Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a galactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-galactosidase, is the cause of galactosylceramide lipidosis or globoid cell leukodystrophy.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher's disease.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a trisaccharide (galactose-galactose-glucose) moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in ceramide trihexosidase, is the cause of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum (FABRY DISEASE).
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A moderate-growing, photochromogenic species found in aquariums, diseased fish, and swimming pools. It is the cause of cutaneous lesions and granulomas (swimming pool granuloma) in humans. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
A group of autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders marked by the accumulation of GANGLIOSIDES. They are caused by impaired enzymes or defective cofactors required for normal ganglioside degradation in the LYSOSOMES. Gangliosidoses are classified by the specific ganglioside accumulated in the defective degradation pathway.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A strong oxidizing agent.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC 2.4.1.65; EC 2.4.1.68; EC 2.4.1.69; EC 2.4.1.89.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
An order of basidiomycetous fungi; some species are parasitic on grasses (POACEAE) and maize.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Serological tests that measure anti-hemadsorption agents such as antiviral ANTIBODIES that block VIRAL HEMAGGLUNININS from adhering to the surface of red blood cells.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (1/2592)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL. (2/2592)

T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid. (3/2592)

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages.  (+info)

Gas-liquid chromatography of the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives of the O-methyl-glycosides on capillary columns: a method for the quantitative determination of the monosaccharide composition of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (4/2592)

We have developed a method involving the formation of hepta-fluorobutyrate derivatives of O-methyl-glycosides liberated from glycoproteins and glycolipids following methanolysis. The stable derivatives of the most common monosaccharides of these glycoconjugates (Ara, Rha, Xyl, Fuc, Gal, Man, Glc, GlcNAc, GalNAc, Neu5Ac, KDN) can be separated and quantitatively and reproducibly determined with a high degree of sensitivity level (down to 25 pmol) in the presence of lysine as an internal standard. The GlcNAc residue bound to Asn in N-glycans is quantitatively recovered as two peaks. The latter were easily distinguished from the other GlcNAc residues of N-glycans, thus allowing a considerable improvement of the data on structure of N-glycans obtained from a single carbohydrate analysis. The most common contaminants present in buffers commonly used for the isolation of soluble or membrane-bound glycoproteins (SDS, Triton X-100, DOC, TRIS, glycine, and polyacrylamide or salts, as well as monosaccharide constituents of proteoglycans or degradation products of nucleic acids) do not interfere with these determinations. A carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins isolated from a SDS/PAGE gel or from PDVF membranes can be performed on microgram amounts without significant interferences. Since fatty acid methyl esters and sphingosine derivatives are separated from the monosaccharide peaks, the complete composition of gangliosides can be achieved in a single step starting from less than 1 microg of the initial compound purified by preparative Silicagel TLC. Using electron impact ionization mass spectrometry, reporter ions for the different classes of O-methyl-glycosides (pentoses, deoxy-hexoses, hexoses, hexosamines, uronic acids, sialic acid, and KDN) allow the identification of these compounds in very complex mixtures. The mass of each compound can be determined in the chemical ionization mode and detection of positive or negative ions. This method presents a considerable improvement compared to those using TMS derivatives. Indeed the heptafluorobutyrate derivatives are stable, and acylation of amino groups is complete. Moreover, there is no interference with contaminants and the separation between fatty acid methyl-esters and O-methyl glycosides is achieved.  (+info)

Formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds in Halobacterium salinarium. Presumed intermediates in glycoprotein synthesis. (5/2592)

The ability of bacitracin to inhibit the growth of Halobacterium salinarium suggested that glycosylation of the major envelope component, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, might occur via a pathway involving lipid intermediates. This report demonstrates that the cells have enzymatic activities for formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds having the expected properties of such intermediates. Whole cell homogenate catalyzed the transfer of sugar from UDP-glucose, GDP-mannose, and UDP-N-acetyglucosamine to endogenous lipid acceptors. Two lipid products were formed from UDP-glucose, two from GDP-mannose, and one from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Characterization of the partially purified lipids by ion exchange chromatography, thin layer chromatography, and mild acid and base hydrolysis showed the major product in each case to have the properties expected for polyisoprenyl phosphoglucose, polyisoprenyl phosphomannose, and polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. Estimates of chain length by thin layer chromatography indicate that the lipid has 11 to 12 isoprene identity as a C55-60-polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. The N-acetylglucosamine transferase, present in cell envelope preparations, was partially characterized. The enzyme was found to be extremely halophilic, specifically requiring a high concentration of KCl. Optimum activity was obtained at 4 m KCl and partial substitution of K+ by Na+ resulted in a decrease in activity.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of two mouse L cell lines resistant to the toxic lectin ricin. (6/2592)

Two variant mouse L cell lines (termed CL 3 and CL 6) have been selected for resistant to ricin, a galactose-binding lectin with potent cytotoxic activity. The resistant lines exhibit a 50 to 70% decrease in ricin binding and a 300- to 500-fold increase in resistance to the toxic effects of ricin. Crude membrane preparations of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid content (200% of control), while the galactose, mannose, and hexosamine content is within normal limits. Both the glycoproteins and glycolipids of CL 3 cells have increased sialic acid, with the GM3:lactosylceramide ratios for parent L and CL 3 cells being 0.29 and 1.5, respectively. In contrast, the membranes of CL 6 cells have a decrease in sialic acid, galactose, and hexosamine content with mannose being normal. Both cell lines have specific alterations in glycosyltransferase activities which can account for the observed membrane sugar changes. CL 3 cells have increased CMP-sialic acid:glycoprotein sialyltransferase and GM3 synthetase activities, while CL 6 cells have decrease UDP-GlcNAc:glycoproteinN-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and DPU-galactose:glycoprotein galactosyltransferase activities. The increased sialic acid content of CL 3 cells serves to mask ricin binding sites, since neuraminidase treatment of this cell line restores ricin binding to essentially normal levels. However, the fact that neuraminidase-treated CL 3 cells are still 45-fold resistant to ricin indicates that either a special class of productive ricin binding sites is not being exposed or that the cell line has a second mechanism for ricin resistance.  (+info)

Participation of a trisaccharide-lipid in glycosylation of oviduct membrane glycoproteins. (7/2592)

Preincubation of a hen oviduct membrane preparation with UDP-Nactyl[14C]glucosamine and bacitracin, followed by incubation with GDP-mannose, leads to formation of a chloroform/methanol (2/1)-extractable glycolipid. Treatment of the lipid with mild acid results in the release of a trisaccharide shown to have the structure beta-mannosyl-N-acetylglucosamineyl-N-acetylglucosamine. Incubation of purified trisaccharide-lipid with oviduct membranes in the presence of sodium deoxycholate, Mn2+, and GDP-mannose leads to formation of a labeled glycoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of 25,000...  (+info)

A fluorescence resonance energy transfer approach for monitoring protein-mediated glycolipid transfer between vesicle membranes. (8/2592)

A lipid transfer protein, purified from bovine brain (23.7 kDa, 208 amino acids) and specific for glycolipids, has been used to develop a fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay (anthrylvinyl-labeled lipids; energy donors and perylenoyl-labeled lipids; energy acceptors) for monitoring the transfer of lipids between membranes. Small unilamellar vesicles composed of 1 mol% anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide, 1.5 mol% perylenoyl-triglyceride, and 97.5% 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) served as donor membranes. Acceptor membranes were 100% POPC vesicles. Addition of glycolipid transfer protein to mixtures of donor and acceptor vesicles resulted in increasing emission intensity of anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide and decreasing emission intensity of the nontransferable perylenoyl-triglyceride as a function of time. The behavior was consistent with anthrylvinyl-galactosylceramide being transferred from donor to acceptor vesicles. The anthrylvinyl and perylenoyl energy transfer pair offers advantages over frequently used energy transfer pairs such as NBD and rhodamine. The anthrylvinyl emission overlaps effectively the perylenoyl excitation spectrum and the fluorescence parameters of the anthrylvinyl fluorophore are nearly independent of the medium polarity. The nonpolar fluorophores are localized in the hydrophobic region of the bilayer thus producing minimal disturbance of the bilayer polar region. Our results indicate that this method is suitable for assay of lipid transfer proteins including mechanistic studies of transfer protein function.  (+info)

Deuterated glycolipids are ideal for the identification and quantification of glycolipids in samples and biological systems using mass spectrometry. In addition to Matreyas collection of D3-labeled glycolipids, our scientists have synthesized a new set of high-purity D9-labeled glycolipids that enable improved separation of the labeled m/z from the naturally occurring material and its abundant isotopes. With a better means for separation, this improves the quantitation of these compounds in biological samples by LC-MS/MS methods.. Advantages of D9-Labeled Glycolipids. Natural glycolipids have a large molecular weight and a high 13C isotopic abundance up to the M+5 isotope. For example, the GM1 M+3 isotope is very significant but has approximately the same mass as its D3-labeled standard. This natural M+3 isotope can contribute to variability in the deuterated internal standard response as GM1 levels vary from sample to sample and can negatively impact quantification of GM1. A D9-labeled ...
Soil contaminated with Cd and Pb has caused sharp decrease of cultivatable soil and has been attracting increasing attention. Biosurfactants are efficient in solving the problem. However, little information is available about the influence of sophorolipids (SLs) on the remediation of Cd- or Pb-contaminated soil. The sophorolipids produced by Starmerella bombicola CGMCC 1576 were used to study the effects of Cd and Pb removal in batch soil washing from artificially contaminated soil. The removal efficiency of crude total SLs was better than both distilled water and synthetic surfactants. Furthermore, 83.6% of Cd and 44.8% of Pb were removed by 8% crude acidic SLs. Acidic SLs with high water solubility were more effective than lactonic SLs in enhancing remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. The complexation of Cd with the free carboxyl group of the acidic SLs was observed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy study, and this complexation was effective in heavy metal removal from the soil. The
Natural Killer T (NKT) cells are a subset of mature T lymphocytes which have been shown to play a major role in controlling immune responses. Recently, it has become evident that the antigen receptor expressed by NKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, a major-histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule expressed on dendritic cells, monocytes, and a subgroup of B cells. Via recognition of glycolipids by NKT cells, various cytokines are released which influence other cells of the immune system. A synthetic α-galactosylceramide, KRN 7000, was shown to possess anti-tumor and immunostimulatory activities. To further understand the significant biological activities of glycolipids, in this thesis we describe the synthesis of an OCH analogue, α-S-GalCer, and a series of carbohydrate modified analogues of KRN 7000. ^
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intratumoral injection of α-gal glycolipids induces a protective anti-tumor T cell response which overcomes Treg activity. AU - Abdel-Motal, Ussama M.. AU - Wigglesworth, Kim. AU - Galili, Uri. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - α-Gal glycolipids capable of converting tumors into endogenous vaccines, have α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R) and are extracted from rabbit RBC membranes. α-Gal epitopes bind anti-Gal, the most abundant natural antibody in humans constituting 1% of immunoglobulins. α-Gal glycolipids insert into tumor cell membranes, bind anti-Gal and activate complement. The complement cleavage peptides C5a and C3a recruit inflammatory cells and APC into the treated lesion. Anti-Gal further opsonizes the tumor cells and targets them for effective uptake by recruited APC, via Fcγ receptors. These APC transport internalized tumor cells to draining lymph nodes, and present immunogenic tumor antigen peptides for activation of tumor specific T cells. The ...
China Rhamnolipid 20%, Find details about China Rhamnolipid, Rhamnolipid Bio Surfactants from Rhamnolipid 20% - Qingdao Reach International Inc.
Matthieu Touchard, Schellenberger R, W. Patricio Luzuriaga-Loaiza, Clement Christophe, Bailieul Fabienne, et al.. The bacterial glycolipids rhamnolipids trigger Induced Systemic Resistance in Arabidopsis. Journées SFR Condorcet, Jun 2018, Calais, France. ⟨hal-03122976⟩ ...
The SCOP classification for the Glycolipid transfer protein, GLTP superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Abstract: Acclimation of rats to cooling (+3 C for 30 days) is accompanied by changes in the content of gangliozides, cerebrozides and sulfatides of brain during 6 hours, returned to the control level in next periods of acclimation. Changes in the content of sulfatides, and in smaller degree of cerebrozides and gangliozides depend from hypoxic stability of rats ...
Novel, optically active azido alcohols are synthesized from N-haloacetyl oxazolidinone and are coupled with protected, activated carbohydrate residues in stereoselective glycosidic fashion to provide glycolipids in substantially pure stereochemical form. In accordance with certain preferred embodiments, the glycosphingolipids globotriaosylceramide, lactosyl ceramide, and galactosyl ceramide are synthesized in substantially pure stereochemical form from alkenyl, C-18 azido alcohols and protected fluoroglycosides and are employed as antigens in the production of antibodies useful, for example, in the treatment of disease.
The human MHC class I-like molecule CD1b is distinctive among CD1 alleles in that it is capable of presenting a set of glycolipid species that show a very broad range of variation in the lengths of their acyl chains. A structure of CD1b complexed with relatively short acyl chain glycolipids plus detergent suggested how an interlinked network of channels within the Ag-binding groove could accommodate acyl chain lengths of up to 80 carbons. The structure of CD1b complexed with glucose monomycolate, reported in this study, confirms this hypothesis and illustrates how the distinctive substituents of intracellular bacterial glycolipids can be accommodated. The Ag-binding groove of CD1b is, uniquely among CD1 alleles, partitioned into channels suitable for the compact accommodation of lengthy acyl chains. The current crystal structure illustrates for the first time the binding of a natural bacterial lipid Ag to CD1b and shows how its novel structural features fit this molecule for its role in the immune
The requirement for processing glycolipid antigens in T cell recognition was examined with mouse CD1d-mediated responses to glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Although some disaccharide GSL antigens can be recognized without processing, the responses to three other antigens, including the disaccharide GSL Gal(α1→2)GalCer (Gal, galactose; GalCer, galactosylceramide), required removal of the terminal sugars to permit interaction with the T cell receptor. A lysosomal enzyme, α-galactosidase A, was responsible for the processing of Gal(α1→2)GalCer to generate the antigenic monosaccharide epitope. These data demonstrate a carbohydrate antigen processing system analogous to that used for peptides and an ability of T cells to recognize processed fragments of complex glycolipids. ...
Researchers from the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center and the La Jolla Institute for Immunology have identified a new type of T cell called a phospholipid-reactive T cell that is able to recognize phospholipids, the molecules that help form cells outer membranes.. The scientists also discovered that phospholipids compete with glycolipids, another type of molecule that helps form cells outer membranes, in a way that prevents glycolipids from readily reaching the surface of a cell.. Cell membranes are primarily made up of two types of lipids - phospholipids and glycolipids. Inside cells, these lipids bind to a molecule called CD1d that transports them to the surface. Once there, phospholipids stimulate phospholipid-reactive T cells, and glycolipids stimulate a different type of T cell called iNKTs.. On their way to the cells surface, phospholipids more easily attach themselves to CD1d molecules, making it more difficult for glycolipids to attach to CD1d. Because of this, it is harder ...
Helmholz, H. , Wichels, A. and Gerdts, G. (2003): Screening for bioactive glycolipids in sponges from the Orkney Islands , Biomolecular engineering ...
Get an answer for Relate the structure of glycolipids to their function in the cell and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Bacteria produce several polysaccharides that are essential to their structural integrity, including peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide. As the enzymes and intermediates involved in their biosynthesis are unique to bacteria, they are excellent antibiotic targets. In particular, the mechanism by which glycolipids are transported across cell membranes (by flippases) is poorly understood. Our lab uses the tools of organic synthesis to prepare glycolipid substrates for probing the mechanism of action of these enzymes, as well as using structure-activity relationship studies to guide inhibitor design, with the goal of developing new antibiotic candidates. ...
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Escherichia coli, is induced upon cold shock and is involved in the formation of a cold-adapted variant of the outer membrane glycolipid lipid A ...
The 2018 Gordon Research Conference on Glycolipid and Sphingolipid Biology will be held in Lucca (Barga), Italy. Apply today to reserve your spot.
Background Beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that plays a key role in the synthesis of lacto- or neolacto-series carbohydrate chains on glycolipids, notably by participating in biosynthesis of HNK-1 and Lewis X...
Supplementary MaterialsData_Sheet_1. control of an infection. Pathogenic mycobacteria possess evolved sophisticated ways of establish chronic attacks in humans like the production of the diverse selection of lipids and glycolipids with virulence and immunomodulatory properties (10), and it is no exemption. Phenolic CD-161 glycolipids (PGLs) are just made by mycobacterial types in a position to persist in the web host (11). creates PGL-I (12) whereas PGL-b is normally made by virulence: it protects bacilli against the web host bactericidal substances (13), it enables to colonize peripheral nerves (14), hence damaging them (15), and manipulates the web host immune system response towards the bacterial advantage (16). Using a genuine approach of hereditary reprogramming to create rBCG::PGL-I being a cultivable surrogate of an infection. In todays study, we executed parallel investigations in principal MPs, DCs, and PMNs to get an integrated watch of PGL-Is effect on the innate immune system ...
Biochemistry, Metabolism:, Neoplasm:, Types of Tumors:, Transplantable Tumors: SAR-1 (SAI), CL 2 (ALL), TA3, MCIM, EL 4, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), BALB/C, C3H, C57BL. ...
Cell responses without receptors and ligands, using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) Stephen J Beebe Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk VA, USAThe plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer that surrounds and shelters the living structural and metabolic systems within cells. That membrane is replete with transmembrane proteins with and without ligand binding sites, oligosaccharides, and glycolipids on the cell exterior. Information transfer across this structure is closely controlled to maintain homeostasis and regulate cell responses to external stimuli. The plasma membrane is contiguous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nuclear membranes. A number of proteins form ER–mitochondria junctions, allowing interorganelle communications, especially for calcium transport. Transport mechanisms across these membranes include nongated channels or pores; single-gated channels for ion transport; carrier molecules for facilitated diffusion; and pumps for
4F7C: Crystal Structures of Bovine CD1d Reveal Altered αGalCer Presentation and a Restricted A Pocket Unable to Bind Long-Chain Glycolipids.
article{8174192, author = {Tima, Hermann Giresse and Al Dulayymi, Jumaa Raheem and Denis, Olivier and Lehebel, Pauline and Baols, Klarah Sherzad and Mohammed, Mohsin Omar and LHomme, Laurent and Sahb, Mohaned Mohammed and Potemberg, Georges and Legrand, Sylvie and Lang, Roland and Beyaert, Rudi and Piette, Jacques and Baird, Mark Stephen and Huygen, Kris and Romano, Marta}, issn = {1662-811X}, journal = {JOURNAL OF INNATE IMMUNITY}, keyword = {Mycobacterium tuberculosis,Glycolipids,Trehalose dimycolate,Trehalose monomycolate,Glucose monomycolate,Arabinose monomycolate,Inflammasome,Adjuvant,CORD FACTOR,ACIDS,MICE,RECEPTOR,MINCLE,ACTIVATION,CYCLOPROPANATION,RECOGNITION,MACROPHAGES,MONOESTERS}, language = {eng}, number = {2}, pages = {162--180}, title = {Inflammatory properties and adjuvant potential of synthetic glycolipids homologous to mycolate esters of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000450955}, volume = {9}, year = {2017 ...
Analytical characterization of mannosylerythritol lipid biosurfactants produced by biosynthesis based on feedstock sources from the agrofood industry ...
Global Mannosylerythritol Lipids Market is segmented by Applications(Oilfield Chemicals, Skin Care, Surfactants, Medical, Household), Forecast by 2022
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenolic glycolipids of Mycobacterium bovis. T2 - New structures and synthesis of a corresponding seroreactive neoglycoprotein. AU - Chatterjee, D.. AU - Bozic, C. M.. AU - Knisley, C.. AU - Cho, S. N.. AU - Brennan, P. J.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - The glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as M. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside B described in the literature by others. However, when mycoside B obtained from M. bovis BCG, field isolates, and infected tissues was examined in detail, it was shown to be different from that described in the literature in some important respects. In particular, the glycosyl substituent is 2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnopyranose rather than 2-O-methyl-β-D-rhamnopyranose. With this information, a seroreactive neoglycoprotein (neoantigen) containing the 2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl substituent suitable for the serodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis was ...
Previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular bacterial parasite, enters human mononuclear phagocytes via complement receptors on these host cells and bacterium-bound C3. The present study investigates the role of M. leprae surface molecules in C3 fixation and phagocytosis. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, C3 binds selectively to phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1), a major surface molecule of the leprosy bacillus. C3 fixation to PGL-1 is serum concentration dependent and is abolished in heat-inactivated serum or serum containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. C3 fixation is also abolished in serum containing ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)N,N,N-tetraacetic acid and MgCl2 indicating that isolated PGL-1 fixes C3 via the classical complement pathway. The capacity of PGL-1 to fix C3 is dependent upon its terminal trisaccharide since sequential removal of monosaccharide units of the trisaccharide results in a stepwise ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conformational folding and stability of the HET-C2 glycolipid transfer protein fold. T2 - Does a molten globule-like state regulate activity?. AU - Kenoth, Roopa. AU - Kamlekar, Ravi Kanth. AU - Simanshu, Dhirendra K.. AU - Gao, Yongguang. AU - Malinina, Lucy. AU - Prendergast, Franklyn G.. AU - Molotkovsky, Julian G.. AU - Patel, Dinshaw J.. AU - Venyaminov, Sergei Y.. AU - Brown, Rhoderick E.. PY - 2011/6/14. Y1 - 2011/6/14. N2 - The glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) superfamily is defined by the human GLTP fold that represents a novel motif for lipid binding and transfer and for reversible interaction with membranes, i.e., peripheral amphitropic proteins. Despite limited sequence homology with human GLTP, we recently showed that HET-C2 GLTP of Podospora anserina is organized conformationally as a GLTP fold. Currently, insights into the folding stability and conformational states that regulate GLTP fold activity are almost nonexistent. To gain such insights into the ...
We show that a protein with a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor can be recovered from lysates of epithelial cells in a low density, detergent-insoluble form. Under these conditions, the protein is associated with detergent-resistant sheets and vesicles that contain other GPI-anchored protei …
Synthesis of four glycolipids with different number of lauroyl groups on glucose or cellobiose as scaffolds is described. Their immunological evaluations either admixed with or covalently linked to J8, a peptide antigen derived from the C-terminus of the antiphagocytic M-protein of group A streptococcus, are also investigated. Administration of mixtures of J8 and glycolipids to B10BR (H-2k) mice induced low-levels of J8-specific IgG antibodies. While glycolipopeptides, in which J8 was covalently linked to the synthetic glycolipids, demonstrated high-levels of antibody titers comparable with the co-administration of these glycolipopeptides with complete Freunds adjuvant, suggesting clearly the strong potency of the synthesized glycolipids as self-adjuvanting moieties ...
An implanted intervertebral prosthesis includes first and second components adapted to attach to a first vertebra and a second vertebra, respectively, that define an intervertebral space. The prosthesis includes a first anchor structure on the first component adapted to enter a grove formed in the first vertebra, and a second anchor structure on the second component adapted to enter a grove formed in the second vertebra. The first anchor structure is offset from the second anchor structure to provide separation of the grooves to preserve vertebral thickness and avoid vertebral splitting. The offset anchor structures can be symmetrically disposed about a midline of the prosthesis or asymmetrically disposed about the midline. In some embodiments, the offset anchor structures comprise elongate anchors shaped as fins or keels. In other embodiments, the offset anchor structures comprise rows of pillars disposed in rows.
This gene encodes a protein that is involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. This protein is expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum and transfers phosphoethanolamine (EtNP) to the first mannose of the GPI anchor. Two alternatively spliced variants, which encode an identical isoform, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Mutant KRAS drives glycolytic flux in lung cancer, potentially impacting aberrant protein glycosylation. Recent evidence suggests aberrant KRAS drives flux of glucose into the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). HBP is required for various glycosylation processes, such as protein N- or O-glycosylation and glycolipid synthesis. However, its function during tumorigenesis is poorly understood. One contributor and proposed target of KRAS-driven cancers is a developmentally conserved epithelial plasticity program called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here we showed in novel autochthonous mouse models that EMT accelerated KrasG12D lung tumorigenesis by upregulating expression of key enzymes of the HBP pathway. We demonstrated that HBP was required for suppressing KrasG12D-induced senescence, and targeting HBP significantly delayed KrasG12D lung tumorigenesis. To explore the mechanism, we investigated protein glycosylation downstream of HBP and found elevated levels of O-linked ...
Order Human Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein GPAA1 -E coli 01022898255 at Gentaur Glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein (GPAA1)
1573124-58-9 - Glycolipids, sophorose-contg., Candida bombicola-fermented, from D-glucose and mahua Madhuca longifolia fats and glyceridic oils - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
iNKT cells differentiate in the thymus where they are positively selected by self-Ags presented by CD1d expressed on the cell surface of double-positive thymocytes (1, 2, 4). The endogenous Ags have a critical role in the development and maturation of iNKT cells (21, 53, 54). Malfunctions in CD1d expression (55, 56), intracellular trafficking (7, 8, 43), lipid Ag binding (11, 57-59), or lipid synthesis and metabolism (21, 53, 54), which affect the presentation of endogenous Ags to the invariant TCR, will lead to significantly reduced populations of iNKT cells. Because these cells acquire an Ag-experienced phenotype in the thymus, with transcriptionally active Ifng and Il4 gene loci (60, 61), it has been generally assumed that the positively selecting glycolipids are in fact true agonists for the invariant TCR (1, 62). Autoreactivity of mature, peripheral iNKT cells is also manifested in a variety of situations (5, 17, 49, 63). It is possible that a single type of agonist Ag is responsible for ...
Glucose is not only a deliciously sweet-tasting molecule, it is also an important constituent of the complex sugar chains in our body, called glycans. Glycolipids are one example that rely on the presence of glucose in our bodies. We further gain much of our energy by metabolizing molecules such as glucose. However, in our natural…
Surpin M, Raikhel N( 2004) book glycolipids are way account and century fuel. tough macromolecular library book book. Timmers AC, Auriac MC, de Billy F, Truchet G( 1998) Nod website touch and massive name jS stand right during DaysCancel F in order.
Ishikawa E, Ishikawa T, Morita YS, Toyonaga K, Yamada H, Takeuchi O, Kinoshita T, Akira S, Yoshikai Y, Yamasaki S. 2009. Direct recognition of the mycobacterial glycolipid, trehalose dimycolate, by C-type lectin Mincle.. J Exp Med. 206(13):2879-88. ...
Principal Investigator:IBAYASHI Yukihiro, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1994, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery
Blast-1 is a human activation-associated glycoprotein expressed on the surface of leukocytes. Analysis of a translated sequence from a Blast-1 cDNA reveals a si
Azzouz, N.; Götze, S.; Seeberger, P. H.; Varón Silva, D.; Tsai, Y.-H.: Synthesis of diverse glycosylphosphatidylinositol glycans and glycolipids from toxoplasma gondii and their application as diagnostic markers and vaccines. (2014 ...
Wrinkle and Skin Tone Corrector Before and After (12 weeks) Concentrated skin rejuvenating serum with retinol, phospholipids, and glycolipids. Visibly firms skin and reduces appearance of wrinkles and pores. Fades age spots and evens skin tone. Lipids help restore moisture barrier and minimize any dryness or peeling fr
Efficient immune response against an infectious agent is organised according to a two-legged pattern. In order to give the immune system enough time to fine-tune its weapons against the invader (whilst maintaining the threat at bay), the first line of defence mobilises ancestral effectors during the first hours of the invasion. These innate defences aim at stimulating a dormant, but far more specialised and potent, second line of defence: the adaptive immune system.. Thats quite an elaborate chain of reactions… so what role do glycolipids play in immune response?. ...
Elastin, Human, Peptides, Treatment, Work, Apoptosis, Caspase-9, Cell, Cell Death, Cell Survival, Chemotaxis, Death, Fibroblast, Skin, Survival, Time, Transcription Factor, Flow Cytometry, Glycolipids, Lactose
Vita Soothe Replenishing serum with glycolipids and vitamins E and F provides instant glow and smoother, plumper skin. Safe for acne-prone skin.
Replenishing Serum with glycolipids and vitamins E and F provide instant glow and smoother, plumper skin. Antioxidant Lipochroman protects from environmental aging. Safe for acne-prone skin.. Benefits:. - It helps correct dull rough skin (while you sleep ...
The CD16 antigen exists both as a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein in polymorphonuclear cells and as a transmembrane protein in NK cells.
We find that several recently proposed consumption-based models of stock returns, when evaluated using an optimal set of managed portfolios and the associated model-implied conditional moment restrictions, fail to capture key features of risk premiums in equity markets. To arrive at these conclusions, we construct an optimal GMM estimator for models in which the stochastic discount factor (SDF) is a conditionally affine function of a set of priced risk factors. Further, for the (often relevant) case where a researcher is proposing a generalized SDF relative to some null model, we show that there is an optimal choice of managed portfolios to use in testing the null against the proposed alternative. ...
The structural characterization of glycolipids from Thermus thermophilus HB8 was performed in this study. Two neutral and one acidic glycolipids were extracted and purified by the modified TLC-blotting method, after which their chemical structures were determined by chemical composition analysis, mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The structure of one of the neutral glycolipids, NGL-A, was Galp(α1-6)GlcpNacyl(β1-2)Glcp(α1-)acyl2Gro, and the other, NGL-C, was Galf(β1-2)Galp(α1-6)GlcpNacyl(β1-2)Glcp(α1-)acyl2Gro. The structure of NGL-C was identical to that reported previously [Oshima, M. and Ariga, T. (1976) FEBS Lett. 64, 440]. Both neutral glycolipids shared a common structural unit found in the Thermus species. The acyl groups found in NGL-A and NGL-C, iso-type pentadecanoxy and heptadecanoxy fatty acid, were also the same as those found in this species. In contrast, the acidic glycolipid, AGL-B, possessed the structure of N-(((GlcpNAc(α1-)acyl2Gro)P-2
Several microorganisms are currently being used as production platform for glycolipid biosurfactants, providing a greener alternative to chemical biosurfac
Published studies indicate that mycobacterial lipid antigens may stimulate CD1-restricted T cells. However, the pool of studied mycobacterial antigenic lipids is small compared with the diversity of the lipid components of the M. tuberculosis envelope. So far, only three classes of molecules were shown to stimulate CD1b-restricted T cells: free mycolic acids (13), mycoloyl glycolipids such as glucose monomycolate (17), and phosphoglycolipids represented by lipoarabinomannan (19), lipomannan (19), and PIM (20). These molecules are commonly present in the envelope of both virulent and nonvirulent mycobacteria. Their immunogenicity during infection with virulent or avirulent strains has not been compared.. In these studies we have characterized the structure of a novel mycobacterial glycolipid, a diacylated sulfoglycolipid (Ac2SGL), presented by CD1b on the cell surface of M. tuberculosis-infected APCs. This antigen stimulates bactericidal CD8+ T cells and evokes strong responses in healthy PPD+ ...
Our company is a supplier of ELISA kits. The price is fair. The pre-sale, in-sale and after-sale services are at your service. Provide free test service, please call us! Human glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) Kit instruction manual This reagent is for research use only Purpose: This kit is used to determine the content of glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) in human serum, plasma and related liquid samples. Experimental principle: This kit uses the double antibody sandwich method to determine the level of human glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) in the specimen. Microporous plates were coated with purified human glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) antibody to make solid-phase antibodies, and glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) was added to the monoclonal antibody-coated microwells in turn, followed by HRP-labeled sugar Phosphatidylinositol (GPI) antibody binds to form an antibody-antigen-enzyme-labeled antibody complex. After thorough washing, the substrate TMB is added for ...
Endotoxin stimulates leukocytes to release cytokines that initiate septic shock in humans and animals. CD14, a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane glycoprotein, is an endotoxin receptor on leukocytes, and endotoxin binding to CD14 induces cytokine production. Here we show that glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored or integral membrane CD14 mediates identical cellular responses to endotoxin, including NF-kappa B activation and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. We also show that an anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody that does not block endotoxin binding to CD14 nonetheless inhibits cell activation by endotoxin. These findings suggest that binding of endotoxin to cell-surface CD14 is followed by subsequent interactions of the endotoxin-CD14 complex with additional membrane component(s) that enable transmembrane signaling. This function of CD14 may be prototypic for other members of the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored family of proteins that do not play a primary role in signal ...
Contents of the 15 Chapter for This Biosurfactants Market Study:-. Chapter 1: to describe Global Biosurfactants Market Introduction, product scope, market overview, market opportunities, market risk, market driving force;. Chapter 2: to analyze the top manufacturers of Global Biosurfactants Market, with sales, revenue, and price of Global Biosurfactants Market, in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 3: to display the competitive situation among the top manufacturers, with sales, revenue and market share in 2016 and 2017;. Chapter 4: to show the Global Biosurfactants market by regions, with sales, revenue and market share of Global Biosurfactants Market, for each region, from 2012 to 2017;. Chapter 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9: to analyze the key regions, with sales, revenue and market share by key countries in these regions;. Chapter 10 and 11: to show the market by type and application, with sales market share and growth rate by type, application, Methodology, Analyst Introduction, Data Source from 2012 to ...
Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and trehalose monomycolate (TMM), the apolar phthiocerol dimycocersates (PDIMs), triacyl glycerol (TAG), pentacyl trehalose (PAT), phenolic glycolipid (PGL), and mono-mycolyl glycerol (MMG). Polar lipids identified included glucose monomycolate (GMM), diphosphatidyl glycerol (DPG), phenylethanolamine (PE) and a range of mono- and di-acylated phosphatidyl inositol mannosides (PIMs). These lipid fractions are capable of altering the cytokine profile produced by fresh and cultured bovine monocytes as well as monocyte derived dendritic cells. Significant increases in the production of IL-10, IL-12, MIP-1β, TNFα and IL-6 were seen after exposure of antigen ...
In the Carbosurf project, the hurdles that hamper the full exploitation of two specialty biochemical classes with high market interest...
This study was focused on the description of interaction between Cu2+ ions and the 1:1 mono- and dirhamnolipid mixtures in the premicellar and aggregated state in water and 20 mM KCl solution at pH 5.5 and 6.0. The critical micelle concentration of biosurfactants was determined conductometrically and by the pH measurements. Hydrodynamic diameter and electrophoretic mobility were determined in micellar solutions using dynamic light scattering and laser Doppler electrophoresis, respectively. The copper immobilization by rhamnolipids, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was estimated potentiometrically for the Cu2+ to chelating agent molar ratio from 16:100 to 200:100. The degree of ion binding and the complex stability constant were calculated at a 1:1 metal to chelant molar ratio. The aggregates of rhamnolipids (diameter of 43-89 nm) were negatively charged. Biosurfactants revealed the best chelating activities in premicellar solutions. For all chelants studied
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent mechanism which enables a population of bacteria to coordinate cooperative behaviors in response to the accumulation of self-produced autoinducer signals in their local environment. An emerging framework is that the adaptive significance of QS in the regulation of production of costly extracellular metabolites («public goods») is to maintain the homeostasis of cooperation. We investigated this model using the phytopathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae, which we have previously demonstrated uses QS to regulate the production of rhamnolipids, extracellular surface-active glycolipids promoting the social behavior called «swarming motility». Using mass spectrometric quantification and chromosomal lux-based gene expression, we made the unexpected finding that when unrestricted nutrient resources are provided, production of rhamnolipids is carried out completely independently of QS regulation. This is a unique observation among known QS-controlled factors
N-linked glycosylation of proteins in eukaryotic cells follows a highly conserved pathway. The tetradecasaccharide substrate (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2) is first assembled at the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as a dolichylpyrophosphate (Dol-PP)-linked intermediate, and then transferred to nascent polypeptide chains in the lumen of the ER. The assembly of the oligosaccharide starts on the cytoplasmic side of the ER membrane with the synthesis of a Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol intermediate. This lipid-linked intermediate is then translocated across the membrane so that the oligosaccharides face the lumen of the ER, where the biosynthesis of Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-PP-Dol continues to completion. The fully assembled oligosaccharide is transferred to selected asparagine residues of target proteins. The transmembrane movement of lipid-linked Man5GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide is of fundamental importance in this biosynthetic pathway, and similar processes involving phospholipids and glycolipids are essential in all types ...
People with Fabry disease have an alteration in their genetic material (DNA) which causes a deficiency of the a-galactosidase A enzyme. Fabrazyme is a drug that helps to breakdown and remove certain types of fatty substances called glycolipids. These glycolipids are normally present within the body in most cells. In Fabry disease, glycolipids build up in various tissues such as the liver, kidney, skin, and blood vessels because a-galactosidase A is not present, or is present in small quantities. The build up of glycolipid (globatriaosylceramide or GL-3) levels in these tissues in particular is thought to cause the clinical symptoms that are common to Fabry disease. This study will test the safety and efficacy of Fabrazyme in the treatment of patients with Fabry disease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural insights into lipid-dependent reversible dimerization of human GLTP. AU - Samygina, Valeria R.. AU - Ochoa-Lizarralde, Borja. AU - Popov, Alexander N.. AU - Cabo-Bilbao, Aintzane. AU - Goni-De-Cerio, Felipe. AU - Molotkovsky, Julian G.. AU - Patel, Dinshaw J.. AU - Brown, Rhoderick E.. AU - Malinina, Lucy. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/4. Y1 - 2013/4. N2 - Human glycolipid transfer protein (hsGLTP) forms the prototypical GLTP fold and is characterized by a broad transfer selectivity for glycosphingolipids (GSLs). The GLTP mutation D48V near the portal entrance of the glycolipid binding site has recently been shown to enhance selectivity for sulfatides (SFs) containing a long acyl chain. Here, nine novel crystal structures of hsGLTP and the SF-selective mutant complexed with short-acyl-chain monoSF and diSF in different crystal forms are reported in order to elucidate the potential functional roles of lipid-mediated ...
Nussbaum, J; Neskovic, N; and Mandel, P, The fatty acid composition of phospholipids and glycolipids in jimpy mouse brain. (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 938 ...
Compare phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class W Biomolecules from Creative Biomart from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
PIGU (phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class U), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Looking for online definition of glycolipid in the Medical Dictionary? glycolipid explanation free. What is glycolipid? Meaning of glycolipid medical term. What does glycolipid mean?
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Microbial Biosurfactants Market by Manufacturers, Regions, Type and Application, Forecast to 2021 report by Global Info Research. Biosurfactants can be defined as the surface-active biomolecules produced...
http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/rhamnolipids-market/request-toc. Asia pacific is likely to be a lucrative market on account of positive outlook of agriculture industry in China and India.. Europe is expected to be a potential market on account of increasing importance towards environmental sustainability and stringent regulatory norms aiming to reduce consumption of synthetic based products. In January 2014, European Union promulgated and implemented Horizon 2020 strategy intended for developing bio-economy in Europe by 2020 which is expected to have a positive impact on bio-based surfactants.. Rising expenditure on organic farming in light of regulatory support in the U.S. is expected to play a crucial role in promoting rhamnolipids market growth. Latin American Consortium on Agroecology and Development (CLADES), collaborated with the Sustainable Agriculture Networking and Extension (SANE) to manufacture agro-based products is expected to ensure raw material access for ...
Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol molecules of the parasite and the host - Volume 108 Issue S1 - M. A. J. Ferguson, J. S. Brimacombe, S. Cottaz, R. A. Field, L. S. Güther, S. W. Homans, M. J. McConville, A. Mehlert, K. G. Milne, J. E. Ralton, Y. A. Roy, P. Schneider, N. Zitzmann
In volume terms, the global alkyl polyglucosides (APG) biosurfactants market had exceeded 90 kilo tons in 2015. It is expected to reach around 136 kilo tons by 2024.
Researchers from the UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center and the La Jolla Institute for Immunology have identified a new type of T cell called a phospholipid-reactive T cell that is able to recognize phospholipids, the molecules that help form cells outer membranes. The scientists also discovered that phospholipids compete with glycolipids, another type of molecule that helps form cells outer membranes, in a way that prevents glycolipids from readily reaching the surface of a cell.
FUT9 belongs to the glycosyltransferase family and catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of Ley glycolipids in the carbohydrate antigen Lex (Nishihara et al, 2003; Gouveia et al, 2012). This reaction takes place in the Golgi compartment, and the product is transported to the cytosol and secreted out from the cell (Duarte et al, 2007). The Ley glycolipid was previously reported to inhibit the procoagulant activity and metastasis of human adenocarcinoma (Nudelman et al, 1986; Suzuki et al, 1997; Inufusa et al, 2001). The loss of FUT9 in the metabolic model prevents Ley glycolipid formation and secretion. To chart the network‐wide metabolic alterations induced by FUT9 inactivation, we performed a Minimization Of Metabolic Adjustment (MOMA) (Segrè et al, 2002) analysis to predict the metabolic state after FUT9 KD in late‐stage colorectal cancers, simulated by the Gene Inactivity Moderated by Metabolism and Expression (GIMME) algorithm (Becker & Palsson, 2008) (Materials and Methods). This ...
The bachelor thesis is focused on characterization of biosurfactants, their properties, chemical structure and classification. The next part describes the most important species of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants. The last part deals with possibilities of using individual groups of biosurfactants in the various industries, especially in the food and pharmaceutical industries ...
CD14 Antigens: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.
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Phospholipids and glycolipids Play crucial structural roles Constructed of fatty acid chains attached to glycerol backbone (like fats) Unline in fats, t...
EC 3.2.1.18; recommended name: exo‐α‐sialidase; former name: neuraminidase; a glycosidase enzyme that hydrolyses 2,3‐, 2,6‐, and 2,8‐glucosidic linkages joining terminal nonreducing N‐ or O‐acylneuraminyl residues to galactose, N‐acetylhexosamine, or N‐ or O‐acylated neuraminyl residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, or glycolipids.. [...] ...
At Universal Biologicals, we offer sphingolipids, glycolipids, glycosphingolipids, fatty acids, sterols and vitamin E isomers by specialists, Matreya, LLC.
Glucosamine is used to help synthesize glycoproteins, glycolipids and glycosaminoglycans. These components are the core materials used by the body to make cartilage, synovial fluid and other elements of the skeletal system. Degradation of the bodys cart
Replenishing Serum Replenishing serum with glycolipids and phospholipids. Provides instant and sustained moisture for smooth texture, glow, and plumper skin. In clinical studies of Lipid Drops:Within 6 hours: skin moisturization increased by 28%After 14 days: Skin smoothness increased by 55% Skin hydration increased by
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Concentrated anti-aging serum with retinol, phospholipids, and glycolipids. Visibly firms skin and reduces appearance of wrinkles and pores. Fades age spots and evens skin tone. Lipids help restore moisture barrier and minimize any dryness or peeling from retinol. Contains 0.5% Retinol: The #1 dermatologist-recommended
1I2C: Characterization of the Active Site of UDP-sulfoquinovose Synthase: Formation of the Sulfonic Acid Product in the Crystalline State.
GPAA1 antibody (glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment protein 1 homolog (yeast)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-GPAA1 pAb (GTX115131) is tested in Human, Mouse samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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In: Methoden und Beschreibungssprachen zur Modellierung und Verifikation von Schaltungen und Systemen (MBMV). ITG/GMM/GI-Workshop Methoden und Beschreibungssprachen zur Modellierung und Verifikation von Schaltungen und Systemen (MBMV-2019) April 8-9 Kaiserslautern Germany 2019. To the publication ...
Glycolipids[edit]. Glycolipids are important for cell recognition, and are important for modulating the function of membrane ... Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates. They are very abundant on the surface of ... 1 All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types.[7] Lectins, or proteins ... There is great diversity in the binding mechanisms of glycolipids, which is what makes them such an important target for ...
Heinz E. (1996). "Plant glycolipids: structure, isolation and analysis", pp. 211-332 in Advances in Lipid Methodology, Vol. 3. ... Wiegandt H (January 1992). "Insect glycolipids". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism. 1123 (2): ... glycolipids (cerebroside) and sphingolipids (sphingomyelin). The terms lipoid, lipin, lipide and lipid have been used with ...
Wenger DA, Petitpas JW, Pieringer RA (1968). "The metabolism of glyceride glycolipids. II. Biosynthesis of monogalactosyl ...
... the membranes contain glycolipids. However, the membranes in the B31 strain have been found to contain a lipopolysaccharide- ...
"Entrez Gene: GLTP glycolipid transfer protein". Brown RE, Mattjus P (2007). "Glycolipid transfer proteins". Biochim. Biophys. ... 2006). "The liganding of glycolipid transfer protein is controlled by glycolipid acyl structure". PLOS Biol. 4 (11): e362. doi: ... Glycolipid transfer protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GLTP gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... Li XM, Malakhova ML, Lin X, Pike HM, Chung T, Molotkovsky JG, Brown RE (Aug 2004). "Human glycolipid transfer protein: probing ...
... is required for glycolipid transport to the cell surface". Molecular Microbiology. 58 (2): 426-440. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ... Transport Protein Glycolipid Sondén, Berit; Kocíncová, Dana; Deshayes, Caroline; Euphrasie, Daniel; Rhayat, Lamya; Laval, ...
Glycolipids provide the most extreme example of asymmetry in the lipid bilayer. Glycolipids perform a vast number of functions ... Membranes contain sugar-containing lipid molecules known as glycolipids. In the bilayer, the sugar groups of glycolipids are ... In the membrane, they can be covalently bound to lipids to form glycolipids or covalently bound to proteins to form ... In particular, a different mechanism operates for glycolipids-the lipids that show the most striking and consistent asymmetric ...
... glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides.[citation needed] Much of the chemistry of glycosides is explained in the article on ...
Cholesterol and glycolipids have varied roles in the cell. Cholesterol is a major component of cell plasma membranes, which ... Several theories have attempted to link the accumulation of cholesterol and glycolipids in the lysosomes with the malfunction ... The disruption of this transport system results in the accumulation of cholesterol and glycolipids in lysosomes. ...
Specifically, this consists mostly of exopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids. Therefore, the slime layer is ...
The major polar lipids are phospholipids, glycolipids, and phosphoglycolipids. It utilizes H2/CO2, formate, 2-propanol/CO2, and ...
Willison, Hugh J.; Goodyear, Carl S. (September 2013). "Glycolipid antigens and autoantibodies in autoimmune neuropathies". ...
Mycosides are glycolipid compounds isolated from Mycobacterium that contain varying lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid ... a New Class of Type-Specific Glycolipids of Mycobacteria". Nature. 186 (4728): 887-888. Bibcode:1960Natur.186..887S. doi: ...
Complex mixture of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, glycolipids, etc. ...
The polylactosamines are, however, accumulated in the form of glycolipids. Therefore a genetic factor in CDA II appears to ...
doi:10.1021/np50100a033 E. Fattorusso, A. Mangoni (1997) "Marine Glycolipids". In Fortschritte der Chemie organischer ... "Isolation of five-membered cyclitol glycolipids, crasserides: unique glycerides from the sponge Pseudoceratina crassa" Journal ...
1988). "Lipooligosaccharides: the principal glycolipids of the neisserial outer membrane". Reviews of Infectious Diseases. 10 ...
... s are a class of glycolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, amongst other organisms, frequently cited as ... Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Seddiq-Shams, Mahsa (2014). "Rhamnolipids: Well-Characterized Glycolipids with Potential Broad ...
The envelope contains host-derived lipids and self-synthesized glycolipids. They are brick-shaped and about 250 nanometers in ...
Sulfatide Galactolipid Phospholipid Glycolipid Harwood, John L.; Nicholls, Rodney G. (1979). "The plant sulfolipid. A major ... Other important sulfolipids include sulfatide and seminolipid, each of which are sulfated glycolipids. ...
Willison HJ, Goodyear CS (September 2013). "Glycolipid antigens and autoantibodies in autoimmune neuropathies". Trends in ...
Another category of metabolites produced by smut fungi contains extracellular glycolipids, such as mannosylerythritol lipids ... Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai (2009-05-01). "Production of glycolipid biosurfactants by ... Reported metabolites are polyols, organic acids, extracellular glycolipids, iron-chelating siderophores and tryptophan ...
Probable Glycolipid Exporter (DevE). *Na+ Exporter (NatE). *Microcin B17 Exporter (McbE). *Drug Exporter-2 (DrugE2) ...
The cell membrane consists of three classes of amphipathic lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols. The amount of each ... The fatty chains in phospholipids and glycolipids usually contain an even number of carbon atoms, typically between 16 and 20. ... Plasma membranes also contain carbohydrates, predominantly glycoproteins, but with some glycolipids (cerebrosides and ... Examples of the major membrane phospholipids and glycolipids: phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), ...
Wiegandt H. (1992). "Insect glycolipids". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1123 (2): 117-126. doi:10.1016/0005-2760(92)90101-Z. ... Heinz E. (1996). "Plant glycolipids: structure, isolation and analysis", pp. 211-332 in Advances in Lipid Methodology, Vol. 3. ...
A wide range of ligands promote signalling through Mincle, including proteins, sterols and glycolipids from altered or damaged ... Mycobacteria and corynebacteria produce a wide range of glycolipids that can signal through Mincle. These include glucose and ... van der Peet, PL; Gunawan, C; Torigoe, S; Yamasaki, S; Williams, Spencer J (2015). "Corynomycolic acid-containing glycolipids ... It is a pattern recognition receptor that can recognize glycolipids including mycobacterial cord factor, trehalose-6,6'- ...
The structural similarity of most glycolipids is the so-called lactosylceramide, that is, a lactose disaccharide that is ... Inheritable enzyme defects can lead to disruption in degradation and therefore to accumulation of glycolipids in various organs ... Glycosphingolipids are a subtype of glycolipids containing the amino alcohol sphingosine. They may be considered as ...
Holmes EH, Hakomori S, Ostrander GK (1987). "Synthesis of type 1 and 2 lacto series glycolipid antigens in human colonic ... "Glycolipids and glycosyltransferases in permanent cell lines established from human medulloblastomas". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ...
glycolipid (plural glycolipids) *(biochemistry) An association of a carbohydrate and a phospholipid, such as ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=glycolipid&oldid=59260265" ...
acyl α,α-trehalose (CHEBI:62545) is a glycolipid (CHEBI:33563). acyl α,α-trehalose derivative (CHEBI:62549) is a glycolipid ( ... caminoside A (CHEBI:65570) is a glycolipid (CHEBI:33563). galactolipid (CHEBI:5254) is a glycolipid (CHEBI:33563). ... resin glycoside (CHEBI:75756) is a glycolipid (CHEBI:33563). sophorolipid (CHEBI:51075) is a glycolipid (CHEBI:33563). ... glycoglycerolipid (CHEBI:24385) is a glycolipid (CHEBI:33563). glycophospholipid (CHEBI:24397) is a glycolipid (CHEBI:33563). ...
Glycolipid, any member of a group of fat-soluble substances particularly abundant in tissues of the nervous system of animals. ... Glycolipid, any member of a group of fat-soluble substances particularly abundant in tissues of the nervous system of animals. ... Glycolipids, a large group of sphingolipids, are so called because they contain one or more molecules of sugar (glucose or ... galactose). Glycolipids, a general property of which is immunological activity, include the cerebrosides, gangliosides, and ...
... activated carbohydrate residues in stereoselective glycosidic fashion to provide glycolipids in substantially pure ... Glycolipids thus produced may be advantageously employed in the production of antibodies finding use, for example, in the ... Antibodies specific for the glycolipid may then be attached to a detectable label by an appropriate method known in the art for ... Polyclonal antibodies may be produced by conventional methods, by injection of an appropriate animal with a glycolipid of the ...
The glycolipid is assembled in the Golgi apparatus and embedded in the surface of a vesicle which is then transported to the ... Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic (covalent) bond. Their role is to maintain the stability of ... Glycolipids are found on the surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes, where they extend from the phospholipid bilayer into the ... Glycolipids are also responsible for other responses, notably the recognition of host cells by viruses. Blood types are an ...
Glycolipid definition, any of a class of lipids, comprising the cerebrosides and gangliosides, that upon hydrolysis yield ... Words nearby glycolipid. glycolaldehyde, glycolate, glycolic, glycolic acid, glycolic aciduria, glycolipid, glycolyl, ...
Glycolipid transfer protein is a cytosolic protein that catalyses the transfer of glycolipids between different intracellular ... GLTP; PLEKHA8; PLEKHA9; Rao CS, Lin X, Pike HM, Molotkovsky JG, Brown RE (November 2004). "Glycolipid transfer protein mediated ... Brown RE, Mattjus P (June 2007). "Glycolipid transfer proteins". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell ... Mattjus P (January 2009). "Glycolipid transfer proteins and membrane interaction". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ...
Figure 6: Mass spectra of (a) dodecyl thiolactoside, (b) GM3-type glycolipid, and (c) Gb3-type glycolipid. ... However, the production of glycolipids using saccharide primers and cells showed otherwise. The amount of GM3-type glycolipid ... H. H. Freeze, D. Sampath, and A. Varki, "α- and β-xylosides alter glycolipid synthesis in human melanoma and Chinese hamster ... Administration of β-LacSC12 into MDCK cells gave a GM3-type glycolipid as shown in Figure 4. The HPTLC results showed the ...
GLTP glycolipid transfer protein [Homo sapiens] GLTP glycolipid transfer protein [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:51228 ... glycolipid transfer proteinprovided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:24867 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000139433 MIM:608949 ... Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) expression modulates cell shape. Gao Y, et al. PLoS One, 2011. PMID 21625605, Free PMC ... Alternation in the glycolipid transfer protein expression causes changes in the cellular lipidome. Kjellberg MA, et al. PLoS ...
Bon S., Coussen F., Massoulié J. (1998) The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase. In: Doctor B.P., Taylor P., ... The Glycolipid-Addition Signal of Acetylcholinesterase. Cellular Compartmentation, Cleavage, GPI Addition and Secretion ... cleavage and addition of a glycolipid (GPI) anchor. The H peptides of Torpedo and rat AChE show no homology, except for the ...
N. McNamara, A. Khong, D. McKemy, M. Caterina, J. Boyer, D. Julius, C. Basbaum, ATP transduces signals from ASGM1, a glycolipid ... Asialoganglioside M1 (ASGM1) is a glycolipid present on the surface of epithelial cells that binds flagellin and initiates host ... the mechanism by which binding of an extracellular glycolipid can trigger ATP release remains unknown. ...
... Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 26;8(1):15857. doi: ... We previously demonstrated that mass spectrometry of bacterial glycolipids has the capacity to identify and detect colistin ... establishing a framework to translate glycolipid mass spectra into pathogen identifications. ...
CD1c-mediated T-cell recognition of isoprenoid glycolipids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.. Moody DB1, Ulrichs T, ... antigen receptor and the CD1c protein mediate recognition of an evolutionarily conserved family of isoprenoid glycolipids whose ...
Taketomi T., Uemura K. (1980) Immunological Properties of Glycolipids Including Some Gangliosides in Mammalian Erythrocyte ...
Autoimmune T-Cell Reactivity Directed against Glycolipid Antigens in MS. Glycolipids have been implicated as targets of ... induced by passive transfer of glycolipid-specific T cells. However, it may be that the pathogenic potential of glycolipid- ... In contrast, the glycolipids that occur in greatest abundance in CNS myelin are expressed to a lesser extent in other tissues. ... Proteolipids and glycolipids are major components of CNS myelin and are largely restricted to the CNS, making them rational ...
Relate the structure of glycolipids to their function in the cell and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes ... Glycolipids have plenty of applications in biological systems. Most often, glycolipids are associated with signalling. This ... Glycolipids have plenty of applications in biological systems. Most often, glycolipids are associated with signalling. This ... A glycolipid contains a sugar group and a lipid group.. These molecules are generally amphipathic, where it has polar portions ...
... Nat Med. 2014 Oct;20(10):1147-56. doi: ...
In comparison, glycolipids are a neglected class of macroalgal secondary metabolites therefore remaining as a largely unknown ... This paper will review recent work regarding isolation and structural characterization of glycolipids from seaweeds and their ... This paper will review recent work regarding isolation and structural characterization of glycolipids from seaweeds and their ... In comparison, glycolipids are a neglected class of macroalgal secondary metabolites therefore remaining as a largely unknown ...
Glycolipids Clue In How Tuberculosis Avoids Destruction Inside Cells. By News Staff , September 8th 2010 10:05 PM , Print , E- ... The work revealed that the biosynthesis of particular glycolipids containing acyltrehalose was perturbed, suggesting to the ... researchers that these glycolipids play a critical role in the early intracellular protection of mycobacteria.. "Our study ...
Marine glycolipids, as well as those from terrestrial organisms, are amphiphylic compounds which are currently divided into two ... Matsubara, T., and A. Hayashi: Structural Studies on Glycolipid of Shellfish. III. Novel Glycolipids from Turbo cornutus. J. ... Costantino, V., E. Fattorusso, A. Mangoni, M. Aknin, A. Fall, A. Samb, and J. Miralles: An Unusual Ether Glycolipid from the ... Kates, M.: Glycolipids of Higher Plants, Algae, Yeasts, and Fungi. In: Handbook of Lipid Research M. Kates, ed.) Vol. 6, p. 235 ...
The glycolipids were readily prepared through amide bond formation using the TBTU/HOBt coupling methodology. It was observed ... The enantiomerically pure glycolipids were obtained after careful consideration of the synthetic sequence and by performing the ... L-Aspartic acid building blocks bearing galactosyl moieties were used to synthesise glycolipid mimetics of variable hydrocarbon ... as we intend to expand their application to the preparation of glycolipid mimetics. These non-natural glycolipids may be ...
A glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt lymphoma defined by a monoclonal antibody ... A glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt lymphoma defined by a monoclonal antibody ... A glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt lymphoma defined by a monoclonal antibody ... A glycolipid antigen associated with Burkitt lymphoma defined by a monoclonal antibody ...
Glycolipid antigen induces long-term natural killer T cell anergy in mice. Vrajesh V. Parekh,1 Michael T. Wilson,1 Danyvid ... Glycolipid antigen drives rapid expansion and sustained cytokine production by NKT cells. J. Immunol. 2003. 171:4020-4027. View ... Tracking the response of natural killer T cells to a glycolipid antigen using CD1d tetramers. J. Exp. Med. 2000. 192:741-754. ... Quantitative and qualitative differences in the in vivo response of NKT cells to distinct α- and β-anomeric glycolipids. J. ...
Paula Begoun is the best-selling author of 20 books about skincare and makeup. She is known worldwide as The Cosmetics Cop and creator of Paulas Choice Skincare. Paulas expertise has led to hundreds of appearances on national and international radio, print, and television including:. ...
Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules. By Theodore I. Prigozy, Olga Naidenko, Pankaj Qasba, Dirk ... Glycolipid Antigen Processing for Presentation by CD1d Molecules. By Theodore I. Prigozy, Olga Naidenko, Pankaj Qasba, Dirk ... The requirement for processing glycolipid antigens in T cell recognition was examined with mouse CD1d-mediated responses to ...
Glycosaminoglycans Glycoproteins and Glycolipids.. код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в блог. Ширина: (. aвто. ). ... the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins and glycolipids. 1. Sugar Sequences in Glycolipids and ... Glycosaminoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids At the suggestion of R . W. Jeanloz the Retina Foundation of Boston ... The following topics were discussed: 1. the sugar sequences in glycolipids and glycoproteins; 2. the degradation of ...
... thereby generating glycolipid-anchored LTA. Appears to play an important role in virulence (By similarity). ... Probable permease that is required for glycolipid anchoring of LTA. May facilitate the transport of diglucosyl-diacylglycerol ( ... sp,Q5HH70,LTAA_STAAC Probable glycolipid permease LtaA OS=Staphylococcus aureus (strain COL) OX=93062 GN=ltaA PE=3 SV=1 ... Probable permease that is required for glycolipid anchoring of LTA. May facilitate the transport of diglucosyl-diacylglycerol ( ...
Why are glycoproteins and glycolipids important? By signing up, youll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework ... Glycoproteins and glycolipids are important because they play a role in cell signaling, cell attachment, regulating the immune ... Why are glycoproteins and glycolipids important?. Glycomolecules:. The prefix glyco has to do with carbohydrates, so ... glycoproteins and glycolipids are proteins and lipids with sugars attached. These important macromolecules can be found ...
... Glycolipids are limited in fractions but known to be major and important contributors of ... The structural diversity of glycolipids is exceptional, as different types of lipids are glycosylated in almost every forms of ...
... of the heterocyst glycolipid radioactivity, while the glycosidic fraction contained the remainder of the heterocyst glycolipid ... A major component at all times examined was hexacosane-1,3,25-triol, the major quantitative component of the glycolipid ... Systematic analysis of the composition of the heterocyst specific glycolipid fraction, labelled from either sodium [l-14] ... Fractionation of the fatty alcohols from the heterocyst glycolipid glycoside fraction gave four labelled components. ...
  • glycosphingolipids, however, constitute a special class of glycolipids in that they incorporate into their structures a class of lipids called ceramides, which comprise the lipid sphingosine and a fatty acid tail. (google.com.au)
  • The essential feature of a glycolipid is the presence of a monosaccharide or oligosaccharide bound to a lipid moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzymes called glycosyltransferases link the saccharide to the lipid molecule, and also play a role in assembling the correct oligosaccharide so that the right receptor can be activated on the cell which responds to the presence of the glycolipid on the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoglycerolipids: a sub-group of glycolipids characterized by an acetylated or non-acetylated glycerol with at least one fatty acid as the lipid complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glycolipid contains a sugar group and a lipid group. (enotes.com)
  • There is a third important group comprising glycolipids whose lipid portion is derived from mevalonate, i.e. steroidal and terpenic glycosides. (springer.com)
  • CD1 molecules can present a variety of both exogenous (e.g., mycobacterial lipid antigens) and endogenous lipid and glycolipid antigens to T cells ( 1 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glycolipids are complex molecules consisting of a ceramide lipid moiety linked to a glycan chain of variable length and structure. (frontiersin.org)
  • Glycolipids are molecules containing one or more carbohydrate residues linked to a hydrophobic lipid moiety via a β-glycosidic linkage. (frontiersin.org)
  • [13] Glycolipids are lipid molecules bound to oligosaccharides, generally present in the lipid bilayer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolipids are components of cellular membranes comprised of a hydrophobic lipid tail and one or more hydrophilic sugar groups linked by a glycosidic bond. (libretexts.org)
  • Glycolipids interact and bind to the lipid-bilayer through the hydrophobic nature of the lipid tail which anchors it to the surface of the plasma membrane. (libretexts.org)
  • Synthesis of glycolipids proceed by a series of enzymes that sequentially add sugars to the lipid. (libretexts.org)
  • Since the lipid moiety is usually buried within the membrane, carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions are the predominant interactions that may occur between glycolipids. (libretexts.org)
  • Generally, however, the glycolipids or lipopeptides bind to CD1 with their lipid backbone tucked into the deeply buried hydrophobic pockets, whereas the head group is exposed at the CD1 surface for T cell recognition ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The glycolipid that characterizes the majority of isolates of Mycobacterium bovis and that has come to be known as M. bovis-identifying lipid is the phenolic glycolipid mycoside B described in the literature by others. (elsevier.com)
  • The glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) superfamily is defined by the human GLTP fold that represents a novel motif for lipid binding and transfer and for reversible interaction with membranes, i.e., peripheral amphitropic proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic (covalent) bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can also remove glycans from glycolipids to turn them back into unmodified lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prefix 'glyco' has to do with carbohydrates, so glycoproteins and glycolipids are proteins and lipids with sugars attached. (study.com)
  • The structural diversity of glycolipids is exceptional, as different types of lipids are glycosylated in almost every forms of life like animals, plants, and bacteria. (omicsonline.org)
  • In the Carbosurf project, the hurdles that hamper the full exploitation of two specialty biochemical classes with high market interest were addressed, namely glycolipid biosurfactants (new types of sophorolipids and sophorosides, rhamnolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) and xylolipids) and specialty carbohydrates (sialyllactose and LactoNtetraoses). (europa.eu)
  • For the fourth type of glycolipid (mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs)), smaller scale fermentations were performed to investigate the purification and produce product for application tests. (europa.eu)
  • Binding of radiolabeled strain ATCC 19660 bacteria to neutral lipids extracted from bovine corneal epithelial tissue showed that the bacteria bound to a glycolipid which migrated at a position similar to that of an asialo GM1 standard and that the glycolipid stained positively with an antibody specific for asialo GM1. (asm.org)
  • Mannosylerythritol Lipids (MEL's) are glycolipid biosurfactants that contain 4-O-β-D-mannopyranosyl-meso-erythritol as a hydrophilic moiety and fatty acids as a hydrophobic moiety. (thescipub.com)
  • Glycolipids are major components of the plasma membrane, interacting with themselves, other lipids, and proteins to form an array of heterogeneous domains with diverse biological properties. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Glycosaminoglycans Glycoproteins and Glycolipids. (docme.ru)
  • Glycosaminoglycans, Glycoproteins, and Glycolipids At the suggestion of R . W. Jeanloz the Retina Foundation of Boston organized an international symposium on the chemistry of the three title substances at Swampscott, Mass. (U.S.A.) from July 22nd to July 2Sth, 1964. (docme.ru)
  • the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate portion of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (docme.ru)
  • Why are glycoproteins and glycolipids important? (study.com)
  • Glycoproteins and glycolipids are important because they play a role in cell signaling, cell attachment, regulating the immune system, and creating. (study.com)
  • Glycans are a constituent of lipopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids , and being surface antigens in microorganisms and viruses, they play a key role in the immune recognition of self and foreign antigens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In biology, glycosylation is the process by which a carbohydrate is covalently attached to an organic molecule, creating structures such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycoproteins and glycolipids are by definition covalently bonded to carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glycolipid is assembled in the Golgi apparatus and embedded in the surface of a vesicle which is then transported to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vesicle merges with the cell membrane so that the glycolipid can be presented on the cell's outside surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • May facilitate the transport of diglucosyl-diacylglycerol (Glc2-DAG) from the inner to the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane, delivering Glc2-DAG as a substrate for LTA synthesis, thereby generating glycolipid-anchored LTA. (uniprot.org)
  • LtaA ( l ipo t eichoic a cid protein A ), a predicted membrane permease whose structural gene is located in an operon with ypfP , is not involved in Glc 2 -DAG synthesis but is required for synthesis of glycolipid-anchored LTA. (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest a model in which LtaA facilitates the transport of Glc 2 -DAG from the inner (cytoplasmic) leaflet to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, delivering Glc 2 -DAG as a substrate for LTA synthesis, thereby generating glycolipid-anchored LTA. (asm.org)
  • A particular subclass of glycolipids is the gangliosides, which are sialylated GSLs mainly expressed in the outer layer of the plasma membrane of essentially all vertebrate cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • They cluster into glycolipid-based membrane domains and caveolae, plasmalemmal vesicles involved in the transcytosis and endocytosis of these surface proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of cell membrane extracts revealed a complete loss of glycolipids from the cell membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glycolipids are important for cell recognition, and are important for modulating the function of membrane proteins that act as receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, glycolipids are found on the outer leaflet of cellular membranes where it plays not only a structural role to maintain membrane stability but also facilitates cell-cell communication acting as receptors, anchors for proteins and regulators of signal transduction [1]. (libretexts.org)
  • Glycolipids are found widely distributed throughout all cells and primarily localized, but not exclusively, to the plasma membrane. (libretexts.org)
  • Sphingolipidoses, which are present in the membrane, also mediate the degradation of these class of glycolipids [4]. (libretexts.org)
  • The majority of glycolipids are located in membrane structures in the cell. (libretexts.org)
  • Two-thirds of total glycolipids are distributed in intracellular membranes such as the golgi-apparatus, endosomes, lysosomes, nuclear membrane, and mitochondria [4]. (libretexts.org)
  • The strong interactions between glycolipids and cholesterol is the driving force which segregates them from the fluid phospholipids in the membrane [7]. (libretexts.org)
  • An automatic thin-layer chromatography sampler is employed to create easily reproducible arrays of glycolipids and their heterodimeric complexes immobilized on a synthetic polyvinyl-difluoride membrane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • side-chains of the glycolipid and glycoprotein components of the membrane. (nefesdaralmasi.com)
  • It is made up of the oligosaccharide side-chains of the glycolipid and glycoprotein components of the membrane and may include oligosaccharides secreted by the cell. (nefesdaralmasi.com)
  • This strategy, which takes into account the hierarchical organisation of glycolipids into discrete membrane microdomains as well as their association with cholesterol, is discussed in the present review. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The work revealed that the biosynthesis of particular glycolipids containing acyltrehalose was perturbed, suggesting to the researchers that these glycolipids play a critical role in the early intracellular protection of mycobacteria. (science20.com)
  • That function is discussed in this report which is restricted to natural biosynthesis of trehalose and glycolipids. (endowmentmed.org)
  • Altered sphingolipid metabolism in multidrug-resistant ovarian cancer cells is due to uncoupling of glycolipid biosynthesis in the Golgi apparatus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • From 18 newly identified sequences, four turned out to encode glycosyltransferases catalyzing final steps in glycolipid biosynthesis: two α-glucosyltransferases, one β-galactosyltransferase and one β-glucosyltransferase. (oup.com)
  • Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the MHC class I-related glycoprotein CD1d. (jci.org)
  • The requirement for processing glycolipid antigens in T cell recognition was examined with mouse CD1d-mediated responses to glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (sciencemag.org)
  • NKT cells can also be activated in a CD1d-restricted manner by the synthetic glycolipid, α-galactosylceramide ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We present here the synthesis and analysis of vaccines based on conjugation of MHC-binding peptide epitopes to α-galactosylceramide, a glycolipid presented by the nonpolymorphic antigen-presenting molecule CD1d to provoke the stimulatory activity of type I natural killer T (NKT) cells. (rsc.org)
  • Natural killer T cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d molecule and may also play an important role in oral tolerance by inducing tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, or by deleting antigen-specific T cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an unusual group of T lymphocytes that recognize glycolipid antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex class I-related protein CD1d. (begellhouse.com)
  • iNKT cells recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules that resemble the non-polymorphic MHC class I protein. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) respond to CD1d-presented glycolipids from Borrelia burgdorferi , the causative agent of Lyme disease. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that the mouse and human CD1d present glycolipids having different fatty acids, based in part upon a difference at a single amino acid position that is involved in positioning the sugar epitope. (pnas.org)
  • Crystal structures of human CD1a, b, and d, as well as mouse CD1d, without loading specific antigens, or in complex with different glycolipids or lipopeptides, have been extensively reviewed elsewhere ( 7 ⇓ ⇓ - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • A specialized subset of glycolipid and CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes are known as type I or semi-invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells. (pnas.org)
  • Design, synthesis, and functional activity of labeled CD1d glycolipid agonists. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are restricted by CD1d molecules and activated upon CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipids to T cell receptors (TCRs) located on the surface of the cell. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We postulated that modifying the glycolipid in this way would exert a minimal impact on the TCR-glycolipid-CD1d ternary complex, allowing the labeled molecule to function as a good mimic for the CD1d agonist under investigation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Both are activated by glycolipids which serve as ligands to an antigen presenting protein, CD1d. (grantome.com)
  • The protein CD1d binds self and foreign glycolipids for presentation to CD1-restricted T cells by means of TCR recognition, and activates TH1 and TH2 chemokines release. (justia.com)
  • Accordingly, a variety of glycolipid ligands were attached to a microarray surface and their binding with CD1d investigated. (justia.com)
  • Various α-GalCer analogs were analyzed and the results showed that the binding affinity of glycolipids to CD1d correlates well with IFN-γ production, but poorly with IL-4 secretion by NKT cells, suggesting that tighter binding ligands could bias cytokine release through the TH1 pathway. (justia.com)
  • CD1c-mediated T-cell recognition of isoprenoid glycolipids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, Geerdink's thesis describes the synthesis of a putative sex pheromone of a parasitic wasp ( Trichogramma turkestanic ) and our efforts towards the synthesis of another glycolipid from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DAT2) and a sulfo-glycopeptidolipid from Mycobacterium avium (S-GPL). (rug.nl)
  • Rapid identification of serotypes of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex by using infected swine sera and reference antigenic glycolipids. (asm.org)
  • Brennan, "A novel phenolic glycolipid from Mycobacterium leprae possibly involved in immunogenicity and pathogenicity," Journal of Bacteriology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The marine-sponge-derived glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) potently activates iNKT cells. (begellhouse.com)
  • These efforts have led to an identification of glycolipid compounds that provoke the production of Th2 (but not Th1) cytokines by iNKT cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Here we describe that OCH also polarizes human iNKT cells towards Th2, which opens up a new avenue for the clinical application of glycolipid compounds in treating of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The pursuit of synthetic glycolipid antigens has the great potential to lead to a better understanding of the regulatory effects of human iNKT cells and development of a new therapeutic agent for autoimmune diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Manabu Araki, Sachiko Miyake and Takashi Yamamura, " Synthetic Glycolipid Ligands for Human iNKT Cells as Potential Therapeutic Agents for Immunotherapy", Current Medicinal Chemistry (2008) 15: 2337. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Glycolipid activation of iNKT cells has been extensively studied for more than a decade and a half. (grantome.com)
  • Although a number of glycolipids that elicit a selective Th1 or Th2 response from iNKT cells have been identified, the bias often disappears in vivo, or the compounds fail to active human iNKT cells. (grantome.com)
  • IgM anti-phenolic glycolipid I and IgG anti 10-kDp a heat shock protein antibody in sera and immune complexes isolated from leprosy patients with or without erythema nodosum leprosum and contacts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • M. bovis also contains other minor seroreactive phenolic glycolipids, one of which is a deacylated form of mycoside B and another of which contains an α-L-rhamnopyranosyl unit rather than 2-O-methyl-α-L-rhamnopyranose. (elsevier.com)
  • The saccharide of the glycolipid will bind to a specific complementary carbohydrate or to a lectin (carbohydrate-binding protein), of a neighboring cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolipid transfer protein is a cytosolic protein that catalyses the transfer of glycolipids between different intracellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternation in the glycolipid transfer protein expression causes changes in the cellular lipidome. (nih.gov)
  • Human glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP) expression modulates cell shape. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Structural analyses of 4-phosphate adaptor protein 2 yield mechanistic insights into sphingolipid recognition by the glycolipid transfer protein family. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that the T-cell antigen receptor and the CD1c protein mediate recognition of an evolutionarily conserved family of isoprenoid glycolipids whose members include essential components of protein glycosylation and cell-wall synthesis pathways. (nih.gov)
  • In this thesis we have studied the glycolipid transport protein (GLTP), a protein that transports glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (doria.fi)
  • Endocytosis of GPI-anchored proteins in human lymphocytes: role of glycolipid-based domains, actin cytoskeleton, and protein kinases. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, in lymphocytes, as in other cell types, glycolipid-based domains provide sites of integration of signaling pathways involved in GPI-anchored protein endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • Considerable effort has been focused on identifying protein binding partners for glycolipids and the glycan specificity for these interactions, largely achieved through assessing interactions between proteins and homogenous, single species glycolipid preparations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These findings underpin the wide-ranging influence and importance of glycolipid-glycolipid cis interactions when the nature of protein-carbohydrate recognition events is being assessed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Finally, recent studies have shown that glycolipids could also modulate protein conformation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Biochemical studies of glycolipid-protein interactions have highlighted the importance of CH- π stacking interactions between galactosyl head groups of the glycolipid and aromatic amino acids of the protein. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Conformational folding and stability of the HET-C2 glycolipid transfer protein fold: Does a molten globule-like state regulate activity? (elsevier.com)
  • Glycolipid s, a large group of sphingolipids, are so called because they contain one or more molecules of sugar (glucose or galactose). (britannica.com)
  • Two classes of molecules that are greatly enriched in CNS myelin compared to other parts of the body are certain types of proteolipids and glycolipids. (hindawi.com)
  • We analyzed the effect of glycolipids from L5178Y-R on antigen presentation by murine CD1d1 molecules. (pnas.org)
  • CD1d1 molecules present glycolipid antigens to a specialized class of T cells called natural killer T (NKT) cells that mainly express a T cell receptor α chain (Vα14Jα281) associated with Vβ chains of limited diversity. (pnas.org)
  • The wide biochemical diversity of glycolipids in membranes explains why these molecules are often selected by pathogens (viruses, bacteria, prions) as primary sites of interactions with the cell surface. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The discovery of this unique mechanism of interaction may allow a rational strategy for the design and synthesis of glycolipid-based molecules as new anti-infectious and/or anti-amyloidogenesis compounds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • For example, the bacterial glycocalyx mediates cell attachment, retains of the integral proteins of the luminal face of microvillar membranes and glycolipids. (nefesdaralmasi.com)
  • On the other hand, introduction of β -LacSC12 in African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells gave Gb3- and Gb4-type glycolipids aside from GM3-type ganglioside. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycolipid (cerebroside and ganglioside), particularly cerebroside, has been proved to exhibit various physiological activities, including antitumor/cytotoxic (Natori et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neutral glycolipid and ganglioside compositions were determined on 11 ependymal tumors, 12 medulloblastomas, 6 other neuronal tumors of the brain, 4 peripheral neuroblastomas, 1 cerebral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and 1 PNET of the thoracic wall. (elsevier.com)
  • Matreya's monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are directed against the carbohydrate chains of ganglioside and globoside glycolipids. (universalbiologicals.com)
  • This invention relates to glycolipids and, more specifically, to glycosphingolipids and the synthesis of glycosphingolipids in substantially pure stereochemical form. (google.com.au)
  • Marine glycolipids, as well as those from terrestrial organisms, are amphiphylic compounds which are currently divided into two main groups: glycoglycerolipids (GGLs) and glycosphingolipids (GSLs). (springer.com)
  • Selectins, a class of lectins found on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial cells bind to the carbohydrates attached to glycolipids to initiate the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of microbial strains efficiently producing (new types) of glycolipids (new-to-nature sophorolipids and sophorosides, rhamnolipids and xylolipids) and producing specialty carbohydrates were thus created. (europa.eu)
  • Carbohydrates covalently attached to glycolipids are not the exception. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enzymatic synthesis of glycolipids based on carbohydrates and free fatty acids or esters is often catalyzed using certain acyltransferases in reaction media of low water activity, e.g., organic solvents or notably Deep Eutectic Systems (DESs). (cirad.fr)
  • These glycolipids are extracted from rabbit red cell membranes and are comprised of ceramides with carbohydrate chains containing 5-25 carbohydrates, all capped with alpha-gal epitopes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Carbohydrates on glycolipids are the most exposed structures on the extracellular surface of cells and are flexible with numerous binding sites which make them optimal for cell signaling. (libretexts.org)
  • We hypothesized that the glycolipid(s) shed by L5178Y-R inhibited antigen presentation by CD1d1. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that one means by which certain tumor cells can evade the host's innate antitumor immune response is by shedding glycolipids that inhibit CD1-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells. (pnas.org)
  • Some substances classified as bacterial glycolipids have the sugar part acylated by one or more fatty acids and the glycerol part may be absent. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • We previously demonstrated that mass spectrometry of bacterial glycolipids has the capacity to identify and detect colistin resistance in a variety of bacterial species. (nih.gov)
  • Using this protocol, we have established that the binding of bacterial toxins, lectins, and antibodies can each be attenuated, enhanced, or unaffected in the presence of glycolipid complexes, as compared with individual, isolated glycolipids. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Role of the glycocalyx in regulating access of microparticles to apical plasma glycolipids to ligands in the size ranges of viruses, bacteria, and. (nefesdaralmasi.com)
  • This study investigated which adhesins of Pseudomonas aeruginosa interact with the glycolipid asialo GM1, using solid-phase binding and thin-layer chromatography assays. (asm.org)
  • [14] For example, the chaperone activity of glycolipids has been studied for its relevance to HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chaperone activity of glycolipids has been associated with various pathogenic processes including HIV infection, prion propagation, and amyloid aggregation in Alzheimers and Creutzfeldt-Jakobs diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Glycolipids are found on the surface of all eukaryotic cell membranes, where they extend from the phospholipid bilayer into the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood types are an example of how glycolipids on cell membranes mediate cell interactions with the surrounding environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among these are found the gangliosides, which are sialylated glycolipids ubiquitously distributed on the outer layer of vertebrate plasma membranes. (frontiersin.org)
  • These glycolipids spontaneously insert into tumor cell membranes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Glycolipids are synthesized in the golgi-apparatus where the majority are transported to membranes to maintain the bilayer. (libretexts.org)
  • The glycocalyx, also known as the pericellular matrix, is a glycoprotein and glycolipid covering that surrounds the cell membranes of some bacteria, epithelia. (nefesdaralmasi.com)
  • In addition to the phospholipidsthe plasma membranes of animal cells contain glycolipids and cholesterol. (nefesdaralmasi.com)
  • Applications where the tools discussed in this paper are particularly useful include, among others, the preparation of structures for glycolipids, nanocellulose, and glycans linked to glycoproteins. (helsinki.fi)
  • Each compound was purified by column chromatography to yield a series of glycolipids containing oligosaccharides differing in length. (rupress.org)
  • Not all natural oligosaccharides occur as components of glycoproteins or glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • known as the glycocalyx, formed by the oligosaccharides of glycolipids and. (nefesdaralmasi.com)
  • A specific family of glycolipids, the globoseries, was shown to act as receptors on human uroepithelial cells and erythrocytes for the majority of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains attaching to or hemagglutinating those cells. (asm.org)
  • A major part of the structural diversity in this family of glycolipids involves increasing degrees of acetylation and differing positions of acetylation on a common pachymoside glycolipid template. (ubc.ca)
  • These results suggest that enzymes for the synthesis of neolacto type and NeuAcα2-6Gal structure of glycolipids are activated in hepatoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this review, we provide a general overview on the metabolism of glycolipids, both in normal and tumor cells, as well as examining glycolipid-mediated immune modulation and the main successes achieved in immunotherapies using gangliosides as molecular targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • Figure 2 illustrates diseases associated with different disruptions in the metabolism of glycolipids. (libretexts.org)
  • Ongoing glycoprotein and glycolipid research conducted around the world is getting us closer to understanding the different functions precipitated by the various natural designs. (endowmentmed.org)
  • Binding of uropathogenic Escherichia coli R45 to glycolipids extracted from vaginal epithelial cells is dependent on histo-blood group secretor status. (jci.org)
  • Glycolipid receptors for uropathogenic Escherichia coli on human erythrocytes and uroepithelial cells. (asm.org)
  • HIV infection may affect T cells that recognize mycobacterial glycolipids and influence immunity. (ovid.com)
  • Nevertheless, these remarkable advances are being counteracted for striking effects on anti-tumor immunity exerted by particular molecular species of tumor-secreted glycolipids and, hence, strategies involving the use of glycolipid synthesis inhibitors are being considered. (frontiersin.org)
  • Induction of a low-pH-induced, molten globule-like state inhibited glycolipid intermembrane transfer by the HET-C2 GLTP fold. (elsevier.com)
  • 51], stearic acid or octadecanoic acid is the main fatty acid chain found in various glycolipid biosurfactants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An example of how glycolipids function within the body is the interaction between leukocytes and endothelial cells during inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolipids are also responsible for other responses, notably the recognition of host cells by viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four main human blood types (A, B, AB, O) are determined by the oligosaccharide attached to a specific glycolipid on the surface of red blood cells, which acts as an antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various glycolipids were synthesized using thiolactosides as scaffolds for glycosylation in animal cells. (hindawi.com)
  • Asialoganglioside M1 (ASGM1) is a glycolipid present on the surface of epithelial cells that binds flagellin and initiates host-cell defense responses, such as cytokine and mucin production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Chemical analysis of various Burkitt lymphoma cell lines revealed that the Burkitt lymphoma cells contained more than 100 times as much of the glycolipid antigen as was found in other human lymphoma and leukemia cell lines. (sciencemag.org)
  • These data demonstrate a carbohydrate antigen processing system analogous to that used for peptides and an ability of T cells to recognize processed fragments of complex glycolipids. (sciencemag.org)
  • Whereas trichloroacetic acid, sodium fluoride, and dichlorallyl-di-isopropyl thiocarbamate which each inhibit fatty acid elongation in higher plants, did not inhibit incorporation of sodium [1-14C] acetate into the very long chain components of the heterocyst glycolipid fraction in whole cells of A.cylindrica. (bl.uk)
  • We show that SGG and DSGG are selectively expressed by epithelial cells of nonsecretors, presumably as a result of sialylation of the gal-globoside precursor glycolipid, which in secretors is fucosylated and processed to ABH antigens. (jci.org)
  • Neoplastic transformation of cells is accompanied by an aberration of cell surface glycolipid composition. (pnas.org)
  • Inhibition of glycolipid shedding in L5178Y-R cells with d -1-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol resulted in the rescue of CD1d1 recognition by canonical (but not noncanonical) NKT cells. (pnas.org)
  • Similarly, a defect in glycolipid synthesis in group B Streptococcus leads to shedding of LTA into the medium, and mutant bacteria have defects in invasion of eukaryotic cells and virulence ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • and (iii) induction of binding to unreactive cells by coating of these cells with glycolipid. (asm.org)
  • 1 All cells are coated in either glycoproteins or glycolipids, both of which help determine cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second major thrust is: 2) To understand sulfatide-glycolipid structural influences on functional outcomes with sulfatide-reactive Type II NKT cells. (grantome.com)
  • Biochemistry of Glycolipids of Sea Urchin Gametes. (springer.com)
  • 8 ), we have found that a major natural ligand of the mouse CD1d1 molecule is the normal cellular glycolipid, glycosylphosphatidylinositol. (pnas.org)
  • Deze veelbelovende molecule behoorde tot de klasse der glycolipiden en werd naar zijn chemische samenstelling alpha-galactosylceramide (aGC) genoemd. (scriptiebank.be)
  • The nature of the building blocks should allow for a modular approach which could lead to the facile preparation of a small collection of glycolipids of different fatty acids chain lengths, such as 1 - 4 , shown in Figure 1 b. (mdpi.com)
  • Fractionation of the fatty alcohols from the heterocyst glycolipid glycoside fraction gave four labelled components. (bl.uk)
  • Sodium arsenite, which inhibits elongation of palmitic acid to stearic acid in higher plants caused a specific inhibition of incorporation of label into the major very long chain component of the heterocyst glycolipid, which was accompanied by an accumulation of radioactivity in C16 fatty acids specifically in the monogalactosyl diglyceride fraction. (bl.uk)
  • The basic structure of a glycolipid consists of a mono- or oligosaccharide group attached to a sphingolipid or a glycerol group (can be acetylated or alkylated) with one or two fatty acids. (libretexts.org)
  • 1573 1575 Kataoka, N., Misaki, A. (1983) Glycolipids isolated from spirulina maxima: structure and fatty acid composition. (akjournals.com)
  • Novel, optically active azido alcohols are synthesized from N-haloacetyl oxazolidinone and are coupled with protected, activated carbohydrate residues in stereoselective glycosidic fashion to provide glycolipids in substantially pure stereochemical form. (google.com.au)
  • Systematic analysis of the composition of the heterocyst specific glycolipid fraction, labelled from either sodium [l-14] acetate or Na H 14CO3 in the filamentous heterocystous Cyanobacterium Anabaena cylindrica, showed that the glycose ester fraction normally contained 10-16% of the heterocyst glycolipid radioactivity, while the glycosidic fraction contained the remainder of the heterocyst glycolipid radioactivity. (bl.uk)
  • It was revealed that the total glycolipids were expressed nearly twice during mitosis, and nLc4Cer was significantly enhanced during that phase. (nii.ac.jp)
  • approximately 5% of the total glycolipids in the brain are found in the soluble fraction. (libretexts.org)
  • approximately 70% of total glycolipids are found in these rafts which form hydrophobic interactions [5]. (libretexts.org)
  • Furthermore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on type-specific glycolipid antigens and infected swine sera was used to diagnose the serological types of the MAI complex isolates. (asm.org)
  • Antigens which are not present in an individual's blood will cause antibodies to be produced, which will bind to the foreign glycolipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work will present a concise review of studies from the last 15 years regarding the isolation and structural characterization of bioactive glycolipids from marine macroalgae. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ac2SGL, one of the glycolipids in the cell enveloppe of M. tuberculosis , stimulates the production of antibodies and is considered as a candidate for a tuberculosis vaccine. (rug.nl)
  • I. Antigenicity of the glycolipids and the production of specific antibodies in rabbits. (rupress.org)
  • The main objective of this project is to develop a novel immunotherapy for gliomas, in which glycolipid antigens are analyzed and quantified systematically and a set of appropriate antibodies would be selected according to the antigenic profile of an individual glioma. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here is evidence that trehalose is the sugar used to build unique glycolipids. (endowmentmed.org)
  • Trehalose is the building block in a number of cell wall glycolipids. (endowmentmed.org)
  • Amino acids that allow for side chain functionalization with glycosyl moieties, such as serine and aspartic acid, have been popular choices as the starting point for the preparation of glycolipid analogues [ 8 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite the potential interest for drugs mimicking glycolipid structure and function, the physicochemical properties of authentic glycolipids suggested that it might be difficult to obtain synthetic glycolipid analogues able to neutralise those pathogens before they could reach the cell surface. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This paper will review recent work regarding isolation and structural characterization of glycolipids from seaweeds and their prospective biological activities. (frontiersin.org)
  • Their functional annotation was based on detailed structural characterization of the new glycolipids formed in the transformant hosts as well as on in vitro enzymatic assays. (oup.com)
  • In collaboration with immunologists, structural biologists and physical chemists this proposal has two major thrusts: 1) To synthesize and evaluate glycolipids with structural features designed to elicit a Th1 biased response relevant for the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. (grantome.com)
  • The occurrence of glycoglycerolipids, glycolipids containing sugar residues directly linked to diacylglycerol, is restricted to photosynthetic organisms and some bacteria. (springer.com)
  • The main function of glycolipids in the body is to serve as recognition sites for cell-cell interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A possible role of glycolipids in epithelial cell penetration by virulent Shigella flexneri 2a. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of B. subtilis ypfP in Escherichia coli , an organism that does not synthesize glycolipids, leads to accumulation of several glycolipids and phosphoglycolipids ( 24 , 25 ). (asm.org)
  • Symptoms increase with age due to the progressive glycolipid accumulation in the vascular system, kidneys and heart leading to kidney failure, heart disease or strokes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dysfunction of glycolipid metabolism is linked to several different diseases from the disruption of glycolipid degradation leading to the accumulation of glycolipids. (libretexts.org)
  • Carbohydrate antigens as possible parasite vaccines A case for the Leishmania glycolipid. (edu.au)
  • The saccharides that are attached to the polar head groups on the outside of the cell are the ligand components of glycolipids, and are likewise polar, allowing them to be soluble in the aqueous environment surrounding the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, a retrospective of what is known of T-cell reactivity directed against proteolipids and glycolipids in patients with MS is presented, and the implications of the findings are discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • The in vivo dynamics of the NKT cell population in response to glycolipid activation remain poorly understood. (jci.org)
  • Here, we show that a single administration of the synthetic glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) induces long-term NKT cell unresponsiveness in mice. (jci.org)
  • The nature and form of glycolipids shed by a variety of tumor cell lines and the mechanism(s) of shedding have been well characterized. (pnas.org)
  • The murine T cell lymphoma line, L5178Y-R, is known to shed a tumor-associated glycolipid, gangliotriaosylceramide, into the culture medium. (pnas.org)
  • One hallmark trait of transformed cell lines is altered glycolipid expression and shedding. (pnas.org)
  • The immunosuppressive function of glycolipids in vivo is thought to be related to direct inhibitory effects by means of the modulation of T lymphocyte signal transduction and effector cell differentiation or development ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • Inactivation of ypfP in S. aureus abrogates all glycolipid synthesis and leads to morphological alterations, including an increase in cell size and aberrant cell shapes ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • We therefore recruited a small number of subjects, including those with latent and active M. tuberculosis infection, with or without concomitant HIV infection, and tracked the mycobacterial glycolipid-reactive T-cell repertoire by using CD1b tetramers. (ovid.com)
  • This has resulted in successful immune cell- or antibody-responses against glycolipids, with promising results having been obtained in clinical trials. (frontiersin.org)
  • A Franz diffusion cell with a piece of pig's ear epidermis indicated that the optimized ME formulation with glycolipid (0.05 wt%) exhibited significantly higher permeability than the conventional formulations. (ovid.com)
  • Glycoproteins are more on the cell surface while glycolipids do most of their work in the cell wall and within the cell itself. (endowmentmed.org)
  • Sialic acids widely distributed in nature as terminal sugars in glycoproteins or glycolipids , impart a net negative charge to cell surface and are reported to be important in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix interactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, glycolipids concentrate into cholesterol/ glycolipid-rich microdomains where they can reach high local concentrations consistent with the multivalent attachment of pathogens on the cell surface. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Recently, a different category of glycolipids, α-galactosyl diacylglycerolipids (α-GalDAG), have been identified as novel iNKT cell antigens. (pnas.org)