Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.
Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID which contain an hydroxy group attached to the methyl carbon.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Relating to the size of solids.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
(T-4)-Osmium oxide (OsO4). A highly toxic and volatile oxide of osmium used in industry as an oxidizing agent. It is also used as a histological fixative and stain and as a synovectomy agent in arthritic joints. Its vapor can cause eye, skin, and lung damage.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)
An enzyme which catalyzes an endonucleolytic cleavage near PYRIMIDINE DIMERS to produce a 5'-phosphate product. The enzyme acts on the damaged DNA strand, from the 5' side of the damaged site.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A diphenylmethane stimulant laxative used for the treatment of CONSTIPATION and for bowel evacuation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p871)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
The presence of free HEMOGLOBIN in the URINE, indicating hemolysis of ERYTHROCYTES within the vascular system. After saturating the hemoglobin-binding proteins (HAPTOGLOBINS), free hemoglobin begins to appear in the urine.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Porphyrins with four methyl and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
A synthetic disaccharide used in the treatment of constipation and hepatic encephalopathy. It has also been used in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p887)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
Spherical particles of nanometer dimensions.
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Formation of a firm impassable mass of stool in the RECTUM or distal COLON.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.

Spinal reflexes and the concentrations of 5-HIAA, MHPG, and HVA in lumbar cereborspinal fluid after spinal lesions in man. (1/326)

Descending bulbospinal pathways that employ specific neurotransmitter substances are known to be capable of modulating segmental reflex activity in the experimental animal. To determine whether this might also occur in man correlations have been sought between the activity in spinal reflex pathways and the lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3 methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 12 patients with complete or virtually complete spinal lesions. The concentrations of 5-HIAA and MHPG in lumbar CSF ARE REDUCED AFTER COMPLETE OR VIRTUALLY COMPLETE SPINAL LESIONS IN MAN. This may occur within 18 days of the lesion. MHPG concentrations appear to be inversely related to the level of the lesion. The HVA concentration in lumbar CSF is reduced when there is obstruction of the CSF pathways. No relationship could be demonstrated between the concentrations of 5-HIAA or MHPG in lumbar CSF and the activity in the spinal monosynaptic pathway (estimated from the proportion of the motoneurone pool activated by the Achilles tendon reflex or H reflex) or the activity of a spinal inhibitory mechanism (estimated by the degree of vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex). Patients with a tonic vibration reflex (TVR) tended to have higher MHPG levels. There appeared to be an association between low CSF HVA and enhanced vibratory inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex in the nine patients whose spinal lesions were complete.  (+info)

Effects of commonly used cryoprotectants on glycogen phosphorylase activity and structure. (2/326)

The effects of a number of cryoprotectants on the kinetic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase b have been investigated. Kinetic studies showed that glycerol, one of the most commonly used cryoprotectants in X-ray crystallographic studies, is a competitive inhibitor with respect to substrate glucose-1-P with an apparent Ki value of 3.8% (v/v). Cryogenic experiments, with the enzyme, have shown that glycerol binds at the catalytic site and competes with glucose analogues that bind at the catalytic site, thus preventing the formation of complexes. This necessitated a change in the conditions for cryoprotection in crystallographic binding experiments with glycogen phosphorylase. It was found that 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD), polyethylene glycols (PEGs) of various molecular weights, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) activated glycogen phosphorylase b to different extents, by stabilizing its most active conformation, while sucrose acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor and ethylene glycol as an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to glucose-1-P. A parallel experimental investigation by X-ray crystallography showed that, at 100 K, both MPD and DMSO do not bind at the catalytic site, do not induce any significant conformational change on the enzyme molecule, and hence, are more suitable cryoprotectants than glycerol for binding studies with glycogen phosphorylase.  (+info)

Rapid conditions for the cleavage of oligodeoxyribonucleotides from cis-diol-bearing universal polymer supports and their deprotection. (3/326)

Two sets of deprotection conditions have been evolved for the deprotection of oligodeoxyribonucleotides and their cleavage from commercially available cis -diol group-bearing universal polymer supports. In the first case, oligodeoxyribonucleotides anchored on the universal support were subjected to one of the standard deprotection conditions followed by treatment with aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride + 0.2 M sodium hydroxide solution for 30 min at room temperature. In the second case, oligonucleotides bound to the universal support were treated with methanolic sodium hydroxide solution under microwave radiation to obtain fully deprotected oligomers within 4 min. Under both conditions, the cleavage of oligonucleotides from the support and their deprotection occurred quantitatively without any side product formation. The cleaved oligonucleotides were found to be identical in all respects (retention time on HPLC and biological activity in PCR) to the corresponding standard oligo-nucleotides.  (+info)

Identification of four trans-3,4-dihydrodiol metabolites of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and their in vitro DNA-binding activities upon further metabolism. (4/326)

Trans-3,4-dihydrodiols of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (7,12-Me2BA), 7-methyl-12-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene (7-Me-12-OHMeBA), 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-OHMe-12-MeBA), and 7,12-di(hydroxymethyl)benz[a]anthracene [7,12-(OHMe)2BA] have been identified as metabolites of the potent carcinogenic and adrenocorticolytic agent 7,12-MeBA. The four trans-3,4-dihydrodiols were identified by their (i) ultraviolet-visible absorption and fluorescence properties, (ii) different retention times on both reversed-phase and normal-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, (iii) mass spectral analysis, and (iv) inability to form vicinal cis-acetonides. Upon further metabolism by liver microsomes, the trans-3,4-dihydrodiols of 7,12-Me2BA, 7-Me-12OHMeBA, and 7-OHMe-12-MeBA were found to give rise to products that bind more strongly to DNA in vitro than do the products of 7,12-Me2BA. The evidence suggests that one or more of the four trans-3,4-dihydrodiols may be the proximate carcinogenic and adrenocorticolytic metabolites.  (+info)

Crystallographic studies on a family B DNA polymerase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus kodakaraensis strain KOD1. (5/326)

A hyperthermostable family B DNA polymerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus kodakaraensis strain KOD1, has been crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method at 293 K with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as the precipitant. The diffraction pattern of a crystal extends to 3.0 A resolution, and two full sets of 3.0 A resolution diffraction data for native crystals were successfully collected at 290 K and 100 K upon exposure to synchrotron radiation at KEK-PF, Japan. The crystals belong to the space group, P212121, with unit-cell dimensions of a = 112.8, b = 115.4, and c = 75.4 A at 290 K, and a = 111.9, b = 112.4, and c = 73.9 at 100 K. Structural analysis by means of the multiple isomorphous replacement method is now in progress.  (+info)

Butadiene diolepoxide- and diepoxybutane-derived DNA adducts at N7-guanine: a high occurrence of diolepoxide-derived adducts in mouse lung after 1,3-butadiene exposure. (6/326)

Butadiene (BD) is a high production volume chemical and is known to be tumorigenic in rodents. BD is metabolized to butadiene monoepoxide (BMO), diepoxybutane (DEB) and butadiene diolepoxide (BDE). These epoxides are genotoxic and alkylate DNA both in vitro and in vivo, mainly at the N7 position of guanine. In this study, a 32P-post-labeling/thin-layer chromatography (TLC)/high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for BDE and DEB adducts at the N7 of guanine was developed and was used in determining the enantiomeric composition of the adducts and the organ dose of BD exposure in lung. Exposure of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo), 2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-phosphate (5'-dGMP) and 2'-deoxyguanosine-3'-phosphate (3'-dGMP) to racemic BDE followed by neutral thermal hydrolysis gave two products (products 1 and 2) that were identified by MS and UV and NMR spectroscopy as a diastereomeric pair of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-guanines. Exposure of dGuo nucleotides to RR/SS DEB (also referred to as dl DEB) followed by thermal depurination resulted in a single product coeluting with the BDE product 1. If the reaction mixture of BDE and 5'-dGMP was analyzed by HPLC before hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, four major nucleotide alkylation products (A, B, C and D) with identical UV sepectra were detected. The products were isolated and hydrolyzed, after which A and C coeluted with product 1 and B and D coeluted with the product 2. The major adduct of DEB-exposed 5'-dGMP was N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP (product E). A 32P-post-labeling assay was used to detect BDE- and DEB-derived N7-dGMP adducts in DNA. Levels of adducts increased with a dose of BDE and DEB and exhibited a half life of 30 +/- 3 (r = 0.98) and 31 +/- 4 h (r = 0.95), respectively. Incubation of DEB-modified DNA at 37 degrees C at neutral pH for up to 142 h did not lead to an increase of N7-(2,3,4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP in the DNA. These observations led to the conclusion that the N7-(2,3, 4-trihydroxybutan-1-yl)-dGMP adducts in DNA can be used as a marker of BDE exposure and that N7-(2-hydroxy-3,4-epoxy-1-yl)-dGMP adducts are related to DEB exposure. Dose-related levels of BDE- and DEB-derived adducts were detected in lungs of mice inhaling butadiene. Most of the N7-dGMP adducts (73%; product D) were derived from the 2R-diol-3S-epoxide of 1,3-butadiene. The data presented in this paper indicate that in vivo, 98% of N7-dGMP alkylation after BD exposure is derived from BDE, and approximately 2% of the adducts were derived from DEB and BMO.  (+info)

2'-Deoxycytidine glycols, a missing link in the free radical-mediated oxidation of DNA. (7/326)

2'-Deoxycytidine glycols (5,6-dihydroxy-5, 6-dihydro-2'-deoxycytidine) are major products of the hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of 2'-deoxycytidine resulting from either a Fenton reaction or exposure to ionizing radiation. Because of their instability, however, the glycols have not previously been characterized. Instead, the impetus has been placed on the primary decomposition products of 2'-deoxycytidine glycols, which includes 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine, 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxyuridine, and 2'-deoxyuridine glycols. Here, we have identified one of the four possible diastereomers of 2'-deoxycytidine glycols by product analyses of decomposition products, (1)H NMR, and mass spectrometry. This glycol was observed to decompose with a half-life of 50 min at 37 degrees C in buffered neutral solutions and preferentially undergo dehydration to 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine. The rate of decomposition was strongly dependent on pH (2-10) and the concentration of phosphate ion (10-300 mM). Next, we report on the deamination of cytosine glycols to uracil glycols in oxidized DNA using acid hydrolysis and high performance liquid chromatography analysis with electrochemical detection to monitor 5-hydroxycytosine and 5-hydroxyuracil. The results showed that the lifetime of cytosine glycols is greatly enhanced in DNA (34-fold; half-life, 28 h), and that deamination accounts for at least one-third of the total decomposition. The relatively long lifetime of cytosine glycols in DNA suggests that this important class of DNA oxidation products will be significantly involved in repair and mutagenesis processes.  (+info)

An in vivo approach showing the chemotactic activity of leukotriene B(4) in acute renal ischemic-reperfusion injury. (8/326)

Neutrophil migration protects the body against foreign invasion. Sequestration and activation of neutrophils, however, require stringent regulation because they may also cause tissue damage by the release of lysosomal enzymes and reactive oxygen species. The activity of various chemoattractants [e.g., leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), interleukin-8, and complements] has been documented by in vitro assays, whereas in vivo data have been limited mostly to histology. To examine in an in vivo model the chemotactic activity and subsequent tissue infiltration and the role of a specific chemoattractant, LTB(4), we used a rat renal ischemia-reperfusion injury model. Fluorescence-labeled Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the LTB(4) receptor (CHO-BLT) were able to accumulate along with neutrophils in the postischemic kidney, in contrast to vector control CHO cells. Furthermore, LTB(4) antagonists that protect against the decrease in renal function and diminish the tissue myeloperoxidase activity also led to the marked decrease in the number of CHO-BLT cells and neutrophils. Thus, LTB(4) alone appears sufficient to cause cells to migrate into postischemic tissues, and its dominant role in reperfusion injury has been demonstrated. The utilization of transfectants to pinpoint the role of LTB(4) in these in vivo experiments suggests their potential use with other ligands and/or in other pathological conditions.  (+info)

There are several types of poisoning, including:

1. Acute poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a large amount of a poisonous substance over a short period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a small amount of a poisonous substance over a longer period of time. Symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Occupational poisoning: This occurs when a worker is exposed to a poisonous substance in the course of their work. Examples include exposure to pesticides, lead, and mercury.
4. Environmental poisoning: This occurs when a person is exposed to a poisonous substance in their environment, such as through contaminated water or soil.
5. Food poisoning: This occurs when a person eats food that has been contaminated with a poisonous substance, such as bacteria or viruses. Symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.

Treatment for poisoning depends on the type of poison and the severity of the exposure. Some common treatments include activated charcoal to absorb the poison, medications to counteract the effects of the poison, and supportive care such as fluids and oxygen. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention is key in avoiding poisoning. This includes proper storage and disposal of household chemicals, using protective gear when working with hazardous substances, and avoiding exposure to known poisons such as certain plants and animals. Education and awareness are also important in preventing poisoning, such as understanding the symptoms of poisoning and seeking medical attention immediately if suspected.

Hemoglobinuria can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Blood disorders such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and von Willebrand disease.
2. Inherited genetic disorders such as hemophilia.
3. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
4. Infections such as septicemia or meningococcemia.
5. Toxins such as lead, which can damage red blood cells and cause hemoglobinuria.
6. Certain medications such as antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
7. Kidney disease or failure.
8. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), which can occur after blood transfusions.
9. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a condition that occurs when red blood cells are damaged and broken down, leading to kidney failure.

The symptoms of hemoglobinuria may include:

1. Red or brown-colored urine
2. Frequent urination
3. Pale or yellowish skin
4. Fatigue
5. Shortness of breath
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Headache
8. Dizziness or lightheadedness
9. Confusion or loss of consciousness in severe cases.

Diagnosis of hemoglobinuria is typically made through urine testing, such as a urinalysis, which can detect the presence of hemoglobin in the urine. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of hemoglobinuria, such as blood tests, imaging studies, or biopsies.

Treatment of hemoglobinuria depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, treatment may involve addressing the underlying condition that is causing the hemoglobinuria, such as managing an infection or stopping certain medications. Other treatments may include:

1. Fluid and electrolyte replacement to prevent dehydration and maintain proper fluid balance.
2. Medications to help remove excess iron from the body.
3. Blood transfusions to increase the number of red blood cells in the body and improve oxygen delivery.
4. Dialysis to filter waste products from the blood when the kidneys are unable to do so.
5. Supportive care, such as oxygen therapy and pain management.

In severe cases of hemoglobinuria, complications can include:

1. Kidney damage or failure
2. Septicemia (blood infection)
3. Respiratory failure
4. Heart problems
5. Increased risk of infections and other complications.

Prevention of hemoglobinuria involves managing any underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or infections, and avoiding certain medications that can cause the condition. It is also important to seek medical attention if symptoms of hemoglobinuria develop, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The definition of constipation varies depending on the source, but it is generally defined as having fewer than three bowel movements per week, or as experiencing difficulty passing stools for more than half of the time during a two-week period. In addition, some people may experience "functional constipation," which means that they have normal bowel habits but still experience symptoms such as bloating and discomfort.

There are several factors that can contribute to constipation, including:

* Poor diet and dehydration: A diet low in fiber and high in processed foods can lead to constipation, as can not drinking enough water.
* Lack of physical activity: Sedentary lifestyles can contribute to constipation by slowing down the digestive process.
* Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), thyroid disorders, and diabetes, can increase the risk of constipation.
* Medications: Some medications, such as painkillers and antidepressants, can cause constipation as a side effect.
* Hormonal changes: Changes in hormone levels during pregnancy, menopause, or other life events can lead to constipation.

Treatment for constipation depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, lifestyle modifications, and medication. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary. It is important to seek medical advice if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated constipation can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction, hemorrhoids, and fecal incontinence.

Some common types of testicular diseases include:

1. Testicular torsion: This is a condition where the spermatic cord becomes twisted, cutting off blood flow to the testicle. It is a medical emergency and can cause permanent damage if not treated promptly.
2. Epididymitis: This is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tube that runs along the back of the testicle and helps to store and transport sperm. It can be caused by bacterial infections or viral infections such as chlamydia or gonorrhea.
3. Orchitis: This is an inflammation of the testicles, usually caused by a virus or bacterial infection.
4. Hydrocele: This is a build-up of fluid around the testicle, which can be caused by infection, injury, or other factors.
5. Varicocele: This is a swelling of the veins in the scrotum, which can be caused by a blockage or weakness in the valves that control blood flow.
6. Testicular cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the testicles, and it is relatively rare but can be aggressive if left untreated.
7. Undescended testicle(s): This is a condition where one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development.
8. Testicular atrophy: This is a shrinkage of the testicles, which can be caused by a range of factors including aging, injury, or certain medical conditions.
9. Painful ejaculation: This is a condition where ejaculation causes pain in the testicles, and it can be caused by a range of factors such as inflammation or infection.
10. Low testosterone: This is a condition where the levels of testosterone in the body are lower than normal, which can cause a range of symptoms including low sex drive, fatigue, and osteoporosis.

It's important to note that some of these conditions can be caused by other factors as well, so it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Some common examples of drug-induced abnormalities include:

1. Allergic reactions: Some drugs can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
2. Side effects: Many drugs can cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and fatigue, which can be mild or severe.
3. Toxic reactions: Some drugs can cause toxic reactions, which can damage the body's organs and tissues.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Certain drugs can trigger autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause a range of symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, and skin rashes.
5. Gastrointestinal problems: Some drugs can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, or constipation.
6. Neurological disorders: Certain drugs can cause neurological disorders, such as seizures, tremors, and changes in mood or behavior.
7. Cardiovascular problems: Some drugs can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.
8. Metabolic changes: Certain drugs can cause metabolic changes, such as weight gain or loss, and changes in blood sugar levels.
9. Endocrine disorders: Some drugs can affect the body's endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of symptoms including changes in mood, energy levels, and sexual function.
10. Kidney damage: Certain drugs can cause kidney damage or failure, especially in people with pre-existing kidney problems.

It's important to note that not all drugs will cause side effects, and the severity of side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific drug being taken. However, it's important to be aware of the potential risks associated with any medication you are taking, and to discuss any concerns or questions you have with your healthcare provider.

The most common types of urolithiasis are:

1. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis): These are formed in the kidneys and can be made of various substances such as calcium oxalate, uric acid, or cystine.
2. Bladder stones (cystolithiasis): These are formed in the bladder and are typically made of calcium oxalate or magnesium ammonium phosphate.
3. Ureteral stones (ureterolithiasis): These are formed in the ureters, the narrow tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder.
4. Urethral stones (urethrolithiasis): These are formed in the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body.

Urolithiasis can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. Pain in the abdomen or back
2. Frequent urination
3. Painful urination
4. Blood in the urine
5. Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
6. Fever and chills
7. Nausea and vomiting

Treatment for urolithiasis depends on the type of stone, its size, and the severity of symptoms. Small stones may pass on their own, while larger stones may require medical intervention such as shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) to break them up or surgery to remove them. Preventive measures include drinking plenty of water, maintaining a healthy diet, and avoiding certain foods that can increase the risk of stone formation.

Symptoms of fecal impaction may include:

1. Severe constipation or infrequent bowel movements
2. Abdominal pain or discomfort
3. Straining during bowel movements
4. Lack of relief after passing stool
5. Bleeding from the rectum or blood in the stool
6. Fever and chills
7. Nausea and vomiting
8. Diarrhea or loose stools

If left untreated, fecal impaction can lead to more severe complications such as:

1. Rectal prolapse (where the rectum protrudes out of the anus)
2. Intestinal obstruction or blockage (where the stool blocks the intestine)
3. Infection or abscesses in the rectum or colon
4. Fistula (an abnormal connection between two organs or the skin)
5. Sepsis (a potentially life-threatening infection that can spread throughout the body)

Treatment for fecal impaction usually involves a combination of dietary changes, bowel rest, and medications to soften the stool and promote bowel movements. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the impacted stool or repair any damage to the rectum or colon.

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

... are used to prepare low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol. Ethylene Propylene glycol Monoethylene glycol Diethylene glycol ... Polyethylene glycol is produced by the interaction of ethylene oxide with water, ethylene glycol, or ethylene glycol oligomers ... Polyethylene glycol, Chemindustry.ru Wikimedia Commons has media related to Poly(ethylene glycol). Wikimedia Commons has media ... Polyethylene glycol has a low toxicity and is used in a variety of products. The polymer is used as a lubricating coating for ...
... is a mixture of three isomeric chemical compounds, 4-oxa-2,6-heptandiol, 2-(2-hydroxy-propoxy)-propan-1-ol, ... "Dipropylene Glycol LO+ (DPG LO+)". Dow Chemical. Archived from the original on 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2009-04-07. v t e ( ... Dipropylene glycol finds many uses as a plasticizer, an intermediate in industrial chemical reactions, as a polymerization ... ISBN 0-8493-0594-2. "Dipropylene Glycol Regular Grade (DPG)". Dow Chemical. Archived from the original on 2009-03-15. Retrieved ...
... is also present in propylene glycol alginate, which is known as E405. Propylene glycol is a compound which is ... However, the study authors write that glycol ethers and not propylene glycol are the likely culprit. Propylene glycol has not ... Final products contain 20% propylene glycol, 1.5% of dipropylene glycol, and small amounts of other polypropylene glycols. ... Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol Toxicity U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (public domain) Propylene Glycol - ...
... is a specific type of organic chemistry oxidation. The carbon-carbon bond in a vicinal diol (glycol) is cleaved ... Glycol cleavage is an important reaction in the laboratory because it is useful for determining the structures of sugars. After ... Following this dihydroxylation, the KMnO4 can then easily cleave the glycol to give aldehydes or ketones. The aldehydes will ... Warm concentrated potassium permanganate (KMnO4) will react with an alkene to form a glycol. ...
... (glycol monostearate or ethylene glycol monostearate) is an organic compound with the molecular formula ... Glycol distearate Ethylene glycol monostearate at ChemicalBook.com Bradley, E. L.; Food Additives & Contaminants, Part A: ... It is the ester of stearic acid and ethylene glycol. It is used as an ingredient in many types of personal care products and ... Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 2009, V26(4), P574-582 Glycol stearate, Household Products Database, ...
2 triethylene glycol, TEG, or triglycol n = 3 tetraethylene glycol n = 4 pentaethylene glycol n > 4 polyethylene glycol These ... Glycols related to and coproduced with diethylene glycol and have the formula HOCH2CH2(OCH2CH2)nOH are: n = 0 ethylene glycol ... "Diethylene glycol is derived as a co-product with ethylene glycol (MEG) and triethylene glycol. The industry generally operates ... Most ethylene glycol antifreeze contains a few percent diethylene glycol, present as a byproduct of ethylene glycol production ...
Before using glycol in the brewing process, check that propylene glycol is of USP grade to ensure it is recommended for food ... Propylene glycol plays a significant role in the application of a glycol chiller. For cooling in brewing, there are few ... A popular application is in beverage production, wherein the food grade chemical propylene glycol is used. Glycol chillers are ... Propylene glycol, a food-grade antifreeze, is typically used when consumable products are involved. ...
... is the starting material used to synthesize Neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether. It is reacted with ... Neopentyl glycol (IUPAC name: 2,2-dimethylpropane-1,3-diol) is an organic chemical compound. It is used in the synthesis of ... Neopentyl glycol is synthesized industrially by the aldol reaction of formaldehyde and isobutyraldehyde. This creates the ... It has been reported that plastic crystals of neopentyl glycol exhibit a colossal barocaloric effect (CBCEs), which is a ...
The glycol and water are separated, and the glycol recycled. Instead of removing water, ethylene glycol can also be used to ... "Glycol til industri og erhverv" [Glycol for industry and business]. LC Glad (in Danish) - via lcglad.dk. "Ethylene glycol ... The purity of glycol used for hydrate suppression (monoethylene glycol) is typically around 80%, whereas the purity of glycol ... There is a difference in the mixing ratio, depending on whether it is ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. For ethylene glycol ...
... are a class of chemical compounds consisting of alkyl ethers that are based on glycols such as ethylene glycol or ... producing glycol diethers and glycol ether acetates.[citation needed] P-series glycol ethers are marketed as having lower ... "Butyl Cellosolve" (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) was introduced in 1928, and "Methyl Cellosolve" (ethylene glycol monomethyl ... Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol, CH3OCH2CH2OH) Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (2-ethoxyethanol, ...
... is a major oxidation product of cytosine in DNA. It can be readily bypassed by E. coli DNA polymerase I (unlike ... "Enzymatic Processing of Uracil Glycol, a Major Oxidative Product of DNA Cytosine". Jbc.org. Retrieved July 20, 2015. (Articles ... thymine glycol) and be a potent premutagenic lesion. " ...
... may be produced via the esterification of stearic acid (or its esters) with ethylene glycol. It can also be ... Glycol distearate is the diester of stearic acid and ethylene glycol. It is mostly commonly encountered in personal care ... Glycol distearate is also commonly used as an embedding agent in microscopy. Glycol stearate Ethylene bis(stearamide) Ethylene ... When forced to crystalize as thin platelets glycol distearate can give liquids and gels a pearlescent appearance. This is often ...
... is placed into contact with natural gas, and strips the water out of the gas. Triethylene glycol is heated ... Glycols are also used as liquid desiccants for natural gas and in air conditioning systems. It is an additive for hydraulic ... Triethylene glycol is a member of a homologous series of dihydroxy alcohols. It is a colorless, odorless and stable liquid with ... Much of the scientific work with triethylene glycol was done in the 1940s and 1950s, however that work has ably demonstrated ...
The rate at which oxidative reactions generate thymine glycol and thymidine glycol in the DNA of humans is estimated to be ... On a body weight basis, mice excrete 18 times more thymine glycol plus thymidine glycol than humans, and monkeys four times ... Thymine glycol (5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine) is one of the principal DNA lesions that can be induced by oxidation and ... Brain samples from humans who died of stroke were found to be deficient in base excision repair of thymine glycol as well as ...
Cytosine glycols are intermediate unstable products of cytosine oxidation. These, in turn, are thought to undergo deamination ... The lifetime of cytosine glycols are enhanced in double-stranded DNA compared to the free nucleoside. Sébastien Tremblay; J. ... Tremblay S, Douki T, Cadet J, Wagner JR (1999). "2'-Deoxycytidine glycols, a missing link in the free radical-mediated ... Richard Wagner (2008). "Dehydration, deamination and enzymatic repair of cytosine glycols from oxidized poly(dG-dC) and poly(dI ...
... (PPG) , Monument Chemical POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL , CAMEO Chemicals , NOAA Poly(propylene glycol) ( ... Polypropylene glycol or polypropylene oxide is the polymer (or macromolecule) of propylene glycol. Chemically it is a polyether ... Tan SN, Pugh RJ, Fornasiero D, Sedev R, Ralston J (February 2005). "Foaming of polypropylene glycols and glycol/MIBC mixtures ... ethylene glycol)s and poly(propylene glycol)s". Chemosphere. 64 (5): 803-809. Bibcode:2006Chmsp..64..803Z. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Glycols typically seen in industry include triethylene glycol (TEG), diethylene glycol (DEG), ethylene glycol (MEG), and ... The glycol is thermally regenerated to remove excess water and regain the high glycol purity. The rich Glycols are used in heat ... Lean, water-free glycol (purity >99%) is fed to the top of an absorber (also known as a "glycol contactor") where it is ... Glycol absorbers can be either tray columns or packed columns. After leaving the absorber, the rich glycol is fed to a flash ...
... whereas GNA's backbone is composed of repeating glycol units linked by phosphodiester bonds. The glycol unit has just three ... Glycol nucleic acid (GNA), sometimes also referred to as glycerol nucleic acid, is a nucleic acid similar to DNA or RNA but ... Zhang L, Peritz A, Meggers E (March 2005). "A simple glycol nucleic acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (12): ... "A simple glycol nucleic acid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (12): 4174-5. doi:10.1021/ja042564z. PMID 15783191 ...
Chiral oligoethylene glycols are oligoethylene glycols that have BINOL-based chiral backbones. These compounds are used in ...
Ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) is a diester formed by condensation of two equivalents of methacrylic acid and one ... Glycol esters, All stub articles, Alkene stubs, Ester stubs). ... SPEC Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate] at Sigma-Aldrich Bielstein ... equivalent of ethylene glycol. EGDMA can be used in free radical copolymer crosslinking reactions. When used with methyl ...
In enzymology, a L-glycol dehydrogenase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction an L-glycol + NAD(P ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-glycol:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include glycol ( ... and L-glycol:NAD(P)+ dehydrogenase. Bernardo A, Burgos J, Martin R (1981). "Purification and some properties of L-glycol ... H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are L-glycol, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are 2-hydroxycarbonyl compound, NADH, ...
... reacts violently with potassium hydroxide, yielding ethylene glycol and potassium nitrate: C2H2(ONO2) ... Ethylene glycol dinitrate is a colorless volatile liquid when in pure state, but is yellowish when impure. Molar weight 152.07 ... When ethylene glycol dinitrate is rapidly heated to 215 °C, it explodes; this is preceded by partial decomposition similar to ... In the test nitration of anhydrous glycol (100g) with 625g of mixed acid HNO 3 40% & H 2SO 4 60% at 10-12°, the yield was 222g ...
... is poisoning caused by drinking ethylene glycol. Early symptoms include intoxication, vomiting and ... "Glycol Guidelines" Archived 2014-09-13 at the Wayback Machine, Government of Canada, Environment Canada, Jan. 20, 1994. "Glycol ... The increased osmolal gap is caused by the ethylene glycol itself. As the metabolism of ethylene glycol progresses there will ... The toxic mechanism of ethylene glycol poisoning is mainly due to the metabolites of ethylene glycol. Initially it is ...
... (TEGDN) is a nitrated alcohol ester of triethylene glycol. It is used as an energetic plasticizer ... TEGDN is often used together with trimethylolethane trinitrate (TMETN). Triethylene glycol dinitrate, diethylene glycol ... Triethylene glycol dinitrate at ChemYQ Pentagon reports Archived 2012-09-03 at the Wayback Machine at stormingmedia.us ( ...
... (PGDN, ttup 1,2-propylene glycol dinitrate, or 1,2-propanediol dinitrate) is an organic chemical, an ... C3H6(ONO2)2 → 3 CO + 3 H2O + N2 The principal current use of propylene glycol dinitrate is as a propellant in Otto Fuel II, ... "Propylene glycol dinitrate". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Centers for Disease Control and Prevnetion. (Articles ... Nitrates of polyhydric alcohols, of which propylene glycol dinitrate is an example, have been used in medicine for the ...
... can be made by nitration of diethylene glycol with nitric acid in presence of a dehydrating agent ... Triethylene glycol dinitrate, diethylene glycol dinitrate, and trimethylolethane trinitrate are being considered as ... Diethylene glycol dinitrate (DEGDN) is an explosive nitrated alcohol ester with the formula C4H8N2O7. While chemically similar ... diethylene glycol dinitrate has occasionally been used medically to relieve angina, which is substernal chest pain associated ...
Chemically, propylene glycol alginate is an ester of alginic acid, which is derived from kelp. Some of the carboxyl groups are ... Propylene glycol alginate (PGA) is an emulsifier, stabilizer, and thickener used in food products. It is a food additive with E ... List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius Propylene glycol alginate, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ... esterified with propylene glycol, some are neutralized with an appropriate alkali, and some remain free. ...
This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethylene glycol. The handling of this chemical may incur notable safety ... PVP] Vapor pressure of ETHYLENE GLYCOL" (Queriable database). Pure Component Properties. Chemical Engineering Research ...
Similar to other glycol ethers, it is used as a carrier/solvent in printing/writing inks and paints/coatings. It also finds use ... Propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME or 1-methoxy-2-propanol) is an organic solvent with a wide variety of industrial and ... Di(propylene glycol) methyl ether Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health " ... Glycol ethers, Secondary alcohols, Alcohol solvents, Ether solvents, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
Neopentyl glycol and epichlorohydrin are reacted in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst to form a halohydrin. This is ... This forms Neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether. The waste products are water and sodium chloride and excess caustic soda. One of ... Neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether (NPGDGE) is an organic chemical in the glycidyl ether family. It is aliphatic and a colorless ... "Neopentyl glycol diglycidyl ether". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2022-03-25. Jagtap, Ameya Rajendra; More, Aarti (2022- ...
Ethylene glycol can cause death if swallowed. Workers may be harmed from exposure to ethylene glycol. The level of exposure ... Ethylene glycol (HOCH₂CH₂OH) is a colorless, syrupy liquid. It can harm the eyes, skin, kidneys, and respiratory system. ... Useful search terms for ethylene glycol include "1,2-dihydroxyethane," "1,2-ethanediol," "glycol," "glycol alcohol," and " ... Ethylene glycol can cause death if swallowed. Workers may be harmed from exposure to ethylene glycol. The level of exposure ...
Ethylene glycol has been found in at least 34, and propylene glycol in at least 5, of the 1,416 National Priorities List sites ... Exposure to large amounts of ethylene glycol can damage the kidneys, heart, and nervous system. Propylene glycol is generally ... Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol are clear liquids used in antifreeze and deicing solutions. ... Ethylene glycol in air will break down in about 10 days.. *Ethylene glycol in water and in soil will breakdown within several ...
Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2( N-LMH ... Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2( N-LMH ... Hollis, J. , Lovas, F. , Jewell, P. and Coudert, L. (2004), Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene glycol, The Astrophysical Journal ... ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2( N-LMH). While ...
Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting chemical. It is poisonous if swallowed. ... Ethylene glycol may be swallowed accidentally, or it may be taken deliberately in a suicide attempt or as a substitute for ... Diagnosis of ethylene glycol toxicity is usually made through a combination of blood, urine, and other tests. Tests you may ... Ethylene glycol toxicity should be suspected in anyone who is severely ill after drinking an unknown substance, especially if ...
Information on ethylene glycol, a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and ... Online Course: Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol Toxicity. *Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders. Agent ...
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGMEE), Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (EGMME), 2- ... Nomination Summary for Nomination Summary for Glycols (N84305). Nomination Summary for Glycols (N84305). Nominated Substances: ... 2-Butoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether), 2-Butoxyethanol acetate, ...
... *Formula: C22H50O6Si2 ... Pentaethylene glycol, bis(tert-butyldimethylmethyl)silyl ether ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether  Boehncke, A; Konnecker, G; Mangelsdorf, Inge; World Health Organization; International ...
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350 (UNII: G2M7P15E5P) (POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350 - UNII:G2M7P15E5P) POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 3350. 17 g in 17 g ... polyethylene glycol 3350 17 GM Powder for Oral Solution. PSN. 2. 876193. polyethylene glycol 3350 17000 MG Powder for Oral ... RUGBY PEG 3350- polyethylene glycol 3350 powder, for solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it ... RUGBY PEG 3350- polyethylene glycol 3350 powder, for solution. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA ...
Polyglykol 3350 S is a flaked PEG API grade powder product, produced under ICH Q7 conditions with GMP certification by the German authorities.
Polyethylene Glycol 3350 Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. Polyethylene glycol 3350 is in a ... Methoxy Polyethylene Glycol-Epoetin Beta Injection Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta injection is used to treat anemia ( ... Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) is used to empty the colon ... alpha-2b is a combination of interferon and polyethylene glycol, which helps the interferon stay active in your ... 2b, other ...
Notices to Readers Availability of NIOSH Criteria Document on Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether and Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl ... Notices to Readers Availability of NIOSH Criteria Document on Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether and Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl ... Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and ethylene glycol monobutyl ... Occupational Exposure to Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether and Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (1).* In this document, ...
Bulk and Prepack available | Aldrich-295906; average Mn 2,050, chips; PEG; CAS No. 25322-68-3; Explore related products, MSDS, application guides, procedures and protocols at Sigma Aldrich - a one stop solution for all your research & industrial needs.
VP Stay Frosty non-glycol racing coolant - for high-compression/high-heat race engines. Proven to reduce engine temps. Contains ... Stay Frosty® Race-Ready Non-Glycol Racing Coolant Benefits. *Ready-to-Use - Just Pour In ... and gives you confidence to go club racing at your local track because it contains no glycol.. We recommend you change your ... is proven to reduce your engine temps and help maximize your vehicles horsepower and torque compared to conventional glycol- ...
Testing Status of 2-Butoxyethanol (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether) 11135-T. Testing Status of 2-Butoxyethanol (ethylene glycol ... Disposition of three glycol ethers administered in drinking water to male F344/N rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 Mar 1;102(3 ... Effect of age on the toxicity and metabolism of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) in rats. Toxicol Appl ... Metabolism and disposition of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 1987 Jul-Aug;15(4): ...
When concentrates are used at 40 to 60 % glycol concentration by volume in water of suitable quality, or when predilute ... AbstractThis specification covers the requirements for fully-formulated glycol base coolants for cooling systems of heavy-duty ... Note 1: Committee D15 has not substantially studied the impact of using recycled glycols from sources such as: • glycol bottoms ... When concentrates are used at 40 to 60 % glycol concentration by volume in water of suitable quality, or when prediluted glycol ...
Crystal structure of DNA-glycosylase bound to DNA containing Thymine glycol ... Thymine glycol (Tg) and 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) are common oxidized products of pyrimidines, which are recognized and cleaved ... Thymine glycol (Tg) and 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) are common oxidized products of pyrimidines, which are recognized and cleaved ... Structural characterization of viral ortholog of human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 bound to thymine glycol or 5-hydroxyuracil- ...
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Information on ethylene glycol, a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Provided by the Centers for Disease Control and ... Online Course: Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol Toxicity. *Emergency Response Card: Information for First Responders. Agent ...
The Use of Polyethylene Glycol in the Pediatric Population (R01) RFA-FD-14-088. FDA ... Ethylene glycol is a precursor for synthesis and a degradation product of PEG. Ethylene glycol is known to be neurotoxic in ... This analysis of eight lots of PEG 3350 confirmed the presence of small amounts of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol in all ... At a minimum, analysis for the following will be needed: diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, diglycolic acid, glycolic acid, 2- ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Propylene Glycol Toxicosis in Animals. Find specific details on this topic and related ... Although less toxic than ethylene glycol Ethylene Glycol Toxicosis in Animals Ethylene glycol toxicosis is often fatal and ... propylene glycol, when ingested, may be associated with a syndrome similar to the acute phase of ethylene glycol toxicosis. The ... Also see pet health content regarding antifreeze poisoning Ethylene Glycol (Antifreeze) Poisoning Most ethylene glycol ...
Rising adoption of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether as a coalescing agent in the production of water-based coatings is a major ... The global diethylene glycol monoethyl ether market is anticipated to witness substantial growth in the coming years. ... Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Market Size, Industry Report, 2025 GVR Report cover Diethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Market ... The global diethylene glycol monoethyl ether market size was estimated at USD 374.9 million in 2018 and is expected to witness ...
I was just reading in the boat design wiki on this site about Ethylene Glycol - more commonly known as automotive anti-freeze. ... not Propylene Glycol and not any other type of glycol. I prefer using pure Ethylene Glycol from a chemical supplier because it ... After rescuing my 29 year old boat a decade ago with glycol, I simply get out the 1 quart spray bottle of glycol and retreat ... After rescuing my 29 year old boat a decade ago with glycol, I simply get out the 1 quart spray bottle of glycol and retreat ...
... triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for their ability to induce necrosis and apoptosis in ...
Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) are built of three elements: carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. Chemists diagram the ... 01.013 Glycol Oxidation. Introduction:. The appearance of poorly processed redistilled glycols and the implementation of ... Gas temperatures at the entrance to an EGR may exceed 1,100 degrees F, and can destroy ethylene glycol coolants in a remarkably ... more air-tight cooling system engineering have combined to drastically reduce glycol oxidation, and have contributed to ...
Ethylene glycol is a type of alcohol found in automotive and household products. Learn more. ... This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. ... Ethylene glycol is a type of alcohol found in automotive and ... Ethylene glycol is poisonous. . People sometimes drink ethylene glycol by mistake or on purpose as a substitute for drinking ... Drinking ethylene glycol is a medical emergency. Ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning ...
  • The global diethylene glycol monoethyl ether market size was estimated at USD 374.9 million in 2018 and is expected to witness a CAGR of 5.3% from 2019 to 2025. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The rising adoption of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether as a coalescing agent in the production of water-based coatings is a major factor driving the industry. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Floor polish application dominated the diethylene glycol monoethyl ether market in 2018 and accounted for over 30% of the global volume. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether is used in the formulation of various cosmeceutical products as it has skin treatment properties. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The purpose of the proposed study is to better understand the extent of pediatric accumulation of low molecular weight (LMW) species that may be found in PEG 3350 products (e.g., ethylene and diethylene glycol) and of PEG 3350 metabolites. (nih.gov)
  • The designation PEG 3550 indicates the average molecular weight of that product and therefore includes a distribution of various molecular weights of PEG potentially including low levels of ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol and possibly other low molecular weight species. (nih.gov)
  • On May 10, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") released a new guidance document Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Maltitol Solution, Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate, Sorbitol Solution, and other High-Risk Drug Components for Diethylene Glycol and Ethylene Glycol . (kslaw.com)
  • 1 U.S. FOOD & DRUG ADMIN, Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Maltitol Solution, Hydrogenated Starch Hydrolysate, Sorbitol Solution, and other High-Risk Drug Components for Diethylene Glycol and Ethylene Glycol , (May 2023), https://www.fda.gov/media/167974/download. (kslaw.com)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Diethylene glycol (111-46-6). (nih.gov)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Diethylene Glycol in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (112-34-5). (nih.gov)
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Diethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (nih.gov)
  • What is propylene glycol? (cdc.gov)
  • Propylene glycol is a clear, colorless, slightly syrupy liquids at products, using cosmetics, or taking medicine that contains it. (cdc.gov)
  • It may exist in air in the vapor form, although ` If you work in an industry that uses propylene glycol or propylene glycol must be heated or briskly shaken to produce products containing propylene glycol, you could be exposed by a vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Propylene glycol is practically odorless and tasteless. (cdc.gov)
  • Propylene glycol increases the amount of acid in the body. (cdc.gov)
  • propylene glycol as an additive that is "generally recognized as safe" for use in food. (cdc.gov)
  • It is used to absorb extra water and maintain Propylene glycol breaks down at the same rate as ethylene glycol, moisture in certain medicines, cosmetics, or food products. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to propylene glycol when it enters the Frequent skin exposure to propylene glycol can sometimes irritate the skin. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is propylene glycol to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • Propylene glycol is not likely to exist in large amounts in air. (cdc.gov)
  • About half of the propylene glycol that enters the air will The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the break down in 24-50 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the ` It will break down within several days to a week in water and EPA have not classified propylene glycol for carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Propylene glycol is generally considered to be a safe chemical, and is not routinely tested for, unless specific exposure, such as to a medicine or cosmetic, can be linked with symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Since propylene glycol breaks down very quickly in the body, it is very difficult to detect, even though symptoms may be present. (cdc.gov)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has classified propylene glycol as "generally recognized as safe," which means that it is acceptable for use in flavorings, drugs, and cosmetics, and as a direct food additive. (cdc.gov)
  • 1997. Toxicological Profile for Propylene Glycol. (cdc.gov)
  • 1.2 This specification is intended to cover the requirements for engine coolants prepared from virgin or recycled ethylene or propylene glycol. (astm.org)
  • propylene glycol, when ingested, may be associated with a syndrome similar to the acute phase of ethylene glycol toxicosis. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The oral LD 50 of propylene glycol in dogs is ~9 mL/kg. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In cats, ingestion of a diet containing 6%-12% propylene glycol can result in Heinz body formation and decreased RBC survival. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Treatment of propylene glycol toxicosis is largely supportive-the use of alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors is not indicated. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Ingestion of propylene glycol may result in false-positive ethylene glycol test kit results. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Hi Trevlyns, There's more than one type of anti-freeze so if you're going to use anti-freeze be sure to use the stuff that is made of Ethylene Glycol - not Propylene Glycol and not any other type of glycol. (boatdesign.net)
  • The recent poisonings in Central America, and the clampdown on Chinese imports are the result of greedy merchants substituting cheaper Ethylene Glycol for Glycerin or Propylene Glycol. (boatdesign.net)
  • Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) are built of three elements: carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. (penray.com)
  • Propylene glycol monostearate ;CAS No. (ecvv.com)
  • Mono Propylene Glycol CAS NO. 57-55-6 Propylene Glycol . (ecvv.com)
  • The aim of this paper was to evaluate aqueous extracts of freshly cured compomers Freedom (SDI) and F2000 (3M ESPE), and constituents identified in the extracts, GDMA (glycerol dimethacrylate), TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate) and HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) for their ability to induce necrosis and apoptosis in primary rat alveolar macrophages and the J744A1 macrophage cell line. (niom.no)
  • Product Brief: Ethylene Glycols, including Mono-, Di- and Triethylene Glycol, are basic chemicals manufactured in large quantities all over the world. (ecvv.com)
  • 1 wt % triethylene glycol mono-2-ethylhexyl ether (Eastman Chem. (nih.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to ethylene glycol? (cdc.gov)
  • The general public can be exposed to ethylene glycol through skin contact when using antifreeze. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently published Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether and Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (1). (cdc.gov)
  • In this document, NIOSH recommends occupational exposure limits for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) and its acetate, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate (EGBEA). (cdc.gov)
  • Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether acetate. (cdc.gov)
  • Metabolism and disposition of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) in rats. (nih.gov)
  • The product is considered to be a safe and tolerable pharmaceutical-grade glycol ether when used at 99.9% purity. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Product Brief: Application: Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether is mainly used as the solvent for nitrocellulose,synthetic resin,painting,enamel,grease and paint deleting reagent.It is used as medicine extraction in. (ecvv.com)
  • Ethylene glycol 2-ethylhexyl ether (EGEHE) was nominated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for toxicological characterization based on the limited amount of toxicological data available and on concern for potential human exposure due to its high production and increasing use. (nih.gov)
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Mammalian Cell Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (110-80-5). (nih.gov)
  • 116-Day Evaluation of the Toxicity (C54853B) of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (EGMEE) (110-80-5) in F344 Rats Exposed via Dosed Water. (nih.gov)
  • 2-Week Evaluation of the Toxicity (C54853B) of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether (EGMEE) (110-80-5) in B6C3F1 Mice Exposed via Dosed Water. (nih.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol toxicity should be suspected in anyone who is severely ill after drinking an unknown substance, especially if they at first appear drunk and you can't smell alcohol on their breath. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosis of ethylene glycol toxicity is usually made through a combination of blood, urine, and other tests. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Disposition of three glycol ethers administered in drinking water to male F344/N rats. (nih.gov)
  • Given their strong capital investment capacity, these companies are focusing on forwarding integration across the market value chain by developing new production technologies for glycol ethers. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Ethylene glycols are transparent and slightly viscous chemical. (ecvv.com)
  • VP Racing Stay Frosty Race Ready racing coolant is proven to reduce your engine temps and help maximize your vehicle's horsepower and torque compared to conventional glycol-based coolants. (vpracingfuels.com)
  • This specification covers the requirements for fully-formulated glycol base coolants for cooling systems of heavy-duty engines. (astm.org)
  • When concentrates are used at 40 to 60 % glycol concentration by volume in water of suitable quality, or when prediluted glycol base engine coolants (50 volume % minimum) are used without further dilution, they will function effectively during both winter and summer to provide protection against corrosion, cavitation, freezing, and boiling. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This specification covers the requirements for fully-formulated glycol base coolants for cooling systems of heavy-duty engines. (astm.org)
  • However, several serious cases of very poor performance have been reported and substantiated in heavy duty fleets when recycled glycols from sources such as above have been used to prepare engine coolants. (astm.org)
  • Efforts are underway to more clearly define the purity requirements for glycols used to prepare engine coolants meeting this specification, whether from recycled engine coolants or other sources. (astm.org)
  • Gas temperatures at the entrance to an EGR may exceed 1,100 degrees F, and can destroy ethylene glycol coolants in a remarkably short period of time. (penray.com)
  • Ethylene glycol is a clear liquid used in antifreeze and de-icing solutions. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol is used to make antifreeze and de-icing solutions for cars, airplanes, and boats. (cdc.gov)
  • People who work in industries that use ethylene glycol may be exposed by touching products such as solvents, antifreeze, and feedstocks that contain this substance. (cdc.gov)
  • Your health is not likely to be seriously affected by the very small amounts of ethylene glycol that could be tasted or otherwise accidentally eaten (for example, by putting your fingers in your mouth after getting them wet with antifreeze). (cdc.gov)
  • Minimize skin contact when using antifreeze and other consumer products containing ethylene glycol. (cdc.gov)
  • Most ethylene glycol poisonings occur due to the ingestion of antifreeze. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ethylene Glycol (Antifreeze) Poisoning Most ethylene glycol poisonings are associated with ingestion of radiator antifreeze. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Ethylene glycol may be swallowed accidentally, or it may be taken deliberately in a suicide attempt or as a substitute for drinking alcohol (ethanol). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first symptom of ethylene glycol ingestion is similar to the feeling caused by drinking alcohol (ethanol). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol (HOCH ₂ CH ₂ OH) is a colorless, syrupy liquid. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting chemical. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2( N-LMH). (nist.gov)
  • alpha interferons, any other medications, benzyl alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG). (nih.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol is a type of alcohol found in automotive and household products. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • People sometimes drink ethylene glycol by mistake or on purpose as a substitute for drinking alcohol. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • Accidental or intentional ingestion of larger amounts of ethylene glycol can cause serious illness or death. (cdc.gov)
  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 is used to treat occasional constipation. (nih.gov)
  • Polyethylene glycol 3350 comes as a powder to be mixed with a liquid and taken by mouth. (nih.gov)
  • Efficacy of a safe and clinically utilized polyethylene glycol formulation (PEG-3350) to suppress intestinal tumors was investigated in the Apc(min) mouse-model of experimental carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure to large amounts of ethylene glycol can damage the kidneys, nervous system, lungs, and heart. (cdc.gov)
  • When ethylene glycol breaks down in the body it forms chemicals that crystallize, and the crystals can collect in your kidneys and can affect kidney function. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the EPA have not classified ethylene glycol for carcinogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • In severe cases, dialysis (kidney machine) may be used to directly remove the ethylene glycol and other poisonous substances from the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Polyethylene glycol -electrolyte solution (PEG-ES) comes as a powder to mix with water and take by mouth. (nih.gov)
  • stool softeners, such as magnesium hydroxide, lactulose, or polyethylene glycol powder, as recommended by the provider. (nih.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol is a precursor for synthesis and a degradation product of PEG. (nih.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol also forms acidic chemicals in the body, which can change the body's acid/base balance and affect your nervous system, lungs, and heart. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers may be harmed from exposure to ethylene glycol. (cdc.gov)
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to ethylene glycol. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to ethylene glycol in air, drinking water, or soil is not expected. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risks of exposure to ethylene glycol? (cdc.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol has been found in at least 37 of 1,699 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical findings in children who were poisoned by accidentally or intentionally drinking ethylene glycol indicate that it is likely that children would show the same health effects as adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Early diagnosis and treatment have been very successful in people drinking large amounts of ethylene glycol. (cdc.gov)
  • Skeletal defects and low birth weights have occurred in newborn animals whose mothers ingested large amounts of ethylene glycol during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol is used in many industries. (cdc.gov)
  • Tests will show increased levels of ethylene glycol, blood chemical disturbances, and possible signs of kidney failure and muscle or liver damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol poisoning can be effectively treated, but early diagnosis is needed to prevent serious injury. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on ethylene glycol -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to ethylene glycol when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Polyethylene glycol laxative is approved for over-the-counter use for occasional constipation in adults and children = 17 years of age, and is recommended for short term use up to seven days. (nih.gov)
  • Ethylene glycol can also enter the environment through the disposal of products that contain it. (cdc.gov)
  • Workers can also be exposed to low levels from ethylene glycol-containing products such as airplane de-icing solutions that have been sprayed into the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Thymine glycol (Tg) and 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU) are common oxidized products of pyrimidines, which are recognized and cleaved by two DNA glycosylases of the base excision repair pathway, endonuclease III (Nth) and endonuclease VIII (Nei). (rcsb.org)
  • Found 536 glycol Sourcing Services , glycol Manufacturers and Sourcing Agent. (ecvv.com)
  • Ethylene glycol in water and in soil will breakdown within several days to a few weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Superior buffering technology and better, more air-tight cooling system engineering have combined to drastically reduce glycol oxidation, and have contributed to adoption of extended service interval programs. (penray.com)
  • The primary source of ethylene glycol in the environment is from run-off at airports where is used in de-icing agents for runways and airplanes. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Ethylene Glycol -Occupational safety and health guidelines that summarizes pertinent information about ethylene glycol for workers, employers, and health professionals. (cdc.gov)
  • If you work in an industry that uses ethylene glycol, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • I prefer using pure Ethylene Glycol from a chemical supplier because it will not have any 'water pump lubricant' or any other engine additives in it that might create problems with the epoxy's bond to the wood. (boatdesign.net)
  • The enhanced solubility of the C6H6 compound in ethylene glycol was identified here as critical due to the GC technique , which will be without future consequences in chemical technology . (bvsalud.org)
  • Those who recently (within 30 to 60 minutes of presentation to the emergency department) swallowed the ethylene glycol may have their stomach pumped (suctioned). (medlineplus.gov)
  • How can ethylene glycol affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • Studies with people who used ethylene glycol did not show carcinogenic effects. (cdc.gov)
  • We do not know whether ethylene glycol causes birth defects in people. (cdc.gov)
  • Most people with ethylene glycol poisoning need to be admitted to a hospital, often to the intensive care unit (ICU) for close monitoring. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about ethylene glycol. (cdc.gov)
  • The inside of the part was cooled and heated by an aqueous solution of ethylene glycol. (ecvv.com)

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