
4. Pompe disease: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down glycogen. Symptoms can include muscle weakness, breathing problems, and heart problems.
5. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS): These are a group of genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to break down sugar molecules. Symptoms can include joint stiffness, developmental delays, and heart problems.

Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism can be diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment depends on the specific disorder and may involve a combination of dietary changes, medication, and other therapies.

Henipavirus infections can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, muscle weakness, confusion, and respiratory problems such as coughing and shortness of breath. In severe cases, these infections can lead to encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), which can be fatal.

Henipavirus infections are diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Treatment is typically supportive, with care focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. Antiviral medications may be used in some cases, but their effectiveness is limited.

Prevention of henipavirus infections primarily involves avoiding contact with infected animals or bats, and taking precautions such as wearing protective clothing and gloves when handling animals or bat specimens. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against henipavirus infections.

Overall, henipavirus infections are rare but potentially life-threatening diseases that require prompt medical attention and careful management to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Pseudorabies is characterized by fever, anorexia, lethargy, and a characteristic skin rash on the face, neck, and limbs. In severe cases, the disease can cause inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS), respiratory distress, and death.

The pseudorabies virus is primarily transmitted through close contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as saliva, urine, or feces. The virus can also be spread through contaminated objects, such as needles or surgical instruments, or through the bite of an infected animal.

Pseudorabies is typically diagnosed based on a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests (such as PCR or ELISA), and serology. There is no specific treatment for the disease, but antiviral medications may be used in severe cases to reduce the severity of symptoms.

In humans, pseudorabies is a rare disease that is typically associated with exposure to infected animals or contaminated objects. The disease is more common in people who work with swine or other animals, such as veterinarians or farmers. In rare cases, pseudorabies has been transmitted through organ transplantation or blood transfusion.

Prevention of pseudorabies primarily involves avoiding contact with infected animals and taking precautions to prevent the spread of the virus. This includes wearing protective clothing and gloves when handling animals, properly disinfecting equipment and surfaces, and ensuring that all animal products are thoroughly cooked before consumption.

In summary, pseudorabies is a viral disease that affects swine and other animals, as well as humans in rare cases. It is caused by the pseudorabies virus and can be transmitted through close contact with infected animals or contaminated objects. While there is no specific treatment for the disease, antiviral medications may be used in severe cases to reduce the severity of symptoms. Prevention primarily involves avoiding contact with infected animals and taking precautions to prevent the spread of the virus.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

Respirovirus infections are a group of viral infections that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat, and lungs. These infections are caused by members of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses, which include the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza virus (HPIV).

The symptoms of respirovirus infections can vary depending on the age of the individual and the severity of the infection. In infants and young children, the symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, runny nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. In older children and adults, the symptoms may be more mild and may include a stuffy nose, sore throat, and cough.

Respirovirus infections are usually spread through contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as mucus and saliva. The viruses can also survive on surfaces for a period of time and be transmitted through touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the face.

There is no specific treatment for respirovirus infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and managing complications, such as pneumonia or bronchiolitis. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation.

Prevention of respirovirus infections is important, especially for high-risk individuals such as infants, young children, and people with weakened immune systems. Preventative measures include frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and practicing good hygiene. Vaccines are also available for some types of respirovirus infections, such as RSV, and can help protect against infection.

CDGs are caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in glycosylation, a process that adds sugars to proteins and lipids to form glycoproteins and glycolipids. These molecules play important roles in cell signaling, protein folding, and the immune response. Without proper glycosylation, these molecules cannot function properly, leading to a wide range of symptoms and complications.

Symptoms of CDGs can vary depending on the specific disorder and the organs affected. Common symptoms include developmental delays, intellectual disability, seizures, poor muscle tone, and liver problems. Some children with CDGs may also experience failure to thrive, diarrhea, and vomiting.

There is currently no cure for CDGs, but various treatments are available to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include enzyme replacement therapy, nutritional supplements, and medications to control seizures and other symptoms. In some cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary to replace the defective cells with healthy ones.

The diagnosis of CDG is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and genetic analysis. Newborn screening is increasingly being used to identify CDGs in infants, allowing for early intervention and treatment.

Overall, congenital disorders of glycosylation are rare and complex conditions that require specialized care and management. With advances in medical technology and research, there is hope for improved treatments and outcomes for individuals with CDGs.

Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) typically causes cold sores or fever blisters that appear on the lips, mouth, or nose. While herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is responsible for genital herpes which affects the genital area, buttocks, and anal area.

The infection can be spread through direct contact with an infected person's saliva, mucus, or skin, even if there are no visible sores present. Symptoms of herpes simplex may include itching, burning, tingling, redness, and small blisters that burst and ooze fluid.

There is no cure for herpes simplex, but medications can help manage symptoms and shorten the duration of an outbreak. Antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir are commonly used to treat herpes simplex.

Types of Ovarian Cysts:

1. Functional cysts: These cysts form during the menstrual cycle and are usually small and disappear on their own within a few days or weeks.
2. Follicular cysts: These cysts form when a follicle (a tiny sac containing an egg) does not release an egg and instead fills with fluid.
3. Corpus luteum cysts: These cysts form when the corpus luteum (the sac that holds an egg after it's released from the ovary) does not dissolve after pregnancy or does not produce hormones properly.
4. Endometrioid cysts: These cysts are formed when endometrial tissue (tissue that lines the uterus) grows outside of the uterus and forms a cyst.
5. Cystadenomas: These cysts are benign tumors that grow on the surface of an ovary or inside an ovary. They can be filled with a clear liquid or a thick, sticky substance.
6. Dermoid cysts: These cysts are formed when cells from the skin or other organs grow inside an ovary. They can contain hair follicles, sweat glands, and other tissues.

Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts:

1. Pelvic pain or cramping
2. Bloating or discomfort in the abdomen
3. Heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding
4. Pain during sex
5. Frequent urination or difficulty emptying the bladder
6. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting

Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cysts:

1. Pelvic examination: A doctor will check for any abnormalities in the reproductive organs.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can help identify the presence of a cyst and determine its size, location, and composition.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can be used to check hormone levels and rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
4. Laparoscopy: A laparoscope (a thin tube with a camera and light) is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen to visualize the ovaries and remove any cysts.
5. Surgical removal of cysts: Cysts can be removed by surgery, either through laparoscopy or open surgery.
6. Medications: Hormonal medications may be prescribed to shrink the cyst and alleviate symptoms.

It is important to note that not all ovarian cysts cause symptoms, and some may go away on their own without treatment. However, if you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above or have concerns about an ovarian cyst, it is essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment.

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... , gp100 or Melanocyte protein PMEL is 661 amino acids long and is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein enriched ... Glycoprotein 100 (GP100) is a 661 amino acid long protein that contains differentiation antigens.[1] GP100 is a membrane bound ...
... 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to P-glycoprotein. P-Glycoprotein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... Substrates of P-glycoprotein are susceptible to changes in pharmacokinetics due to drug interactions with P-gp inhibitors or ... P-gp is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the ABCB1 gene. P-gp is a well-characterized ABC-transporter (which ...
"Interaction of platelet glycoprotein V with glycoprotein Ib-IX regulates expression of the glycoproteins and binding of von ... Platelet glycoprotein IX (GP9) is a small membrane glycoprotein found on the surface of human platelets. It forms a 1-to-1 ... 1987). "Glycoprotein Ib and glycoprotein IX are fully complexed in the intact platelet membrane". Blood. 69 (5): 1524-7. doi: ... Hickey MJ, Williams SA, Roth GJ (1989). "Human platelet glycoprotein IX: an adhesive prototype of leucine-rich glycoproteins ...
... (also known as gp130, IL6ST, IL6R-beta or CD130) is a transmembrane protein which is the founding member of ... Glycoprotein 130 has been shown to interact with: Grb2, HER2/neu, Janus kinase 1 Leukemia inhibitory factor receptor, PTPN11, ... Glycoproteins, Molecular biology, Type I cytokine receptors). ...
Glycoprotein+Ib at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Glycoproteins, All stub articles ... Glycoprotein Ib (GPIb), also known as CD42, is a component of the GPIb-V-IX complex on platelets. The GPIb-V-IX complex binds ... It complexes with Glycoprotein IX. Bode AP, Read MS, Reddick RL (February 1999). "Activation and adherence of lyophilized human ...
... (MAG, Siglec-4) is a type 1 transmembrane protein glycoprotein localized in periaxonal Schwann ... Myelin Myelinogenesis NgR Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy Myelin-associated+glycoprotein at ... MAG is a 100 kDA glycoprotein. Uncleaved MAG is a complete transmembrane form, which acts as a signaling and adhesion molecule ... Barton DE, Arquint M, Roder J, Dunn R, Francke U (October 1987). "The myelin-associated glycoprotein gene: mapping to human ...
... (MOG) is a glycoprotein believed to be important in the myelination of nerves in the ... Mouse Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) at the PDBe-KB. (Genes on human chromosome 6, Glycoproteins). ... Cong H, Jiang Y, Tien P (November 2011). "Identification of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein as a cellular receptor for ... CYNTHIA MCKELVEY, Press Report, What's the Role of Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in NMO? [2] Di Pauli F, Höftberger R, ...
Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like ... Tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 Sheer, Donald G.; Schlom, J; Cooper, HL (1988). "Purification and Composition of the Human ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All stub articles, Oncology stubs, Glycoproteins, ... Tumor-associated Glycoprotein (TAG-72) Defined by Monoclonal Antibodies CC49 and B72.3". Cancer Research. 48 (23): 6811-6818. ...
... also known as oviductal glycoprotein (OGP) or estrogen-dependent oviduct protein, oviductin or ... Oviduct-specific glycoprotein is a large, carbohydrate-rich, epithelial glycoprotein with numerous O-glycosylation sites ... Agarwal A, Yeung WS, Lee KF (2002). "Cloning and characterization of the human oviduct-specific glycoprotein (HuOGP) gene ... Chen Q, Zhang J, Sweet F (2004). "Homology of primate DNA fragments for estrous-associated oviductal glycoprotein". Hereditas. ...
In enzymology, a glycoprotein N-palmitoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.96) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction palmitoyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is palmitoyl-CoA:glycoprotein N-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme is also called mucus ... Liau YH, Slomiany BL, Slomiany A, Piasek A, Palmer D, Rosenthal WS (1985). "Identification of mucus glycoprotein fatty ... CoA + glycoprotein ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + N-palmitoylglycoprotein Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme ...
... is a viral glycoprotein that is involved in the viral cell entry of Herpes simplex virus (HSV). ... The herpesvirus glycoprotein B is the most highly conserved of all surface glycoproteins and acts primarily as a fusion protein ... It can be noted that all herpesviruses have glycoproteins gB, gH, and gL. The herpesvirus glycoprotein B is a type-1 ... herpesvirus glycoprotein B (along with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G and baculovirus gp64) belongs to a new class ...
... (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. It was discovered by ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Glycoprotein 120 Vashistha H, Husain M, Kumar D, Singhal PC (2009). "Tubular cell HIV-1 gp120 ... A conserved region in the gp120 glycoprotein that is involved in the metastable attachment of gp120 to CD4 has been identified ... Gp120 is anchored to the viral membrane, or envelope, via non-covalent bonds with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41. Three ...
The variant surface glycoprotein genes of T. brucei have been classified into two groups depending upon whether or not ... Variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) is a ~60kDa protein which densely packs the cell surface of protozoan parasites belonging to ... Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) www.icp.ucl. ... Young JR, Turner MJ, Williams RO (1984). "The role of duplication in the expression of a variable surface glycoprotein gene of ...
... (HRG) is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the HRG gene. The HRG protein is produced in ... This histidine-rich glycoprotein contains two cystatin-like domains and is located in plasma and platelets. It is known that ... These isoforms exist due to a polymorphism occurring in exon 5. HRG is a glycoprotein of 70-75kDa present at a relatively high ... Angles-Cano E, Gris JC, Loyau S, Schved JF (May 1993). "Familial association of high levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein and ...
The deficiency in glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex synthesis leads to Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Glycoprotein VI is one of the ... Platelet membrane glycoproteins are surface glycoproteins found on platelets (thrombocytes) which play a key role in hemostasis ... This transmembrane glycoprotein complex is composed of four subunits: GPIbα, GPIbβ, GPV and GPIX. Each of them has a variable ... Membrane glycoproteins GPIa/IIa, GPVI and probably GPIV as well, function as collagen receptors, engaged in platelet adhesion ...
Lysosome-associated membrane glycoproteins (LAMPs) are integral membrane proteins, specific to lysosomes, and whose exact ... Holness CL, da Silva RP, Fawcett J, Gordon S, Simmons DL (1993). "Macrosialin, a mouse macrophage-restricted glycoprotein, is a ... Fukuda Minoru (November 1991). "Lysosomal membrane glycoproteins. Structure, biosynthesis, and intracellular trafficking". J. ...
Ultimately, alpha-1B glycoprotein seems to be primarily composed of four immunoglobulin domains. The alpha-1-glycoprotein is ... "PREDICTED: alpha-1B-glycoprotein". Retrieved May 10, 2013. "Send to: PREDICTED: alpha-1B-glycoprotein isoform 1 [Pongo abelii ... "PREDICTED: alpha-1B-glycoprotein [Felis catus]". Retrieved May 11, 2013. "PREDICTED: alpha-1B-glycoprotein-like". Retrieved May ... "PREDICTED: alpha-1B-glycoprotein isoform 4 [Pan troglodytes]". NCBI. Retrieved May 10, 2013. "PREDICTED: alpha-1B-glycoprotein ...
... (AHSG, Alpha-2-Heremans-Schmid Glycoprotein) also known as fetuin-A is a protein that in humans is ... Alpha2-HS glycoprotein, a glycoprotein present in the serum, is synthesized by hepatocytes and adipocytes. The AHSG molecule ... Lee CC, Bowman BH, Yang FM (1987). "Human alpha 2-HS-glycoprotein: the A and B chains with a connecting sequence are encoded by ... Araki T, Yoshioka Y, Schmid K (1989). "The position of the disulfide bonds in human plasma alpha 2 HS-glycoprotein and the ...
... (AGPA, anti-gp210, anti-nup210, anti-np210) are directed at gp210 and are found within primary ... The glycoprotein gp210 is commonly used in the literature. The gene, NUP210, encodes the nuclear pore (nuclear porin) ... 1998). "Autoantibodies against a 210 kDa glycoprotein of the nuclear pore complex as a prognostic marker in patients with ... glycoprotein-210 that is a major component of the human nuclear pore complex. Courvalin JC, Lassoued K, Worman HJ, Blobel G ( ...
... is a protein complex associated with the nuclear envelope. The p62 protein remains associated ... Davis LI, Blobel G (1987). "Nuclear pore complex contains a family of glycoproteins that includes p62: glycosylation through a ... Kita K, Omata S, Horigome T (1993). "Purification and characterization of a nuclear pore glycoprotein complex containing p62". ... an assembly of O-linked glycoproteins that localizes near the central gated channel of the nuclear pore complex". Mol. Biol. ...
... (TAG-72) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of many cancer cells, including ovary,[ ... Sheer, Donald G.; Schlom, J; Cooper, HL (1988). "Purification and Composition of the Human Tumor-associated Glycoprotein (TAG- ... November 1996). "Correlation between tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 mucin levels in tumor and serum of colorectal patients as ... Glycoproteins, Tumor markers, All stub articles, Oncology stubs). ...
In enzymology, a glycoprotein O-fatty-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.142) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is fatty-acyl-CoA:mucus-glycoprotein fatty-acyltransferase. This enzyme is also called ... the two substrates of this enzyme are palmitoyl-CoA and mucus glycoprotein, whereas its two products are CoA and O- ... palmitoyl-CoA + mucus glycoprotein ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + O-palmitoylglycoprotein Thus, ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CGA gene. The gonadotropin hormones, ... "Entrez Gene: CGA glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide". Roger M, Lahlou N, Couzinet B, Chaussain JL, Scholler R (Oct 1989 ... The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit and belongs to the glycoprotein hormones alpha chain family. GRCh38: ... The alpha subunits of these four human glycoprotein hormones are identical; however, their beta chains are unique and confer ...
In molecular biology, the lipid-binding serum glycoproteins family, also known as the BPI/LBP/Plunc family or LBP/BPI/CETP ... Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a glycoprotein that facilitates the transfer of lipids (cholesteryl esters and ... family represents a family which includes mammalian lipid-binding serum glycoproteins. Members of this family include: ...
In enzymology, a glycoprotein 3-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.214) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4 ... glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked, N-acetylglucosamine of, 4-N-{N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->2)-alpha-D-mannosyl ...
... glycoprotein fucosyltransferase, guanosine diphosphofucose-glycoprotein fucosyltransferase, GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose ... In enzymology, a glycoprotein 6-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.68) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction GDP- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4 ... Other names in common use include GDP-fucose-glycoprotein fucosyltransferase, GDP-L-Fuc:N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide alpha1-> ...
In enzymology, a glycoprotein 2-beta-D-xylosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.38) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-D ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-D-xylose:glycoprotein (D-xylose to the 3,6-disubstituted mannose of N4-{N- ... Other names in common use include beta1,2-xylosyltransferase, UDP-D-xylose:glycoprotein (D-xylose to the 3,6-disubstituted ...
... glycoprotein-alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-galactose ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } UDP + glycoprotein-N-acetyl-alpha-D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:glycoprotein-alpha-L-fucosyl-(1,2)-D-ga lactose 3-N- ... In enzymology, a glycoprotein-fucosylgalactoside alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.40) is an enzyme that ... glycoprotein-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-(1,3)-[alpha-L-fucosyl-]], and [[(1,2)]-D-galactose]]. This enzyme belongs to the ...
... the attachment glycoprotein (G) and the fusion glycoprotein (F), control the initial phases of infection. G targets the ... The two major glycoproteins on the surface of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) virion, ... The two major glycoproteins on the surface of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) virion, the attachment glycoprotein (G) and ... Structure and function of respiratory syncytial virus surface glycoproteins Jason S McLellan 1 , William C Ray, Mark E Peeples ...
SEARCH RESULTS for: P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors [Drug Class] (600 results) *Share : JavaScript needed for Sharing tools. Bookmark ...
Glycoprotein VI deficiency is a bleeding disorder associated with a decreased ability to form blood clots. Explore symptoms, ... Glycoprotein VI deficiency can be caused by mutations in the GP6 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called ... Some cases of glycoprotein VI deficiency are not caused by GP6 gene mutations; instead these cases are acquired, which means ... The prevalence of glycoprotein VI deficiency is unknown. At least 15 cases have been described in the scientific literature. ...
Udeinya, Iroka J. & Van Dyke, K. (‎1980)‎. Labelling of membrane glycoproteins of cultivated Plasmodium falciparum*. Bulletin ...
Coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein trimers promote the virus"s entry into cells and are the main targets of the humoral immune ... Coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein trimers promote the viruss entry into cells and are the main targets of the humoral immune ... Structural Studies of Coronavirus Fusion Glycoproteins. Download VideoCast. You can download this VideoCast and play it on your ... Structural studies of coronavirus fusion glycoproteins / David Veesler, Ph.D., University of Washington. ...
Gp1ba glycoprotein 1b, alpha polypeptide [Mus musculus] Gp1ba glycoprotein 1b, alpha polypeptide [Mus musculus]. Gene ID:14723 ... glycoprotein 1b, alpha polypeptideprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1333744 See related. Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000050675 ... Gp1ba glycoprotein 1b, alpha polypeptide [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 14723, updated on 18-May-2023 ... part_of glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex ISO Inferred from Sequence Orthology. more info ...
The alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid; AAG) is a normal constituent of human plasma (650±215 µg ml−1) which increases in ... Winzler, R. in Glycoproteins of Blood Cells and Plasma (eds Jamieson, G. A. & Greenwald, T. J.) 204-218 (Lippincott, New York, ... Glycosylation ofα 1 glycoprotein in septic shock: Changes in degree of branching and in expression of sialyl Lewisx groups *Els ... The alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid; AAG) is a normal constituent of human plasma (650±215 µg ml−1) which increases in ...
Chain A, Spike glycoprotein Chain A, Spike glycoprotein. gi,1189450733,pdb,5X4S,A ...
Aggressive antiplatelet treatment with tirofiban, a potent inhibitor of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on the surface of ... we decided to administer the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker tirofiban. In view of the recent coloscopic biopsy and the ...
in) to predict and analyze the well defined B-cell and T-cell epitopes of the glycoprotein of the DEN-1 HAWAII strain. Then ... However, it is still un-clear where the well-defined B-cell epitopes for glycoprotein E which induce the neutralizing an- ... Thus, in order to characterize the role of glycoprotein E in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection, we first used network ... The crystal structures of glycoprotein E ectodomains have already been determined. ...
Human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein: a new member of the L2/HNK-1 family. Burger, D., Steck, A.J., Bernard, C.C., Kerlero ... Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a member of a subset of the immunoglobulin superfamily encoded within the major ... The demyelinating potential of antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is related to their ability to fix complement. ... Myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a unique member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Gardinier, M.V., Amiguet, P., ...
Protein target information for Fusion glycoprotein F0 (Newcastle disease virus (STRAIN TEXAS)). Find diseases associated with ...
The platelet glycoproteins GPIIa and GPIc form a second mixed heterodimer. The mAb A-1A5, which binds to the VLA beta chain, ... Platelet glycoproteins Ia, Ic, and IIa are physicochemically indistinguishable from the very late activation antigens adhesion- ... Platelet glycoproteins Ia, Ic, and IIa are physicochemically indistinguishable from the very late activation antigens adhesion- ... The very late activation antigens (VLA) are a subset of the superfamily of cell surface glycoproteins that serve as receptors ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process pathways, according to their ...
The neuroprotective effect of brain -derived neurotrophic factor against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 glycoprotein 120- ...
DFG funds HITS research on SARS CoV-2 spike glycoprotein. 14. December 2020 ... Towards a mechanistic understanding of the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and host heparan sulphate proteoglycans ... to investigate the mechanisms by which heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans interact with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, ...
P-glycoprotein, a critical toxin pump in the body, has the ability to remove amyloid plaques from the brain. Researchers say ... Transport of Alzheimers associated amyloid-β catalyzed by P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a critical membrane ... He devoted hours of his own time to use a computer-generated model of P-glycoprotein that he and Wise created. The model allows ... A team of SMU biological scientists has confirmed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has the ability to remove a toxin from the brain ...
The lecithotrophic sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins. Journal Article ... Using a polyclonal antibody prepared against yolk glycoproteins from the typical developer Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, we ...
Glycoprotein V, Platelet) CLIA Kit from Gentaur Clia Kits. Cat Number: G-EC-01063. USA, UK & Europe Distribution. ... Human GP5 (Glycoprotein V, Platelet) CLIA Kit , G-EC-01063. Rating * Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 stars. 3 stars (average) ... Human GP5 (Glycoprotein V, Platelet) CLIA Kit , G-EC-01063. Gentaur Clia ... Human GP5 (Glycoprotein V, Platelet) CLIA Kit , G-EC-01063 , Gentaur Clia Kits ...
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain, T-cell surface antigen T3/Leu-4 epsilon chain, CD3E, T3E, CD3e ... Product Description: Immunotag™ T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain ELISA Kit ...
Although assays for these glycoproteins have potential clinical utility, research is needed to translate these glycoproteins to ... Specific N-linked glycoprotein changes are associated with disease progression and identification of these N-linked ... N-linked glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes, including cell-to-cell recognition, growth, ... We also review the N-linked glycoproteins altered in diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. ...
In vitro mucus glycoprotein production by colonic tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis. ... In vitro mucus glycoprotein production by colonic tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis. ...
Binding of bupivacaine to human serum proteins, isolated albumin and isolated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Differences between ... Binding of bupivacaine to human serum proteins, isolated albumin and isolated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Differences between ... Binding of bupivacaine to human serum proteins, isolated albumin and isolated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Differences between ... Binding of bupivacaine to human serum proteins, isolated albumin and isolated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Differences between ...
their role in glycoprotein synthesis Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 70(12): ... Bretthauer, R.K.; W.S. 1974: Transfer of mannose from dolichol mono phosphate mannose to yeast glyco protein acceptors Lee, E Y ... Lehle, L.; Tanner, W. 1978: Glycosyl Transfer from Dolichyl Phosphate Sugars to Endogenous and Exogenous Glycoprotein Acceptors ... Frot-Coutaz, J.; Degiuli, A.; Létoublon, R.; Vila, J. 1992: In vitro transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to endogenous glycoprotein ...
Using a set of orthogonal proteolytic digests, 99% sequence of the Env glycoprotein was confirmed. The furin cleavage site was ... The strategies of the vaccine-development programs have been focused on the HIV Env surface glycoprotein (Env), which enables ... Here we demonstrated the strategy to meet these challenges, and to highlight some inevitable problems with this glycoprotein ... Structural Characterization of HIV Env Glycoprotein by LC-MS. Thursday, September 13, 2018. - Poster Session III ...
THE ONTOGENY OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: IMPLICATION FOR OPIOID TOXICITY IN NEONATES ... THE ONTOGENY OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: IMPLICATION FOR OPIOID TOXICITY IN NEONATES ... THE ONTOGENY OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: IMPLICATION FOR OPIOID TOXICITY IN NEONATES ...
Use of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in diabetics undergoing PCI for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary ... Bauer, T, Möllmann, H, Weidinger, F, Zeymer, U, Seabra-Gomes, R, Eberli, F.R, … Gitt, A.K. (2010). Use of platelet glycoprotein ... Background: The most recent ESC guidelines for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) recommend the use of glycoprotein IIb/ ...
  • The major envelope glycoprotein E of dengue (DEN) virus plays a central role in the biology of flaviviruses. (scirp.org)
  • Costello, M., Fiedel, B. & Gewurz, H. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by native and desialised alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. (nature.com)
  • Binding of bupivacaine to human serum proteins, isolated albumin and isolated alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Coronavirus spike (S) glycoprotein trimers promote the virus's entry into cells and are the main targets of the humoral immune response. (nih.gov)
  • Rebecca Wade and the Molecular and Cellular Modeling group at HITS use computational methods and simulations to investigate the mechanisms by which heparin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans interact with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, and thereby affect host cell infection and host susceptibility. (h-its.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein, Californian Variant B.1.429. (biovendor.com)
  • Graphic representation of the interaction between the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein (blue-purple) and its receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). (nih.gov)
  • Platelet glycoprotein VI-related clinical defects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Defective Association of the Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex with the Glycosphingolipid-Enriched Membrane Domain Inhibits Murine Thrombus and Atheroma Formation. (nih.gov)
  • Critical role of platelet glycoprotein ibα in arterial remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic deletion of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha but not its extracellular domain protects from atherosclerosis. (nih.gov)
  • In order to spare the young patient with severe symptoms an aortocoronary bypass operation, we decided to administer the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blocker tirofiban. (bmj.com)
  • Aggressive antiplatelet treatment with tirofiban, a potent inhibitor of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on the surface of platelets, in combination with low molecular weight heparin, led to complete thrombolysis in the affected coronary vessels of this patient with unstable angina. (bmj.com)
  • Background: The most recent ESC guidelines for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) recommend the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI) in high risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), particularly in diabetics. (eur.nl)
  • These glycoproteins serve as machinery that enables them to reach out and grab onto the surrounding endosome membrane, which ultimately will be fused with the virus's own membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of protection in grazing lambs immunised with different doses of Haemonchus contortus gut membrane glycoproteins in Southern Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • Platelets play a primary role in this process, interacting with subendothelium-bound von Willebrand factor (vWf) via the membrane glycoprotein (GP) Ib complex. (medscape.com)
  • Citations to Platelet glycoproteins Ia, Ic, and IIa are physicochemically indistinguishable from the very late activation antigens adhesion-related proteins of lymphocytes and other cell types. (jci.org)
  • Platelet glycoproteins Ia, Ic, and IIa are physicochemically indistinguishable from the very late activation antigens adhesion-related proteins of lymphocytes and other cell types. (jci.org)
  • The very late activation antigens (VLA) are a subset of the superfamily of cell surface glycoproteins that serve as receptors from extracellular matrix proteins. (jci.org)
  • Using a polyclonal antibody prepared against yolk glycoproteins from the typical developer Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, we found that H. tuberculata contains cross-reactive proteins in abundance, but H. erythrogramma does not. (duke.edu)
  • In the opening seconds, you see how receptor binding glycoproteins (light blue), which are proteins with a carbohydrate attached on the viral surface, dock with protein receptors (yellow) on a host cell. (nih.gov)
  • Henipaviruses possess two envelope glycoproteins , the attachment (G) and the fusion (F) proteins that mediate cellular entry and are the major targets of virus - neutralizing antibody responses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cluster of Differentiation-200 (CD200) is an anti-inflammatory glycoprotein expressed in neurons, T cells, and B cells, and its receptor is expressed on glia. (nih.gov)
  • The F protein is the major target for antiviral drug development, and both G and F glycoproteins are the antigens targeted by neutralizing antibodies induced by infection. (nih.gov)
  • Glycoprotein VI deficiency can be caused by mutations in the GP6 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called glycoprotein VI (GPVI). (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, there is a shortage (deficiency) of functional GPVI protein on the surface of platelets, which leads to bleeding problems characteristic of glycoprotein VI deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part II. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Literature-collated REFs ranged from 0.4 to 5.1 and 1.1 to 90 for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), respectively. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) excretion in chronic renal tubular disorders: comparison with other protein markers of tubular malfunction. (bmj.com)
  • Investigators at the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) have generated an hMPV fusion glycoprotein ("F protein") stabilized in a prefusion conformation. (nih.gov)
  • Without GPVI binding to collagen, platelets cannot come together efficiently to form a clot, leading to the bleeding problems associated with glycoprotein VI deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The "lecithotrophic" sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma lacks typical yolk platelets and yolk glycoproteins. (duke.edu)
  • Structural studies of coronavirus fusion glycoproteins / David Veesler, Ph.D., University of Washington. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of disease-associated N-linked glycoproteins. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we summarize common strategies for N-linked glycoprotein characterization and applications of these strategies to identification of glycoprotein changes associated with disease states. (nih.gov)
  • Here we demonstrated the strategy to meet these challenges, and to highlight some inevitable problems with this glycoprotein characterization in the analytical field. (nih.gov)
  • However, it is still un-clear where the well-defined B-cell epitopes for glycoprotein E which induce the neutralizing an-tibodies locates. (scirp.org)
  • If you could find a way to induce more P-glycoprotein in the protective blood-brain barrier for people who are susceptible to Alzheimer's disease, perhaps they could take such a treatment and it would help postpone or prevent the onset of the disease," he said. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • A paper on extraction, curation and comparison of literature data for a key transporter in drug discovery P-glycoprotein Uniprot:P08183 (aka MDR1, pgp, etc ). (blogspot.com)
  • The two major glycoproteins on the surface of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) virion, the attachment glycoprotein (G) and the fusion glycoprotein (F), control the initial phases of infection. (nih.gov)
  • As more of those fusion glycoproteins grab on, fold back on themselves, and form into hairpin-like shapes, they pull the membranes together. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to Hendra virus and Nipah virus tetrameric sG and trimeric sF production , we also describe the expression and purification of Cedar virus tetrameric sG and Ghana virus trimeric sF glycoproteins . (bvsalud.org)
  • These henipavirus glycoproteins were also used as immunizing antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies , and binding was demonstrated with a pan- henipavirus multiplex microsphere immunoassay . (bvsalud.org)
  • In vitro mucus glycoprotein production by colonic tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis. (bmj.com)
  • Hermans C, Wittevrongel C, Thys C, Smethurst PA, Van Geet C, Freson K. A compound heterozygous mutation in glycoprotein VI in a patient with a bleeding disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We have identified them as previously characterized platelet surface glycoproteins and have compared them with VLA molecules isolated from lymphocytes and other cells. (jci.org)
  • Amyloid-β is maybe five times bigger than the small, drug-like molecules that P-glycoproteins are well-known to move. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Although assays for these glycoproteins have potential clinical utility, research is needed to translate these glycoproteins to clinical biomarkers. (nih.gov)
  • The strategies of the vaccine-development programs have been focused on the HIV Env surface glycoprotein (Env), which enables the virus to enter host cells. (nih.gov)
  • In this chapter, we review the structure and function of the RSV surface glycoproteins, including recent X-ray crystallographic data of the F glycoprotein in its pre- and postfusion conformations, and discuss how this information informs antigen selection and vaccine development. (nih.gov)
  • Once inside the endosome, the acidic environment makes other glycoproteins (red, blue, yellow) on the viral surface change shape and become more flexible and dynamic. (nih.gov)
  • We also review the N-linked glycoproteins altered in diseases such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, in order to characterize the role of glycoprotein E in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection, we first used network servers (http://bio.dfci. (scirp.org)
  • Glycoprotein VI deficiency is a bleeding disorder associated with a decreased ability to form blood clots. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Orthologous to human GP1BA (glycoprotein Ib platelet subunit alpha). (nih.gov)
  • T Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data %J Mol. (blogspot.com)
  • Drew WL, Chou S, Miner RC, Mohr BA, Busch MP, van der Horst CM, Asmuth DM, Kalish LA. Cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B groups in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with incident retinitis. (nih.gov)
  • A team of SMU biological scientists has confirmed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has the ability to remove a toxin from the brain that is associated with Alzheimer's disease. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • N-linked glycoproteins play important roles in biological processes, including cell-to-cell recognition, growth, differentiation, and programmed cell death. (nih.gov)
  • P-glycoprotein, a critical toxin pump in the body, has the ability to remove amyloid plaques from the brain. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • These acquired cases of glycoprotein VI deficiency are associated with autoimmune disorders such as immune thrombocytopenia purpura, Graves' disease , or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Specific N-linked glycoprotein changes are associated with disease progression and identification of these N-linked glycoproteins has potential for use in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of treatments. (nih.gov)
  • Because people with glycoprotein VI deficiency cannot form blood clots normally, they have an increased risk of nosebleeds (epistaxis) and may experience abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding following minor injury or surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The platelet glycoproteins GPIIa and GPIc form a second mixed heterodimer. (jci.org)
  • 2003) A ligand-binding pockets in the dengue virus envelop glycoprotein. (scirp.org)
  • Winzler, R. in Glycoproteins of Blood Cells and Plasma (eds Jamieson, G. A. & Greenwald, T. J.) 204-218 (Lippincott, New York, 1971). (nature.com)