Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.PolysaccharidesCarbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.FucoseMannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)GlucosamineCarbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mannosyl-Glycoprotein Endo-beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase: A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.N-Acetylneuraminic Acid: An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Tunicamycin: An N-acetylglycosamine containing antiviral antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces lysosuperificus. It is also active against some bacteria and fungi, because it inhibits the glucosylation of proteins. Tunicamycin is used as tool in the study of microbial biosynthetic mechanisms.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Glycoside HydrolasesCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Swainsonine: An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins: Ubiquitously expressed integral membrane glycoproteins found in the LYSOSOME.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Cell Fusion: Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.alpha-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.IndolizinesAsialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.OrosomucoidVirus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Calnexin: A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Galactosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Neuraminic AcidsVariant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.HN Protein: Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Hexosaminidases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Receptors, N-Acetylglucosamine: Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Bunyaviridae: A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Fetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Calreticulin: A multifunctional protein that is found primarily within membrane-bound organelles. In the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM it binds to specific N-linked oligosaccharides found on newly-synthesized proteins and functions as a MOLECULAR CHAPERONE that may play a role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins. In addition calreticulin is a major storage form for CALCIUM and functions as a calcium-signaling molecule that can regulate intracellular calcium HOMEOSTASIS.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein PrecursorsDisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Photofluorography: The photography of images produced on a fluorescent screen by X-rays.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Fucosyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Nipah Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS, closely related to HENDRA VIRUS, which emerged in Peninsular Malaysia in 1998. It causes a severe febrile VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS in humans and also encephalitis and RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS in pigs. Fruit bats (PTEROPUS) are the natural host.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Herpesvirus 1, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.Guanosine Diphosphate Mannose: A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be converted to the deoxy sugar GDPfucose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls. Also acts as mannose donor for glycolipid synthesis.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.alpha-L-Fucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha L-fucoside to yield an alcohol and L-fucose. Deficiency of this enzyme can cause FUCOSIDOSIS. EC 3.2.1.51.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Asialoglycoprotein Receptor: A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.TritiumSequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.HexosaminesMass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay: Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Filoviridae: A family of RNA viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, containing filamentous virions. Although they resemble RHABDOVIRIDAE in possessing helical nucleocapsids, Filoviridae differ in the length and degree of branching in their virions. There are two genera: EBOLAVIRUS and MARBURGVIRUS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Galectins: A class of animal lectins that bind specifically to beta-galactoside in a calcium-independent manner. Members of this class are distiguished from other lectins by the presence of a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain. The majority of proteins in this class bind to sugar molecules in a sulfhydryl-dependent manner and are often referred to as S-type lectins, however this property is not required for membership in this class.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)GalactosamineSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.

Neu differentiation factor stimulates phosphorylation and activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. (1/19351)

Neu differentiation factors (NDFs), or neuregulins, are epidermal growth factor-like growth factors which bind to two tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4. The transcription of several genes is regulated by neuregulins, including genes encoding specific subunits of the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we have examined the promoter of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit and delineated a minimal CA-rich sequence which mediates transcriptional activation by NDF (NDF-response element [NRE]). Using gel mobility shift analysis with an NRE oligonucleotide, we detected two complexes that are induced by treatment with neuregulin and other growth factors and identified Sp1, a constitutively expressed zinc finger phosphoprotein, as a component of one of these complexes. Phosphatase treatment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and an in-gel kinase assay indicated that Sp1 is phosphorylated by a 60-kDa kinase in response to NDF-induced signals. Moreover, Sp1 seems to act downstream of all members of the ErbB family and thus may funnel the signaling of the ErbB network into the nucleus.  (+info)

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (2/19351)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

A novel class of protein from wheat which inhibits xylanases. (3/19351)

We have purified a novel class of protein that can inhibit the activity of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. The inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) is a glycosylated, monomeric, basic protein with a pI of 8.7-8.9, a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a unique N-terminal sequence of AGGKTGQVTVFWGRN. We have shown that the protein can inhibit the activity of two family-11 endo-beta-1, 4-xylanases, a recombinant enzyme from Aspergillus niger and an enzyme from Trichoderma viride. The inhibitory activity is heat and protease sensitive. The kinetics of the inhibition have been characterized with the A. niger enzyme using soluble wheat arabinoxylan as a substrate. The Km for soluble arabinoxylan in the absence of inhibitor is 20+/-2 mg/ml with a kcat of 103+/-6 s-1. The kinetics of the inhibition of this reaction are competitive, with a Ki value of 0.35 microM, showing that the inhibitor binds at or close to the active site of free xylanase. This report describes the first isolation of a xylanase inhibitor from any organism.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the N-linked oligosaccharides in bile salt-stimulated lipase originated from human breast milk. (4/19351)

The detailed structures of N- glycans derived from bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) found in human milk were determined by combining exoglycosidase digestion with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The N- glycan structures were conclusively determined in terms of complexity and degree of fucosylation. Ion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, together with mass-spectral analysis of the esterified N- glycans, indicated the presence of monosialylated structures. The molecular mass profile of esterified N- glycans present in BSSL further permitted the more detailed studies through collision-induced dissociation (CID) and sequential exoglycosidase cleavages. The N- glycan structures were elucidated to be complex/dibranched, fucosylated/complex/dibranched, monosialylated/complex/dibranched, and monosialylated/fucosylated/dibranched entities.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (5/19351)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

Antiphospholipid, anti-beta 2-glycoprotein-I and anti-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein antibodies in antiphospholipid syndrome. (6/19351)

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta 2-GPI) and anti-oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies are all implicated in the pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome. To investigate whether different autoantibodies or combinations thereof produced distinct effects related to their antigenic specificities, we examined the frequencies of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-related features in the presence of different antibodies [aPL, beta 2-GPI, anti-oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL)] in 125 patients with APS. Median follow-up was 72 months: 58 patients were diagnosed as primary APS and 67 as APS plus systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), anti-beta 2-GPI and anti-oxidized LDL antibodies were determined by ELISA; lupus anticoagulant (LA) by standard coagulometric methods. Univariate analysis showed that patients positive for anti-beta 2-GPI had a higher risk of recurrent thrombotic events (OR = 3.64, 95% CI, p = 0.01) and pregnancy loss (OR = 2.99, 95% CI, p = 0.004). Patients positive for anti-oxidized LDL antibodies had a 2.24-fold increase in the risk of arterial thrombosis (2.24, 95% CI, p = 0.03) and lower risk of thrombocytopenia (OR = 0.41 95% CI, p = 0.04). Patients positive for aCL antibodies had a higher risk of pregnancy loss (OR = 4.62 95% CI, p = 0.001). When these data were tested by multivariate logistic regression, the association between anti-beta 2-GPI and pregnancy loss and the negative association between anti-oxidized LDL antibodies and thrombocytopenia disappeared.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (7/19351)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (8/19351)

Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ethanol on the synthesis and secretion of hepatic secretory glycoproteins and albumin. AU - Tuma, D. J.. AU - Jennett, R. B.. AU - Sorrell, Michael Floyd. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - The effects of ethanol on the synthesis and secretion of serum glycoproteins and albumin, a nonglycosylated protein, were studied in rat liver slices. Serum glycoproteins and albumin were determined by immunoprecipitation from either the incubation medium or from the washed slices. When ethanol (10 mM) was present in the incubation medium, [14C]glucosamine incorporation in secretory glycoproteins was decreased. This inhibitory effect was, however, much greater in the secretory proteins released into the medium than in those retained in the liver slices. Similar inhibitions by ethanol were also observed when leucine or valine were used as a label for either total export proteins or albumin. Since ethanol impaired protein synthesis, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, cycloheximide, was ...
https://www.dualsystems.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/2018/07/2018-Dualsystems-Biotech-Logo-website.png 0 0 helene https://www.dualsystems.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/7/2018/07/2018-Dualsystems-Biotech-Logo-website.png helene2018-07-02 13:19:032018-08-13 16:58:18Leukocyte differentiation by histidine-rich glycoprotein/stanniocalcin-2 complex regulates murine glioma growth through modulation of anti-tumor immunity ...
Stanniocalcin-2 (STC2), the paralog of STC1, has been suggested as a novel target of oxidative stress response to protect cells from apoptosis. The expression of STC2 has been reported to be highly correlated with human cancer development. In this study, we reported that STC2 is a HIF-1 target gene and is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation. STC2 was shown to be up-regulated in different breast and ovarian cancer cells, following exposure to hypoxia. Using ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3), the underlying mechanism of HIF-1 mediated STC2 gene transactivation was characterized. Hypoxia-induced STC2 expression was found to be HIF-1α dependent and required the recruitment of p300 and HDAC7. Using STC2 promoter deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis, two authentic consensus HIF-1 binding sites were identified. Under hypoxic condition, the silencing of STC2 reduced while the overexpression of STC2 increased the levels of phosphorylated retinoblastoma and cyclin D in both SKOV3 and MCF7
The ability of PS to enhance the inhibition of FXa by plasma TFPI and by recombinant TFPIα produced in Escherichia coli was originally demonstrated by Hackeng et al.3 Subsequent studies have investigated the interaction of PS and TFPIα in plasma, finding that patients with PS deficiency have decreased plasma TFPIα, that immunodepletion of PS depletes plasma TFPIα as well, and that plasma TFPIα correlates with free PS, rather than with C4bp-bound PS.8 Thus, it seems that there is a physiologically relevant PS-TFPI anticoagulant system functioning in vivo, yet much remains unclear. The majority of intravascular TFPI is TFPIβ on the endothelium, which does not have the PS-binding K3 domain.24,25 In addition, the repercussions of FXa inhibition by PS-TFPIα are not apparent, as TFPIα is a poor inhibitor of thrombin production by the prothrombinase complex assembled with FXa and thrombin-activated FVa, and PS does not enhance this inhibitory function to physiologically relevant rates (Figure ...
Methods and Results-Concomitant with the angiogenic and proliferative responses, hVEGF-DΔNΔC enhanced the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Gene arrays, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot revealed increases in VEGF-A, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1), and neuropilin (NRP) 2 expression by hVEGF-DΔNΔC stimulation, whereas induction with hVEGF-A165 altered the expression of STC1 and NRP1, another coreceptor for VEGFs. The effects of hVEGF-DΔNΔC were seen only under high-serum conditions, whereas for hVEGF-A165, the strongest response was observed under low-serum conditions. The hVEGF-DΔNΔC-induced upregulation of STC1 and NRP2 was also evident in vivo in mouse skeletal muscle treated with hVEGF-DΔNΔC by adenoviral gene delivery. The importance of NRP2 in hVEGF-DΔNΔC signaling was further studied with NRP2 small interfering RNA and NRP antagonist, which were able to block hVEGF-DΔNΔC-induced survival of ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [J Rollin, S Iochmann, C Bléchet, F Hubé, S Régina, S Guyétant, E Lemarié, P Reverdiau, Y Gruel].
We used domain-selective biotinylation/125I-streptavidin blotting (Sargiacomo, M., M. P. Lisanti, L. Graeve, A. Le Bivic, and E. Rodriguez-Boulan. 1989 J. Membr. Biol. 107:277-286), in combination with lectin precipitation, to analyze the apical and basolateral glycoprotein composition of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and to explore the role of glycosylation in the targeting of membrane glycoproteins. All six lectins used recognized both apical and basolateral glycoproteins, indicating that none of the sugar moieties detected were characteristic of the particular epithelial cell surface. Pulse-chase experiments coupled with domain-selective glycoprotein recovery were designed to detect the initial appearance of newly synthesized glycoproteins at the apical or basolateral cell surface. After a short pulse with a radioactive precursor, glycoproteins reaching each surface were biotinylated, extracted, and recovered via precipitation with immobilized streptavidin. Several basolateral ...
Shop Olfactomedin-like protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Olfactomedin-like protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Stanniocalcins (STCs) represent small glycoprotein hormones, found in all vertebrates, which have been functionally implicated in Calcium homeostasis. However, recent data from mammalian systems indicated that they may be also involved in embryogenesis, tumorigenesis and in the context of the latter especially in angiogenesis. Human STC1 is a 247 amino acids protein with a predicted molecular mass of 27 kDa, but preliminary data suggested its di- or multimerization. The latter in conjunction with alternative splicing and/or post-translational modification gives rise to forms described as STC50 and big STC, which molecular weights range from 56 to 135 kDa. In this study we performed a biochemical and structural analysis of STC1 with the aim of obtaining low resolution structural information about the human STC1, since structural information in this protein family is scarce. We expressed STC1 in both E. coli and insect cells using the baculo virus system with a C-terminal 6 × His fusion tag. From the
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jingyuan Su, Bingyu Guo, Tingting Zhang, Kanwen Wang, Xiaoming Li, Guobiao Liang].
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Synonyms for Glycoproteins in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Glycoproteins. 10 words related to glycoprotein: mucin, compound protein, conjugated protein, erythropoietin, CD4, cluster of differentiation 4, CD8.... What are synonyms for Glycoproteins?
This is a protein identified originally in the milk fat globule but shown to be widely distributed in epithelial and mesothelial cells. , 1983). , 1983)have been shown to bind with a high degree of selectivity to tissues of neuroectodermal origin. , 1983). A new TAA, Ca 1, was discovered by Ashall et a2. (1982)and identified as a large molecular weight glycoprotein present in the majority of human tumors. , 1983). , 1983b). These workers used a panel of eight mAbs binding to neuroblastoma and five mAbs binding to leukemia and lymphoma cells to diagnose accurately bone marrow aspirates, frozen sections of tumors and cells from malignant effusions, in cases where conventional techniques yielded uncertain results. 1980). Clin. E r p . Zmmuwl. 39, 90-96. Hill, R . , Silburn, P. , Khoo, S. , and Mackay, E. V. (1983). Cynecol. Oncol. 15, 428-433. Hirohashi, S . , and Ino, Y. (1982a). Br. J. Cancer 46, 802-805. , and Ino, Y. (1982b). Gann 73, 345-347. Holmgren, J . , Rudenstam, C. , and Killander, A. ...
Resources available now: This core will provide collaborations, protocols, materials, and advice on: 1) cell surface capture technology: targeted capture and isolation of glycoproteins located on the cell surface (extracellular exposed plasma membrane proteins) of viable cells. 2) The proteomic analysis for glycoprotein enrichment: targeted capture and isolation of glycoproteins from cells, tissues, and body fluids. 3) Assistance in the development of Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) assays: targeted assays for the quantification of specific glycoproteins. (MRM is a cutting edge method for accurately quantifying many different proteins or glycoproteins in a multiplexed manner). 4) Lectin microarrays and lectin-based immunosorbent assays. Additional resources are in the pipeline. ...
It was found previously that transection of one branch of the bifurcate axon of a giant serotonergic neuron of Aplysia causes a proportionate decrease in the export of transmitter storage vesicles from the cell body, despite the ability of the remaining branch to transport all of the vesicles normally exported (Aletta and Goldberg, 1982). We report here evidence that this down-regulation is achieved by a decrease in the production of vesicles, rather than a slowing of the processing of vesicles for export from the cell body. Counts of serotonergic vesicles in the cell body show that the size of the somal pool of vesicles is not increased at a time when their rate of export has been halved. Also, transection of one or both branches of the axon decreases the amount of 3H-fucose incorporated during a short period into a putative vesicle membrane glycoprotein but not into other glycoproteins. The results indicate that axotomy should be a useful technique for studying the mechanism of regulation of ...
The structure of membrane-bound glycoproteins is briefly discussed. Glycoproteins are associated with the cell plasma membrane. Their location on the cell surface has led to suggestions that the...
Glycoproteins are molecules containing sugar and protein, which permit healthy cell-to-cell communication in the human body. Babies receive glycoproteins...
Hourani, B T.; Chace, N M.; and Pincus, J H., "Isolation of membrane glycoproteins from l1210 cells with lectin receptor activities. Abstr." (1973). Subject Strain Bibliography 1973. 653 ...
Each one of these peptides can result in a different VPL motor that can have different properties such as different weight, volume, range of motion, force and speed capabilities. However, the principle of actuation is the same. Studies have shown that the common characteristic in these viruses is the structure of a portion of the surface protein (envelope glycoprotein) and the mode of infection. The envelope glycoproteins of these viruses can be divided into two subunits, which are a result of proteolytic cleavage of a common precursor protein. The two subunits have different functions. For example, in the case of HIV 1 the precursor glycoprotein is gp160, which is proteolytically cleaved into gp120 and gp41 subunits. The gp120 is the surface subunit and the gp41 is the transmembrane (TM) subunit. The surface subunit serves to recognize the cell to be infected when it comes in the vicinity of the virus with the help of receptors located on the cell surface. The gp41 mediates membrane fusion ...
Each one of these peptides can result in a different VPL motor that can have different properties such as different weight, volume, range of motion, force and speed capabilities. However, the principle of actuation is the same. Studies have shown that the common characteristic in these viruses is the structure of a portion of the surface protein (envelope glycoprotein) and the mode of infection. The envelope glycoproteins of these viruses can be divided into two subunits, which are a result of proteolytic cleavage of a common precursor protein. The two subunits have different functions. For example, in the case of HIV 1 the precursor glycoprotein is gp160, which is proteolytically cleaved into gp120 and gp41 subunits. The gp120 is the surface subunit and the gp41 is the transmembrane (TM) subunit. The surface subunit serves to recognize the cell to be infected when it comes in the vicinity of the virus with the help of receptors located on the cell surface. The gp41 mediates membrane fusion ...
GlycoMatrix™ is a new division of bioWORLD. Using our U.S. based manufacturing capability, GlycoMatrix™ has introduced a broad range of the most relevant lectins. Our extensive portfolio contains lectin conjugates for the detection of specific glycoproteins & cancer biomarkers in histological applications, as well
LEGENDplex™ Mouse Cytokine Panel 2 (13-plex) - Cytokines are small soluble glycoproteins that act as extracellular signaling molecuels and meidate communications between cells.
As far as glycoproteins are concerned, at present there is no common international nomenclature. Many investigators have examined them by using various methods of analysis and used more or less...
Provided herein are methods, compositions and kits for use in the site-specific labeling of glycoproteins comprising a combination of enzyme-mediated incorporation of modified sugars comprising a chem
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Conventional sample prep techniques for N-glycans can be time-consuming or require compromises in sensitivity. This limits the throughput or detail in which glycoproteins can be characterized or monitored. An innovative label solves those limitations.
1 front of precipitation against rabbit antisera to halpha2-M. Scientific note: Serum glycoprotein of MW approx. 800,000 daltons, containing 38 histidine residues. Two protomers of MW aprox. 370,000 daltons. Each protomer is formed by two sub-units of MW 185,000 daltons, linked by disulfide bridges. N-linked complex carbohydrate side chains ...
Polyclonal antibody for Stanniocalcin 2/STC2 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. Stanniocalcin 2/STC2 information: Molecular Weight: 33249 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted ; Tissue Specificity:
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Dairpoosh wrote: , Im looking for a method for isolation of Glycoproteins , from plant cells.I would be very grateful if someone can provide , me with a method and a refrence. There is no such thing as *the* method to purify proteins, each protein is different and needs its own combination of methods. Now since you are talking about glycoproteins I presume that you are dealing with a transmembrane protein. To isolate those, you homogenise your cells and isolate the compartment where your protein lives (ER, Golgi, PM, lysosome...). There are standard methods for that, check e.g. Meth. Enzymol. Then you solubilise the membranes with a suitable detergent. There are hundreds of detergents out there, dozens are in common use for membrane protein isolation and may be one or two will solubilise your particular protein without destroying its activity. You have to find out which ones. The following is still the first paper to read, despite being 30 years old: @article{Hel-75, AUTHOR= {A. Helenius and K. ...
There is no size limitation for protein that can be purified with the QProteome Glycoprotein Kits as long as the epitope (the glycan structure) of the glycoprotein is accessible for binding to the immobilized lectin in the purification columns ...
Integrins are transmembrane glycoproteins that belong to the family of adhesion molecules. They promote interactions between cells and their…
Prominin 2兔多克隆抗体(ab74997)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, ICC/IF实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab47116 交差種: Hu 適用: WB,ELISA…Zinc Alpha 2 Glycoprotein抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
Sugar (glucose) is a key molecule used by all cells as fuel to produce bio-energy and it forms the structural part of glycoproteins and other structur...
a glycoprotein on the outer envelope of HIV that binds to the CD4 protein on the surface of certain cells. The V3 loop of gp120 is the principle neutralizing determinant of HIV and is used in some experimental anti-HIV vaccines ...
1997-2006 Healthboard.com. Healthboard.com is a purely informational website, and should not be used as a substitute for professional legal, medical or technical advice. ...
div class=citation vocab=http://schema.org/,,i class=fa fa-external-link-square fa-fw,,/i, Data from ,span resource=http://link.library.missouri.edu/portal/Structural-glycoproteins-in-cell-matrix/lnjJKyQaPhw/ typeof=Book http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/Item,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a href=http://link.library.missouri.edu/portal/Structural-glycoproteins-in-cell-matrix/lnjJKyQaPhw/,Structural glycoproteins in cell-matrix interactions, volume editors, J. Labat-Robert, R. Timpl, L. Robert,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property=agent typeof=LibrarySystem http://library.link/vocab/LibrarySystem resource=http://link.library.missouri.edu/,,span property=name http://bibfra.me/vocab/lite/label,,a property=url href=http://link.library.missouri.edu/,University of Missouri Libraries,/a,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/span,,/div ...
SDS-PAGE studies of EBO virion glycoproteins (Fig. 1 and 3A) and N-terminal sequencing have provided definitive evidence that GP is cleaved (from GP0 form) into two molecules, GP1 and GP2. Cleavage of the structural GP gene product of EBO virus was expected for the N-terminal signal sequence and occurs at the predicted site. Cleavage of GP by furin had been predicted from the RRTRR sequence, but identification of the C-terminal fragment in virions was complicated by its comigration with VP24 in SDS-PAGE. However, prior studies detected GP2 in EBO-infected tissue culture fluids (17, 21), and it was suggested that this uncharacterized glycoprotein might be derived from a cleavage event involving GP. Indirect evidence for furin cleavage of EBO virus GP was recently demonstrated through the use of specific inhibitors of furin activity (21).. When GP sequences of all known EBO viruses are aligned, one finds that the furin cleavage site is conserved but differs slightly from one EBO species to ...
Teramoto, Y A. and Schlom, J, "Radioimmunoassays for the 36,000-dalton glycoprotein of murine mammary tumor viruses demonstrate type, group, and interspecies determinants." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 4658 ...
Fig. 6 OLFML2A and OLFML2B immunoreactivity in human retina. a Confocal image of stained retina sections to identify cells expressing OLFML2A (red, 1st Ab: rabbit polyclonal anti-human OLFML2A 1:500; 2nd Ab: goat anti-rabbit IgG-Cy3® 1:4000). b Confocal image of stained retina seccions to identify cells expressing OLFML2B (red, 1st Ab: rabbit polyclonal anti-human OLFML2B 1:500; 2nd Ab: goat anti-rabbit IgG-Cy3® 1:4000). Cells nuclei were labeled with DAPI (blue). GCL ganglion cell layer, INL inner nuclear layer, ONL outer nuclear layer, PL photoreceptor layer. Discussion. Olfactomedin was originally identified as the major component of the mucus layer that surrounds the chemosen-sory dendrites of olfactory neurons [15]. Subsequently, a vast numbers of proteins that share a ~250 amino acid domain homologous to olfactomedin were discovered in animals ranging from nematodes to humans [4]. One of these proteins was the olfactomedin like 2 proteins. (OLFML2A and OLFML2B), also known as photomedins ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
gastric mucus glycoproteins: from glandular region of gastric mucosa; high molecular wt. glycoproteins consisting of large numbers of carbohydrate side chains attached to protein core through O-glycosidic linkages; possibly protects stomach from ulceration
The objective of this investigation was primarily to establish that the apparent increase in serum fucose levels in patients with malignant tumors is real and to obtain data as to its source. Carbohydrate residues (L-fucose, D-mannose, D-galactose) were estimated by borate ion-exchange chromatography after mild acid hydrolysis of serum proteins. Data are presented which confirm reported increases in levels of serum fucose in certain malignancies and indicate that these increases may be attributed to quantitative alterations in specific serum glycoproteins observed in the glycoprotein profile associated with cancer. Values for serum fucose levels in pathological and nonpathological sera obtained by various analytical methods are presented and discussed. (Author)
Structure and expression of SPARC (osteonectin, BM-40): a secreted Ca++-binding glycoprotein associated with extracellular matrix production. In: Morphoregulatory Molecules. Eds. Edelman, G.M., Cunnningham, B.A. and Thiery, J.-P ...
Saha, N.,Kamboh, M.I.,Kelly, L.J.,Ferrell, R.E.,Tay, J.S. (1992). Apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I) polymorphism in Asians.. Human Biology 64 (4) : 617-621. [email protected] Repository ...
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INTRODUCTION. In 1999 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to Gunter Blobel for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell. It was based on this research into how cells use these signals that the functions of glycoproteins were discovered.. Glycoproteins are molecules that have a sugars and protein bonded together. The sugar chains of glycoproteins play a role in determining their destination in the cell or body. The bonding of sugars to proteins to form glycoproteins significantly alters the properties of these proteins.. There are eight sugars that predominantly bond with proteins to form glycoproteins, these are: xylose, galactose, glucose, mannose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylneuraminic acid.. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF GLYCOPROTEINS?. Glycans contain biologic information and are the specific sequence of sugars in a glycoprotein that determine its recognition and interaction ...
Complete information for CETP gene (Protein Coding), Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Das APOH Gen kodiert das Apolipoprotein H, welches die Brücke zwischen Lipidstoffwechsel, Koagulation und Infektabwehr schlägt. Es wurde gefunden, dass einige SNPs eine Bedeutung für die Plasmakonzentration besitzen. Damit könnten sie auch einen Effekt auf die prothombotische Wirkung insbesondere bei Patienten mit Phospholipid-Antikörpern besitzen.. ...
View mouse Olfml3 Chr3:103735394-103738001 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Robert L, Jungua S, Moczar M Structural glycoproteins of the intercellular matrix. The pattern includes a cen- ter circular clear zone and a variable number of incision lines radiating out from the clear zone. ACA ratio The ACA ratio should be measured at 6 m in all patients with intermittent exotropia using the gradi- ent method (see Buy herbal Forzest 5 ). Trans Ophthalmol Buy Sildigra free shipping UK 1985;104146-151.
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Glycoproteins are a type of peptide naturally present in skins surface that works with other ingredients to reinforce skins barrier strength.
シビアな構造異常糖タンパク質が出現すると手順を踏まずに強制分解 -酵母にはない高等動物特有の小胞体糖タンパク質分解システムの解明-. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2015-11-20.
Reference: Kuzmak N.I., Panasiuk E.N., Effect of stress on concentration of blood glycoproteins in rats with different functional changes in the thyroid gland, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1982, vol: 28(3), 89-94 ...
Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.
Methods for making glycoproteins, both in vitro and in vivo, are provided. One method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid into a protein and attaching one or more saccharide moieties to the unnatural amino acid. Another method involves incorporating an unnatural amino acid that includes a saccharide moiety into a protein. Proteins made by both methods can be further modified with additional sugars.
Our research focuses on the chemical synthesis and the biological. investigation of signaling molecules for cells. We are developing. and improving syntheses for three classes of biomolecules:. oligosaccharides, peptides and glycoproteins. Oligosaccharides. are playing a major role in cell-surface binding events, protein. stability and immunology and can be considered an emerging field. in bioscience. Oligosaccharides have potential as diagnostic markers. and vaccines and can be synthesized by chemical and enzymatic. methods. Proteins and glycoproteins are of high interest for biotechnology. since their recombinant production provides many pharmaceutical. products such as cellular growth factors or monoclonal antibodies.. ...
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The goal of the proposed research is to develop a general and highly efficient chemo enzymatic method for making diverse homogeneous glycopeptides and glycoprot...
CD33 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single,glycosylated polypeptide chain(18-259 a.a)fused to a 6 aa His Tag at C-terminus containing a total of 484 aa.
TPO produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 340 amino acids (22-353aa.) and having a molecular mass of 36.5kDa. (Molecular size on SDS-PAGE will appear at approximately 40-57KDa).
Background The MHC molecules are glycoproteins encoded in a large cluster of genes located on chromosome 6. They were first identified by their potent
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Oviduct-specific glycoprotein is a glycoprotein secreted by secretory epithelial cells of the oviduct (3) ; recently, we showed that it is ectopically expressed in ovarian cancer (9) . On the basis of the present study of normal, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial tissues, it appears that a gain of oviduct-specific glycoprotein begins under conditions of unopposed estrogen exposure, which is a known risk factor for the development of endometrioid carcinoma.. Although oviduct-specific glycoprotein is not normally a secretory product of the normal endometrium, we observed focal staining of the stem cells in the basalis layer with some staining in adjacent glands in the functionalis layer (1) . The epithelial cells in the functionalis layer shed each month and regenerate during the next menstrual cycle through proliferation of epithelial cells in the intact basalis layer. It has been proposed that genetic alterations that induce endometrial cancer are acquired sequentially by the nonshedding ...
An absence of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP, protein; CETP, gene) results in an increase of the apolipoprotein AI levels and a decrease in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. Thus, the CETP polymorphism is important in the assessment of risk of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to elucidate the genotype distributions of the CETP polymorphism and association with plasma lipid levels in Koreans. The genotypes of the TaqI A and B polymorphic loci were associated with plasma triglyceride levels in the control and coronary artery disease (CAD) groups. There was linkage disequilibrium between TaqI A and B loci in the control group (χ2 = 5.58, p | 0.05). Association studies of the CETP polymorphism have been carried out mainly with Caucasian populations; however, the results have not been consistent among different populations. A possible explanation for this diversity among populations may be differences in genetic backgrounds, which may be more important than environmental factors.
The radioactively labelled constituents present in bone matrix were compared 12 days after injection of either [(14)C]glucosamine or plasma [(14)C]glycoprotein. Both precursors are utilized in the synthesis of organic matrix by bone tissue. Cortical bone from animals injected with [(14)C]glucosamine contains radioactivity derived from glucosamine and plasma glycoproteins and all glycoprotein fractions are labelled. Plasma [(14)C]glycoprotein labels the less acidic glycoproteins to a greater extent than the more acidic components. An antibody has been raised against the less-acidic-glycoprotein fraction of bone. The latter contains a glycoprotein of alpha-mobility that appears to be concentrated specifically in bone tissue and which is present also in plasma. This alpha-glycoprotein accounts for a large proportion of the components labelled and retained in bone matrix after [(14)C]glucosamine injection.
The present study was undertaken to determine whether highly purified human urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) efficiently inhibits the soluble and the tumor cell receptor-bound plasmin. The ability of plasmin inhibitors to regulate invasion by tumor cells which express membrane-associated plasmin was also examined. UTI and two other plasmin inhibitors [α2-anti-plasmin (α2AP) and α2-macroglobulin (α2M)] were used. α2AP and α2M, as well as UTI, rapidly inactivate the soluble plasmin that is not bound to cells. Experiments were performed in vitro using cultures of ovarian cancer HOC-I cells and gestational choriocarcinoma SMT-ccl cells. HOC-I and SMT-ccl cells had plasmin(ogen) on their cell surface, and the plasmin activity was detected on their cell surface enzymologically and immunologically. Receptor-bound plasmin reacted effectively with UTI and was directly inactivated by UTI. In contrast, receptor-bound plasmin was not inhibited by α2AP and α2M. Using a modified Boyden chamber and an ...
Transformed microalgae capable of expressing glycosylated polypeptides and methods for producing said transformed microalgae and producing glycosylated polypeptides.
The cDNA sequence of mouse LAMP 2: evidence for two classes of lysosomal membrane glycoproteins is an eagle-i resource of type Journal article at eagle-i Network Shared Resource Repository.
The notion that CETP may be a potential target for reducing CVD originated from reports of a Japanese population of apparently healthy individuals that lacked a functional copy of the CETP gene (34,35). Compared with unaffected individuals, those who were CETP-deficient and who had no measurable CETP activity in plasma exhibited substantial increases in HDL-C (209%) and large decreases in LDL-C (44%). In individuals with heterozygous deficiency who possessed half the normal CETP activity, changes in HDL-C and LDL-C were less dramatic (+25% and −5%, respectively).. While CETP gene mutations are common in Japanese populations (49) and have clearly helped to establish the link between reduced CETP function and elevated HDL-C levels, the effect of decreased CETP activity on the development of atherosclerosis is less clear. For example, in a study of 201 patients with markedly elevated HDL-C levels (≥100 mg/dl), a subgroup of 12 patients (6%) was identified with atherosclerotic CVD. Of these, 10 ...
Tenascins form a family of large molecular size glycoproteins located in the extracellular matrix of animals. The molecular structure shows a modular hexameric organization. Several isoforms of tenascin can be obtained by alternative splicing of the messenger RNA. Tenascin-C was the first tenascin isoform discovered. It is released into the extracellular matrix of tendons, bones and cartilage during the embryonary development. However, it can be also found in other tissues. Although it is very scarce in adult tissues, tenascin-C is overexpressed as a consequence of tissue damages like heart attack. Tenascin-R is abundant in the nervous system, both during development and in adults. Tenascin-X is present in the connective tissue and can be abundant in muscles under heavy activity, like in professional athletes. Teanscin-Y and -W have also been described. Tenascin-Y is homologous to avian tenascin-X. Like other glycoproteins, tenascins change the cohesive state of the extracellular matrix by ...
Apolipoprotein J Antibody functions as a secreted chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. It prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins and inhibits the formations of amyloid fibrils. Apolipoprotein J does not require ATP or refold proteins by itself. It maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state for subsequent refolding by other chaperones. It is shown to be involved in several basic biological events such as cell death, tumor progression, and neurodegenerative disorders. Binding to cell surface receptors it triggers internalization of chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. It modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis while mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Anti-Apolipoprotein J Antibody is useful for researchers interested in the immune system, Ubiquitin pathways, and cardiovascular research.
Background: Mucin, a family of high molecular weight glycoprotein has been implicated in a variety of cancers. MUC13 is a newly identified transmembrane mucin which has shown deregulated expression in gastric and ovarian cancers. However, limited information is available about the role of MUC13 in colon cancer progression. The present study investigated the expression profile, clinical relevance and functional significance of MUC13 expression in colon cancer progression.. Materials and Methods: The MUC13 expression profile was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis using a novel MUC13 monoclonal antibody (PPZ0020) on a panel of colon cancer tissue microarrays containing non-malignant, colon cancer and liver metastasis tissue samples. Colon cancer cell lines which showed faint (SW480) and high (SW620) MUC13 expression were selected for over-expression and knockdown experiments, respectively, to determine the functional role of MUC13 in colon cancer progression. Functional studies, such ...
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N-linked glycosylation has a profound effect on the proper folding, oligomerization and stability of glycoproteins. These glycans impart many properties to proteins that may be important for their proper functioning, besides having a tendency to exert a chaperone-like effect on them. Certain glycosylation sites in a protein however, are more important than other sites for their function and stability. It has been observed that some N-glycosylation sites are conserved over families of glycoproteins over evolution, one such being the tyrosinase related protein family. The role of these conserved N-glycosylation sites in their trafficking, sorting, stability and activity has been examined here. By scrutinizing the different glycosylation sites on this family of glycoproteins it was inferred that different sites in the same family of polypeptides can perform distinct functions and conserved sites across the paralogues may perform diverse functions.. ...
The manner in which a membrane protein is anchored to the lipid bilayer may have a profound influence on its function. Most cell surface membrane proteins are anchored by a membrane-spanning segment(s) of the polypeptide chain, but another type of anchor has been described for several proteins: a phosphatidyl inositol glycan moiety, attached to the protein C terminus. This type of linkage has been identified on membrane proteins involved in adhesion and transmembrane signalling and could be important in the execution of these functions. We report here that an immunologically important adhesion glycoprotein, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3), can be anchored to the membrane by both types of mechanism. These two distinct cell-surface forms of LFA-3 are derived from different biosynthetic precursors. The existence of a phosphatidyl-inositol-linked and a transmembrane anchored form of LFA-3 has important implications for adhesion and transmembrane signalling by LFA-3.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of α2-macroglobulin by the interaction between hepatocytes and endothelial cells in coculture. AU - Talamini, Mark A.. AU - McCluskey, Michael P.. AU - Buchman, Timothy G.. AU - De Maio, Antonio. PY - 1998/7. Y1 - 1998/7. N2 - The interaction between distinct cell types within the liver seems to be important in regulating hepatic function. However, these interactions have not been well characterized because of difficulty in reproducing the hepatic environment in an ex vivo model. In the present study a coculture system of hepatocytes and endothelial cells was established to investigate the communication between parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. Freshly isolated rat hepatocytes were placed onto a monolayer of primary aortic rat endothelial cells. Analysis of the proteins secreted into the extracellular medium after pulse labeling with radioactive amino acids revealed the presence of a 180,000-apparent molecular weight glycoprotein, BBB-180, which was not detected ...
human antiproliferative factor APF: expressed in patients with interstitial cystitis; inhibits bladder cell proliferation; related to frizzled-8; structure in first source
Waters Glycoprotein BEH Amide 300A, 1.7um columns were primarily designed for the analysis of intact glycoproteins, glycoprotein fragments, and glycopeptides.. Each batch of Glycoprotein BEH Amide 300A 1.7um material is specifically quality control tested with the Waters Glycoprotein Performance Test Standard (P/N 86008010 that includes a mixture of Ribonuclease A as well as Ribonulease B glycoforms) to help ensure batch to batch consistency. This kit includes one Glycoprotein BEH Amide 300A, 1.7um column and one vial of Waters Glycoprotein Performance Test Standard. The standard is included to be able to immediately benchmark the column upon receipt and can be reordered as a separate part for continued monitoring. Each batch of digestion standard is prepared under strict quality control criteria confirmed on the included certificate of analysis.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion. CEA is normally produced in gastrointestinal tissue during fetal development, but the production stops before birth. Therefore, CEA is usually present only at very low levels in the blood of healthy adults. However, the serum levels are raised in some types of cancer, which means that it can be used as a tumor marker in clinical tests. Serum levels can also be elevated in heavy smokers. CEA are glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) cell-surface-anchored glycoproteins whose specialized sialofucosylated glycoforms serve as functional colon carcinoma L-selectin and E-selectin ligands, which may be critical to the metastatic dissemination of colon carcinoma cells. Immunologically they are characterized as members of the CD66 cluster of differentiation. The proteins include CD66a, CD66b, CD66c, CD66d, CD66e, CD66f. CEA was first identified in 1965 by Phil Gold and Samuel O. Freedman in human colon ...
rdf:RDF xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:bibo="http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/" xmlns:dspace="http://digital-repositories.org/ontologies/dspace/0.1.0#" xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:void="http://rdfs.org/ns/void#" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" , ,rdf:Description rdf:about="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/9801", ,dcterms:isPartOf rdf:resource="https://kops.uni-konstanz.de/rdf/resource/123456789/29"/, ,dcterms:available rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#dateTime",2011-03-24T18:14:30Z,/dcterms:available, ,foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://localhost:8080/jspui"/, ,dcterms:abstract xml:lang="eng",This chapter focuses on the biological roles of the glycans contained in glycoproteins. Today we know there is no unifying function for the carbohydrates present in glycoproteins. They rather span the complete spectrum from being ...
Glycosylation is an extremely important protein modification that frequently regulates protein folding, trafficking, and stability. It is also involved in a wide range of cellular events (1) such as immune response (2, 3), cell proliferation (4), cell-cell interactions (5), and signal transduction (6). Aberrant protein glycosylation is believed to have a direct correlation with the development of several diseases, including diabetes, infectious diseases, and cancer (7⇓⇓⇓-11). Secretory proteins frequently get glycosylated, including those in body fluids such as blood, saliva, and urine (12, 13). Samples containing these proteins can be easily obtained and used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Several glycoproteins have previously been identified as biomarkers, including Her2/Neu in breast cancer (14), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in prostate cancer (15), and CA125 in ovarian cancer (16, 17), which highlights the clinical importance of identifying glycoproteins as indicators or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Histidine-rich glycoprotein as an excellent biomarker for sepsis and beyond. AU - Nishibori, Masahiro. AU - Wake, Hidenori. AU - Morimatsu, Hiroshi. PY - 2018/8/17. Y1 - 2018/8/17. N2 - Sepsis remains a critical problem with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. One of the problems we have in critical care is the need to find a good biomarker of sepsis to determine the existence of bacterial infection and the severity of patients. This would enable us to start appropriate treatment at an earlier stage of the disease course. We propose that decreases in the plasma protein histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an excellent biomarker of sepsis compared with the current markers. Based on the novel pathophysiological roles of HRG in the cascade of events during sepsis, we also discuss the potential for supplemental therapy with purified HRG.. AB - Sepsis remains a critical problem with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. One of the problems we have in critical care is the need to ...
Using N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ), a competitive inhibitor of the ER alpha-glucosidases, we have recently addressed the impact of this inhibition on both assembly and infectivity of the virions released from infected hepatoma cells. Southern and Western blotting analysis of HBV secreted from drug-treated cells showed that the envelope glycoprotein composition was severely altered, resulting in a significant reduction of HBV infectivity (80% compared to controls ...
A number of recent advances in the chemical synthesis of glycopeptides and glycoproteins are described, with particular focus on the development of peptide ligation strategies and their implementation in the convergent assembly of complex glycopeptides. Recent applications in the synthesis of full length homogeneou RACI100: Celebrating Australian Chemistry
Gene target information for CETP - cholesteryl ester transfer protein (rabbit). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Definition: Glycoprotein molecules that are produced by plasma cells in response ... Division, Department of Pathology Cambridge University, Cambridge, England ... – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 228514-ZDc1Z
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Regulation of axonal growth in the vertebrate nervous system by interactions between glycoproteins belonging to two subgroups of the immunoglobulin superfamily ...
Cialis generico com amendolara. Nitric oxide-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress activates the expression of cargo receptor proteins and alters the glycoprotein transport to the Golgi complex..
OBJECTIVE:,br /,To test the hypothesis that physiological cyclic loading during a 30-min walking exercise causes an increase in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration in a healthy population.,br /,METHODS:,br /,Blood samples (5 ml) were drawn from 10 physically active adults immediately before and after, and 0.5h, 1.5h, 3.5h and 5.5h after a 30-min walking exercise on a level outdoor walking track at self-selected normal speed. On a separate day, blood samples were drawn from the same 10 subjects during 6h while they were resting in a chair. Serum COMP concentrations were determined using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (COMP ELISA). An activity monitor was used to record basic time-distance measurements of gait. Serum COMP concentrations within the exercise protocol and within the resting protocol were compared using separate repeated measures analyses of variance (alpha=0.05).,br /,RESULTS:,br /,In the exercise protocol, a first increase (9.7%; P=0.003) ...
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the predictive value of serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (sCOMP) levels over 20 years on the development of radiographic (RKOA) and painful knee osteoarthritis (KOA) in a longitudinal cohort of middle-aged women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred and ninety-three women with no baseline KOA underwent 5-year knee radiographs over 20-years and were asked about knee pain a month before each assessment. A repeated measures logistic regression model was used where the outcomes were recorded at 5, 10, 15 and 20-years follow-up. RESULTS: The highest quartile of sCOMP was associated with increased risk of RKOA with overall OR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.33-2.91) over 20 years when compared with the lowest sCOMP quartile. The association with painful KOA was similar and also independent, but only when the fourth and third sCOMP quartiles were compared. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that sCOMP levels are predictive of subsequent structural changes and
Phase I trial of recombinant human gamma-interferon and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer.
The mechanism of the regulation of cholesterol ester transfer protein by dietary fats and cholesterol was investigated using human cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenic mice fed monounsaturated fatty acid and saturated fatty acid enriched diets with or without cholesterol. Cholesterol inhibited protein activity and hepatic mRNA abundance in the monounsaturated fatty acid diet. However, cholesterol enhanced protein activity but had no effect on hepatic mRNA abundance in the saturated fatty acid diet. The molecular mechanisms of dietary lipid mediated regulation of the promoter activity of this gene were investigated using chimeric gene constructs harbouring sequential deletions of the gene promoter in SW 872 cell culture. Oleic acid and stearic acid had opposite effects indicating that the type of dietary fat alters gene regulation. There was interaction between cholesterol and fatty acids to regulate cholesterol ester transfer protein.. ...
Chen, D, Xia, M, Hayford, C, Tham, E-L, Semik, V, Hurst, S, Chen, Y, Tam, HH, Pan, J, Wang, Y et al, Tan, X, Lan, H-Y, Shen, H, Kakkar, VV, Xu, Q, McVey, JH and Dorling, A. (2015) Expression of Human Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Inhibits Secretion of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Attenuates Atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) Mice ...
1. Although glycoproteins with less than 1% of sialic acid (fibrinogen, lipoproteins, gamma-globulins) interact electrostatically with chondromucoprotein to form insoluble complexes, interaction with glycoproteins containing larger amounts of sialic acid (orosomucoid, urine glycoprotein, seromucoid, fraction VI) was electrostatically impossible. Reasons for this are discussed. 2. The latter glycoproteins interacted with chondromucoprotein after mild acid hydrolysis or neuraminidase treatment, complex-formation being inversely related to their sialic acid content. 3. Complex-formation with sialic acid-deficient orosomucoid was maximum at pH3.6 and negligible above its isoelectric point of pH5, and was inhibited by Ca(2+) ions and EDTA. 4. These results are discussed in relation to the carbohydrate composition and biological activities of euglobulin fractions, and of complexes formed by adding chondromucoprotein to abnormal plasmas which may contain sialic acid-deficient glycoproteins owing to ...
The aim of this study was to compare patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) to healthy objects, in order to explore a possible association between CAD and the variants in the gene encoding cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The relationship between CETP MspI, apo E and LPL PvuII gene polymorphisms and serum lipids were investigated in 173 patients with CAD and 111 healthy controls. The frequency of Apo ε4 (p , 0.05) and CETP M1 (p , 0.01) alleles were higher in the CAD group than in the control group. In the CAD group, those with the Msp M1 allele had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0026) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than those with the Msp M2 allele. Subjects with an ε2 allele had the lowest levels of TC and LDL-C, while subjects with the ε4 allele had the highest. In the control group, CETP, the Msp M2 allele was associated with a higher level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ...
Glycoproteins[edit]. Glycoproteins have distinct Oligosaccharide structures which have significant effects on many of their ... Glycoproteins are relevant as cell-surface receptors, cell-adhesion molecules, immunoglobulins, and tumor antigens.[12] ... Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates. They are very abundant on the surface of ... 1 All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types.[7] Lectins, or proteins ...
The S-glycoprotein mechanism[edit]. The following mechanism was described in detail in Papaver rhoeas. In this mechanism, ...
Glycoprotein diversity[edit]. Glycosylation increases diversity in the proteome, because almost every aspect of glycosylation ... Secondly, N-linked glycans mediate a critical quality control check point in glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. ... The influence of glycosylation on the folding and stability of glycoprotein is twofold. Firstly, the highly soluble glycans may ... Glycosylation is an important parameter in the optimization of many glycoprotein-based drugs such as monoclonal antibodies.[5] ...
rFVIIa is a glycoprotein which is produced by recombinant DNA technology. AryoSeven is formulated similarly[clarification ...
... s are glycoprotein polypeptide hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary of vertebrates.[1][ ... Pierce JG, Parsons TF (1981). "Glycoprotein hormones: structure and function". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50: 465-495. doi:10.1146/ ... Golos TG, Durning M, Fisher JM (1991). "Molecular cloning of the rhesus glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit gene". DNA Cell Biol ... Intracellular levels of free alpha subunits are greater than those of the mature glycoprotein, implying that hormone assembly ...
ORF47 - gL - envelope glycoprotein involved in viral entry ORF49 - may be required for viral gene expression ...
Gamblin, David P.; Scanlan, Eoin M.; Davis, Benjamin G. (2009). "Glycoprotein Synthesis: An Update". Chemical Reviews. 109 (1 ... Davis, B. G. (2002). "Synthesis of glycoproteins". Chemical Reviews. 102 (2): 579-602. doi:10.1021/cr0004310. PMID 11841255. ...
The zona pellucida (plural zonae pellucidae, also egg coat or pellucid zone) is a glycoprotein layer surrounding the plasma ... In the mouse (the best characterised mammalian system), the zona glycoprotein, ZP3, is responsible for sperm binding, adhering ... Wassarman, P. M. (2008). "Zona Pellucida Glycoproteins". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (36): 24285-9. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... ZP module-containing glycoproteins ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 are targets for immunocontraception in mammals. In non-mammals, the ...
Perez-Vilar J, Hill RL (2004). "Mucin Family of Glycoproteins". Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry (Lennarz & Lane, EDs.). ...
Glycoprotein Thyrotrophs Basophil Thyroid gland Secretion of thyroid hormones Follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH Glycoprotein ... Glycoprotein Gonadotrophs Basophil Gonads Sex hormone production Growth hormone Somatotropin GH, STH Polypeptide Somatotrophs ...
2001). "Glycoprotein 90K/MAC-2BP interacts with galectin-1 and mediates galectin-1-induced cell aggregation". Int. J. Cancer. ... Tinari N, Kuwabara I, Huflejt ME, Shen PF, Iacobelli S, Liu FT (January 2001). "Glycoprotein 90K/MAC-2BP interacts with ... Rosenberg I, Cherayil BJ, Isselbacher KJ, Pillai S (1991). "Mac-2-binding glycoproteins. Putative ligands for a cytosolic beta- ... Zhang H, Li XJ, Martin DB, Aebersold R (2003). "Identification and quantification of N-linked glycoproteins using hydrazide ...
Zosquidir inhibits P-glycoproteins. Other drugs with this mechanism include tariquidar and laniquidar. P-glycoproteins are ... Cancers overexpressing P-glycoproteins are able to pump out therapeutic molecules before they are able to reach their target, ... Zosuquidar inhibits P-glycoproteins, inhibiting the efflux pump and restoring sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Zosuqidar ...
Glycoproteins are integral proteins. They play an important role in the immune response and protection. The phospholipid ... they can be covalently bound to lipids to form glycolipids or covalently bound to proteins to form glycoproteins. Membranes ...
Glandular cells: synthesize glycoproteins. Digestive system. ...
Tinari N, Kuwabara I, Huflejt ME, Shen PF, Iacobelli S, Liu FT (January 2001). "Glycoprotein 90K/MAC-2BP interacts with ... Rosenberg I, Cherayil BJ, Isselbacher KJ, Pillai S (October 1991). "Mac-2-binding glycoproteins. Putative ligands for a ...
FVIII is a glycoprotein procofactor. Although the primary site of release in humans is ambiguous, it is synthesized and ... Transcript variant 1 encodes a large glycoprotein, isoform a, which circulates in plasma and associates with von Willebrand ...
OMG: encoding protein Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein. *Ormdl sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3: encoding protein ORMDL ...
Transporters: Substrate of efflux transporters (e.g. P-glycoprotein). *Health of the gastrointestinal tract ...
Glycoprotein disorders}}. Medicine. (LSD) Inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism: glycoproteinosis (E77, 271.8). Metabolic ...
Wright G.J., Puklavec M.J., Willis A.C. et al. Lymphoid/neuronal cell surface OX2 glycoprotein recognizes a novel receptor on ... McCaughan G.W., Clark M.J., Barclay A.N. Characterization of the human homolog of the rat MRC OX-2 membrane glycoprotein (англ ... Мембранный гликопротеин OX-2 (англ. OX-2 membrane glycoprotein; CD200) - мембранный белок суперсемейства иммуноглобулинов, ... glycoprotein is conserved in humans (англ.) // Immunology : journal. - 2001. - Vol. 102, no. 2. - P. 173-179. - DOI:10.1046/j. ...
"P-glycoproteins and multidrug resistance". Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 36: 161-83. doi:10.1146/annurev.pa.36.040196.001113. ... P-glycoprotein, pleiotropic-drug-resistance protein, PDR protein, steroid-transporting ATPase, and ATP phosphohydrolase ( ... "Influence of bile salts on hepatic mdr2 P-glycoprotein expression". Adv. Enzyme. Regul. 36: 351-63. doi:10.1016/0065-2571(95) ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a type III glycoprotein that is located primarily in limiting membranes of lysosomes and ... Lewis V, Green SA, Marsh M, Vihko P, Helenius A, Mellman I (Jun 1985). "Glycoproteins of the lysosomal membrane". The Journal ... Ogata S, Fukuda M (Feb 1994). "Lysosomal targeting of Limp II membrane glycoprotein requires a novel Leu-Ile motif at a ... Akasaki K, Michihara A, Fukuzawa M, Kinoshita H, Tsuji H (Sep 1994). "Cycling of an 85-kDa lysosomal membrane glycoprotein ...
... is also used in cell biology as an inhibitor of drug efflux pump proteins such as P-glycoprotein. This is useful, as ... Radioactively labelled verapamil and positron emission tomography can be used with to measure P-glycoprotein function. As of ... Bellamy, W T (1996). "P-Glycoproteins and Multidrug Resistance". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 36: 161-83. doi: ... verapamil for measuring P-glycoprotein function with positron emission tomography". Journal of Labelled Compounds and ...
One mechanism to explain this may come from its ability to bind to the extracellular matrix glycoprotein fibronectin and block ... Jones F, Jones P (2000). "The tenascin family of ECM glycoproteins: structure, function, and regulation during embryonic ... Tenascins are extracellular matrix glycoproteins. They are abundant in the extracellular matrix of developing vertebrate ...
Proteins known to contain an EMI domain include: Vertebrate Emilins, extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Vertebrate Multimerins ... extracellular matrix glycoproteins. Vertebrate Emu proteins, which could interact with several different extracellular matrix ...
Crispin, Max; Stuart, David I.; Jones, E. Yvonne (2007-05-01). "Building meaningful models of glycoproteins". Nature Structural ...
Glycoproteins are important for white blood cell recognition.[citation needed] Examples of glycoproteins in the immune system ... Some important methods used to study glycoproteins Method Use Periodic acid-Schiff stain Detects glycoproteins as pink bands ... Monosaccharides commonly found in eukaryotic glycoproteins include:[4]:526 The principal sugars found in human glycoproteins[5] ... Glycoprotein-41 (gp41) and glycoprotein-120 (gp120) are HIV viral coat proteins. ...
In Mass Spectrometry of Glycoproteins: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field detail many of the methods that ... Authoritative and practical, Mass Spectrometry of Glycoproteins: Methods and Protocol is an essential resource for those who ... Case Studies in Mass Spectrometry of Glycoproteins. * Front Matter Pages 277-277 ... Characterizing the Glycosylation State of Therapeutic Recombinant Glycoproteins Nicole Samuels, David Kates, Jun Liu, Joanne ...
glycoprotein. glycoprotein glī˝kōprō´tēn [key], organic compound composed of both a protein and a carbohydrate joined together ... One set of glycoproteins also carry the blood group determinants. The carbohydrate portion of a glycoprotein is usually a small ... Salivary mucus contains the glycoprotein called mucin. Among other glycoproteins, one particularly interesting example is ... Solutions of glycoproteins usually exhibit high viscosity, an observation explaining the highly viscous character of egg white ...
Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. It was discovered by ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Glycoprotein 120 Vashistha H, Husain M, Kumar D, Singhal PC (2009). "Tubular cell HIV-1 gp120 ... A conserved region in the gp120 glycoprotein that is involved in the metastable attachment of gp120 to CD4 has been identified ... Gp120 is anchored to the viral membrane, or envelope, via non-covalent bonds with the transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41. Three ...
... Mauricio Cesar Palmieri mcpalmie at FOX.CCE.USP.BR Fri Apr 8 07:26:47 EST 1994 *Previous message: How do you ...
Structure of the chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid glycoprotein determined by combining crystallographic and carbohydrate ...
Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or ... Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or ... Cross section Mammalia biological functions biosynthesis cell chemistry development glycoprotein immunoglobulin interferon ... The reason for this expanded interest in these molecules is simple: not only are glycoproteins and proteoglycans ubiq- uitous, ...
Membrane glycoproteins are membrane proteins which play important roles in cell recognition. Examples include: Fibronectin ... Laminin Osteonectin Glycocalyx Membrane glycoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Overexpression of P-glycoprotein genes is a well-established cause of one form of multidrug resistance. P-glycoproteins are ... P-glycoproteins are thought to act as ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps, actively extruding a range of structurally different, ... Multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoproteins.. Schinkel AH1, Borst P.. Author information. 1. The Netherlands Cancer ... The physiological function of the human P-glycoproteins encoded by the MDR1 and MDR3 (or MDR2) genes remains a matter of ...
Dairpoosh wrote: , Im looking for a method for isolation of Glycoproteins , from plant cells.I would be very grateful if ... Glycoprotein. Dr Engelbert Buxbaum via methods%40net.bio.net (by engelbert_buxbaum from hotmail.com). Fri Apr 6 10:17:07 EST ... Now since you are talking about glycoproteins I presume that you are dealing with a transmembrane protein. To isolate those, ...
Structure and biosynthesis of prokaryotic glycoproteins.. Lechner J1, Wieland F.. Author information. 1. Department of ...
The HIV envelope glycoprotein is a challenging protein to study by X-ray crystallography as it sits in a membrane, it is ... Because the envelope glycoprotein is critical for infection, it is an obvious target for HIV therapy and thus the subject of ... Ebola glycoprotein, a previous featured structure, serves the same function to recognise host cells and internalise the virus. ... If the body can produce antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein, the virus can be prevented from binding to, and infecting ...
Amyloidogenic glycoprotein, extracellular (IPR008154). Short name: Amyloid_glyco_extra Overlapping homologous superfamilies * ... This entry represents an extracellular domain that is usually found at the N-terminal of amyloidogenic glycoproteins such as ...
... so it is unclear which glycan is associated with the function of the glycoprotein. Moreover, because glycoproteins are ... homogenous glycoprotein has been prepared by using a chemoenzymatic approach to investigate the function of glycoproteins. ... To solve this problem, transgenic cells have been developed to produce homogeneous glycoproteins through control of the ... Because antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) exists as an example of glycan function in glycoproteins, there ...
Glycoproteins are molecules containing sugar and protein, which permit healthy cell-to-cell communication in the human body. ... You can find glycoproteins in many fruits, from apples and pears to oranges and other citrus fruits. Pectins, often found in ... Glycoproteins are also found in aloe vera, bran, oatmeal, barley, brown rice, wheat, red wine and meat. Echinacea and turmeric ... Babies receive glycoproteins from their mothers milk that hinder bacteria, viruses and even cancer cells. For those who want ...
Therefore we have developed a cell-free expression system for the synthesis of glycoproteins. Using a Pichia pastoris cell ... Our results indicate the successful in vitro synthesis of a glycoprotein with a GlcNAc2Man5 glycan. The GlcNAc2Man5 core ...
Purchase Glycoprotein and Proteoglycan Techniques, Volume 16 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780444806529, ... Glycoprotein and Proteoglycan Techniques, Volume 16 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a review ... 2. Glycoproteins and proteoglycans. 3. Isolation and fractionation. 4. Physico-chemical characterisation. 5. Analysis of ... The past two decades have seen an expansion of interest in glycoproteins. From being a borderline area between carbohydrate and ...
Recombinant glycoprotein E produced in mammalian cells in large-scale as an antigen for varicella-zoster-virus serology.. ... A recombinant glycoprotein E (gE) from varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was generated and produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) ...
... , P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor, P-Glycoprotein Substrate, P-Glycoprotein Inducer, P-gp. ... P Glycoproteins, P-Glycoproteins, P GLYCOPROTEIN Z, P-Glycoproteins [Chemical/Ingredient], p glycoproteins, p-glycoprotein, p- ... P-Glycoprotein. Aka: P-Glycoprotein, P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor, P-Glycoprotein Substrate, P-Glycoprotein Inducer, P-gp ... P-Glycoprotein [Chemical/Ingredient], p-glycoprotein, p glycoprotein, p-gp, glycoprotein p, ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B ...
The monoclonal antibody has a continuous amino acid sequence, and a binding affinity for the P-glycoprotein which manifests in ... A monoclonal antibody that recognises a structurally continuous and extracellularly-located epitope of human P-glycoprotein is ... Glycoprotein P is a plasma membrane protein which is over-expressed on the surfaces of cell lines or human tumour cells that ... The monoclonal antibody has a continuous amino acid sequence, and a binding affinity for the P-glycoprotein which manifests in ...
... column packed with amide 1.7 lm sorbent was applied to the characterization of glycoprotein digests. Due to the impact of the ... Characterization of glycoprotein digests with hydrophilic interaction chromatography and mass spectrometry. *Gilar M ... column packed with amide 1.7 lm sorbent was applied to the characterization of glycoprotein digests. Due to the impact of the ...
What is P-Glycoprotein?. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane protein which acts as a localized drug transport mechanism ...
Glycoproteins are a type of peptide naturally present in skins surface that works with other ingredients to reinforce skins ... Glycoproteins help other peptides be more soluble in water and within skin, so some products add them along with specific ... On skin, glycoproteins work with ingredients like glycerin, ceramides, and hyaluronic acids to keep skin intact, smooth, and ... "Glyco" means "sugar", so glycoproteins are a type of protein linked to a sugar. Theyre considered a type of peptide and are ...
patterns, provoking an immune response when treating humans with GPs produced in plants. State of the art approaches are based either on glycosylation mutants or overproduction of the desired protein product (intending to override the cellular glycosylation machinery). Though the mutants either show impaired yield or loss of vitality in comparison to wild type, or the proteins do not terminate in mannose residues, which is essential for the biological uptake via mannose receptors in patients with lysosomal storage diseases. This invention provides a new device to generate GPs with hypo-allergenic properties in a cost-effective way: In contrast to current methods, the new technique enables effective production of heterologous GPs by vital plants without impairments. The technology is based on a genetic modification of the N-glycosylation pathway. It is applicable to Solanaceous and other plants of agronomical interest as transgenic producers of GPs. The suppression of a specific enzyme leads to a ...
Glycoproteins (GPs) are of prime interest in the medical sciences. However, production of GPs by standard methods is still ... which in case of diagnostic and therapeutic glycoproteins should ideally not include immu-nogenic residues. Challenge State-of- ...
  • N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • and informatics tools used for identifying glycoproteins and characterizing the associated glycans. (springer.com)
  • Glycoproteins produced by cultured cells generally have heterogeneous glycans, so it is unclear which glycan is associated with the function of the glycoprotein. (go.jp)
  • Structural characteristics of glycoproteins, in general, and the correlation between certain compositional patterns of their glycans and the nature of the tissue elements with which they are associated are first discussed and demonstrated in a certain number of cases. (arvojournals.org)
  • On the other hand, it is pointed out that there appears to be a correlation between the ratio of the end groups of these glycans to each other and to the backbone constituent and functional properties of the glycoproteins. (arvojournals.org)
  • There were also significant differences between the three regions of lenses of adult rabbits as far as the ratio of neuraminic acid to fucose in the glycans of their glycoproteins is concerned. (arvojournals.org)
  • Evolutionary disparate Antarctic notothenioids and Arctic gadids have adapted to their freezing environments through the elaboration of essentially identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs). (cambridge.org)
  • Antifreeze glycoproteins not lost with the faeces are resorbed from the gut via the rectal epithelium, transported to the blood and ultimately secreted into the bile, from where they re-enter the gastrointestinal tract. (cambridge.org)
  • Antarctic notothenioid fishes and several northern cods are phylogenetically distant (in different orders and superorders), yet produce near-identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) to survive in their respective freezing environments. (pnas.org)
  • The most striking example of evolution of the same type of antifreeze protein in unrelated fishes is the near-identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in the Antarctic notothenioid fishes and several northern cods of the family Gadidae ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Raman spectra of a mixture of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) 6, 7 and 8 adsorbed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface spanning the range of 50 to 4500 cm −1 were measured. (wiley.com)
  • Babies receive glycoproteins from their mothers' milk that hinder bacteria, viruses and even cancer cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Found in dengue virus and many related viruses, dimers of these viral glycoproteins lie flat on the viral membrane, and are comprised largely of beta-strands. (virology.ws)
  • Furthermore, vesicular stomatitis viruses with HAP2 in place of the viral glycoprotein cannot enter cells. (virology.ws)
  • In addition, glycoproteins of viruses such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contain various N-glycosylation sites, which may aid in shielding the virus from immune system recognition. (medium.com)
  • Ebola glycoprotein, a previous featured structure , serves the same function to recognise host cells and internalise the virus. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Jeremy Luban, Aaron Lin, and Ted Diehl join the TWiV team to discuss their work on identifying a single amino acid change i n the Ebola virus glycoprotein from the West African outbreak that increases infectivity in human cells. (virology.ws)
  • The mechanisms by which Ebola virus evades detection and infects cells to cause hemorrhagic fever have not been defined, though its glycoprotein, synthesized in either a secreted or transmembrane form, is likely involved. (sciencemag.org)
  • To determine the specificity of Ebola virus glycoproteins, we transfected expression vectors encoding either sGP, GP, or a plasmid control ( 8 ) into human 293 cells, and cell culture supernatants were used as a source of relevant recombinant glycoproteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ebola virus (EBOV) entry requires the surface glycoprotein (GP) to initiate attachment and fusion of viral and host membranes. (shapeways.com)
  • On the other hand, glycosylation is a pre-requisite for proper protein folding, which in case of diagnostic and therapeutic glycoproteins should ideally not include immu-nogenic residues. (innovations-report.com)
  • The A33 glycoprotein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and contains three distinct structural domains: a 213 amino acid extracellular region containing two immunoglobulin-like domains (a C2-type domain and a v-type domain), a 23 amino acid hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a 62 amino acid highly polar intracellular tail containing four consecutive cysteine residues (Heath et al. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • To solve this problem, transgenic cells have been developed to produce homogeneous glycoproteins through control of the biosynthetic pathway, but it is difficult to prepare glycoproteins with various kinds of homogeneous glycan by using this approach. (go.jp)
  • Our results indicate the successful in vitro synthesis of a glycoprotein with a GlcNAc2Man5 glycan. (aiche.org)
  • The Wittmann Group uses metabolic glycoengineering techniques to accomplish the integration of functional groups into the carbohydrate portion - glycan - of a glycoprotein. (medium.com)
  • Data are presented which confirm reported increases in levels of serum fucose in certain malignancies and indicate that these increases may be attributed to quantitative alterations in specific serum glycoproteins observed in the glycoprotein profile associated with cancer. (dtic.mil)
  • The preparation and analysis of glycoproteins of the lens of cattle and rabbits is then described, in three parts of the lens, namely, the equatorial, the polar, and the nuclear region. (arvojournals.org)
  • Juliano R.L., Ling V.A. A surface glycoprotein modulating drug permeability in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants. (wikidoc.org)
  • Many people make sure to include glycoproteins in their diet as a way to boost their immune systems and prevent or delay the spread of cancer. (livestrong.com)
  • It is helpful and often necessary to include glycoproteins as standards and/or molecular weight markers. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • citation needed] Examples of glycoproteins in the immune system are: molecules such as antibodies (immunoglobulins), which interact directly with antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • it gives a good, broad perspective on the variable and yet ordered structures shown by glycoproteins and proteoglycans, and a thorough chemical overview of what can and cannot be done to the intact glycoproteins and their isolated glycopeptides. (elsevier.com)
  • The reason for this expanded interest in these molecules is simple: not only are glycoproteins and proteoglycans ubiq- uitous, but many are molecules with well-defined and important biological functions. (springer.com)
  • Glycoproteins are molecules containing sugar and protein, which permit healthy cell-to-cell communication in the human body. (livestrong.com)
  • structural glycoproteins, which occur in connective tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • In studies of HIV, we seek to understand the structural determinants of Env glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity as a means of helping development of HIV vaccine immunogens. (washington.edu)
  • One of the three structural glycoproteins of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is E0, a disulfide-bonded homodimer that induces virus-neutralizing antibodies and occurs in a virion-bound as well as a secreted form. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intended for the in vitro quantitative measurement of antibodies directed to β2-Glycoprotein I in human serum and plasma to aid in the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and to evaluate the thrombotic risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). (fishersci.com)
  • Induction of lipolysis in vitro and loss of body fat in vivo by zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein. (anabolicminds.com)
  • These results suggest that gefarnate stimulates in vitro secretion of mucin-like glycoprotein in conjunctival tissue and ameliorates corneal epithelial damage in animal dry-eye models. (dovepress.com)
  • Eight sugars commonly found in glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a general rule, a bunch of these sugars are strung together to form an oligosaccharide chain (see below) and it's this long chain that's attached to the protein to form a glycoprotein. (blogspot.com)
  • Provided herein are methods, compositions and kits for use in the site-specific labeling of glycoproteins comprising a combination of enzyme-mediated incorporation of modified sugars comprising a chemical handle and cycloaddition chemistry with a labeling molecule comprising a reactive group, a metal ion chelator, and/or a fluorophore. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Although glycoproteins and proteoglycans have been a subject of re- search for many years, it is only during the last five or so years that they have aroused the interest of a very broad cross section of investigators in the biological sciences. (springer.com)
  • Your search returned 44 Glycoprotein M6A ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Salivary mucus contains the glycoprotein called mucin. (infoplease.com)
  • In epithelial cancers, many of the phenotypic markers for pre-malignant and malignant cells have been found on the carbohydrate and peptide moieties of mucin glycoproteins. (springer.com)
  • At present, the role of mucin glycoproteins in various stages of epithelial cell carcinogenesis (including the preneoplastic state and metastasis), in cancer diagnosis and immunotherapy is under investigation. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gefarnate on mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in isolated rabbit conjunctival tissue, and on corneal epithelial damage in rabbit and cat dry-eye models. (dovepress.com)
  • Mucin-like glycoprotein was detected in the culture supernatant by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. (dovepress.com)
  • Gefarnate stimulated mucin-like glycoprotein secretion in conjunctival tissue in a dose-dependent manner. (dovepress.com)
  • Antifreeze glycoprotein recirculation conserves energy expenditure and explains how high levels of AFGPs reach the blood in notothenioids since, unlike Arctic gadids which also synthesize AFGP in the liver, AFGP secretion in notothenioids is directed exclusively towards the gastrointestinal lumen. (cambridge.org)
  • Among other glycoproteins, one particularly interesting example is isolated from certain antarctic fishes who survive near-freezing water temperatures as a result of freezing-point depression of their blood serum by a globular glycoprotein. (infoplease.com)
  • Quantitative glycoproteomic analysis of optimal cutting temperature-embedded frozen tissues identifying glycoproteins associated with aggressive pr. (nih.gov)
  • In 1995, a subpopulation of CF-1™ mice with deficient expression of mdr1a P-glycoprotein (PGP) was identified by the department of Safety Assessment, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA. (criver.com)
  • A new family of cognate glycoproteins with chitinase-sensitive carbohydrate moiety, chitinoproteins (ChiP) has been detected in Drosophila melanogaster and other insects. (europa.eu)
  • Last two decades of structure-function studies performed in numerous laboratories provided substantial progress in understanding basic science, physiological, pathophysiological, pharmacological, and comparative aspects of glycoprotein hormones (GPHs) and their cognate receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Solutions of glycoproteins usually exhibit high viscosity, an observation explaining the highly viscous character of egg white, which is composed largely of the glycoprotein ovalbumin. (infoplease.com)