A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Allosteric enzymes that regulate glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. These enzymes catalyze phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to either fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1 reaction), or to fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-2 reaction).
Diphosphoric acid esters of fructose. The fructose-1,6- diphosphate isomer is most prevalent. It is an important intermediate in the glycolysis process.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, an allosteric effector for the other 6-phosphofructokinase, PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1. Phosphofructokinase-2 is bifunctional: the dephosphorylated form is a kinase and the phosphorylated form is a phosphatase that breaks down fructose-2,6-bisphosphate to yield fructose-6-phosphate.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Conditioning to defecate and urinate in culturally acceptable places.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
A plant genus of the family STERCULIACEAE. S. urens is the source of KARAYA GUM which is sometimes called Indian tragacanth, which is different from the true TRAGACANTH which comes from ASTRAGALUS GUMMIFER.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains two CHLORINE atoms attached to its methyl group.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. In the humans, 6-phosphofructose-1-kinase isozyme C is found in platelets, brain, heart, kidney, colon and testis. This isozyme C can exist as the homotetramer of C subunits (P subunits), or heterotetramer of C type and L type subunits.
A species of VESICULOVIRUS causing VESICULAR STOMATITIS primarily in cattle, horses, and pigs. It can be transmitted to humans where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An organic compound used often as a reagent in organic synthesis, as a flavoring agent, and in tanning. It has been demonstrated as an intermediate in the metabolism of acetone and its derivatives in isolated cell preparations, in various culture media, and in vivo in certain animals.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE, order Asterales, subclass Asteridae. It is a source of costus root oil and should not be confused with the genus COSTUS.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. A deficiency in humans causes nonspherocytic hemolytic disease (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC, CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC). EC
A transplantable, poorly differentiated malignant tumor which appeared originally as a spontaneous breast carcinoma in a mouse. It grows in both solid and ascitic forms.
A chlorinated PROPANEDIOL with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
ACETIC ACID or acetic acid esters substituted with one or more CHLORINE atoms.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Communication between CELL PHONE users via the Short Message Service protocol which allows the interchange of short written messages.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and water to D-fructose 6-phosphate and orthophosphate. EC
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of methylglyoxal and lactate, with glutathione serving as a coenzyme. EC
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Activities of glucose metabolic enzymes in human preantral follicles: in vitro modulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, and transforming growth factor beta1. (1/3647)

Modulation of glucose metabolic capacity of human preantral follicles in vitro by gonadotropins and intraovarian growth factors was evaluated by monitoring the activities of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), two regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), a key mitochondrial enzyme of the Krebs cycle. Preantral follicles in classes 1 and 2 from premenopausal women were cultured separately in vitro in the absence or presence of FSH, LH, epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), or transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1) for 24 h. Mitochondrial fraction was separated from the cytosolic fraction, and both fractions were used for enzyme assays. FSH and LH significantly stimulated PFK and PK activities in class 1 and 2 follicles; however, a 170-fold increase in MDH activity was noted for class 2 follicles that were exposed to FSH. Although both EGF and TGFbeta1 stimulated glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzymes for class 1 preantral follicles, TGFbeta1 consistently stimulated the activities of both glycolytic enzymes more than that of EGF. IGF-I induced PK and MDH activities in class 1 follicles but negatively influenced PFK activity for class 1 follicles. In general, only gonadotropins consistently stimulated both glycolytic and Krebs cycle enzyme activities several-fold in class 2 follicles. These results suggest that gonadotropins and ovarian growth factors differentially influence follicular energy-producing capacity from glucose. Moreover, gonadotropins may either directly influence glucose metabolism in class 2 preantral follicles or do so indirectly through factors other than the well-known intraovarian growth factors. Because growth factors modulate granulosa cell mitosis and functionality, their role on energy production may be related to specific cellular activities.  (+info)

Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the Ca2+-induced decline of transmitter release at K+-depolarized motor neuron terminals. (2/3647)

The present study tested whether a Ca2+-induced disruption of mitochondrial function was responsible for the decline in miniature endplate current (MEPC) frequency that occurs with nerve-muscle preparations maintained in a 35 mM potassium propionate (35 mM KP) solution containing elevated calcium. When the 35 mM KP contained control Ca2+ (1 mM), the MEPC frequency increased and remained elevated for many hours, and the mitochondria within twitch motor neuron terminals were similar in appearance to those in unstimulated terminals. All nerve terminals accumulated FM1-43 when the dye was present for the final 6 min of a 300-min exposure to 35 mM KP with control Ca2+. In contrast, when Ca2+ was increased to 3.6 mM in the 35 mM KP solution, the MEPC frequency initially reached frequencies >350 s-1 but then gradually fell approaching frequencies <50 s-1. A progressive swelling and eventual distortion of mitochondria within the twitch motor neuron terminals occurred during prolonged exposure to 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+. After approximately 300 min in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+, only 58% of the twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. The decline in MEPC frequency in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ was less when 15 mM glucose was present or when preparations were pretreated with 10 microM oligomycin and then bathed in the 35 mM KP with glucose. When glucose was present, with or without oligomycin pretreatment, a greater percentage of twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. However, the mitochondria in these preparations were still greatly swollen and distorted. We propose that prolonged depolarization of twitch motor neuron terminals by 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ produced a Ca2+-induced decrease in mitochondrial ATP production. Under these conditions, the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio was decreased thereby compromising both transmitter release and refilling of recycled synaptic vesicles. The addition of glucose stimulated glycolysis which contributed to the maintenance of required ATP levels.  (+info)

Activities of citrate synthase, NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in nervous tissues from vertebrates and invertebrates. (3/3647)

1. The activities of citrate synthase and NAD+-linked and NADP+-linked isocitrate dehydrogenases were measured in nervous tissue from different animals in an attempt to provide more information about the citric acid cycle in this tissue. In higher animals the activities of citrate synthase are greater than the sum of activities of the isocitrate dehydrogenases, whereas they are similar in nervous tissues from the lower animals. This suggests that in higher animals the isocitrate dehydrogenase reaction is far-removed from equilibrium. If it is assumed that isocitrate dehydrogenase activities provide an indication of the maximum flux through the citric acid cycle, the maximum glycolytic capacity in nervous tissue is considerably greater than that of the cycle. This suggest that glycolysis can provide energy in excess of the aerobic capacity of the tissue. 2. The activities of glutamate dehydrogenase are high in most nervous tissues and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase are high in all nervous tissue investigated. However, the activities of alanine aminotransferase are low in all tissues except the ganglia of the waterbug and cockroach. In these insect tissues, anaerobic glycolysis may result in the formation of alanine rather than lactate.  (+info)

Mechanism of citrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis: resistance against lactate toxicity at low pH. (4/3647)

Measurement of the flux through the citrate fermentation pathway in resting cells of Lactococcus lactis CRL264 grown in a pH-controlled fermentor at different pH values showed that the pathway was constitutively expressed, but its activity was significantly enhanced at low pH. The flux through the citrate-degrading pathway correlated with the magnitude of the membrane potential and pH gradient that were generated when citrate was added to the cells. The citrate degradation rate and proton motive force were significantly higher when glucose was metabolized at the same time, a phenomenon that could be mimicked by the addition of lactate, the end product of glucose metabolism. The results clearly demonstrate that citrate metabolism in L. lactis is a secondary proton motive force-generating pathway. Although the proton motive force generated by citrate in cells grown at low pH was of the same magnitude as that generated by glucose fermentation, citrate metabolism did not affect the growth rate of L. lactis in rich media. However, inhibition of growth by lactate was relieved when citrate also was present in the growth medium. Citrate did not relieve the inhibition by other weak acids, suggesting a specific role of the citrate transporter CitP in the relief of inhibition. The mechanism of citrate metabolism presented here provides an explanation for the resistance to lactate toxicity. It is suggested that the citrate metabolic pathway is induced under the acidic conditions of the late exponential growth phase to make the cells (more) resistant to the inhibitory effects of the fermentation product, lactate, that accumulates under these conditions.  (+info)

Reduced cytosolic acidification during exercise suggests defective glycolytic activity in skeletal muscle of patients with Becker muscular dystrophy. An in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. (5/3647)

Becker muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disorder due to mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in reduced size and/or content of dystrophin. The functional role of this subsarcolemma protein and the biochemical mechanisms leading to muscle necrosis in Becker muscular dystrophy are still unknown. In particular, the role of a bioenergetic deficit is still controversial. In this study, we used 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31p-MRS) to investigate skeletal muscle mitochondrial and glycolytic ATP production in vivo in 14 Becker muscular dystrophy patients. Skeletal muscle glycogenolytic ATP production, measured during the first minute of exercise, was similar in patients and controls. On the other hand, during later phases of exercise, skeletal muscle in Becker muscular dystrophy patients was less acidic than in controls, the cytosolic pH at the end of exercise being significantly higher in Becker muscular dystrophy patients. The rate of proton efflux from muscle fibres of Becker muscular dystrophy patients was similar to that of controls, pointing to a deficit in glycolytic lactate production as a cause of higher end-exercise cytosolic pH in patients. The maximum rate of mitochondrial ATP production was similar in muscle of Becker muscular dystrophy patients and controls. The results of this in vivo 31P-MRS study are consistent with reduced glucose availability in dystrophin-deficient muscles.  (+info)

Application of metabolic control analysis to the study of toxic effects of copper in muscle glycolysis. (6/3647)

Experimental and model studies have been performed to characterise the effects of Cu2+ on the activities of individual glycolytic enzymes and on the flux and internal metabolite concentrations of the upper part of glycolysis in mouse muscle extracts. Cu2+ significantly inhibited the triosephosphate production from glucose with an IC50 of about 6.0 microM. At a similar extension Cu2+ inhibited hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, with an IC50 of 6.2 microM and 6.4 microM respectively, whereas the effects on the activities of aldolase, phosphoglucose isomerase and the internal metabolite levels were not significant. Flux control coefficients and flux response coefficients were determined in the presence of copper concentrations between 0 and 10 microM. The same values of flux control coefficients for hexokinase and for phosphofructokinase (0.8 and 0.2 respectively) were found in absence and in presence of copper. At Cu2+ equal to the flux IC50, the response coefficient was -1. The elasticity coefficients for hexokinase and phosphofructokinase at Cu2+ equal to the IC50 were also -1. A mathematical model was used to analyze the effect of copper on glycolysis under different conditions using experimental kinetic parameters and rate equations for enzymatic reactions of the upper part of glycolysis.  (+info)

An inducible gene product for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase with an AU-rich instability element: role in tumor cell glycolysis and the Warburg effect. (7/3647)

Cancer cells maintain a high glycolytic rate even in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon first described over 70 years ago and known historically as the Warburg effect. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is a powerful allosteric regulator of glycolysis that acts to stimulate the activity of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), the most important control point in mammalian glycolysis. The steady state concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in turn depends on the activity of the enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2)/fructose-2, 6-bisphosphatase, which is expressed in several tissue-specific isoforms. We report herein the identification of a gene product for this enzyme that is induced by proinflammatory stimuli and which is distinguished by the presence of multiple copies of the AUUUA mRNA instability motif in its 3'-untranslated end. This inducible gene for PFK-2 is expressed constitutively in several human cancer cell lines and was found to be required for tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of inducible PFK-2 protein expression decreased the intracellular level of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, a product of the pentose phosphate pathway and an important precursor for nucleic acid biosynthesis. These studies identify a regulatory isoenzyme that may be essential for tumor growth and provide an explanation for long-standing observations concerning the apparent coupling of enhanced glycolysis and cell proliferation.  (+info)

Low oxygen inhibits but complex high-glucose medium facilitates in vitro maturation of squirrel monkey oocyte-granulosa cell complexes. (8/3647)

PURPOSE: The objectives of these in vitro maturation studies in primate cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were to evaluate the effect of a reduced-oxygen environment and to compare medium with a high-glucose concentration to medium with pyruvate but no glucose. METHODS: COCs were retrieved from squirrel monkeys stimulated with 1 mg of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) for 4-6 days. Experiment 1 examined maturation after 48 hr in 5% O2/5% CO2/90% N2 compared with 5% CO2/air. The medium was CMRL-1066 containing moderate glucose (5.5 mM) supplemented with 1 mM glutamine, 0.33 mM pyruvate, 0.075 IU/ml human FSH, 5 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin, 75 U penicillin G/ml, and 20% fetal bovine serum. Experiment 2 in 5% CO2/air, compared P-1 medium (pyruvate and lactate but no glucose) to Waymouth's medium (27.5 mM glucose), both with identical supplements. RESULTS: Only 3 (8%) of 37 COCs matured in 5% O2, while 39 (49%) of 80 matured in ambient O2. Fourteen (22%) of 64 complexes matured in P-1 medium, compared to 47 (49%) of 96 meiosis II oocytes in Waymouth's medium (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These are the first primate studies showing detrimental effects of reduced-oxygen culture on in vitro maturation. Additionally, maturation was enhanced with complex high-glucose medium suggesting that the predominant metabolism is aerobic glycolysis.  (+info)

GLYCOLYSIS Student Edition 5/30/13 version Dr. Brad Chazotte 213 Maddox Hall [email protected] Web Site: http://www.campbell.edu/faculty/chazotte Original material only ©2000-14 B. Chazotte Pharm. 304 Biochemistry Fall 2014 Goals •Learn the enzymes and sequence of reactions in glycolysis •Develop an understanding of the chemical logic of the glycolysis pathway •Understand the basis and need for redox balance in glycolysis •Learn and understand the control(s) and control points of the glycolysis pathway. •Learn where products of glycolysis can go. •Be aware that other sugars can enter the glycolysis pathway Glycolysis: An Energy Conversion Pathway Used by Many Organisms •Almost a universal central pathway for glucose catabolism •The chemistry of these reactions has been completely conserved. •Glycolysis differs among species only in its regulation and in the metabolic fate of the pyruvate generated. •In eukaryotic cells glycolysis takes place in the cell cytosol. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and other glycolytic enzymes by acrylamide. AU - Sabri, M. I.. AU - Spencer, P. S.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018932962&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018932962&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018932962. VL - 19. SP - S455. JO - Neuroscience Letters. JF - Neuroscience Letters. SN - 0304-3940. IS - SUPPL. 5. ER - ...
Autophagy occurs in cells that undergoing nutrient deprivation. Glycolysis rapidly supplies energy for the proliferation of cancer cells. Cardamonin inhibits proliferation and enhances autophagy by mTORC1 suppression in ovarian cancer cells. Here, we investigate the relationship between cardamonin-triggered autophagy and glycolysis inhibition via mTORC1 suppression. Treated with indicated compounds, ATP content and the activity of hexokinase (HK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were analyzed by the assay kits. Autophagy was detected by monodansylcadaverin (MDC) staining. The relationship between cardamonin-triggered autophagy and glycolysis inhibition via mTORC1 suppression was analyzed by Western blot. We found that cardamonin inhibited the lactate secretion, ATP production, and the activity of HK and LDH. The results demonstrated that cardamonin enhanced autophagy in SKOV3 cells, as indicated by acidic compartments accumulation, microtubule-associated protein 1 Light Chain 3-II (LC3-II) and lysosome
Title: The Warburg Effect: Why and How Do Cancer Cells Activate Glycolysis in the Presence of Oxygen?. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Miguel Lopez-Lazaro. Affiliation:Department of Pharmacology,Faculty of Pharmacy, C/ Profesor Garcia Gonzalez, 41012 Sevilla, Spain.. Keywords:Aerobic glycolysis, glycolysis inhibitors, metabolism, dysoxic metabolism, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion. Abstract: Cells can obtain energy through the oxygen-dependent pathway of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and through the oxygen-independent pathway of glycolysis. Since OXPHOS is more efficient in generating ATP than glycolysis, it is recognized that the presence of oxygen results in the activation of OXPHOS and the inhibition of glycolysis (Pasteur effect). However, it has been known for many years that cancer cells and non-malignant proliferating cells can activate glycolysis in the presence of adequate oxygen levels (aerobic glycolysis or Warburg effect). ...
The reconstituted glycolytic system described previously (Scopes, 1973) was used to simulate post-mortem glycolytic metabolism in muscle. The effects of the following factors have been investigated: ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) amount, AMP deaminase amount, percentage of the phosphorylase in the a form and the effect of diluting the glycolytic enzyme complex as a whole. It was confirmed that the rate of metabolism was solely dependent on the amount of ATPase present and that various concentrations of the glycolytic enzymes had no effect over a wide range encompassing the variation found in anatomically different muscles. The extent of metabolism, represented by the value of the ultimate pH, depended markedly on the amount of phosphorylase in the a form; as little as 1% of the a form resulted in a considerably lower pH than in its absence. To a lesser extent the amount of AMP deaminase also affected the ultimate pH, but this was probably only significant for comparisons of genetically ...
Posts about K. The ingredients of antineoplaston AS2-1 down-regulate glycolysis pathways in glioblastoma cells. Neuro-Oncology 2008; 10:1148″ written by didymusjudasthomas
Red blood cells require glycolysis as their sole source of ATP in order to survive, because they do not have mitochondria. Glycolysis can be either: Aerobic (requiring oxygen ) - The pyruvate produced by this process can undergo further oxidation via the citric acid cycle. How many net ATP are produced as a result of glycolysis? The citric acid cycle initiates with (a) succinic acid (b) pyruvic acid (c) acetyl coenzyme A (d) fumaric acid Answer: (c) acetyl coenzyme A 3. Although oxygen is present, it is not required for glycolysis to occur. Therefore, oxygen would not always be needed. a) Glycolysis requires the use of 9 different enzymes to occur. About glycolysis, which statement is FALSE? Which of the following is a waste product from amino acid catabolism? Therefore, the mitochondria is not required. O2 is not required for glycolysis. What is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain? At this step, glycolysis has reached the break-even point: 2 molecules of ATP were ...
The notes are very useful indeed. Although the term is often taken to be synonymous with the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, other glycolytic pathways exist, among them the Entner-Doudoroff pathway that proceeds via a gluconic acid intermediate and a complex set … Glycolysis Questions and Answers. It occures in practically all life as we know it and its all about taking glucose as a fuel and, in the process of breaking it up, lycing the glucose, glycolysis, breaking it up into two pyruvate molecules. What are the functions of glycolysis? In the first step of glycolysis, the glucose is initiated or primed for the subsequent steps by phosphorylation at the C. The process involves the transfer of phosphate from the ATP to glucose forming Glucose-6-phosphate in the presence of the enzyme hexokinase and glucokinase (in animals and microbes). Glycolysis is defined as an enzymatic breakdown of carbohydrates (as glucose) by way of phosphate derivatives with the production of pyruvic or lactic ...
Most normal cells in the presence of oxygen utilize glucose for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, many cancer cells rapidly convert glucose to lactate in the cytosol, a process termed aerobic glycolysis. This glycolytic phenotype is enabled by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize potent and selective inhibitors of LDHA. High throughput screening and lead optimization were used to generate inhibitors of LDHA enzymatic activity. Effects of these inhibitors on metabolism were evaluated using cell-based lactate production, oxygen consumption, and 13C NMR spectroscopy assays. Changes in comprehensive metabolic profile, cell proliferation, and apoptosis were assessed upon compound treatment. 3-((3-carbamoyl-7-(3,5-dimethylisoxazol-4-yl)-6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl) amino) benzoic acid was identified as an NADH-competitive LDHA inhibitor. Lead optimization yielded molecules with LDHA
1. Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ. Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis?. Nat Rev Cancer. 2004;4:891-9 2. Cairns RA, Harris IS, Mak TW. Regulation of cancer cell metabolism. Nat Rev Cancer. 2011;11:85-95 3. Chen W, Wang Q, Bai L. et al. RIP1 maintains DNA integrity and cell proliferation by regulating PGC-1alpha-mediated mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:1061-70 4. Sebastian C, Zwaans BM, Silberman DM. et al. The histone deacetylase SIRT6 is a tumor suppressor that controls cancer metabolism. Cell. 2012;151:1185-99 5. Mathupala SP, Rempel A, Pedersen PL. Aberrant glycolytic metabolism of cancer cells: a remarkable coordination of genetic, transcriptional, post-translational, and mutational events that lead to a critical role for type II hexokinase. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 1997;29:339-43 6. Levine AJ, Puzio-Kuter AM. The control of the metabolic switch in cancers by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Science. 2010;330:1340-4 7. Pelicano H, Martin ...
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Glycolysis is a central pathway for the production of energy. In eukaryotic systems, it breaks down a supply of glucose into substrates for the production of fat, amino acids and ATP. The pathway of glycolysis is important in a number of contexts. It is required for the production of cellular energy, involved in the generation of fat and regulation of glucose levels. Yeast glycolysis is used in the industrial production of ethanol and the art of wine making.. The pages here are designed to provide information needed to model the glycolytic pathway. To model any process requires a good understanding of the components of the system, the interactions between those components in the form of reactions, and the kinetics (temporal behavior) of the components/reactions. To understand and interpret the results of the model requires an understanding of the experimental system. A good understanding of the systems behavior allows us to compare the simulation results to real world data. Glycolysis has ...
The experiments reported in the present study were designed to determine which glycolytic enzymes are associated with SR from skeletal and cardiac muscle and whether the ATP generated from these glycolytic reactions can support the SR Ca2+-ATPase and 45Ca pumping into the SR. Our results indicate that the entire chain of glycolytic enzymes from aldolase onward, including aldolase, GAPDH, PGK, phosphoglyceromutase, enolase, and pyruvate kinase are bound to SR membranes in cardiac and skeletal muscle as evidenced by the ability of glycolytic substrates and cofactors (without ATP) to support 45Ca transport. IAA, an inhibitor of GAPDH, eliminated SR 45Ca transport supported by FDP (the substrate for aldolase), but transport was completely restored by PEP, indicating that both of the ATP-producing glycolytic enzymes, GAPDH/PGK and pyruvate kinase, were associated with the SR and functionally capable of providing ATP for the Ca2+ pump. Addition of a soluble hexokinase ATP trap eliminated 45Ca ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into two molecules of pyruvate acid by producing ATP and NADH. Since the glycolysis cycle involves the conversion of blood sugar into an anion of pyruvic acid (pyruvate), glycolysis is also referred to as the citric acid cycle. Most monosaccharides, such as fructose and galactose, can be converted to one of these intermediates. Glycolysis consists of an energy-requiring phase followed by an energy-releasing phase. To use Khan Academy you need to upgrade to another web browser. However, in order for this energy to be utilized by organisms, this molecule needs to be degraded via glycolysis, which is a common metabolic pathway for all living beings, where partial decomposition of these molecules occur in the presence or absence of oxygen. Donate or volunteer today! Glycolysis is the process of breaking down glucose. Gratuit. Through two distinct phases, the six-carbon ring of glucose is cleaved into two three-carbon sugars of pyruvate through a series of
GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. It is a process of breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid. Scientist Embden, Meyerhof, & Parnas described different steps of glycolysis. So glycolysis also called EMP pathway. PLACE OF GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm. SUBSTRATE Glucose REQUIREMENTS One molecule of glucose. 2ATP. 4ADP. 2NAD. Inorganic phosphate. […]. ...
GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. It is a process of breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid. Scientist Embden, Meyerhof, & Parnas described different steps of glycolysis. So glycolysis also called EMP pathway. PLACE OF GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis occurs in cytoplasm. SUBSTRATE Glucose REQUIREMENTS One molecule of glucose. 2ATP. 4ADP. 2NAD. Inorganic phosphate. […]. ...
Review. 1826 (2), 370-84. Dec 2012. Dysregulation of Glucose Transport, Glycolysis, TCA Cycle and Glutaminolysis by Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors in Cancer Cells. Jin-Qiang Chen 1, Jose Russo. PMID: 22750268. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbcan.2012.06.004. Abstract. A common set of functional characteristics of cancer cells is that cancer cells consume a large amount of glucose, maintain high rate of glycolysis and convert a majority of glucose into lactic acid even in the presence of oxygen compared to that of normal cells (Warburgs Effects). In addition, cancer cells exhibit substantial alterations in several energy metabolism pathways including glucose transport, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glutaminolysis, mitochondrial respiratory chain oxidative phosphorylation and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In the present work, we focused on reviewing the current knowledge about the dysregulation of the proteins/enzymes involved in the key regulatory steps of glucose transport, glycolysis, TCA cycle and ...
Glycolysis is the principal route for carbohydrate metabolism. The ability of glycolysis to provide ATP in the absence of oxygen is especially important, because this allows skeletal muscle to perform at very high levels of work output when oxygen supply is insufficient, and it allows tissues to survive anoxic episodes. However, heart muscle, which is adapted for aerobic performance, has relatively low glycolytic activity and poor survival under conditions of ischemia. Diseases in which enzymes of glycolysis (eg, pyruvate kinase) are deficient are mainly seen as hemolytic anemias or, if the defect affects skeletal muscle (eg, phosphofructokinase), as fatigue. In fast-growing cancer cells, glycolysis proceeds at a high rate, forming large amounts of pyruvate, which is reduced to lactate and exported. This produces a relatively acidic local environment in the tumor, which may have implications for cancer therapy. The lactate is used for gluconeogenesis in the liver (Chapter 19), an ...
A key hallmark of cancer cells is their capacity to metabolize glucose at an elevated rate (1, 2). Critical to this highly glycolytic phenotype is the first enzymatic step of glycolysis, catalyzed by hexokinase (HK), during which glucose is phosphorylated and thereby trapped within the cell. There are four HK enzymes in mammals, HK1, HK2, HK3, and glucokinase (GCK), which are structurally similar but expressed in a tissue- specific manner (3). Remarkably, only HK2 is overexpressed in cancer cells (4) and contributes to the high glycolytic rate in tumors (5). Given the selective expression of HK2 in cancer, Patra and colleagues (6) investigated whether targeting this particular glycolytic enzyme could be used for cancer therapy.. Several previous studies have reported that inhibition of HK2 can block cancer cell survival. Depletion of HK2 with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme (7). Moreover, HK2 mRNA and protein levels were found to ...
We present a model of osmoadaptation in S.cerevisiae based on existing experimental and theoretical work. In order to investigate the impact of osmoadaptation on glycolysis, this model focuses on the interactions between glycolysis and osmoadaptation, namely the production of glycerol and its influence on flux towards pyruvate. Evaluation of this model shows that, depending on initial relations between glycerol and pyruvate production, the increased glycerol production can have a substantial negative effect on the pyruvate production rate. Existing experimental data and a detailed analysis of the model lead to the suggestion of an interaction between activated Hog1 and activators of glycolysis such as Pfk26.
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
immune Adenosine Deaminase 1226781-44-7, Rabbit Polyclonal to ZP4 Background Improved glycolysis is definitely a hallmark of cancer metabolism, yet relatively little is definitely known about this phenotype at premalignant stages of progression. a cell collection produced from a patient with early genetically stable Become; however, all cell lines keep active mitochondria. In response to the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, the most glycolytic cell lines (CP-C and CP-D) experienced the very best suppression of extra-cellular acidification, but were able to compensate with upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, these cell lines showed the least expensive compensatory raises in glycolysis in response to mitochondrial uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Finally, these cell lines also upregulated their oxidative phosphorylation in response to glucose via the Crabtree effect, and demonstrate a higher range of modulation of air intake. A conclusion/Significance Our results recommend ...
Glycolysis is the principal pathway of glucose metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm of all cells where glucose is oxidized to pyruvate (in aerobic condition) or lactate (in anaerobic condition) and generates energy in the form of ATP. Types of glycolysis pathway: Glycolysis pathways are two types; Aerobic glycolysis - Aerobic glycolysis occurs in cells with mitochondria and in the presence .... Read More » ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pyruvate kinase M2. T2 - Multiple faces for conferring benefits on cancer cells. AU - Tamada, Mayumi. AU - Suematsu, Makoto. AU - Saya, Hideyuki. PY - 2012/10/15. Y1 - 2012/10/15. N2 - The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), an enzyme that catalyzes the later step of glycolysis, is a key regulator of aerobic glycolysis (known as the Warburg effect) in cancer cells. Expression and low enzymatic activity of PKM2 confer on cancer cells the glycolytic phenotype, which promotes rapid energy production and flow of glycolytic intermediates into collateral pathways to synthesize nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids without the accumulation of reactive oxygen species.PKM2 enzymatic activity has also been shown to be negatively regulated by the interaction with CD44 adhesion molecule, which is a cell surface marker for cancer stem cells. In addition to the glycolytic functions, nonglycolytic functions of PKM2 in cancer cells are of particular interest. PKM2 is induced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pyruvate kinase M2. T2 - Multiple faces for conferring benefits on cancer cells. AU - Tamada, Mayumi. AU - Suematsu, Makoto. AU - Saya, Hideyuki. PY - 2012/10/15. Y1 - 2012/10/15. N2 - The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), an enzyme that catalyzes the later step of glycolysis, is a key regulator of aerobic glycolysis (known as the Warburg effect) in cancer cells. Expression and low enzymatic activity of PKM2 confer on cancer cells the glycolytic phenotype, which promotes rapid energy production and flow of glycolytic intermediates into collateral pathways to synthesize nucleic acids, amino acids, and lipids without the accumulation of reactive oxygen species.PKM2 enzymatic activity has also been shown to be negatively regulated by the interaction with CD44 adhesion molecule, which is a cell surface marker for cancer stem cells. In addition to the glycolytic functions, nonglycolytic functions of PKM2 in cancer cells are of particular interest. PKM2 is induced ...
The activities of ATP-consuming and ATP-producing steps of the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, as well as other glycolytic enzymes (phosphoglucomutase and enolase) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are lower in leucocytes from cord blood than in white cells from adults. These results are related to previous observations (reduced anaerobic glycolysis and nitroblue tetrazolium-test in leucocytes from newborn infants) and discussed in connection with the fact that newborn infants are more susceptible to infections than normal adults.
The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was
Upon liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) transdifferentiate to migratory, proliferative and extracellular matrix-producing myofibroblasts (e.g., activated HSCs; aHSCs) causing liver fibrosis. HSC activation is associated with increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Here, we compared the contribution of glycolysis, glutaminolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in rat and human HSC activation. Basal levels of glycolysis (extracellular acidification rate ~3-fold higher) and particularly mitochondrial respiration (oxygen consumption rate ~5-fold higher) were significantly increased in rat aHSCs, when compared to quiescent rat HSC. This was accompanied by extensive mitochondrial fusion in rat and human aHSCs, which occurred without increasing mitochondrial DNA content and electron transport chain (ETC) components. Inhibition of glycolysis (by 2-deoxy-D-glucose) and glutaminolysis (by CB-839) did not inhibit rat aHSC proliferation, but did reduce Acta2 (encoding α-SMA) ...
Reprogramming glycolysis for directing glycolytic metabolites to a specific metabolic pathway is expected to be useful for increasing microbial production of certain metabolites, such as amino acids, lipids or considerable secondary metabolites. In this report, a strategy of increasing glycolysis by altering the metabolism of inositol pyrophosphates (IPs) for improving the production of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) for diverse pharmaceutical applications in yeast is presented. The genes associated with the metabolism of IPs, arg82, ipk1 and kcs1, were deleted, respectively, in the yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC 2842. It was observed that the deletions of kcs1 and arg82 increased SAM by 83.3 % and 31.8 %, respectively, compared to that of the control. In addition to the improved transcription levels of various glycolytic genes and activities of the relative enzymes, the levels of glycolytic intermediates and ATP were also enhanced. To further confirm the feasibility, the kcs1 was deleted in
Most cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis to fuel their growth. The enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) is key to cancers glycolytic phenotype, catalysing the regeneration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD þ ) from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary to sustain glycolysis. As such, LDH-A is a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here we ask if the tumour suppressor p53, a major regulator of cellular metabolism, influences the response of cancer cells to LDH-A suppression. LDH-A knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) induced cancer cell death in p53 wild-type, mutant and p53-null human cancer cell lines, indicating that endogenous LDH-A promotes cancer cell survival irrespective of cancer cell p53 status. Unexpectedly,however,weuncoveredanovelroleforp53intheregulationofcancercellNADþ anditsreducedformNADH.Thus, LDH-A silencing by RNAi, or its inhibition using a small-molecule inhibitor, resulted in a p53-dependent increase in the cancer cell ...
This article is Part 2 of a 3 part series that outlines the three basic energy systems used in sport, their interactions with one another, and how to train each one. Below the Introduction (technical explanation), we offer 7 sessions (in 3 stages) for training the Glycolytic System. Introduction Glycolysis literally means the breakdown (lysis) of glucose and consists of a series of enzymatic reactions. The carbohydrates we eat supply the body with glucose, which can be stored as glycogen in the muscles or liver for later use. The end product of glycolysis is pyruvic acid. Pyruvic acid can then be either funneled through a process called the Krebs cycle (see the Oxidative System in next weeks article) or converted into lactic acid (lactate + hydrogen ion). Traditionally, if the final product was lactic acid, the process was labelled anaerobic glycolysis and if the final product remained as pyruvate the process was labelled aerobic glycolysis. Oxygen availability only determines the fate of the end
Inflammaging is a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation due to the aging process and is associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Monocytes are innate immune cells which contribute to inflammation and are dysregulated during aging, demonstrated reduced phagocytosis, increased inflammation, and alterations in subset proportions. Metabolism is known to determine immune cell function, with quiescent and anti-inflammatory cells primarily relying on fatty acid oxidation, while activated and inflammatory cells primarily rely on glycolysis. We have previously shown an age-related decrease in mitochondrial respiratory capacity in monocytes, so we hypothesized here that a compensatory shift toward glycolysis would occur which would also exacerbate inflammation. Using Seahorse assays, we profiled glycolysis in classical monocytes isolated from older (60-80 yr) and younger (18-35 yr) adults. Aging did not affect parameters of basal glycolysis in the glycolysis stress test, nor did it alter glycolytic
Scientists think that glycolysis evolved before the other stages of cellular respiration. This is because the other stages need oxygen, whereas glycolysis does not, and there was no oxygen in Earths atmosphere when life first evolved about 3.5 to 4 billion years ago. Cellular respiration that proceeds without oxygen is called anaerobic respiration. Then, about 2 or 3 billion years ago, oxygen was gradually added to the atmosphere by early photosynthetic bacteria. After that, living things could use oxygen to break down glucose and make ATP. Today, most organisms make ATP with oxygen. They follow glycolysis with the Krebs cycle and electron transport to make more ATP than by glycolysis alone. Cellular respiration that proceeds in the presence of oxygen is called aerobic respiration.. ...
Numerous laboratories have shown that hyperglycemia increases cerebral ischemic damage. This presumably results from increased lactate production and accumulation during ischemia. Although increased tissue lactic acidosis is associated with increased ischemic brain damage, this damage has not been directly linked to glycolytic flux. Because 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) is a competitive inhibitor of glycolysis we tested its ability to reduce hyperglycemia-exacerbated ischemic brain damage. Severe forebrain ischemia was produced by the four-vessel occlusion model in rats. Four rats received 3 g/kg glucose and saline while a second group (n = 5) was injected with 3 g/kg glucose plus 1.6 g/kg 2-DG. A third group (n = 5) was treated with 1 g/kg glucose plus saline and a fourth group (n = 5) received 1 g/kg glucose and 1.6 g/kg 2-DG. All rats were injected i.p. 10 minutes prior to the ischemic insult with the same volume/kg body weight. All rats receiving the high dose of glucose alone (3 g/kg) were dead ...
Purpose: The hypermetabolic nature of cancer cells, especially their increased reliance on aerobic glycolysis which has been associated with more aggressive phenotype, is considered metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. However, its precise mechanisms remain unknown. Cylindromatosis (CYLD) is recognized as a tumor suppressor gene whereas little is available about its impact on cancer progression. Our unpublished data showed that lower CYLD expression was associated with poor prognosis in OSCC patients. The objective of our study was to address specific contributions of CYLD to the signature metabolic features of OSCC cells.. Materials and methods: We determined the level of glucose consumption as well as lactate production to evaluate the effects of CYLD knockdown by siRNA on aerobic glycolysis in human OSCC cell lines. In addition, we measured extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates in OSCC cells by using XF Extracellular Flux ...
How cellular respiration can be sped up or slowed down. The free energy released in this process is used as ATP and NADP. Glucose-6-phosphate is isomerised to fructose-6-phosphate by phosphohexose isomerase. Stimulation of glycolysis by placing tubers in an atmosphere of nitrogen led to significant declines in their contents of fructose-6-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate. In the fifth step, an isomerase transforms the dihydroxyacetone-phosphate into its isomer, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. The fourth step in glycolysis employs an enzyme, aldolase, to cleave 1,6-bisphosphate into two three-carbon isomers: dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. How many steps are in glycolysis and what are they? The glycolytic pathway is a major metabolic pathway for microbial fermentation which involves the catabolism of glucose into pyruvate. Steps 1 and 3 = - 2ATP Steps 7 and 10 = + 4 ATP Net visible ATP produced = 2. 4. Only three steps produce a large decrease in free energy, meaning ...
Yeast glycolytic oscillations have been studied since the 1950s in cell-free extracts and intact cells. For intact cells, sustained oscillations have so far only been observed at the population level, i.e. for synchronized cultures at high biomass concentrations. Using optical tweezers to position yeast cells in a microfluidic chamber, we were able to observe sustained oscillations in individual isolated cells. Using a detailed kinetic model for the cellular reactions, we simulated the heterogeneity in the response of the individual cells, assuming small differences in a single internal parameter. This is the first time that sustained limit-cycle oscillations have been demonstrated in isolated yeast cells. © 2012 FEBS.. ...
This study provides the first detailed insights into the complex sequence of early regulatory events during and preceding the major metabolic switch in S. coelicolor, which will form the starting point for future attempts at engineering antibiotic production in a biotechnological setting. BackgroundDuring the lifetime of a fermenter culture, the soil bacterium S. coelicolor undergoes a major metabolic switch from exponential growth to antibiotic production. We have studied gene expression patterns during this switch, using a specifically designed Affymetrix genechip and a high-resolution time-series of fermenter-grown samples.ResultsSurprisingly, we find that the metabolic switch actually consists of multiple finely orchestrated switching events. Strongly coherent clusters of genes show drastic changes in gene expression already many hours before the classically defined transition phase where the switch from primary to secondary metabolism was expected. The main switch in gene expression takes only 2
Resistance to anti-cancer therapies is a consequence of adaptation of cancer cells but also of maladaptation of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. The opposing roles acquired by the immune system have to be faced in order to fight tumor growth and therapy resistance. Effector immune cells are recruited and activated but they are blocked by the strong immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Immune evasion and deregulation of energy metabolism are two hallmarks of cancer that may be functionally linked. Malignant cells which present a high glycolytic phenotype, besides creating metabolic demanding environments that encroach on the function of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, also release immunosuppressive metabolites and by-products, such as lactate, forming a metabolic symbiosis with immune cells. This acidic TME has a strong impact in the profile of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, being instrumental for immunosuppression. Therefore, in this review, we focus on key molecular
Solution for question: Distinguish Between Glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle concept: Glycolysis. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science)
One of the most distinctive features of cancer metabolism is the increased uptake of glucose and amino acids compared to that in quiescent normal cells (Pavlova and Thompson, 2016). Glucose in cancer cells is then predominantly metabolized by aerobic glycolysis rather than by oxidative metabolism. The significance of upregulated glycolysis in cancer cells has been highlighted as a critical metabolic hub to interconnect with other metabolic pathways (Fig. 6), including (1) the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to generate pentose phosphates for ribonucleotide synthesis and NADPH, (2) the hexosamine pathway to synthesize UDP-N-acetylglucosamine for protein glycosylation, and (3) the serine biosynthesis pathway coupled with the one-carbon cycle to produce SAM and NADPH (Hay, 2016). Thus, cells with upregulated glucose uptake increase the flux to these branching pathways and thereby modulate the cellular levels of their intermediary metabolites.. The increased flux of glycolysis may exceed the ...
Endogenous nitric oxide (NO) acts on cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, inhibiting mitochondrial oxygen consumption and promoting the release of free radicals. Quintero et al. investigated the consequences of NO regulation of mitochondrial activity in vascular endothelial cells, which are highly glycolytic and have abundant NO. Analysis of the effects of inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport or glycolysis at various oxygen concentrations indicated that ATP production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) depended more on glycolysis than it did on mitochondrial respiration. Exposure to a low concentration of oxygen (1.5%) that promoted the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in human smooth muscle and epithelial kidney cells had little effect on HIF-1α abundance in human vascular endothelial cells unless the production of NO was inhibited. The ability of NO to inhibit HIF-1α accumulation in HUVECs ...
Temperature strongly affects microbial growth, and many microorganisms have to deal with temperature fluctuations in their natural environment. To understand regulation strategies that underlie microbial temperature responses and adaptation, we studied glycolytic pathway kinetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae during temperature changes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown under different temperature regimes and glucose availability conditions. These included glucose-excess batch cultures at different temperatures and glucose-limited chemostat cultures, subjected to fast linear temperature shifts and circadian sinoidal temperature cycles. An observed temperature-independent relation between intracellular levels of glycolytic metabolites and residual glucose concentration for all experimental conditions revealed that it is the substrate availability rather than temperature that determines intracellular metabolite profiles. This observation corresponded with predictions generated in silico with a kinetic
To test the effectiveness of dichloroacetate, a known Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase inhibitor, as a method of slowing down the proliferation of cancerous cells as well as forcing them from aerobic glycolysis towards oxidative phosphorylation as their main energy source.
The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle fibers is a unique environment that supports the regenerative capacity of satellite cells; the resident stem cell population. The impact of environment has great bearing on key properties permitting satellite cells to carry out tissue repair. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the ECM and glycolytic metabolism on satellite cell emergence and migration-two early processes required for muscle repair. Our results show that both influence the rate at which satellite cells emerge from the sub-basal lamina position and their rate of migration. These studies highlight the necessity of performing analysis of satellite behavior on their native substrate and will inform on the production of artificial scaffolds intended for medical uses.
BioAssay Systems Glycolysis Assay Kit (ECGL-100) is based on the production of L-Lactate from glycolysis in cells. The intensity of the reduced dye at 565 nm is proportional to the L-lactate concentration which in turn is proportional to the glycolytic rate of cells. Detection range up to 10 mM L-lactate.
Different pyruvate kinase isoforms are expressed in a tissue-specific manner, with pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) suggested to be the predominant isoform in proliferating cells and cancer cells. Due to differential regulation of enzymatic activities, PKM2 but not PKM1 has been thought to favor cell proliferation. However, the role of PKM2 in tumorigenesis has been recently challenged. Here we report that increased glucose catabolism through glycolysis and increased pyruvate kinase activity in c-MYC-driven liver tumors are associated with increased expression of both PKM1 and PKM2 isoforms and decreased expression of the liver-specific isoform of pyruvate kinase, PKL. Depletion of PKM2 at the time of c-MYC over-expression in murine livers did not affect c-MYC induced tumorigenesis and resulted in liver tumor formation with decreased pyruvate kinase activity and decreased catabolism of glucose into alanine and the Krebs cycle. An increased PKM1/PKM2 ratio by ectopic PKM1 expression further decreased ...
Despite recent advances, many cancers remain refractory to available immunotherapeutic strategies. Emerging evidence indicates that the tolerization of local dendritic cells (DCs) within the tumor microenvironment promotes immune evasion. Here, we have described a mechanism by which melanomas establish a site of immune privilege via a paracrine Wnt5a-β-catenin-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) signaling pathway that drives fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in DCs by upregulating the expression of the carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A) fatty acid transporter. This FAO shift increased the protoporphyrin IX prosthetic group of indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase-1 (IDO) while suppressing interleukin(IL)-6 and IL-12 cytokine expression, culminating in enhanced IDO activity and the generation of regulatory T cells. We demonstrated that blockade of this pathway augmented anti-melanoma immunity, enhanced the activity of anti-PD-1 antibody immunotherapy, and suppressed disease progression ...
Metabolic heterogeneity between neoplastic cells and surrounding stroma has been described in several epithelial malignancies; however, the metabolic phenotypes of neoplastic lymphocytes and neighboring stroma in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is unknown. We investigated the metabolic phenotypes of human DLBCL tumors by using immunohistochemical markers of glycolytic and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) metabolism. The lactate importer MCT4 is a marker of glycolysis, whereas the lactate importer MCT1 and TOMM20 are markers of OXPHOS metabolism. Staining patterns were assessed in 33 DLBCL samples as well as 18 control samples (non-neoplastic lymph nodes). TOMM20 and MCT1 were highly expressed in neoplastic lymphocytes, indicating an OXPHOS phenotype, whereas non-neoplastic lymphocytes in the control samples did not express these markers. Stromal cells in DLBCL samples strongly expressed MCT4, displaying a glycolytic phenotype, a feature not seen in stromal elements of non
The effects of xenon, argon, and hydrogen on the aerobic and anaerobic metabolism of mouse liver, brain, and sarcoma slices have been investigated. Xenon was found to alter the rates of metabolism of these tissues in a manner almost identical with helium. The gas increased the rate of oxygen consumption in all three tissues and significantly depressed that of anaerobic glycolysis in brain and liver. The depression of glycolysis in sarcoma was less pronounced and not highly significant.. Although both the magnitude and statistical significance of the effects observed with argon were much smaller, there was a seeming adherence to the general pattern established by xenon and helium. Hydrogen while remaining essentially ineffective insofar as oxygen uptake was concerned, depressed glycolysis in both liver and brain slices but did not significantly affect sarcoma slices.. The following points are stressed in the Discussion: (1) the magnitude and direction of effects exerted by helium, argon, xenon, ...
The addition of glucose to tps1Δ cells of the yeast S. cerevisiae causes hyperaccumulation of all glycolytic metabolites upstream and depletion of all metabolites downstream of GAPDH, suggesting that the deletion of Tps1 in some way creates a bottleneck in glycolysis at the level of GAPDH (27). Measurements of the specific activity of the glycolytic enzymes in cell extracts as well as determination of initial glucose uptake rates did not reveal significant differences between the wild-type and tps1 strains that could explain the glycolytic bottleneck in tps1Δ cells (1, 11). More detailed measurements of the glucose uptake rate and the pH dependency of GAPDH in the present work have underscored the conclusion that there is no difference in the inherent activity of these two crucial components in the tps1Δ strain. Hence, the bottleneck appears to be due to a metabolic or regulatory problem at the level of GAPDH that is not maintained in cell extracts and is not apparent from the Vmax or Km of ...
In Arabidopsis thaliana, enzymes of glycolysis are present on the surface of mitochondria and free in the cytosol. The functional significance of this dual localization has now been established by demonstrating that the extent of mitochondrial association is dependent on respiration rate in both Arabidopsis cells and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Thus, inhibition of respiration with KCN led to a proportional decrease in the degree of association, whereas stimulation of respiration by uncoupling, tissue ageing, or overexpression of invertase led to increased mitochondrial association. In all treatments, the total activity of the glycolytic enzymes in the cell was unaltered, indicating that the existing pools of each enzyme repartitioned between the cytosol and the mitochondria. Isotope dilution experiments on isolated mitochondria, using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor the impact of unlabeled glycolytic intermediates on the production of downstream intermediates derived from
A response to Leprince: The role of Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar development. Cancer & Metabolism 2013, 1:14. We recently demonstrated that developmentally regulated aerobic glycolysis is integral to the normal process of postnatal neurogenesis and becomes co-opted in medulloblastoma. In our work, we concluded that Hexokinase 2 (Hk2), which we found to be required for Shh-induced aerobic glycolysis, was expressed specifically by cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs). We observed altered migration of CGNPs in hGFAP-cre;Hk2f/f mice and attributed this aspect of the phenotype to premature differentiation of CGNPs caused by loss of aerobic glycolysis. In response to our work, LePrince draws attention to the role of Bergmann glia in cerebellar development.. LePrince raises the important point that cerebellar granule neurons (CGNPs) do not develop in isolation but rather interact critically with the Bergmann glia. The Bergmann glia establish a radial scaffold on which the CGNPs migrate ...
Fig. 5 MAGE-A genes promote resistance to a glycolysis inhibitor in human cancer and mouse spermatogonia stem cells.. (A) Expression of human MAGE-A6 in MIA PaCa-2 cancer cells in complete media or treated with 2 mM 2-DG for 4 days. (B and C) Human MAGE-A6 expression promotes sustained growth of MIA PaCa-2 cancer cells treated with 2 mM 2-DG glycolysis inhibitor (B), but not without (C). (D) Mage-a Δ8 SSCs are more sensitive to 2-DG than littermate control wild-type SSCs. Cells were treated with indicated doses of 2-DG for 16 hours in the absence of feeder cells before the percentage of live cells was determined by annexin-V/4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and flow cytometry analysis. (E and F) Metabolomic analysis of MAGE-A6 expressing MIA PaCa-2 cells grown in standard media or 2 mM 2-DG for 2 to 10 days. Nontargeted metabolomics was performed by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) West Coast Metabolomics Core (n = 6). Principal components analysis (E) and relative quantities of ...
View Notes - Ch_9_Glycolysis_Fermentation from BIO 3 at Evergreen Valley. Glycolysis and Fermentation Biol-003 A. Introduction 1. Chemotroph vs. autotroph 2. - G = free energy change a. - G favorable
The tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and other processes that remain incompletely defined. Among these, BRCA1 heterodimerizes with BARD1 to ubiquitylate targets via its N-terminal E3 ligase activity. Here, it is demonstrated that BRCA1 promotes oxidative metabolism by degrading Oct1 (POU2F1), a transcription factor with proglycolytic and tumorigenic effects. BRCA1 E3 ubiquitin ligase mutation skews cells toward a glycolytic metabolic profile while elevating Oct1 protein. CRISPR-mediated Oct1 deletion reverts the glycolytic phenotype. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) confirms deregulation of metabolic genes downstream of Oct1. BRCA1 mediates Oct1 ubiquitylation and degradation, and mutation of two ubiquitylated Oct1 lysines insulates the protein against BRCA1-mediated destabilization. Oct1 deletion in MCF-7 breast cancer cells does not perturb growth in standard culture, but inhibits growth in soft agar and xenograft assays. In primary breast cancer clinical specimens, Oct1 ...
Introduction: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) can be sources for cells such as megakaryocytes (MK) that cannot be obtained easily from humans. Studies have shown that iPSC depend more on glycolysis for energy production than their somatic sources. Less is known about metabolic processes in cells differentiated from iPSC, and no studies exist for derived MK.. Hypothesis: MKs differ in glycolysis gene expression from parent iPSC.. Methods: We compared mRNA expression for glycolytic enzyme genes in 14 human iPSC lines paired with derived MK lines. Transcript abundance levels were determined in RNA-Seq data using the TopHat/Cufflinks software suite. Transcript data was filtered such that the interquartile range over the dataset was , 1 FPKM, and levels were transformed as log2(FPKM+1). MK:iPS expression ratios for genes encoding 11 glycolytic enzymes (Figure) were estimated using multilevel mixed model regression, wherein multiple transcripts were nested within a gene, and iPS/MK pairing was ...
Preclinical imaging with radiolabeled probes became an integral part of the complex translational process that moves a newly developed compound from laboratory to clinical application. Imaging studies in animal tumor models may be undertaken to test a newly synthesized tracer, a newly developed drug or to interrogate, in the living organism, specific molecular and biological processes underlying tumor growth and progression. The aim of the present review is to outline the current knowledge and future perspectives of preclinical imaging in oncology by providing examples from recent literature. Among the biological processes and molecular targets that can be visualized with radiolabeled probes in animal tumor models, we focused on proliferation, expression of targets suitable for therapy, glycolytic phenotype, metastatic dissemination, tumor angiogenesis and survival. The major contribution of preclinical imaging emerging from these studies is the development and validation of imaging biomarkers ...
1. With reference to the post-operative dysfunction of the liver observed after halothane anaesthesia, the effects of the anaesthetic on some metabolic functions were studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Oxygen uptake, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis were affected by halothane at a concentration (2.5% of the gas phase) within the range used in clinical anaesthesia. 2. At this concentration of halothane uptake of oxygen was inhibited in livers from both fed and starved rats. 3. In livers from fed rats there was a 16-fold increase in lactate production. This was accompanied by a fivefold decrease in the tissue content of 2-oxoglutarate and a more than twofold decrease in citrate. The calculated [free NAD+]/[free NADH] ratio in both cytoplasm and mitochondria was lower in the halothane-exposed livers than in controls. 4. In livers of starved rats the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate was decreased by halothane to 30% of the control rate. 5. Halothane inhibited ...
Bommer, Guido. Protecting Glycolysis and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway from Metabolic Side-Products.Keystone Conference: Novel Frontiers in Understanding Tumor Metabolism (Banff, Canada, du 21/02/2016 au 25/02/2016 ...
Cancer cell metabolism is reprogrammed to sustain the high metabolic demands of cell proliferation. Recently, emerging studies have shown that mitochondrial metabolism is a potential target for cancer therapy. Herein, four mitochondria-targeted phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(iii) complexes have been d
Ok, so its well established that a level of mechanical tension is needed in order to maximise the hypertrophic responses to resistance training. But what about metabolic stress? Well, it has been suggested that metabolic stress might play an additive role by enhancing the post exercise hypertrophic response (Schoenfeld, 2013). As highlighted by Schoenfeld (2010), the effects of metabolic stress are likely to arise through metabolite build up as a result of what is called anaerobic glycolysis. Anaerobic glycolysis is simply the production of energy using glucose in the absence of oxygen. It is likely that the products of anaerobic glycolysis (e.g. lactate, hydrogen ions, creatine) initiates a series of processes (fibre recruitment, enhanced hormone release, cellular swelling, production of ROS, altered myokine production), which contribute to the hypertrophy process (Schoenfeld, 2013).. Interestingly, bodybuilding-type resistance training programs are likely to induce significant amounts of ...
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival ...
View Notes - Sec_2 from MBIO 2370 at Manitoba. 2-1 Lipid Catabolism for ATP Generation Triglycerides (Phospho) Lipases Phospholipids Glycerol Glycolysis TCA cycle ETC ATP Fatty acids - oxidation
We observed a generalized anoxic induction of transcripts encoding enzymes of glycolysis. Several glycolytic genes were induced by anoxia (Fig. 4A). Genes involved in alcoholic fermentation such as ADH (At1g77120), PDC1 (At4g33070), and PDC2 (At5g54960) showed a dramatic increase in expression, in agreement with Klok et al. (2002). A strong induction of two aminotransferases was also observed (see Supplemental Table II, a and b). The fermentative production of ethanol by the concerted action of pyruvate decarboxylases and alcohol dehydrogenase may be unable to consume the pyruvate accumulating as a consequence of the inactivity of the Krebs cycle. The induction of an Ala aminotransferase (At1g17290) gene and accumulation of the encoded enzyme may allow the conversion of the excess pyruvate to Ala (see Supplemental Table II, a and b). The production of Ala is indeed relevant in rice roots, reaching up to 1.2% of the dry weight after 24 h under anoxia (Reggiani and Bertani, 2003). The cytosolic ...
There is resurgent interest in cancer cell metabolism as researchers seek to understand how metabolic pathways are altered in cancer and how these alterations can be exploited for therapeutic gain. This eBriefing discusses advances in the field.
The Csr system was recently demonstrated to be a major controller of upper glycolysis fluxes (16), but its involvement in metabolic adaptation is less clear in the literature. CsrA is known to positively regulate glycolytic genes and negatively regulate gluconeogenic genes (15, 16). A study of the BarA/UvrY two-component system during the metabolic switch suggested that the Csr system is crucial for efficient adaptation between different metabolic pathways (2). Here, we showed that gene expression in the CCM (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle) did not present strong discrepancies between the Csr system mutants during the acetate consumption phase, in deep contrast to the situation during glucose consumption. It will be awkward to totally rule out any control of these genes by CsrA, since regulation could be at the posttranscriptional level. The control by CsrA could also be counterbalanced by its higher sequestration by CsrB, since the ...
Platelets show decreased glycolytic rate in asthma.(A) Extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) trace in asthmatic (filled squares) and healthy controls (open sq
The first step in both anaerobic and aerobic respiration is called glycolysis. This is the process of taking one glucose (sugar) molecule and breaking it down into pyruvate and energy (2 ATP). We will discuss this in depth during aerobic respiration.. The second step in anaerobic respiration is called fermentation. Fermentation starts with pyruvate (the end product of glycolysis). Depending on the organism, pyruvate can either be fermented into ethanol (a fancy name for alcohol) or lactate (lactic acid). Fermentation releases CO2, but does not make any ATP - all ATP during anaerobic respiration is produced during glycolysis. Since glycolysis produces 2 ATP, anaerobic respiration yields 2 ATP for every molecule of glucose. Both glycolysis and fermentation take place within the cytosol/cytoplasm of a cell. In fact, the entire process of anaerobic respiration takes place in the cytosol.. Fermentation is the process by which we make wine and other types alcohol. Through an anaerobic process, yeast ...
Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Compared to normal cells, cancer cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support their proliferation, metastasis and survival. Several oncogenic signaling pathways play an important role in cancer metabolism. Alteration of enzymes like HK2, PKM2, GLS1, IDH and SHMT2 is involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming. Recently, growing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in regulating cancers in many aspects including tumor cell metabolism. LncRNAs are mRNA-like transcripts that are longer than 200 nucleotides, yet do not appear to encode a protein. Many lncRNAs are differentially expressed between a variety of cancer tissues and corresponding para-cancer tissues, and their dysregulation has been connected to carcinogenesis and tumor progression. LncRNAs exert their function through miRNAs or directly through targeting metabolic reprogramming related kinases. Exploring the roles and mechanisms of lncRNAs in the
Highlights Glycolysis II. 1. Conversion of F6P to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP - need to know) is catalyzed by the enzyme phoshofructokinase (PFK) (need to know). This reaction also requires ATP and is an irreversible reaction. ATP is an allosteric effector. High levels of ATP inhibit the enzyme. Low levels stimulate the enzyme. This is consistent with the energy needs of the cell - when ATP is low, cells need glycolysis to run, so PFK is turned ON. When ATP is high, cells dont need glycolysis to run, so PFK is turned OFF. PFK is a major control point for glycolysis because it stops the pathway for entry of either glucose or fructose.. 2. In the next step of glycolysis, the six carbon F1,6BP is split into two three carbon piece (DHAP and G3P) s in a reaction catalyzed by aldolase. This reaction is very unfavorable when there are equal concentrations of products and reactants. To make the reaction go forward in the cell, cells push (increase amounts of reactants) and pull (decrease ...
Hearts isolated from 11- and 12-day rat embryos were incubated in a simple salt solution to which was added the metabolic inhibitors iodoacetate, malonate, 2, 4-dinitrophenol or trypan blue. Comparisons were made between the two age-groups and it was observed that both 11- and 12-day hearts exhibited depressed contractile activity with the glycolytic inhibitor iodoacetate. Malonate did not depress contraction rate in the younger hearts but significantly depressed the rate in the older hearts. A greater inhibitory action on the older hearts as compared with the younger hearts was also produced by 2, 4-dinitrophenol. These results were interpreted as further evidence of a shift in dependence on pathways other than glycolysis between days 11 and 12 of development.. The teratogenic agent trypan blue was shown to depress contraction rate when added to the incubation medium. This effect could be reversed by adding glycolytic intermediates such as fructose-1, 6-diphosphate or alpha glycerophosphate. ...
Cancer cells increase glucose metabolism to support aerobic glycolysis. However, only some cancer cells are acutely sensitive to glucose withdrawal, and the underlying mechanism of this selective sensitivity is unclear. We showed that glucose deprivation initiates a cell death pathway in cancer cells that is dependent on the kinase RIPK1. Glucose withdrawal triggered rapid plasma membrane depolarization and an influx of extracellular calcium into the cell through the L-type calcium channel Cav1.3 (CACNA1D), followed by activation of the kinase CAMK1. CAMK1 and the demethylase PPME1 were required for the subsequent demethylation and inactivation of the catalytic subunit of the phosphatase PP2A (PP2Ac) and the phosphorylation of RIPK1. Plasma membrane depolarization, PP2Ac demethylation, and cell death were prevented by glucose and, unexpectedly, by its nonmetabolizable analog 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor. These findings reveal a previously unknown function of glucose as a ...
Glucose in the bloodstream diffuses into the cytoplasm and is locked there by phosphorylation. A glucose molecule is then rearranged slightly to fructose and phosphorylated again to fructose diphosphate. These steps actually require energy, in the form of two ATPs per glucose. The fructose is then cleaved to yield two glyceraldehyde phosphates (GPs). In the next steps, energy is finally released, in the form of two ATPs and two NADHs, as the GPs are oxidized to phosphoglycerates. One of the key enzymes in this process is glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), which transfers a hydrogen atom from the GP to NAD to yield the energetic NADH. Due to its key position in the glycolytic pathway, biochemical assays of GPDH are often used to estimate the glycolytic capacity of a muscle cell. Finally, two more ATPs are produced as the phosphoglycerates are oxidized to pyruvate.varicofix pret. ...
In this study, tumor sub-volumes were defined based on a DPBC strategy of FDG and 64Cu-ATSM PET, and the overlap between these sub-volumes was analyzed.. Two cut-off values for FDG uptake were explored, and 64Cu-ATSM uptake was analyzed by sub-volumes based on two different time-points for image acquisition. We observed an overlap between all 64Cu-ATSM and FDG sub-volumes. However, the degree of overlap varied between cases.. Our results showed that a fairly large part of the hypoxic sub-volume as defined by 64Cu-ATSM was not included in a boost volume based on FDG uptake with the chosen thresholds. However, the hypoxic sub-volume did not encompass the FDG uptake either, and it therefore seems attractive to include both tracers in RT planning considering their association to treatment outcome and prognosis.. The Cu24 sub-volume was predominantly included in the BTV consisting of FDG (FDG40 or FDG50) and Cu3. This result suggests that the temporal variations of 64Cu-ATSM uptake might be taken ...
A 71 years old patient diagnosed with metastatic lung carcinoid tumor (hepatic, splenic and osseous metastasis) presents a subcarinal lymphadenopathy with different uptake patterns depending on the tracer used during the study. We have performed a comparative 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT study where we have noticed an increased FDG uptake in the posterior right corner of the lesion while the uptake of DOTATOC was mostly in the anterior left corner of the lesion. This probably means that the posterior right corner contains cells with high glycolytic metabolism but, at the same time, decreased SSTR expression while the anterior left corner presents low glycolytic metabolism with high levels of SSTR expression. To sum up, this adenopathy is presenting 2 different types of neuroendocrine cell populations: well differentiated in the anterior left corner and poorly differentiated in the posterior right corner.. ...
Macrophages activated by the TLR4 agonist LPS undergo dramatic changes in their metabolic activity. We here show that LPS induces expression of the key metabolic regulator Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2). Activation of PKM2 using two well-characterized small molecules, DASA-58 and TEPP-46, inhibited LPS-induced Hif-1α and IL-1β, as well as the expression of a range of other Hif-1α-dependent genes. Activation of PKM2 attenuated an LPS-induced proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype while promoting traits typical of an M2 macrophage. We show that LPS-induced PKM2 enters into a complex with Hif-1α, which can directly bind to the IL-1β promoter, an event that is inhibited by activation of PKM2. Both compounds inhibited LPS-induced glycolytic reprogramming and succinate production. Finally, activation of PKM2 by TEPP-46 in vivo inhibited LPS and Salmonella typhimurium-induced IL-1β production, while boosting production of IL-10. PKM2 is therefore a critical determinant of macrophage activation by ...
Naked mole-rats live in large colonies deep underground in hypoxic conditions. Park et al. found that these animals fuel anaerobic glycolysis with fructose by a rewired pathway that avoids tissue damage (see the Perspective by Storz and McClelland). These results provide insight into the adaptations that this strange social rodent has to make for life underground. They also have implications for medical practice, particularly for understanding how to protect tissues from hypoxia.. Science, this issue p. 307; see also p. 248 ...
The effect can be explained; as the yeast being facultative anaerobes can produce energy using two different metabolic pathways. While the oxygen concentration is low, the product of glycolysis, pyruvate, is turned into ethanol and carbon dioxide, and the energy production efficiency is low (2 moles of ATP per mole of glucose). If the oxygen concentration grows, pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA that can be used in the citric acid cycle, which increases the efficiency to 32 moles of ATP per mole of glucose. Therefore, about 16 times as much glucose must be consumed anaerobically as aerobically to yield the same amount of ATP.[2]. Under anaerobic conditions, the rate of glucose metabolism is faster, but the amount of ATP produced (as already mentioned) is smaller. When exposed to aerobic conditions, the ATP and Citrate production increases and the rate of glycolysis slows, because the ATP and citrate produced act as allosteric inhibitors for phosphofructokinase 1, the third enzyme in the ...
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Seyfried & DAgostino 2014 Experiment showing that mDNA is the essential transformation leading to cancer. The tumorigenic phenotype is suppressed when normal mitochondria are transferred to the tumor cell cytoplasm. On the other hand, the tumorigenic phenotype is enhanced when tumor mitochondria are transferred to a normal cell cytoplasm. These findings further suggest that tumorigenesis is dependent more on mitochondrial function than on the types of mutations in the nucleus.. Unique process of lactic acid fermentation in presence of oxygen It is important to recognize that pyruvate is produced through aerobic glycolysis in most normal cells of the body that use glucose for energy. The reduction of pyruvate to lactate distinguishes the tumor cells from most normal cells, which fully oxidize pyruvate to CO2 and water for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the electron transport chain chain (56). Aerobic glycolysis with lactate production can ...
Effective strategies to treat or prevent staphylococcal infection have been limited by the ability of these organisms to adapt to a variety of clinical settings. Such adaptation includes changes in metabolic activity and in the expression of virulence factors and toxins. Depending on the site of infection, Staphylococcus aureus proliferates using aerobic metabolism or anaerobic pathways at oxygen‐depleted sites [2]. It adapts to aerobic glycolysis at many sites including skin and immune cells [3]. The importance of neutrophil function in the effective eradication of S. aureus at all sites of infection and under these different metabolic conditions has been well documented. These organisms, nonetheless, are highly resistant to phagocytic clearance and express multiple gene products that directly thwart immune function [4].. In contrast to many human pathogens that evade proinflammatory signaling to survive, S. aureus is unusually resistant to phagocytic clearance and persists despite the ...
Tumors also metabolize differently from normal cells. They convert sugar into energy incredibly fast and produce lactic acid, a chemical normally resulting from metabolism that takes place in the absence of oxygen. In other words, cancer cells ferment, and scientists dont know why. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect, named for Otto Warburg, a German biochemist who won a Nobel Prize in 1931 for his discoveries about oxygen and metabolism. Up to 80 percent of cancers display the Warburg effect. Researchers know that many cancers depend on the Warburg effect for their survival, but they dont know why. To Davies, the strange way in which tumors metabolize also speaks of cancers ancient past: They are behaving as if there were no oxygen available.. Malignant cells also produce acid, which Mark Vincent, another proponent of the atavistic theory, says creates an environment reminiscent of the atmosphere during the proterozoic eon, when life first appeared on Earth. The similarity between ...
Erythrocytes in mammals are anucleate when mature, meaning that they lack a cell nucleus and as a result, have no DNA. Red blood cells have nuclei during early phases of development, but extrude them as they mature in order to provide more space for hemoglobin. In comparison, the erythrocytes of nearly all other vertebrates have nuclei; the only known exception being salamanders of the Batrachoseps genus.[4] Mammalian erythrocytes also lose their other organelles such as their mitochondria. As a result, red blood cells produce ATP through glycolysis only and therefore use none of the oxygen they carry. Furthermore, red cells do not have an insulin receptor and thus glucose uptake is not regulated by insulin. Because of the lack of nucleus and organelles, the red blood cells cannot synthesize any RNA so they cannot divide or repair themselves. Mammalian erythrocytes are biconcave disks: flattened and depressed in the center, with a dumbbell-shaped cross section. This shape (as well as the loss of ...
Generally, stem cells show low oxidative phosphorylation and high glycolytic activity to synthesize ATP. Thus, stem cells favor enzymatic pathways synthesizing ATP anaerobically. This observation suggests that stem cells in a hypoxic condition are metabolically different from progenitor cells.. Niches or niche cells for quiescent stem cells are located in hypoxic regions of tissues not rich in vasculature, such as the trabecular zone for HSCs and bulges for pigmented stem cells (Jang and Sharkis, 2007). Lower organisms such as C. elegans (Golden and Riddle, 1984; Lee et al., 2003) and bacteria (Cho and Eagon, 1967) enter a resting phase characterized by suppressed metabolism and decreased cell cycling in response to the environmental influences of low-temperature or low-nutrients. This adaptation is crucial for their survival. Recently, an evolutionarily conserved mechanism regulating the resting phase of mammalian HSCs is being established through the analysis of mice deficient in FOXO ...
To the Editor:. Jóhannsson et al1 have recently observed upregulation of the Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in congestive heart failure (CHF). The implied increased uptake of exogenous (systemic) lactate confirms the potential significance of increased carbohydrate metabolism as a compensatory adaptation in CHF and also identifies a potential therapeutic focus. However, 3 points deserve emphasis:. (1) Although increased MCT-1 appears to be a feature of at least a subgroup of ventricular dysfunction, certainly indicating an increased reliance on systemic lactate, Jóhannsson et al interpret a lack of comparable glucose transporter (Glut-1 and -4) upregulation to suggest endogenous glycolytically derived lactate is relatively insignificant. Their assertion derives from the widely held traditional notion that fatty acid metabolism (FAM), coincidentally the major energy source in normal hearts, antagonizes glycolysis and vice versa.. Contemporary studies, while accepting a relative fuel ...
Clinically approved therapies that target angiogenesis in tumors and ocular diseases focus on controlling pro-angiogenic growth factors in order to reduce aberrant microvascular growth. Although research on angiogenesis has revealed key mechanisms that regulate tissue vascularization, therapeutic success has been limited owing to insufficient efficacy, refractoriness and tumor resistance. Emerging concepts suggest that, in addition to growth factors, vascular metabolism also regulates angiogenesis and is a viable target for manipulating the microvasculature. Recent studies show that endothelial cells rely on glycolysis for ATP production, and that the key glycolytic regulator 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) regulates angiogenesis by controlling the balance of tip versus stalk cells. As endothelial cells acquire a tip cell phenotype, they increase glycolytic production of ATP for sprouting. Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of PFKFB3 causes a transient, partial ...
Terms You should have a working knowledge of the following terms: alcohol fermentation cellular respiration cytosol dehydrogenase electronegativity fermentation glycolysis lactic acid fermentation NAD+ NADH oxidation pyruvate redox reduction substrate-lev
2016). As such, the research performed over the past decade using simple systems and metabolomics has generated a general conceptual framework that appears generally applicable to many systems. The findings suggest that glucose is primarily converted to lactate in proliferative metabolism. The fate of glucose in proliferating cells trifurcates toward the pentose phosphate pathway, glucosamine biosynthesis, and glycolytic degradation to lactate. The pentose phosphate pathway generates an essential component of nucleic acids: ribose, which would then be reduced to deoxyribose by deoxyribonucleotic reductase. Glucosamine, which is at the crossroads of glucose and glutamine metabolism, is critical for carbohydrate synthesis and posttranslational modification via O-linked glycosylation, for example. The conversion of glucose to lactate with the regeneration of NAD+ from NADH ensures the upstream glycolytic flux through GAPDH, which depends on NAD+, continues to funnel pyruvate downstream for its ...
as inhibitor of tumour cell energy metabolism. The Warburg effect is the elevated glucose metabolism to lactic acid (glycolysis), even in the presence of oxygen. While it has been recognized as the most common biochemical phenotype of cancer for over 80 years, its biochemical and genetic basis remained unknown for over 50 years. Work focused on elucidating the underlying mechanism(s) of the Warburg effect commenced in the authors laboratory in 1969. By 1985 two important findings emerged related directly to the basis of the Warburg effect, the first that the mitochondrial content of tumors exhibiting this phenotype is markedly decreased relative to the tissue of origin, and the second that such mitochondria have markedly elevated amounts of the enzyme hexokinase-2 (HK2) bound to their outer membrane.. HK2 is the first of a number of enzymes in cancer cells involved in metabolizing the sugar glucose to lactic acid. At its mitochondrial location HK2 binds at/near the protein VDAC (voltage ...
Rod-derived cone viability factor (RdCVF) is an inactive thioredoxin secreted by rod photoreceptors that protects cones from degeneration. Because the
Glycolysis[edit]. 1,3-bisphospho-D-glycerate 3-phosphoglycerate kinase 3-phospho-D-glycerate Phosphoglyceromutase 2-phospho-D- ... The glycerate is a biochemically significant metabolic intermediate in both glycolysis and the Calvin cycle. This anion is ...
Total glycolysis, methanolysis, and hydrolysis. The treatment of polyester waste through total glycolysis to fully convert the ... Partial glycolysis. Partial glycolysis (transesterification with ethylene glycol) converts the rigid polymer into short-chained ... Similar to total glycolysis, methanolysis converts the polyester to dimethyl terephthalate(DMT), which can be filtered and ... No 2 P. 29-34). "Glycolysis of industrial poly(ethylene terephthalate) waste directed to bis(hydroxyethylene) terephthalate and ...
... compared to the two gained in glycolysis). Analogous to the above reactions, the glucose produced can then undergo glycolysis ... Intermediate products of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway can be used to make all twenty ... Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important ten-step pathway called glycolysis, the net result of which is to break down ... The metabolic pathway of glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate by via a series of intermediate metabolites. Each chemical ...
Glycolysis upregulation[edit]. Inhibition of the Citric Acid Cycle forces the cell to create ATP glycolytically in order to ...
In gluconeogenesis and glycolysis[edit]. Gluconeogenesis and glycolysis share a series of six reversible reactions. In ... Aldolases A and C are mainly involved in glycolysis, while aldolase B is involved in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis.[4] ... Aldolase is used in the reversible trunk of gluconeogenesis/glycolysis 2(PEP + NADH + H+ + ATP + H2O) ⇌ fructose 1,6- ... Glycolysis, a catabolic pathway, uses the forward reaction. Aldolase is divided into two classes by mechanism. ...
Glycolysis[change , change source]. Main article: Glycolysis. In glycolysis, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken into two ... It has four stages known as glycolysis, Link reaction, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. This produces ATP ... Pyruvate from glycolysis is actively pumped into mitochondria. One carbon dioxide molecule and one hydrogen molecule are ... They share the initial pathway of glycolysis but aerobic metabolism continues with the Krebs cycle and oxidative ...
GlycolysisEdit. Glycolysis is the process of breaking down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules, while storing energy ... Glucose-6-phosphate can then progress through glycolysis.[1] Glycolysis only requires the input of one molecule of ATP when the ... Glycolysis consists of ten steps, split into two phases.[2] During the first phase, it requires the breakdown of two ATP ... Glycolysis can be regulated at different steps of the process through feedback regulation. The step that is regulated the most ...
GlycolysisEdit. Main article: Glycolysis. The first substrate-level phosphorylation occurs after the conversion of 3- ... Thus, in glycolysis dephosphorylation results in the production of 4 ATP. However, the prior preparatory phase consumes 2 ATP, ... Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells during glycolysis and in mitochondria either during the Krebs ... In the pay-off phase of glycolysis, a net of 2 ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation. ...
GlycolysisEdit. Main article: Glycolysis. In glycolysis, glucose and glycerol are metabolized to pyruvate. Glycolysis generates ... In glycolysis, hexokinase is directly inhibited by its product, glucose-6-phosphate, and pyruvate kinase is inhibited by ATP ... ATP can be produced by a number of distinct cellular processes; the three main pathways in eukaryotes are (1) glycolysis, (2) ... The pyruvate generated as an end-product of glycolysis is a substrate for the Krebs Cycle.[17] ...
GlycolysisEdit. Glycolysis is an essential process of glucose degrading into two molecules of pyruvate, through various steps, ... "Regulation of Glycolysis". cmgm.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2017-11-18.. *^ Sharma, Saumya; Guthrie, Patrick H.; Chan, Suzanne S.; ... "Introduction to Glycolysis". Retrieved 18 November 2017.. *^ Fuhs SR, Hunter T (2017). "pHisphorylation: the emergence of ... The chemical equation for the conversion of D-glucose to D-glucose-6-phosphate in the first step of glycolysis is given by ...
Main article: Glycolysis. Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that takes place in the cytosol of cells in all living organisms. ... Glycolysis. Out of the cytoplasm it goes into the Krebs cycle with the acetyl CoA. It then mixes with CO2 and makes 2 ATP, NADH ... Glycolysis pay-off phase 4 Substrate-level phosphorylation 2 NADH 3 or 5 Oxidative phosphorylation : Each NADH produces net 1.5 ... Glycolysis can be literally translated as "sugar splitting".[3]. Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. Main article: Pyruvate ...
The next step in the chain is crucial for cells in order to make more energy than they expend through the process of glycolysis ... So before glycerol can enter the pathway of glycolysis it must be converted into an intermediate molecule, which in this case ... This molecule can then enter the metabolic pathway of glycolysis and provide more energy for the cell. Looking at the entire ... However, these glycerol molecules must contribute to the process of glycolysis before they can provide energy to the body, as ...
In glycolysisEdit. PEP is formed by the action of the enzyme enolase on 2-phosphoglyceric acid. Metabolism of PEP to pyruvic ... It has the highest-energy phosphate bond found (−61.9 kJ/mol) in organisms, and is involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. ...
Total glycolysis, methanolysis, and hydrolysisEdit. The treatment of polyester waste through total glycolysis to fully convert ... Partial glycolysisEdit. Partial glycolysis (transesterification with ethylene glycol) converts the rigid polymer into short- ... Similar to total glycolysis, methanolysis converts the polyester to dimethyl terephthalate(DMT), which can be filtered and ... Makuska, Ricardas (2008). "Glycolysis of industrial poly(ethylene terephthalate) waste directed to bis(hydroxyethylene) ...
... compared to the two gained in glycolysis). Analogous to the above reactions, the glucose produced can then undergo glycolysis ... Intermediate products of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway can be used to form all twenty ... Glucose is mainly metabolized by a very important ten-step pathway called glycolysis, the net result of which is to break down ... The pathway is a crucial reversal of glycolysis from pyruvate to glucose and can utilize many sources like amino acids, ...
The pyruvate generated by glycolysis and the fatty acids produced by breakdown of fats enter the mitochondrial IMS through the ... Chaudhry R, Varacallo M (2019). "Biochemistry, Glycolysis". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. PMID 29493928. Retrieved 2019-04 ...
... many of which are shared with glycolysis. However, this pathway is not simply glycolysis run in reverse, as several steps are ... The glycerol enters glycolysis and the fatty acids are broken down by beta oxidation to release acetyl-CoA, which then is fed ... In anaerobic conditions, glycolysis produces lactate, through the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase re-oxidizing NADH to NAD+ for re ... Once inside, the major route of breakdown is glycolysis, where sugars such as glucose and fructose are converted into pyruvate ...
Its main role is in glycolysis instead of gluconeogenesis, but its substrate is the same as FBPase's, so its activity affects ... The substrate of FBPase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, has also been shown to activate pyruvate kinase in glycolysis, linking ... Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L (2002). "Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis". In Susan Moran (ed.). Biochemistry (5th ed.). 41 ... Underwood AH, Newsholme EA (July 1967). "Control of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in rat kidney cortex slices". The ...
For example, if glycolysis and gluconeogenesis were to be active at the same time, glucose would be converted to pyruvate by ... Boiteux A, Hess B (1981). "Design of glycolysis". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 293 (1063): 5-22. Bibcode:1981RSPTB.293 ... The simultaneous carrying out of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis is an example of a futile cycle, represented by the following ... during glycolysis, fructose-6-phosphate is converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme ...
During glycolysis, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is broken down into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. ... "Glycolysis in Detail". Ohio State University at Mansfield. Retrieved 2011-07-10. v t e. ...
Through lactic acid fermentation, muscle cells are able to produce ATP and NAD+ to continue glycolysis, even under strenuous ... Abedon ST (1998-04-03). "Glycolysis and Fermentation". Ohio State University. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. ...
Glycolysis. *MODY 2/HHF3. *GSD type VII (Tarui's disease, phosphofructokinase deficiency). *Triosephosphate isomerase ...
During the anaerobic phase of glycolysis (the Cori Cycle), the mutated enzyme is unable to convert pyruvate into lactate to ... It converts pyruvate, the final product of glycolysis, to lactate when oxygen is absent or in short supply, and it performs the ... Cancer cells rely on increased glycolysis resulting in increased lactate production in addition to aerobic respiration in the ... This state of fermentative glycolysis is catalyzed by the A form of LDH. This mechanism allows tumorous cells to convert the ...
... of the glucose to G6P ratio due to significant decrease intracellular glucose levels cause significant disruption of glycolysis ...
Marsin AS, Bouzin C, Bertrand L, Hue L (2002). "The stimulation of glycolysis by hypoxia in activated monocytes is mediated by ... a regulatory molecule that controls glycolysis in eukaryotes. The encoded protein has a 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity that ...
G-6-P is readily fed into glycolysis, (or can go into the pentose phosphate pathway if G-6-P concentration is high) a process ... Overall, the glycolysis part of the cycle produces 2 ATP molecules at a cost of 6 ATP molecules consumed in the gluconeogenesis ... When the supply of oxygen is sufficient, this energy comes from feeding pyruvate, one product of glycolysis, into the Krebs ... The fermentation step oxidizes the NADH produced by glycolysis back to NAD+, transferring two electrons from NADH to reduce ...
Glycolysis[edit]. Main article: glycolysis. Glycolysis is performed by all living organisms and consists of 10 steps. The net ... "10 Steps of Glycolysis".. *^ "Citric Acid Cycle" (PDF). Takusagawa's Note. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012. ... During the initial phases of glycolysis and the TCA cycle, cofactors such as NAD+ donate and accept electrons[12] that aid in ... The ten-step catabolic pathway of glycolysis is the initial phase of free-energy release in the breakdown of glucose and can be ...
Bachelard, HS (May 1972). "Deoxyglucose and brain glycolysis". The Biochemical Journal. 127 (5): 83P. doi:10.1042/bj1270083pa. ...
Pyruvate is an end-product of glycolysis, and is oxidized within the mitochondria. Hence, according to Warburg, carcinogenesis ... Warburg regarded the fundamental difference between normal and cancerous cells to be the ratio of glycolysis to respiration; ... Vazquez, A.; Liu, J.; Zhou, Y.; Oltvai, Z. (2010). "Catabolic efficiency of aerobic glycolysis: the Warburg effect revisited". ... Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ (November 2004). "Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis?". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 4 (11): 891-9. ...
This page is the template for the Glycolysis Navigation template. This template should be used on biological chemical and ... The glycolysis navigation template. This template should be used on biological chemical and enzyme pages which lie in the ... The above documentation is transcluded from Template:Glycolysis/doc. (edit , history). Editors can experiment in this ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Glycolysis&oldid=879819658" ...
Glycolysis has two basic functions in the cell. ... Glycolysis Glycolysis is the sequence of enzymatic reactions ... Glycolysis Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Glycolysis. Glycolysis is the sequence ... Glycolysis. Glycolysis, a series of enzymatic steps in which the six-carbon glucose molecule is degraded to yield two three- ... Glycolysis. Resources. Glycolysis, a series of enzymatic steps in which the six-carbon glucose molecule is degraded to yield ...
Its universal and central role in metabolism suggests that glycolysis evolved early in the history of life. Source for ... Glycolysis and Fermentation Glycolysis is an anaerobic metabolic pathway, found in the cytosol of all cells, which forms ... Individual yeast cells multiply rapidly by the process… Glycolysis , Glycolysis, a series of enzymatic steps in which the six- ... Glycolysis and Fermentation. Glycolysis is an anaerobic metabolic pathway, found in the cytosol of all cells, which forms ...
Problem : What class of metabolic reaction is catalyzed by phosphoglucose isomerase in the second step of glycolysis? What are ... Problem : In step four of glycolysis, why is dihyroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) immediately converted into glyceraldehyde-3- ... DHAP is converted to GAP so that it can continue in glycolysis. ... Problem : Where does glycolysis take place in a cell? In the ... What is the name of the enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of a glucose molecule in the first step of glycolysis? ...
Glycolysis. 2. [Films for the Humanities & Sciences (Firm); Films Media Group.; TVOntario.;] -- Continuing with the second half ... of the glycolysis process, the energy intermediate molecule NADH is introduced. The glycolytic breakdown of glucose continues, ... Glycolysis and NAD (2:06) --. Phase Two Glycolysis Reactions (3:44) --. Energy Needs of Simple Life Forms (2:59).. ... schema:description "Glycolysis and NAD (2:06) -- Phase Two Glycolysis Reactions (3:44) -- Energy Needs of Simple Life Forms (2: ...
Glycolysis in normal epithelial cells responds to microenvironmental mechanics via the modulation of actin bundles that ... Our data reveal a mechanism by which glycolysis responds to architectural features of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, thus ... that the transfer of human bronchial epithelial cells from stiff to soft substrates causes a downregulation of glycolysis via ...
In most organisms, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) ... Glycolysis is an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway. The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is an ancient ... A Detailed Glycolysis Animation provided by IUBMB (Adobe Flash Required) The Glycolytic enzymes in Glycolysis at RCSB PDB ... This high glycolysis rate has important medical applications, as high aerobic glycolysis by malignant tumors is utilized ...
The complete pathway of glycolysis was elucidated in 1940. This pathway is often referred to as Embden-Meyerhof pathway in ... Glycolysis is a universal pathway in the living cells. ... Glycolysis Cancer Research study Literature review This is a ... Glycolysis is a universal pathway in the living cells. The complete pathway of glycolysis was elucidated in 1940. This pathway ... Granchi C, Minutolo F (2012) Anticancer agents that counteract tumor glycolysis. ChemMedChem 7(8):1318-1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
Glycolysis definition, the catabolism of carbohydrates, as glucose and glycogen, by enzymes, with the release of energy and the ... Words nearby glycolysis. glycolic, glycolic acid, glycolic aciduria, glycolipid, glycolyl, glycolysis, glycolytic, ... glycolysis. *. Still, ramping up glycolysis enough to rival mitochondrias usual ATP output would take a lot more sugar. ... Other words from glycolysis. gly′co•lyt′ic (glī′kə-lĭt′ĭk) adj. ...
Glycolysis News and Research. RSS Glycolysis is a series of reactions that helpextract energy from glucose. This is an ancient ... inhibited glucose uptake and glycolysis, and led to decreased cellular glucose production from non-carbohydrate sources, which ...
Glycolysis, or its variations, is a fundamental metabolic pathway in life that functions in almost all organisms to decompose ... We tested this pathway, termed non-oxidative glycolysis (NOG), in vitro and in vivo in Escherichia coli. NOG enables complete ... Much of the pyruvate produced from sugars by glycolysis, a metabolic pathway found in almost all living organisms, is ... This pathway, termed non-oxidative glycolysis (NOG), enables complete carbon conservation in sugar catabolism to acetyl-CoA The ...
Introduction to Glycolysis: Energy Storage. Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway in which glucose is consumed and ATP is ...
GLYCOLYSIS MUTANTS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. Drago Clifton, Shelley B. Weinstock and Dan G. Fraenkel ... GLYCOLYSIS MUTANTS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. Drago Clifton, Shelley B. Weinstock and Dan G. Fraenkel ... GLYCOLYSIS MUTANTS IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. Drago Clifton, Shelley B. Weinstock and Dan G. Fraenkel ... or several enzymes of glycolysis (gcr) . In diploids the mutations were recessive. pyk, pgi, pfk, and gcr segregated 2:2 from ...
The overall reaction of glycolysis can be expressed as follows:. The reactions of glycolysis. The glycolytic pathway is ... The enzyme is activated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, an intermediate in glycolysis, driving the rate of glycolysis when more ... the muscle cells may switch to glycolysis when oxygen is depleted. Though less energy efficient, glycolysis produces energy at ... Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which one molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic ...
If glycolysis were to continue indefinitely, all of the NAD+ would be used up, and glycolysis would stop. To allow glycolysis ... Post-glycolysis processesEdit. The overall process of glycolysis is: Glucose + 2 NAD+ + 2 ADP + 2 Pi → 2 Pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 ... In most organisms, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. The most common type of glycolysis is the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP ... Glycolysis is an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway. The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is an ancient ...
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Glycolysis can occur with or without oxygen. In the presence of oxygen, glycolysis is the first stage of cellular respiration. ... Glycolysis literally means "splitting sugars." In glycolysis, glucose (a six carbon sugar) is split into two molecules of a ... Glycolysis yields two molecules of ATP (free energy containing molecule), two molecules of pyruvic acid and two "high energy" ... Without oxygen, glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP. This process is called fermentation. This new book ...
Can you name the reagents in glycolysis? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ...
Benabe J.E., Echegoyen L.A., Martínez-Maldonado M. (1986) Mechanism of Inhibition of Glycolysis by Vanadate. In: Massry S.G., ... Gordon, E.E., and de Hartog, M. Localization and characterization of the inhibitory action of ethacrynic acid on glycolysis. ... decreasing the rate of glycolysis) by reduction in the activity of the ATPases or inhibition of phophofructokinase, pyruvate ...
Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration, the process by which living cells break down glucose into small, energy- ... Where in the cell does glycolysis occur?. A: Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (cytoplasm) of the cell. Glycolysis is the first ... What is the process of glycolysis like?. A: Glycolysis is a metabolic process by which a single molecule of glucose is broken ... What is the difference between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?. A: Glycolysis is the breakdown of a molecule of glucose into ...
Can you pick the components of the glycolysis net reaction? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and ... Science Quiz / Glycolysis Net Reaction. Random Science or Biology Quiz Can you pick the components of the glycolysis net ... Tags:Biology Quiz, Clickable Quiz, biochemistry, component, glycolysis, net, reaction. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in ...
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis [ Pathway menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , Image (png) file , Help ] ... Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing ... It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003]. ...
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show description , User data ... Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing ... It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003].. ...
Glucose is the primary starting molecule that drives the process of glycolysis. It is a simple sugar monomer of carbohydrates ... What Is the Source of Energy for the First Step of Glycolysis?. A: Glucose is the source of energy in glycolysis. During this ... What Is the Process of Glycolysis Like?. A: Glycolysis is a metabolic process by which a single molecule of glucose is broken ... What Is the Net Gain of ATP Molecules Produced in Glycolysis?. A: There is a net gain of two ATP molecules produced by ...
... An interesting and extreamly educational ... Disciplines with similar materials as Cellular Respiration Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport 3D Animation ... You just viewed Cellular Respiration Glycolysis,.... Please take a moment to rate this material. ... Other materials like Cellular Respiration Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport 3D Animation ...
Various MTVs and total lesion glycolysis were defined based on 2 segmentation methods: (i) an absolute threshold of SUV (0-20 g ... Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis in Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy-Which Threshold ... and/or total lesion glycolysis to predict local-regional control (LRC) and disease-free survival. ... "Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis in Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy---Which ...
The TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) also known as fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase TIGAR is an enzyme that ... Fructose-6-phosphate levels build up, which has multiple effects inside the cell: The rate of glycolysis decreases The rate of ... When TIGAR is overexpressed in IL-3 deprived cells the rate of glycolysis decreases further which enhances the apoptosis rate. ... Many cancer cells have altered metabolism where the rate of glycolysis and anaerobic respiration are very high whilst oxidative ...
This enhanced glycolysis is thought to allow cancer cells to survive the oxygen-deficient conditions they experience in the ... Researchers reveal how damaged cells normally switch off glycolysis as they shut down and show that defects in this process may ... Cancer cells have long been known to have higher rates of the energy-generating metabolic pathway known as glycolysis. ... This enhanced glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect, is thought to allow cancer cells to survive the oxygen- ...
Section 2: First Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Requiring Steps) Step 1. The first step in glycolysis (Figure) is catalyzed by ... Section 3: Second Half of Glycolysis (Energy-Releasing Steps) So far, glycolysis has cost the cell two ATP molecules and ... Section 4: Outcomes of Glycolysis Glycolysis starts with glucose and ends with two pyruvate molecules, a total of four ATP ... Glycolysis consists of two distinct phases. The first part of the glycolysis pathway traps the glucose molecule in the cell and ...
Glycolysis: Study Oscillations in Yeast Cells. Glycolytic oscillations in yeast cells of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Full-scale model of glycolysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biophys Chem. 94(1-2):121-63. ...
  • Allard MF, Schönekess BO, Henning SL, English DR, Lopaschuk GD (2008) Contribution of oxidative metabolism and glycolysis to ATP production in hypertrophied hearts. (springer.com)
  • We tested this pathway, termed non-oxidative glycolysis (NOG), in vitro and in vivo in Escherichia coli . (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Structure of oxidative (EMP) and non-oxidative glycolysis (NOG). (nature.com)
  • Glucose metabolism produces, by oxidative phosphorylation, more than 15 times the amount of energy generated by aerobic glycolysis. (nih.gov)
  • We present the case for differing relationships between aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation across primates in association with species-specific variation in neurodevelopmental trajectories. (nih.gov)
  • This is the "break even" point of glycolysis: the two ATPs that were consumed in preparing for the cleavage have been now been regenerated, in addition to two molecules of NADH, which can be used to generate ATP through electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. (proteopedia.org)
  • Here we demonstrated that a switch of metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in renal fibroblasts was the primary feature of fibroblast activation during renal fibrosis and that suppressing renal fibroblast aerobic glycolysis could significantly reduce renal fibrosis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • While this may be a normal physiological development of old age, an associated aspect of decreasing aerobic glycolysis is a loss of neuroprotection via the pentose phosphate pathway that protects against oxidative stress, thus increasing the risk for oxidative damage. (alzforum.org)
  • However, while the fraction of total glucose burned through the slower route-mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation-barely changed over the 40-year age span in the study, the fraction going specifically through glycolysis declined steadily from a high of about 20 percent in 20-year-olds, to zero in 60-year-olds. (alzforum.org)
  • We found that Irp2 deficiency switches cellular metabolic pathways from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis. (pnas.org)
  • Both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis are not major oxidative/reductive processes by themselves, with one step in each one involving loss/gain of electrons, but the product of glycolysis, pyruvate, can be completely oxidized to carbon dioxide. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • In the 1920s, Warburg observed that cancer cells had a distinct metabolism that was highly dependent on glycolysis instead of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, regardless of oxygen availability ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Compared with oxidative phosphorylation, glycolysis is a less efficient pathway for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This reaction is a committed step that leads to glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation of pyruvate ( Fig. 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Rapidly proliferating cells increase glycolysis at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) to generate sufficient levels of glycolytic intermediates for use as anabolic substrates. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The temporary uncoupling between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation led to the proposal of an astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle whereby during stimulation, lactate produced by increased glycolysis in astrocytes is taken up by neurons as their primary energy source. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we compared the contribution of glycolysis, glutaminolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in rat and human HSC activation. (rug.nl)
  • This facilitates the determination of a cell's metabolic phenotype and the quantification of perturbations in the balance between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation under various stimuli or pathological states. (amsbio.com)
  • Further, a previous kinetic model of tumor glycolysis was updated by including the ratios of GLUT and HK isoforms, modified pyruvate kinase kinetics and an oxidative phosphorylation reaction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • During ischemia, the myocardium becomes critically dependent on ATP produced by anaerobic glycolysis, but after reperfusion, oxidative phosphorylation resumes, and glycolysis is relegated to its normal role as a minor producer of cellular ATP. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mallet et al 3 and Bunger et al 4 have shown that glycolytic activity during the transition period from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism is critical for functional recovery of the heart and that enhancement of glycolysis through provision of glucose, as opposed to other oxidative substrates, results in better recovery. (ahajournals.org)
  • 5 6 When glycolysis was inhibited during reperfusion by the administration of iodoacetic acid (IAA) or 2-deoxyglucose, the recovery of contractile function and high-energy phosphates was markedly impaired despite provision of oxidative substrates in the perfusion medium. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, the complete aerobic metabolism of glucose to carbon dioxide by glycolysis and the Krebs cycle yields up to thirty-eight ATPs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Its universal and central role in metabolism suggests that glycolysis evolved early in the history of life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since glycolysis plays a central role in cellular metabolism, it has several control points. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bodner, G. M. "Metabolism: Part I, Glycolysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glycolysis is the first step in the breakdown of glucose to extract energy for cellular metabolism. (oercommons.org)
  • Nearly all living organisms carry out glycolysis as part of their metabolism. (oercommons.org)
  • Oh I can't resist: Two rocket engines called Glycolysis and Fat Metabolism both funnel into a combustion chamber called the Kreb Cycle. (physicsforums.com)
  • Glycolysis is a critical process in the metabolism of carbohydrates . (proteopedia.org)
  • Further results revealed that macrophage M1 polarization, induced by HIF1 α overexpression, was via upregulating the mRNA expression of the genes related to the glycolysis metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results indicate that HIF1 α promoted macrophage glycolysis metabolism, which induced M1 polarization in mice. (hindawi.com)
  • The glucose metabolism diagram example "Glycolysis overview" was created using the ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software extended with the Biology solution from the Science and Education area of ConceptDraw Solution Park. (conceptdraw.com)
  • The Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (EMP) pathway, commonly known as glycolysis, represents the fundamental biochemical infrastructure for sugar catabolism in almost all organisms, as it provides key components for biosynthesis, energy metabolism, and global regulation. (pnas.org)
  • Cell senescence is associated with a progressive and marked increased rate of glucose metabolism through glycolysis. (hindawi.com)
  • Writing in the August 1 issue of Cell Metabolism, Manu Goyal, Andrei Vlassenko, and Marcus Raichle of Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis report that the young brain favors a quick burn, in the form of the partial breakdown of glucose known as aerobic glycolysis. (alzforum.org)
  • We see that with aging, one of the principal changes in brain metabolism is loss of aerobic glycolysis, and the loss of a youthful pattern of aerobic glycolysis," said Goyal. (alzforum.org)
  • Anaerobic metabolism of glucose is also known as anaerobic glycolysis or fermentation. (scribd.com)
  • Aerobic metabolism of glucose is known as glycolysis and respiration. (scribd.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme M2 (PKM2) is a limiting glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the final step in glycolysis, which is key in tumor metabolism and growth. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • To compensate for the loss of ATP due to preferential glycolysis, cancer cells upregulate genes that encode glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes, which leads to glucose uptake and an altered metabolism ( 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The identification of a novel protein that interacts with PKM2 has confirmed the key function of PKM2 in tumor metabolism and cancer growth ( 12 ), revealing novel functions of PKM2 beyond the classical concept of glycolysis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In the brain, acute changes in metabolism occur in response to neuronal stimulation, and the increased energy demand causes a Warburg-like transient dissociation between glycolysis and oxphos. (rupress.org)
  • Activation of HSCs is marked by simultaneous induction of glycolysis and mitochondrial metabolism, extending the possibilities to suppress hepatic fibrogenesis by interfering with HSC metabolism. (rug.nl)
  • Because glycolysis is linked to inflammation and LA is a byproduct of this process, we examined changes in glucose metabolism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cancer cells increase glucose metabolism to support aerobic glycolysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Abstract To investigate whether the energy derived from glycolysis is functionally coupled to Ca 2+ active transport in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), we determined whether glycolytic enzymes were associated with SR membranes and whether metabolism through these enzymes was capable of supporting 45 Ca transport. (ahajournals.org)
  • Due to the preference of aerobic glycolysis, cancer cells can be selectively targeted by disruption of their glucose metabolism [ 5 - 7 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In animal cells, the reoxidation of NADH is accomplished by reducing pyruvate , the end-product of glycolysis, to form lactic acid . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Continuing with the second half of the glycolysis process, the energy intermediate molecule NADH is introduced. (worldcat.org)
  • These further aerobic reactions use pyruvate, and NADH + H+ from glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis (from glycose , an older term [1] for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 , into pyruvate , CH 3 COCOO − + H + . The free energy released in this process is used to form the high-energy molecules ATP ( adenosine triphosphate ) and NADH ( reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis yields two molecules of ATP (free energy containing molecule), two molecules of pyruvic acid and two "high energy" electron carrying molecules of NADH. (novapublishers.com)
  • Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). (genome.jp)
  • The second part of glycolysis extracts energy from the molecules and stores it in the form of ATP and NADH, the reduced form of NAD. (oercommons.org)
  • The next five reactions are the "payoff" phase of glycolysis, where energy in the forms of ATP and NADH is generated. (proteopedia.org)
  • While energy can be obtained under anaerobic conditions from glycolysis alone, the accumulation of pyruvate and NADH limits this. (proteopedia.org)
  • In most cells, lactate dehydrogenase converts the pyruvate and NADH to lactate, dealing with both problems at once and regenerating NAD+ so glycolysis can continue. (proteopedia.org)
  • The net end products of glycolysis are two Pyruvate, two NADH, and two ATP (A special note on the "two" ATP later). (badenmarkt.nl)
  • Overall, glycolysis produces two pyruvate molecules, a net gain of two ATP molecules, and two NADH molecules. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • trapped pp in NADH and FADH in glycolysis, g y y , py pyruvate oxidation,, and the Krebs cycle are used to produce ATP through chemiosmosis. (scribd.com)
  • Glycolysis is an important pathway for cells because it produces ATP, and other products such as NADH and pyruvate, that can be used later to produce more ATP for a cell. (nodak.edu)
  • This means that a total of two NADH and four ATPs are made in glycolysis. (nodak.edu)
  • There is one more key product of glycolysis to consider called NADH. (nodak.edu)
  • Sustained glycolysis requires reoxidation of NADH to NAD + either through the coordinated reduction of pyruvate to lactate by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or through the action of one of the mitochondrial NADH shuttles. (rupress.org)
  • Glycolysis also yields two molecules of NADH, a molecule important to many pathways as an electron donor, but the main function of this cycle is to create a net gain of two ATP and those two molecules of pyruvate. (study.com)
  • During glycolysis, a total of two molecules of NAD + are reduced in order to form two NADH molecules. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Fermentation takes care of this problem in anaerobic environments by oxidizing excess NADH (since it is no longer utilized in the electron transport chain) into NAD + , which is then returned to the cytosol where it can be used again in glycolysis. (varsitytutors.com)
  • This process is known as anaerobic glycolysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Which of these correctly indicates the number of ATPs consumed in the preparatory phase, and the number of ATPs generated in the pay-off phase of anaerobic glycolysis. (varsitytutors.com)
  • This would decrease the cell requirements for ATP (thus, decreasing the rate of glycolysis) by reduction in the activity of the ATPases or inhibition of phophofructokinase, pyruvate kinase or pyruvate carboxylase in the glycolytic pathway (13, 14). (springer.com)
  • The steady-state concentration of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate controls the overall rate of glycolysis by allosterically activating a rate-limiting enzyme, 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase. (nih.gov)
  • The cell needs to have a way to increase the rate of glycolysis when ATP is in demand and decrease it again as the demand diminishes. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • We discovered that LPS stimulation increased the rate of glycolysis in human CD14(+)CD16(-) monocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • The ten steps of glycolysis can be divided into two stages. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Insight into the component steps of glycolysis were provided by the non-cellular fermentation experiments of Eduard Buchner during the 1890s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first five steps of glycolysis (described in the table below) prepare glucose for breakdown by "trapping" it in the cell and destabilizing it, which requires an investment of 2 ATP . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Let's take a look at an overview of the key steps of glycolysis and focus on the input and output molecules. (nodak.edu)
  • The first five steps of glycolysis convert a 6-carbon sugar (glucose) into two 3-carbon sugars (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate). (nodak.edu)
  • The next five steps of glycolysis produce energy. (nodak.edu)
  • This review will summarize the requirement of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases for the regulation of glycolysis in cancer cells and their potential utility as targets for the development of antineoplastic agents. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of Glycolysis. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • Regulation of Glycolysis In this answer to the question I will look at how the pathway of glycolysis is regulated in the cells, and how the enzymes involved respond to changes in conditions both within the cell and in the surrounding fluids. (markedbyteachers.com)
  • In the overall reaction for glycolysis, one molecule of glucose is converted to two molecules of pyruvic acid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The first five steps, the preparatory, or priming, phase of glycolysis, prepare the glucose by phosphorylating it twice, using two molecules of ATP as sources of phosphate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because two ATPs are used and four are produced during glycolysis, there is a net production of two molecules of ATP for every glucose consumed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces approximately 34 additional molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule, however most of these are produced by a mechanism vastly different than the substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis is a series of biochemical reactions by which one molecule of glucose (Glc) is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvic acid (Pyr) and a relatively small amount of the universal energy storage molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic aerobic respiration produces approximately 34 additional molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule, however most of these are produced by a vastly different mechanism to the substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In glycolysis, glucose (a six carbon sugar) is split into two molecules of a three-carbon sugar. (novapublishers.com)
  • Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration, the process by which living cells break down glucose into small, energy-containing molecules called ATP. (reference.com)
  • In glycolysis, a single glucose molecule breaks down into two molecules of pyruvate, which can then be broken down further to release ATP. (reference.com)
  • Glycolysis itself releases two molecules of ATP per molecule of glucose. (reference.com)
  • If oxygen is available, the two pyruvate molecules produced during glycolysis undergo respiration reactions to produce another 32 molecules of ATP in total. (reference.com)
  • In fermentation, far fewer ATP molecules form, but the cell can regenerate NAD+, a compound that is necessary to continue glycolysis of more glucose molecules. (reference.com)
  • Glycolysis is the breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, while the Krebs cycle is the conversion of the resulting pyruvate mole. (reference.com)
  • What Is the Net Gain of ATP Molecules Produced in Glycolysis? (reference.com)
  • There is a net gain of two ATP molecules produced by glycolysis, according to the University of Illinois at Chicago. (reference.com)
  • Glycolysis begins with the six carbon ring-shaped structure of a single glucose molecule and ends with two molecules of a three-carbon sugar called pyruvate . (oercommons.org)
  • The first part of the glycolysis pathway traps the glucose molecule in the cell and uses energy to modify it so that the six-carbon sugar molecule can be split evenly into the two three-carbon molecules. (oercommons.org)
  • Since glucose is a six-carbon molecule and pyruvate is a three-carbon molecule, two molecules of pyruvate are produced for each molecule of glucose that enters glycolysis. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • After the 1st 4 reactions of glycolysis how many molecules of DHAP are present? (badenmarkt.nl)
  • 1. Glycolysis - a 10 step biochemical pathway where a glucose molecule (6 C) is split into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 C). To begin the process 2 ATP must be invested. (scribd.com)
  • Glycolysis begins with a single molecule of glucose and concludes with the production of two molecules of pyruvic acid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Glycolysis is a series of 10 reactions that converts sugars, like glucose, into 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate. (nodak.edu)
  • Through glycolysis, one glucose molecule will turn into two pyruvate molecules. (study.com)
  • Glycolysis converts molecules of glucose into pyruvate. (varsitytutors.com)
  • the end-products of glycolysis enter into the citric acid cycle (also known as the TCA or Krebs cycle) and the electron transport chain for further oxidation. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The metabolic pathways include glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. (study.com)
  • This template should be used on biological chemical and enzyme pages which lie in the glycolysis metabolic pathway . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis is an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wide occurrence of glycolysis indicates that it is an ancient metabolic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis, or its variations, is a fundamental metabolic pathway in life that functions in almost all organisms to decompose external or intracellular sugars. (nature.com)
  • The metabolic pathway of glycolysis converts glucose to pyruvate by via a series of intermediate metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells have long been known to have higher rates of the energy-generating metabolic pathway known as glycolysis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nonetheless, aerobic glycolysis remains a prevalent metabolic pathway in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Glycolysis is a key metabolic pathway for organisms. (proteopedia.org)
  • Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate. (conceptdraw.com)
  • Therefore, in the majority of cells the most important function of glycolysis is to metabolize glucose to generate three-carbon compounds that can be utilized by other pathways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glycolysis also refers to other pathways, such as the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and various heterofermentative and homofermentative pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • although alternative pathways have been described, glycolysis will be used here as a synonym for the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • PGAM is increased in many tumors, stimulating glycolysis and other important pathways. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using rational design, genome editing, and evolution, here we replaced the native glycolytic pathways in Escherichia coli with the previously designed nonoxidative glycolysis (NOG), which bypasses initial C3 formation and directly generates stoichiometric amounts of C2 metabolites. (pnas.org)
  • Upregulation of glycolysis with increase in glucose consumption for metabolic pathways to generate ATP is the universal property of all the cancers and tumors. (biovision.com)
  • Pathway-ANOVA analysis indicated several upregulated pathways in hyperglycemic cells, including glycolysis and PPP. (uio.no)
  • This glucose catabolism pathways map shows glycolysis by orange color, Entner-Doudoroff phosphorylating pathway by green color, Entner-Doudoroff non-phosphorylating pathway by Yellow color. (conceptdraw.com)
  • For example, MitoXpress® Xtra in combination with Luxcel's pH-Xtra® - Glycolysis Assay (Cat No. PH-100) allows the simultaneous real-time measurement of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis and analysis of the metabolic phenotype of cells and the shift (flux) between the two pathways under pathological states. (amsbio.com)
  • What molecule is the critical product of fermentation that is reinvested in glycolysis? (varsitytutors.com)
  • Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway in which glucose is consumed and ATP is produced. (csbsju.edu)
  • Glycolysis consists of a series of biochemical reactions which convert glucose to lactate producing ATP and results in a net production of protons. (agilent.com)
  • This biochemical diagram was redesigned from Wikimedia file: Glycolysis overview.svg. (conceptdraw.com)
  • This makes the biochemical basis of therapeutic design and strategies to kill cancer cells by targeting pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis. (biovision.com)
  • These findings demonstrate that the biochemical link between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can be completely severed without affecting normal or neoplastic proliferation, even under the most demanding circumstances. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In most organisms, glycolysis occurs in the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes (organisms in which genetic material is stored in a membrane-bound nucleus), glycolysis takes place within the cytosol, or the internal fluid of the cell. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (cytoplasm) of the cell. (reference.com)
  • In eukaryotes and prokaryotes , glycolysis takes place within the cytosol of the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Glycolysis is a 10-step process that takes place outside of the mitochondria, in the cell cytosol, and is catalyzed by a series of enzymes. (wyzant.com)
  • Both phases of glycolysis occur in the cytosol of the cell. (varsitytutors.com)
  • The first step in glycolysis ( Figure ) is catalyzed by hexokinase, an enzyme with broad specificity that catalyzes the phosphorylation of six-carbon sugars. (oercommons.org)
  • Increased glucose entry into glycolysis in fibroblast senescence is mainly mediated by increased hexokinase-2. (hindawi.com)
  • Addition of a soluble hexokinase ATP trap eliminated 45 Ca transport fueled by exogenous ATP but had markedly less effect on 45 Ca transport supported by endogenously produced ATP (via glycolysis). (ahajournals.org)
  • Mannose enters glycolysis by first being phosphorylated by hexokinase. (varsitytutors.com)
  • During the first step of glycolysis, glucose is phosphorylated by hexokinase. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Indeed, the reactions that constitute glycolysis and its parallel pathway, the pentose phosphate pathway, occur metal-catalyzed under the oxygen-free conditions of the Archean oceans, also in the absence of enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One class of mutants lacked pyruvate kinase (p y k), another class had all the enzymes of glycolysis, and one mutant lacked phosphoglucose isomerase (pgi, MAITRA 1971). (genetics.org)
  • many of the same enzymes as Glycolysis. (scribd.com)
  • Since fluoride is known as an inhibitor of glycolytic enzymes, we investigated the possible connection between NaF-induced apoptosis and glycolysis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Both gene and protein assay showed that the expression of glycolysis enzymes was upregulated in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) surgery or in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Meanwhile, oncogenes such as Ras, Src, and Myc have also been found to promote glycolysis by increasing the expression of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes [ 11 ]. (medsci.org)
  • In line with this, we found that increasing aerobic glycolysis can remarkably induce myofibroblast activation while aerobic glycolysis inhibitors shikonin and 2-deoxyglucose attenuate UUO-induced mouse renal fibrosis and TGF-β1-stimulated myofibroblast activation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In conclusion, our findings demonstrate the critical role of aerobic glycolysis in renal fibrosis and support treatment with aerobic glycolysis inhibitors as a potential antifibrotic strategy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The glycolytic dependency of Myc-driven glioblastoma was tested using 13 C metabolic flux analysis, glucose-limiting culture assays, and glycolysis inhibitors, including inhibitors of the NAD + salvage enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (NAMPT), in MYC and MYCN shRNA knockdown and lentivirus overexpression systems and in patient-derived glioblastoma tumorspheres with and without MYC / MYCN amplification. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Small-molecule inhibitors of glycolysis, particularly NAMPT inhibitors, were selectively toxic to MYC / MYCN -amplified patient-derived glioblastoma tumorspheres. (aacrjournals.org)
  • I. Synergism between inhibitors of respiration and glycolysis. (rupress.org)
  • The first step in the process culminating in ATP synthesis by the mitochondria is glycolysis, or the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvate. (wyzant.com)
  • Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose at the cellular level for energy-generating metabolic reactions. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • The products of glycolysis are further metabolized to complete the breakdown of glucose. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The pathway of glycolysis as it is known today took almost 100 years to fully elucidate. (wikipedia.org)
  • French scientist Louis Pasteur researched this issue during the 1850s, and the results of his experiments began the long road to elucidating the pathway of glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete pathway of glycolysis was elucidated in 1940. (springer.com)
  • Which is not part of the net products of Glycolysis? (badenmarkt.nl)
  • Products of Glycolysis. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • c. products of glycolysis. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • The products of glycolysis are moved for further processing into the mitochondria, but the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is a cytosolic reaction. (varsitytutors.com)
  • Inhibition of glycolysis in cancer cells is a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance associated with mitochondrial respiratory defect and hypoxia. (springer.com)
  • Xu RH, Pelicano H, Zhou Y, Carew JS, Feng L, Bhalla KN, Keating MJ, Huang P (2005) Inhibition of glycolysis in cancer cells: a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance associated with mitochondrial respiratory defect and hypoxia. (springer.com)
  • Myc and N-Myc knockdown and Myc overexpression systems demonstrated that Myc activity determined sensitivity and resistance to inhibition of glycolysis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of glycolysis in the denervated dog heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibition of glycolysis (by 2-deoxy-D-glucose) and glutaminolysis (by CB-839) did not inhibit rat aHSC proliferation, but did reduce Acta2 (encoding α-SMA) expression slightly. (rug.nl)
  • Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose blunted LPS-induced activation and adhesion of monocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • In an autoimmune model of RA, inhibition of glycolysis can impact the Th17/Treg balance and reduce disease severity ( 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • What is the difference between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle? (reference.com)
  • Pyruvate, the three carbons molecule that formed from the glycolysis process initiates the start of the Krebs cycle. (123helpme.com)
  • Lu H, Forbes RA, Verma A (2002) Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activation by aerobic glycolysis implicates the Warburg effect in carcinogenesis. (springer.com)
  • This enhanced glycolysis, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect, is thought to allow cancer cells to survive the oxygen-deficient conditions they experience in the center of solid tumors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Activated immune cells undergo a metabolic switch to aerobic glycolysis akin to the Warburg effect, thereby presenting a potential therapeutic target in autoimmune disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • This process was termed the Warburg effect, or aerobic glycolysis ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This perspective considers the evidence for Warburg-like aerobic glycolysis during the transient metabolic response of the brain to acute activation, and it particularly addresses the cellular mechanisms that underlie this metabolic response. (rupress.org)
  • Our findings suggest that Pim-2-mediated aerobic glycolysis is critical for monitoring Warburg effect in colorectal tumor cells, highlighting Pim-2 as a potential metabolic target for colorectal tumor therapy. (medsci.org)
  • However, cancer cells perform higher rates of aerobic glycolysis with products of pyruvate and lactate, known as Warburg effect [ 2 ]. (medsci.org)
  • TIGAR also inhibit the Phosphofructokinase (PFK) by lowering the level of fructose-2,6,bisphosphate, therefore, glycolysis is inhibited and pentose phosphate pathway is promoted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolomics studies showed that HIF1 α overexpression led to increased glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway intermediates. (hindawi.com)
  • Although some cells are highly dependent on glycolysis for the generation of ATP, the amount of ATP generated per glucose molecule is actually quite small. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This presents a problem since all cells must continually regenerate the NAD + needed during the preparatory phase of glycolysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cells performing aerobic respiration synthesize much more ATP, but not as part of glycolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis is a universal pathway in the living cells. (springer.com)
  • Pérez-Rodríguez J, Sánchez-Jiménez F, Márquez FJ, Medina MA, Quesada AR, Núñez de Castro I (1987) Malate-citrate cycle during glycolysis and glutaminolysis in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. (springer.com)
  • Meyer and Balk's collaboration found that the plants do produce more proteins for use in glycolysis , an inefficient method of splitting apart sugars to make ATP that's found in all cells. (dictionary.com)
  • A new study that measured metabolite levels over time in starved rat liver cancer cells showed that treatment with a form of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) inhibited glucose uptake and glycolysis, and led to decreased cellular glucose production from non-carbohydrate sources, which may help explain how the naturally occurring R enantiomeric form of LA (R-LA) promotes the death of hepatoma cells. (news-medical.net)
  • As the foundation of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration, glycolysis is the archetype of universal metabolic processes known and occurring (with variations) in many types of cells in nearly all organisms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Glycolysis, through anaerobic respiration, is the main energy source in many prokaryotes , eukaryotic cells devoid of mitochondria (e.g., mature erythrocytes), and eukaryotic cells under low- oxygen conditions (e.g., heavily-exercising muscle or fermenting yeast ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, there are times when humans rely on glycolysis for fuel-for example, during short periods of intense exertion, the muscle cells may switch to glycolysis when oxygen is depleted. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Without oxygen, glycolysis allows cells to make small amounts of ATP. (novapublishers.com)
  • A study in The Journal of Cell Biology reveals how damaged cells normally switch off glycolysis as they shut down and shows that defects in this process may contribute to the early stages of tumor development. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 2005, Hiroshi Kondoh and colleagues found that cells normally limit glycolysis as they enter senescence and that increasing the levels of the glycolytic enzyme PGAM can prevent cells from exiting the cell cycle. (eurekalert.org)
  • Working at Kyoto University in Japan, Kondoh and colleagues followed up on their previous work and found that, in response to DNA damage or oncogene expression, PGAM was degraded, thereby inhibiting glycolysis as the cells entered senescence. (eurekalert.org)
  • Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. (oercommons.org)
  • High dose vitamin c may inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo through reducing glycolysis and protein synthesis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Unlike in normal cells, glycolysis is enhanced and OXPHOS capacity is reduced in various cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • The Seahorse XFp Glycolysis Stress Test Kit measures the capacity of the glycolytic pathway by driving cells toward glycolysis and assesses the ability of study models to increase glycolytic activity to meet metabolic and bioenergetic demands. (agilent.com)
  • Glycolysis is involved in a wide array of normal physiological processes [stem cells pluripotency, acquired immune response, muscle function, brain function], as well as pathophysiological processes [tumorigenesis]. (agilent.com)
  • As glycolysis occurs, cells in culture release protons and acidify the culture medium. (agilent.com)
  • Cancer cells frequently display high rates of aerobic glycolysis in comparison to their nontransformed counterparts, although the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • High rates of aerobic glycolysis were also identified in human glioblastoma cells possessing but not those lacking constitutive Akt activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that activation of the Akt oncogene is sufficient to stimulate the switch to aerobic glycolysis characteristic of cancer cells and that Akt activity renders cancer cells dependent on aerobic glycolysis for continued growth and survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After DMF treatment, GAPDH was inactivated, and aerobic glycolysis was down-regulated in both myeloid and lymphoid cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • It thereby down-regulates aerobic glycolysis in activated myeloid and lymphoid cells, which mediates its anti-inflammatory effects. (sciencemag.org)
  • Proposed mechanism for the suppression of TNF-α production and glycolysis by PCB2DG through inhibition of mTOR/HIF-1 pathway in CD4+ T cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Activated Th1 cells cause a metabolic shift toward glycolysis, which is largely regulated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) signaling. (medicalxpress.com)
  • To elucidate the mechanism by which PCB2DG suppresses cytokine production, two points are set as problems: (1) whether PCB2DG acts directly on T cells or (2) whether cytokine production is suppressed by inhibiting glycolysis of T cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of virtually all the cells of the body. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • Functional studies showed that glycolysis and lactate production were higher in hyperglycemic than normoglycaemic cells. (uio.no)
  • Albina JE, Mastrofrancesco B, Reichner JS (1999) Acyl phosphatase activity of NO-inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): a potential mechanism for uncoupling glycolysis from ATP generation in NO-producing cells. (springer.com)
  • Tumor cells have higher rates of glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis to meet energy demands for proliferation and metastasis. (medsci.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that Pim-2 is required for glycolysis and energy production in colorectal tumor cells. (medsci.org)
  • Activation of Pim-2 in colorectal cells led to increase glucose utilization and aerobic glycolysis, as well as energy production. (medsci.org)
  • In mammalian cells, glycolysis is down-regulated by oxygen, which allows mitochondria to oxidize pyruvate and generate large amounts of ATP [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Thus, factors that involve mTORC1 signaling activation may have potential to modulate aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. (medsci.org)
  • Moreover, AdipoR1-deficent CD4 + T cells displayed reduced Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α expression leading to glycolysis inhibition during naïve CD4 + T cell differentiation into Th17 cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Th17 cells mostly rely on aerobic glycolysis, a sequence of cytosolic enzymatic reactions that convert glucose into pyruvate, generating energy ( 6 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Modeling cancer glycolysis under hypoglycemia, and the role played by the differential expression of glycolytic isoforms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The results indicated that cancer glycolysis should be inhibited at multiple controlling sites, regardless of external glucose levels, to effectively block the pathway. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Fantin VR, St-Pierre J, Leder P (2006) Attenuation of LDH-A expression uncovers a link between glycolysis, mitochondrial physiology, and tumor maintenance. (springer.com)
  • Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis in Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy-Which Threshold Is the Best Predictor of Local Control? (epfl.ch)
  • In the context of oropharyngeal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy, the aim of this retrospective study was to identify the best threshold value to compute metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and/or total lesion glycolysis to predict local-regional control (LRC) and disease-free survival. (epfl.ch)
  • ARTICLE(http://bigwww.epfl.ch/publications/castelli1702.html, AUTHOR="Castelli, J. and Depeursinge, A. and de Bari, B. and Devillers, A. and de Crevoisier, R. and Bourhis, J. and Prior, J.O.", TITLE="Metabolic Tumor Volume and Total Lesion Glycolysis in Oropharyngeal Cancer Treated with Definitive Radiotherapy---Which Threshold Is the Best Predictor of Local Control? (epfl.ch)
  • Aerobic glycolysis in many cancers is the combined result of various factors such as oncogenes, tumor suppressors, a hypoxic microenvironment, mtDNA mutations, genetic background and others. (nih.gov)
  • Deregulated Myc drives an oncogenic metabolic state, including pseudohypoxic glycolysis, adapted for the constitutive production of biomolecular precursors to feed rapid tumor cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although much progress has been made, the mechanisms regulating tumor aerobic glycolysis and energy production are still not fully understood. (medsci.org)
  • Although aerobic glycolysis was initially thought as supplement of disrupted mitochondrial respiration, recent studies declare that it may act as a driving force for tumor transformation and proliferation [ 3 , 4 ]. (medsci.org)
  • To further identify factors involved in tumor aerobic glycolysis, we focused on Pim-2, a member of the proviral integration of Moloney virus family of oncogenic serine/threonine kinases, which have been reported to activate mTORC1 signaling under special conditions [ 17 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Hif1α enhances aerobic glycolysis by upregulating its target genes related to the glycolytic pathway, and Hif2α suppresses mitochondrial Fe-S biosynthesis and OXPHOS. (pnas.org)
  • This lesson will introduce the process of glycolysis, and explain how it creates pyruvic acid from glucose. (sophia.org)
  • In the tissues of many organisms, including mammals, glycolysis is a prelude to the complex metabolic machinery that ultimately converts pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and water with the concomitant production of much ATP and the consumption of oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • glycolysis may have originated with the first prokaryotes (organisms without a cell nucleus) at least 3.5 billion years ago. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For organisms that live in the absence of oxygen (obligate anaerobes) or that can live either in the presence or absence of oxygen (facultative anaerobes), glycolysis serves as the principle means of oxidizing glucose for chemical energy. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration that organisms undergo to generate energy. (reference.com)
  • Glycolysis is present in nearly all living organisms. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • While glycolysis is the primary fuel process for some organisms that do not require oxygen, such as yeast, aerobic organisms can only gain a small portion of their needed energy from this process. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Altenberg B, Greulich KO (2008) Genes of glycolysis are ubiquitously overexpressed in 24 cancer classes. (springer.com)
  • Increased expression of glycolysis-associated genes in oncogene-transformed and growth-accelerated states. (nih.gov)
  • Degenerate primers were designed from homologous regions in known glycolysis genes, and used to screen the selected plasmids. (rice.edu)
  • Other than that observed for rat aHSCs, human aHSC proliferation and expression of fibrosis markers were significantly suppressed by inhibiting either glycolysis, glutaminolysis or mitochondrial OXPHOS (by metformin). (rug.nl)
  • The TP53-inducible glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) also known as fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase TIGAR is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the C12orf5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Possible link between glycolysis and apoptosis induced by sodium fluoride. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Analysis of these data suggests a possible link between glycolysis and apoptosis. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Q. Glycolysis occurs during aerobic or anaerobic conditions. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, and does not require oxygen. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • Glycolysis occurs in two major stages, the first of which is the conversion of the various sugars to a common intermediate, glucose-6-phosphate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Now glycolysis occurs. (study.com)
  • The fourth step in glycolysis employs an enzyme, aldolase, to cleave 1,6-bisphosphate into two three-carbon isomers: dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. (oercommons.org)
  • The next step in glycolysis, catalyzed by fructose biphosphate aldolase, produces two products: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, which continues in the glycolysis pathway, and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, which is converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase. (wyzant.com)
  • The next step in glycolysis dephosphorylates 1,3-biphosphoglycerate, forming a molecule of ATP (two total, not pictured in diagram). (wyzant.com)
  • The first phase of glycolysis is sometimes referred to as the "investment phase", where ATP is consumed to set up later, energy generating steps. (proteopedia.org)
  • 2. Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis? (badenmarkt.nl)
  • and increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, downregulating carbohydrate response element- (ChRE-) mediated transcriptional enhancement of glycolysis by Mondo/Mlx. (hindawi.com)
  • Cat No. MX-200] and pH-Xtra™ Glycolysis Assay allows the simultaneous real-time measurement of the interplay between mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. (amsbio.com)
  • Also Read: Difference between Glycolysis and Kreb's cycle. (badenmarkt.nl)
  • Though less energy efficient, glycolysis produces energy at a rate 100 times faster than aerobic respiration. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Aerobic glycolysis flux, indicated by glucose uptake and lactate production, was increased in mouse kidney with UUO nephropathy or TGF-β1-treated renal interstitial fibroblasts and positively correlated with fibrosis process. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In conclusion, hyperglycemia reduced substrate oxidation while increasing glycolysis and lactate production in cultured human myotubes. (uio.no)
  • These results show that aerobic glycolysis leading to net lactate production is not necessary for normal spontaneous mechanical activity or the relaxing effect of hypoxia or cAMP raising stimuli in rat portal vein. (lu.se)