Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC
A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A strong oxidizing agent.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An order of basidiomycetous fungi; some species are parasitic on grasses (POACEAE) and maize.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Serological tests that measure anti-hemadsorption agents such as antiviral ANTIBODIES that block VIRAL HEMAGGLUNININS from adhering to the surface of red blood cells.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (1/2592)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/2592)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid. (3/2592)

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (4/2592)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

Formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds in Halobacterium salinarium. Presumed intermediates in glycoprotein synthesis. (5/2592)

The ability of bacitracin to inhibit the growth of Halobacterium salinarium suggested that glycosylation of the major envelope component, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, might occur via a pathway involving lipid intermediates. This report demonstrates that the cells have enzymatic activities for formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds having the expected properties of such intermediates. Whole cell homogenate catalyzed the transfer of sugar from UDP-glucose, GDP-mannose, and UDP-N-acetyglucosamine to endogenous lipid acceptors. Two lipid products were formed from UDP-glucose, two from GDP-mannose, and one from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Characterization of the partially purified lipids by ion exchange chromatography, thin layer chromatography, and mild acid and base hydrolysis showed the major product in each case to have the properties expected for polyisoprenyl phosphoglucose, polyisoprenyl phosphomannose, and polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. Estimates of chain length by thin layer chromatography indicate that the lipid has 11 to 12 isoprene identity as a C55-60-polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. The N-acetylglucosamine transferase, present in cell envelope preparations, was partially characterized. The enzyme was found to be extremely halophilic, specifically requiring a high concentration of KCl. Optimum activity was obtained at 4 m KCl and partial substitution of K+ by Na+ resulted in a decrease in activity.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (6/2592)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

Participation of a trisaccharide-lipid in glycosylation of oviduct membrane glycoproteins. (7/2592)

Preincubation of a hen oviduct membrane preparation with UDP-Nactyl[14C]glucosamine and bacitracin, followed by incubation with GDP-mannose, leads to formation of a chloroform/methanol (2/1)-extractable glycolipid. Treatment of the lipid with mild acid results in the release of a trisaccharide shown to have the structure beta-mannosyl-N-acetylglucosamineyl-N-acetylglucosamine. Incubation of purified trisaccharide-lipid with oviduct membranes in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, Mn2+, and GDP-mannose leads to formation of a labeled glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 25,000...  (+info)

A fluorescence resonance energy transfer approach for monitoring protein-mediated glycolipid transfer between vesicle membranes. (8/2592)

A lipid transfer protein, purified from bovine brain (23.7 kDa, 208 amino acids) and specific for glycolipids, has been used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (anthrylvinyl-labeled lipids; energy donors and perylenoyl-labeled lipids; energy acceptors) for monitoring the transfer of lipids between membranes. Small unilamellar vesicles composed of 1 mol% anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide, 1.5 mol% perylenoyl-triglyceride, and 97.5% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) served as donor membranes. Acceptor membranes were 100% POPC vesicles. Addition of glycolipid transfer protein to mixtures of donor and acceptor vesicles resulted in increasing emission intensity of anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide and decreasing emission intensity of the nontransferable perylenoyl-triglyceride as a function of time. The behavior was consistent with anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide being transferred from donor to acceptor vesicles. The anthrylvinyl and perylenoyl energy transfer pair offers advantages over frequently used energy transfer pairs such as NBD and rhodamine. The anthrylvinyl emission overlaps effectively the perylenoyl excitation spectrum and the fluorescence parameters of the anthrylvinyl fluorophore are nearly independent of the medium polarity. The nonpolar fluorophores are localized in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer thus producing minimal disturbance of the bilayer polar region. Our results indicate that this method is suitable for assay of lipid transfer proteins including mechanistic studies of transfer protein function.  (+info)

There are several types of gangliosidoses, including:

1. GM1 gangliosidosis: This is the most common form of the disorder, affecting approximately 1 in 100,000 individuals worldwide. It is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme beta-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of GM1 ganglioside in cells.
2. GM2 gangliosidosis: This form of the disorder is similar to GM1 gangliosidosis but affects a different type of ganglioside, GM2. It is also known as Sandhoff disease and is particularly severe, with most children dying before the age of five.
3. Globoid-cell leukodystrophy: This is a rare form of gangliosidosis that affects the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive loss of myelin, the fatty insulating substance that surrounds nerve fibers.
4. Metachromatic leukodystrophy: This is another rare form of gangliosidosis caused by a deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase A. It can lead to progressive loss of myelin and other symptoms such as vision loss, seizures, and difficulty with movement.

There is currently no cure for gangliosidoses, but various treatments are available to manage their symptoms and slow their progression. These may include enzyme replacement therapy, physical therapy, speech therapy, and medications to control seizures and other symptoms. Early detection and intervention can help improve the outlook for individuals with these disorders, but the long-term prognosis is often poor.

The glycolipid is assembled in the Golgi apparatus and embedded in the surface of a vesicle which is then transported to the ... Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic (covalent) bond. Their role is to maintain the stability of ... Glycolipids are found on the surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes, where they extend from the phospholipid bilayer into the ... Glycolipids are also responsible for other responses, notably the recognition of host cells by viruses. Blood types are an ...
... is a cytosolic protein that catalyses the transfer of glycolipids between different intracellular ... GLTP; PLEKHA8; PLEKHA9; Rao CS, Lin X, Pike HM, Molotkovsky JG, Brown RE (November 2004). "Glycolipid transfer protein mediated ... Brown RE, Mattjus P (June 2007). "Glycolipid transfer proteins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell ... Mattjus P (January 2009). "Glycolipid transfer proteins and membrane interaction". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...
In enzymology, a glycolipid 3-alpha-mannosyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-mannose:glycolipid 1,3-alpha-D-mannosyltransferase. Other names in common use ...
In enzymology, a glycolipid 2-alpha-mannosyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-mannose:glycolipid 1,2-alpha-D-mannosyltransferase. Other names in common use ...
Heinz E. (1996). "Plant glycolipids: structure, isolation and analysis", pp. 211-332 in Advances in Lipid Methodology, Vol. 3. ... Wiegandt H (January 1992). "Insect glycolipids". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1123 (2): ... glycolipids (cerebroside) and sphingolipids (sphingomyelin). The terms lipoid, lipin, lipide and lipid have been used with ...
... s are glycolipids consist of a hydrophobic fatty acid tail of 16 or 18 carbon atoms and a hydrophilic carbohydrate ... A sophorolipid is a surface-active glycolipid compound that can be synthesized by a selected number of non-pathogenic yeast ... microbial glycolipids with anti-human immunodeficiency virus and sperm-immobilizing activities. Antimicrob Agents Chemother ...
CS1 errors: missing periodical, Glycolipids). ...
Wenger DA, Petitpas JW, Pieringer RA (1968). "The metabolism of glyceride glycolipids. II. Biosynthesis of monogalactosyl ...
"Nomenclature of Glycolipids (IUPAC Recommendations 1997)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 69: 2475-2487. 1997. doi:10.1351/ ... While terms are sometimes used interchangeably, Saccharolipids are distinct from glycolipids as the latter are defined by IUPAC ...
... the membranes contain glycolipids. However, the membranes in the B31 strain have been found to contain a lipopolysaccharide- ...
Also, in Meiothermus, the presence of two glycolipid bands is seen whereas Thermus species only contain one. Thermus also ... "Characterization of glycolipids from Meiothermus spp". Microbiology. 145 (5): 1191-1199. doi:10.1099/13500872-145-5-1191. ISSN ...
They recognized glycolipids and secreted IFN-γ and TNF-α. Other autoimmune diseases where group 1 CD1 restricted T cells might ... Shamshiev A, Donda A, Carena I, Mori L, Kappos L, De Libero G (May 1999). "Self glycolipids as T-cell autoantigens". European ...
"Glycolipid & Sphingolipid Biology". Gordon Research Conferences. 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015. "Affinity and Biorecognition ... distribution of grafted dinitrophenyl groups on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids". Molecular and Cellular ...
"Entrez Gene: GLTP glycolipid transfer protein". Brown RE, Mattjus P (2007). "Glycolipid transfer proteins". Biochim. Biophys. ... 2006). "The liganding of glycolipid transfer protein is controlled by glycolipid acyl structure". PLOS Biol. 4 (11): e362. doi: ... Glycolipid transfer protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLTP gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Li XM, Malakhova ML, Lin X, Pike HM, Chung T, Molotkovsky JG, Brown RE (Aug 2004). "Human glycolipid transfer protein: probing ...
Golgi apparatus also produce glycoproteins and glycolipids. Lysosome: The lysosome functions to degrade material brought in ...
She also researches possible applications for glycolipids. She is co-founder of the company GlycoSurf, which researches the ... Her research involves surface science and developing applications for glycolipids. In 1997, she was cofounder of the Committee ... development of environmentally friendly glycolipid surfactants. Since 2005, she has been a Regents' Professor at the University ...
... is required for glycolipid transport to the cell surface". Molecular Microbiology. 58 (2): 426-440. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... Transport Protein Glycolipid Sondén, Berit; Kocíncová, Dana; Deshayes, Caroline; Euphrasie, Daniel; Rhayat, Lamya; Laval, ...
The species is commercially cultivated to produce long-chain glycolipids used as a natural preservative in soft drinks. The ... EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Flavourings (2021). "Safety evaluation of long-chain glycolipids from Dacryopinax spathularia ...
Glycolipids provide the most extreme example of asymmetry in the lipid bilayer. Glycolipids perform a vast number of functions ... Membranes contain sugar-containing lipid molecules known as glycolipids. In the bilayer, the sugar groups of glycolipids are ... In the membrane, they can be covalently bound to lipids to form glycolipids or covalently bound to proteins to form ... In particular, a different mechanism operates for glycolipids-the lipids that show the most striking and consistent asymmetric ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Glycolipids). ...
... glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides.[citation needed] Much of the chemistry of glycosides is explained in the article on ...
Cholesterol and glycolipids have varied roles in the cell. Cholesterol is a major component of cell plasma membranes, which ... The disruption of this transport system results in the accumulation of cholesterol and glycolipids in lysosomes. ... Several theories have attempted to link the accumulation of cholesterol and glycolipids in the lysosomes with the malfunction ...
Specifically, this consists mostly of exopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids. Therefore, the slime layer is ...
v t e (Glycolipids, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
The major polar lipids are phospholipids, glycolipids, and phosphoglycolipids. It utilizes H2/CO2, formate, 2-propanol/CO2, and ...
Du W, Kulkarni SS, Gervay-Hague J (June 2007). "Efficient, one-pot syntheses of biologically active alpha-linked glycolipids". ...
Mycosides are glycolipids isolated from Mycobacterium species with Mycoside A found in photochromogenic strains, Mycoside B in ... Smith DW, Randall HM, Maclennan AP, Lederer E (June 1960). "Mycosides: a new class of type-specific glycolipids of Mycobacteria ...
Complex mixture of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, glycolipids, etc. ...
Glycolipids are important for cell recognition, and are important for modulating the function of membrane proteins that act as ... Therefore, a person with A blood type will have the A antigen and H antigen present on the glycolipids of the red blood cell ... Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates. They are very abundant on the surface of ... Glycolipids are lipid molecules bound to oligosaccharides, generally present in the lipid bilayer. Additionally, they can serve ...
High Anti-Phenolic Glycolipid-I IgM Titers and Hidden Leprosy Cases, Amazon Region. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012;18(5): ... High Anti-Phenolic Glycolipid-I IgM Titers and Hidden Leprosy Cases, Amazon Region On This Page ... High Anti-Phenolic Glycolipid-I IgM Titers and Hidden Leprosy Cases, Amazon Region. Volume 18, Number 5-May 2012 ... Salgado C, Ferreira D, Frade M, Guimarães L, Batista da Silva M, Barreto J. High Anti-Phenolic Glycolipid-I IgM Titers and ...
Those same glycolipids also can protect beverages when prepared for use in foodstuff.. The natural glycolipids of the ... The natural glycolipids that the fungus contains are natures way for the fungus to keep its food free of spoilage. ... Therefore, Nagardo natural glycolipids can be applied in a wide range of beverages. Carbonated beverages in particular can ... These natural glycolipids offer consumer-friendly marketing options while reliably protecting beverages from spoilage.. Because ...
Glycolipids / analysis * Humans * Kidney Glomerulus / pathology* * Kidney Glomerulus / ultrastructure * Kidney Tubules / ...
We postulated that modifying the glycolipid in this way would exert a minimal impact on the TCR-glycolipid-CD1d ternary complex ... Because the cytokine response profile is governed by the structure of the glycolipid, we sought a method for labeling various ... glycolipids to study their in vivo behavior. The prototypical CD1d agonist, α-galactosyl ceramide (α-GalCer) 1, instigates a ... are restricted by CD1d molecules and activated upon CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipids to T cell receptors (TCRs) ...
pH triggered doxorubicin delivery of PEGylated glycolipid conjugate micelles for tumor targeting therapy.. Hu, Fu-Qiang; Zhang ...
Inhibitory effects of glycolipids fraction from spinach on mammalian DNA polymerase activity and human cancer cell ... Effects of DNA polymerase inhibitory and antitumor activities of lipase-hydrolyzed glycolipid fractions from spinach. J Nutr ... Richer 2000 Glycolipids (sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) are found in the chloroplast membrane.Kuriyama 2005 Spinach is ... and in vivo anti-tumor activity by glycolipids from spinach. Curr Med Chem. 2007;14(9):955-967.17439396. ...
"Neuropathy and IgM paraproteinemia: Differential binding of IgM M-proteins to peripheral nerve glycolipids" Neurology, Vol. 37 ...
Industrial Surfactants provides a detailed independent appraisal of key regional markets, including current and forecast demand by major products and end-use industries, product grades and prices, applications, distribution channels, supplier sales, and technical and market trends.
Accumulation of glycolipids and glycoproteins also occurs in other organs such as the liver, spleen, skin, heart, pancreas, and ... Without this enzyme, glycolipids and glycoproteins cannot be completely broken down. These partially broken down compounds ... Brain cells are particularly sensitive to the buildup of glycolipids and glycoproteins, which can result in cell death. Loss of ... glycolipids). Alpha-L-fucosidase is responsible for cutting (cleaving) off a sugar molecule called fucose toward the end of the ...
CD1c is involved in antigen-presentation of glycolipids. It may also act in T cells as an immune regulatory molecule. ...
Glycolipids and Challenges Ahead for the Growing $1.2 M Biosurfactants Market. Personal care is projected to be the fastest- ...
... or with carbohydrates to form glycolipids. In the blood, free fatty acids, the active lipids for cell use, are bound to albumin ...
The outer membrane of mycobacteria contains the glycolipid trehalose dimycolate (TDM). The membrane-forming function of TDM and ... first attempts we have been successful to mimic the mycobacterial wax layer by using lipid matrices containing the glycolipid ...
Glycolipids, lipopeptides and proteins. Soft Matter 2012, 8, 578-591. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ...
1999) Clusters of glycolipid and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in lymphoid cells: accumulation of actin ...
... control of the soft rot bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Ar10 producing glycolipid- ...
Our lecithin is extracted from soy beans and is composed of various phospholipids, glycolipids, carbohydrates and neutral ...
... bacteria accumulate in monocytes or macrophages and lead to the deposition of calcium and iron on residual bacterial glycolipid ...
Curatolo WC, Yau AO, Small DM, and Sears B. "Lectin-induced agglutination of phospholipid/glycolipid vesicles." Biochemistry 17 ... "Effect of lectin-induced agglutination on 13C nuclear magnetic resonance line width in sonicated phospholipid/glycolipid ...
2007). Studies on glycolipid antigens in small intestine and pancreas from alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout miniature ... A complete lack of αGal glycolipid reactivity in α1,3GalT-KO pig small intestine. Xenotransplantation, 18, 28-39. [Google ... 2011). Antigen-binding specificity of anti-αGal reagents determined by solid-phase glycolipid-binding assays. ... 2010). Structural characterization of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pig heart and kidney glycolipids and their ...
... and glycolipids28,29, was reduced, consistent with the increased level of carbohydrates observed in H2 treated rats (Fig. 1I, P ...
Glycolipid binding preferences of shiga toxin variants PLoS ONE, 9 7, Karve S.;Pradhan S.;Ward D.;Weiss A. 06-01-2017. ... Shiga toxin binding to glycolipids and glycans PLoS ONE, 7 2, Lee C.;Wang P.;Gaston M.;Weiss A.;Zhang P. 01-01-2017. Plasmonics ... Glycolipid Binding Preferences of Shiga Toxin Variants PLoS ONE, 9(7): e101173 , ... Shiga toxin binding to glycolipids and glycans. PloS one, 7 2, e30368 ...
... a carbohydrate moiety in mammalian meat glycoproteins or glycolipids. ...
The main polar lipids were four unknown glycolipids and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant cell-wall sugars were ... The main polar lipids were four unknown glycolipids and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant cell-wall sugars were ...
Liquid Crystals in Glycolipids. Goodby, J. W., Davis, E. J., Cowling, S. J. & Queneau, Y., Apr 2014, Carbohydrate Chemistry, ...
  • Within lysosomes, this enzyme plays a role in the breakdown of complexes of sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) attached to certain proteins (glycoproteins) and fats (glycolipids). (
  • Without this enzyme, glycolipids and glycoproteins cannot be completely broken down. (
  • Brain cells are particularly sensitive to the buildup of glycolipids and glycoproteins, which can result in cell death. (
  • Accumulation of glycolipids and glycoproteins also occurs in other organs such as the liver, spleen, skin, heart, pancreas, and kidneys, contributing to the additional symptoms of fucosidosis. (
  • More specifically, the structure of glycan moieties on glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycoconjugates of infectious pathogens plays an important role in determining the balance between health and disease such as AIDS and its persisting oral manifestations. (
  • It is well-known that glycan moieties exert profound functional effects on glycoproteins and glycolipid conjugates as they regulate key biological processes. (
  • Elucidating glycan structure, their abundance, and their distribution on glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycoconjugates of infectious pathogens has the potential to provide us with new strategies for identification of a new class of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the future. (
  • It is also not known how the relative abundance and distribution of glycan moieties on glycoproteins and glycolipids influence oral infections and diseases. (
  • The tick bite is thought to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1.3-galactose (alpha-gal), a carbohydrate moiety in mammalian meat glycoproteins or glycolipids. (
  • These techniques are increasingly applied to the study of proteins and other macromolecular species such as oligosaccharides and glycolipids. (
  • Again wild-type GLTP and W96 GLTP showed similar behavior in the presence of vesicles containing glycolipids. (
  • Effect of lectin-induced agglutination on 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance line width in sonicated phospholipid/glycolipid vesicles. (
  • Curatolo WC, Yau AO, Small DM, and Sears B. "Lectin-induced agglutination of phospholipid/glycolipid vesicles. (
  • least phospholipids and glycolipid fractions with values of 8.20 and 2.60 respectively. (
  • Our lecithin is extracted from soy beans and is composed of various phospholipids, glycolipids, carbohydrates and neutral lipids. (
  • In this study we have addressed the ability of the glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) to transfer anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide at different pH and sodium chloride concentrations, and the ability of three different mutants to transfer the fluorescently labeled galactosylceramide between donor and acceptor model membranes. (
  • Taken together, our data show that the W96 is involved not only in the activity of the protein but also in the interaction between the protein and glycolipid containing membranes. (
  • We also examined sera for anti-glycolipid antibodies, a biomarker of GBS, and C jejeunispecific antibodies, a biomarker of C jejeuni exposure. (
  • Anti-glycolipid IgG antibodies were more common among male poultry workers as compared to male referents (p = 0.07). (
  • Design, synthesis, and functional activity of labeled CD1d glycolipid agonists. (
  • Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are restricted by CD1d molecules and activated upon CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipids to T cell receptors (TCRs) located on the surface of the cell. (
  • We postulated that modifying the glycolipid in this way would exert a minimal impact on the TCR-glycolipid-CD1d ternary complex, allowing the labeled molecule to function as a good mimic for the CD1d agonist under investigation. (
  • Tryptophan fluorescence emission showed a blue shift of the maximal emission wavelength upon interaction of glycolipid containing vesicle with wild-type GLTP and W96 GLTP, while no blue shift was recorded for the protein variants W85 GLTP and W142 GLTR The quantum yield of tryptophan emission was highest for the W96 GLTP protein whereas W85 GLTP, W142 GLTP and wild-type GLTP showed a lower and almost similar quantum yield. (
  • At the molecular level this process was mediated by protein binding to membrane surface sulfatides (Sulf), as indicated by the interference of O4 antibody and Sulf with the attachment of OLs or other Sulf + cells, erythrocytes, to TN-R substrates and by direct protein-glycolipid binding studies. (
  • 8. Carbohydrate-protein interactions between HNK-1-reactive sulfoglucuronyl glycolipids and the proteoglycan lectin domain mediate neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. (
  • Associations between serum GDF15 and glycolipid metabolism disorder in metabolic associated fatty liver patients]. (
  • To investigate relationships between serum growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and glycolipid metabolism in patients with metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD). (
  • Because the cytokine response profile is governed by the structure of the glycolipid, we sought a method for labeling various glycolipids to study their in vivo behavior. (
  • Glycolipids are located on cell membrane surfaces and have a carbohydrate sugar chain attached to them. (
  • 16. Sulfated glycolipids and cell adhesion. (
  • Gram-negative bacteria contain a glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on their outer cell wall. (
  • Wild-type GLTP and W96 GLTP were both able to transfer anthrylvinylgalactosylceramide, but the two variants W85 GLTP and W142 GLTP did not show any glycolipid transfer activity, indicating that the tryptophan in position 96 is crucial for transfer activity. (
  • Richer 2000 Glycolipids (sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol) are found in the chloroplast membrane. (

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