Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in animals by releasing glucose-1-phosphate from the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond. This enzyme exists in two forms: an active phosphorylated form ( PHOSPHORYLASE A) and an inactive un-phosphorylated form (PHOSPHORYLASE B). Both a and b forms of phosphorylase exist as homodimers. In mammals, the major isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are found in muscle, liver and brain tissue.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
A class of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally found as one of the three types of kinases that phosphorylate GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE. Glycogen synthase kinases along with CA(2+)-CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES and CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES regulate glycogen synthase activity.
A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.
Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The inactive form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is converted to the active form PHOSPHORYLASE A via phosphorylation by PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE and ATP.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE deficiency. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The active form of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that is derived from the phosphorylation of PHOSPHORYLASE B. Phosphorylase a is deactivated via hydrolysis of phosphoserine by PHOSPHORYLASE PHOSPHATASE to form PHOSPHORYLASE B.
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in liver tissue. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme on chromosome 14 is the cause of GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VI.
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in muscle. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme is the cause of McArdle disease (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE V).
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A strong oxidizing agent.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, of the POLYPORALES order of basidiomycetous fungi. It has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine in various forms.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of glycogen branching enzyme 1 (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal GLYCOGEN with long outer branches. Clinical features are MUSCLE HYPOTONIA and CIRRHOSIS. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.
A highly branched glucan in starch.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Glucose in blood.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in brain tissue.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and PHOSPHORYLASE B to ADP and PHOSPHORYLASE A.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A form of stimulus sensitive myoclonic epilepsy inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. The most common presenting feature is a single seizure in the second decade of life. This is followed by progressive myoclonus, myoclonic seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, focal occipital seizures, intellectual decline, and severe motor and coordination impairments. Most affected individuals do not live past the age of 25 years. Concentric amyloid (Lafora) bodies are found in neurons, liver, skin, bone, and muscle (From Menkes, Textbook of Childhood Neurology, 5th ed, pp111-110)
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Five-carbon furanose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.
A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An unbranched glucan in starch.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Abstaining from all food.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
... and some polysaccharides form thick colloidal dispersions when heated in water. Shorter polysaccharides, with 3 - 10 monomers, ... Examples are starch, cellulose, and glycogen. They are generally large and often have a complex branched connectivity. Because ... Polysaccharides are polymerized monosaccharides, or complex carbohydrates. They have multiple simple sugars. ... of their size, polysaccharides are not water-soluble, but their many hydroxy groups become hydrated individually when exposed ...
... will hydrolytically cleave pullulan (alpha-glucan polysaccharides). Lee EY, Whelan WJ (1972). "Glycogen and starch ... Bender H, Wallenfels K (1966). "Pullulanase (an amylopectin and glycogen debranching enzyme) from Aerobacter aerogenes". ...
Photosynthesis or gluconeogenesis → monosaccharides → polysaccharides (cellulose, chitin, glycogen etc.) Acetate pathway → ... In addition, polysaccharides formed from simpler carbohydrates are important structural components of many organisms such the ...
Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide. It is primary means of glucose storage in animal cells. In the human body, the two ... glycogen synthase (GS), and degradation, glycogen phosphorylase (GF). Glycogenin is the initiator of the glycogen biosynthesis ... Glucose Glycogen Glycogen synthase Glycogenin Gene Mutation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000163754 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... our muscles store about three quarters of the total glycogen in our body. The function of liver glycogen is to maintain glucose ...
Cellulose is similar in form to complex carbohydrates like starch and glycogen. These polysaccharides are also made from ...
... is a highly branched polysaccharide used to store glucose in a similar way that glycogen is the glucose storage ... Phytoglycogen is a type of glycogen extracted from plants. It is a highly branched, water-soluble polysaccharide derived from ...
A polysaccharide of fructose 3. Galactan - A polysaccharide of galactose 4. Araban - A polysaccharide of arabinose 5. Xylan - A ... glycogen is a branched form, where the glucose monomers are joined by alpha-glycosidic linkages. Depending upon the molecules ... Homopolysaccharides are polysaccharides composed of a single type of sugar monomer. For example, cellulose is an unbranched ... polysaccharide of xylose Champe, Harvey, Ferrier. Biochemistry 4th Edition. 2008. 90. v t e. ...
The same type of bond is found in the animal reserve polysaccharide glycogen. This is in contrast to many structural ... as the UDP-glucose is added to the non-reducing end of glycogen during glycogen synthesis. Starch branching enzyme introduces 1 ... This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants for energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and ... Glycogen and amylopectin have similar structure, but the former has about one branch point per ten 1,4-alpha bonds, compared to ...
After splitting of the peridal layers to expose the gleba, enzymatic conversion of glycogen to glucose increases the internal ... Fiegler S (1982). "A scanning ultrastructural histochemical procedure for localization of polysaccharide". Mycologia. 74 (2): ... doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(72)80147-5. Walker LB, Anderson E (1925). "Relation of glycogen to spore-ejection". Mycologia. 17 (4): ...
This enzyme acts on starch, glycogen and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides producing beta-maltose by an inversion. ... This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction: Hydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides so ... Manners DJ (1962). "Enzymic synthesis and degradation of starch and glycogen". Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry. 17: 371-430 ... Manners DJ (January 1963). "Enzymic synthesis and degradation of starch and glycogen". Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry. ...
In Auckland he investigated the structure and metabolism of glycogen, an energy storage polysaccharide, by physical ... His work provided evidence for the existence of a protein core, now known as glycogenin, within glycogen. He was deputy Dean of ...
DNA Nucleoside Nucleotide Oligonucleotide RNA UGGT Glycogen Biochemistry Biochemistry Pathways: Polysaccharide Synthesis v t e ... Then, the enzyme glycogen synthase combines UDP-glucose units to form a glycogen chain. The UDP molecule is cleaved from the ... Before glucose can be stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles, the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase forms a UDP-glucose ...
Glycogen, a glucose polysaccharide, acts as an oxidative energy source during times of physiological stress. Because it binds ... The accumulation of glycogen during the insect larval stage has been linked to increased body water content and is likely a ... Graves, J. L.; Toolson, E. C.; Jeong, C.; Vu, L.N. & Rose, M.R. (1992). "Desiccation, flight, glycogen and postponed senescence ... This increase in development time is likely a response to the environment, allowing larvae more time to accumulate glycogen, ...
Normal vaginal tissue stains brown due to its high glycogen content, while tissue suspicious for cancer does not stain, and ... iodine solutions like Lugol's will stain starches due to iodine's interaction with the coil structure of the polysaccharide. ... Similar to the method of staining mentioned above regarding a colposcopy, alveolar mucosa has a high glycogen content that ... Starches include the plant starches amylose and amylopectin and glycogen in animal cells. Lugol's solution will not detect ...
Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g. cellulose in ... Avenas P (2012). "Etymology of main polysaccharide names" (PDF). In Navard P (ed.). The European Polysaccharide Network of ... often polysaccharides. In many animals, including humans, this storage form is glycogen, especially in liver and muscle cells. ... Cellulose, a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of all plants, is one of the main components of insoluble dietary fiber. ...
The main enzyme involved in glycogen polymerisation, glycogen synthase in the liver and in the muscle glycogen synthesis is ... Evidence accumulates that a priming protein may be a fundamental property of polysaccharide synthesis in general; the molecular ... This hints at the role of glycogenin to simply start glycogen synthesis before glycogen synthase takes over. Glycogenin was ... Alonso MD, Lomako J, Lomako WM, Whelan WJ (1995). "A new look at the biogenesis of glycogen". FASEB J. 9 (12): 1126-37. doi: ...
... glycogen). Polysaccharides perform numerous roles in living organisms, acting as energy stores (e.g. starch) and as structural ... Because monosaccharides have multiple functional groups, polysaccharides can form linear polymers (e.g. cellulose) or complex ... The Major Macromolecules: Carbohydrate macromolecules (polysaccharides) are formed from polymers of monosaccharides. ...
... starches and glycogens, hemicelluloses, seaweed mucilages, and of exudate gums and related polysaccharides. In addition they ... He and his co-workers determined the structure of all the known mono-, di-, oligo- and polysaccharides; and worked on the ...
This polysaccharide has been identified in the Golgi zone of the secretory cells from the albumen gland in the form of discrete ... Glycogen accumulates in autumn as a general energy storage for hibernation, whereas galactogen is synthesized during spring in ... In this polysaccharide, the D-galactose are predominantly β (1→3) and β (1→6) linked; however some species also have β (1→2) ... This polysaccharide is exclusive of the reproduction and is only found in the albumen gland from the female snail reproductive ...
... as in the polysaccharides starch and glycogen), or together with another monosaccharide (as in the hetero-polysaccharides ... Starch, cellulose, and glycogen ("animal starch") are common glucose polymers (polysaccharides). Some of these polymers (starch ... For this reason, D-glucose is also a highly preferred building block in natural polysaccharides (glycans). Polysaccharides that ... Liver cell glycogen can be converted to glucose and returned to the blood when insulin is low or absent; muscle cell glycogen ...
Two of the most common polysaccharides are cellulose and glycogen, both consisting of repeating glucose monomers. Examples are ... For instance, polysaccharides are broken down into their monomers (glycogen phosphorylase removes glucose residues from ... be stored as glycogen (or starch in plants), or be converted to other monosaccharides or joined into di- or oligosaccharides. ... Many monosaccharides joined together make a polysaccharide. They can be joined together in one long linear chain, or they may ...
Polysaccharides, which include starch and glycogen, are often referred to as 'complex' carbohydrates because they are typically ... which is stored in muscle as glycogen - a form of sugar. During exercise, muscle glycogen reserves can be used up, especially ... Baghurst, P.A.; Baghurst, K.I.; Record, S.J. (1996). "Dietary fibre, non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch - a review ... Monosaccharides contain one sugar unit, disaccharides two, and polysaccharides three or more. Monosaccharides include glucose, ...
... also occurs naturally during enzymatically-catalyzed polymerization of glucose to form polysaccharides such as glycogen ( ...
Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) is a staining method used to detect polysaccharides such as glycogen, and mucosubstances such as ... Presence of glycogen can be confirmed on a section of tissue by using diastase to digest the glycogen from a section, then ... PAS diastase stain (PAS-D) is PAS stain used in combination with diastase, an enzyme that breaks down glycogen. • Alcian blue/ ... The diastase negative slide will show a magenta staining where glycogen is present within a section of tissue. The slide that ...
... where they are turned into a polysaccharide, possibly glycogen. Because of the anecdotal occurrence data concerning this plant ...
Glucose is stored in the liver in the form of the polysaccharide glycogen, which is a glucan (a polymer made up of glucose ... As a result, glucagon is released from the alpha cells at a maximum, causing rapid breakdown of glycogen to glucose and fast ... Glucagon causes the liver to engage in glycogenolysis: converting stored glycogen into glucose, which is released into the ... When glucagon binds to the glucagon receptors, the liver cells convert the glycogen into individual glucose molecules and ...
Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus ... catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes ...
... and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. The human genome has a cluster of several amylase ... 4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, ...
AMY1A Kaczmarek MJ, Rosenmund H (1977). "The action of human pancreatic and salivary isoamylases on starch and glycogen". Clin ... Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus ... catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes ...
There are several different types of carbohydrates: polysaccharides (e.g., starch, amylopectin, glycogen, cellulose), ...
β-Glucans (beta-glucans) comprise a group of β-D-glucose polysaccharides naturally occurring in the cell walls of cereals, ... Although technically β-glucans are chains of D-glucose polysaccharides linked by β-type glycosidic bonds, by convention not all ... In addition, these side-chains can be attached to other types of molecules, like proteins, as in polysaccharide-K. ... β-D-glucose polysaccharides are categorized as β-glucans.[4] Cellulose is not conventionally considered a β-glucan, as it is ...
Ang mga polysaccharides ay nagsisilbi para sa pag-iimbak ng enerhiya(e.g., starch at glycogen) at bilang istaktural na bahagi(e ... at polysaccharide. Sa pangkalahatan, ang mga monosaccharides at disaccharide na mga mas maliit(may mas mababang timbang na ...
Polysaccharides (long chains) are complex carbohydrates, with linear chains of sugars or branched clusters. Their function is ... either energy storage (starch, glycogen) or building structures (cellulose, chitin).. Nutrition and foods[change , change ...
It regulates the storage of glycogen which it can form from glucose (glycogenesis). The liver can also synthesise glucose from ... The enzymes that digest polysaccharides, by contrast, are primarily produced by the walls of the intestines.) The cells are ...
... polysaccharides can form linear polymers (e.g. cellulose) or complex branched structures (e.g. glycogen). Polysaccharides ... Carbohydrate macromolecules (polysaccharides) are formed from polymers of monosaccharides.[1]:11 Because monosaccharides have ...
Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of ... showing that the energy in blood glucose can be stored as fat or as glycogen.[38] ... Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. ... Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar ...
ಅನೇಕ ದೇಶಗಳು ಸಕ್ಕರೆಯ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಗೆ ಅತೀವವಾಗಿ ಅನುದಾನ ನೀಡುತ್ತವೆ. ಐರೋಪ್ಯ ಒಕ್ಕೂಟ, ಅಮೆರಿಕಾ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನಗಳು, ಜಪಾನ್‌‌ ಮತ್ತು ಅನೇಕ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಶೀಲ ದೇಶಗಳು ಸ್ವದೇಶಿ ಉತ್ಪಾದನೆಗೆ ಅನುದಾನ ನೀಡುತ್ತವೆ ಮತ್ತು ಆಮದುಗಳ ಮೇಲಿನ ಉನ್ನತ ಸುಂಕಪಟ್ಟಿಗಳನ್ನು ನಿರ್ವಹಿಸುತ್ತವೆ. ಈ ದೇಶಗಳಲ್ಲಿನ ಸಕ್ಕರೆ ಬೆಲೆಗಳು ಅನೇಕವೇಳೆ ಅಂತರರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಮಾರುಕಟ್ಟೆಯಲ್ಲಿನ ಬೆಲೆಗಳನ್ನು ಮೂರು ಪಟ್ಟುಗಳಷ್ಟರವರೆಗೆtoday[update] ಮೀರಿಸಿವೆ; ಇಂದು, ವಿಶ್ವ ...
"Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 contributes to the recirculation of gluconeogenic precursors during postexercise glycogen ... is a subcategory of EC 2.4 transferases that is involved in biosynthesis of disaccharides and polysaccharides through transfer ...
Others, such as maltodextrins or cellodextrins, result from the microbial breakdown of larger polysaccharides such as starch or ... which have a much higher degree of polymerization than FOS and is therefore a polysaccharide, but like fructans and inulin, ...
Glicigin Glycogen. *Aigéad gliocólach Glycolic acid. *Glicelipid Glycolipid. *Gliceapróitéin Glycoprotein. *hormón scaoilte ... Polaisiúicríd Polysaccharide. *Porfairin Porphyrin. *Prión Prion. *Próigeistéarón Progesterone. *Prólachtain Prolactin (PRL). * ...
The glycoside hydrolases are involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of glycogen in the body. ... Various glycoside hydrolases have shown efficacy in degrading matrix polysaccharides within the extracellular polymeric ... of an oligo/polysaccharide chain. Glycoside hydrolases may also be classified by sequence or structure based methods.[4] ...
... is a multibranched polysaccharide o glucose that serves as a form o energy storage in ainimals[2] an fungi. The ... Schematic twa-dimensional cross-sectional view o glycogen: A core protein o glycogenin is surroondit bi branches o glucose ... polysaccharide structur represents the main storage form o glucose in the bouk. ... Taen frae "https://sco.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Glycogen&oldid=544580" ...
Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and ... Polysaccharides are relatively more complex carbohydrates. They are polymers made up of many monosaccharides. They are very ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polysaccharide&oldid=6470307" ...
Polysaccharides, which include starch and glycogen, are often referred to as 'complex' carbohydrates because they are typically ... During exercise, muscle glycogen reserves can be used up, especially when activities last longer than 90 min.[93] Because the ... The main fuel used by the body during exercise is carbohydrates, which is stored in muscle as glycogen - a form of sugar. ... Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate, specifically a polysaccharide, which is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals. ...
Polysaccharides. Glucose/Glucan: Glycogen · Starch (Amylose, Amylopectin) · Cellulose · Dextrin/Dextran · Beta-glucan (Zymosan ...
Maltose, cellobiose, and chitobiose are hydrolysis products of the polysaccharides starch, cellulose, and chitin, respectively ... and polysaccharides). The most common types of disaccharides-sucrose, lactose, and maltose-have 12 carbon atoms, with the ... and also bonds monosaccharides into more complex polysaccharides) forms what are called glycosidic bonds.[8] ...
The sarcoplasm is also composed of glycogen, a polysaccharide of glucose monomers, which provides energy to the cell with ... Well exercised muscles can not only add more size but can also develop more mitochondria, myoglobin, glycogen and a higher ...
ଗ୍ଲାଇକୋଜେନ୍ (Glycogen) ଅନେକ ପ୍ରକାରର କବକ (Fungi), ପ୍ରାଣୀମାନ‌ଙ୍କ ଯକୃତ (Liver) ଓ ମାଂସପେଶୀରେ (Muscles) ସଞ୍ଚିତ ଜୈବଶର୍କରା । ମଣ୍ଡଦ ( ... ପଲିସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (Polysaccharide)[ସମ୍ପାଦନା]. ପଲିସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (ପଲି ବା poly = ଅନେକ ଓ ସାକାରନ୍ ବା saccharon = ଶର୍କରା) ଅନେକ ଗୁଡ଼ିଏ ... ମଣ୍ଡଦ (Starch) ଓ ଗ୍ଲାଇକୋଜେନ୍ (Glycogen) ସଞ୍ଚୟ ଶ୍ରେଣୀର ଅନ୍ତର୍ଭୁକ୍ତ । ମଣ୍ଡଦ (Starch) ଏକ ଦ୍ରାକ୍ଷାଶର୍କରାର (Glucose) ସମାହାର । ଏହା ... ହେପାରିନ୍ (Heparin) ନାମକ ଏକ ପ୍ରକାରର ପଲିସାକାରାଇଡ୍ (Polysaccharide) ରକ୍ତ ଜମାଟ ବାନ୍ଧିବା କାର୍ଯ୍ୟକୁ
Carmine is an intensely red dye used to stain glycogen, while Carmine alum is a nuclear stain. Carmine stains require the use ... Phosphotungstic acid is a common negative stain for viruses, nerves, polysaccharides, and other biological tissue materials. ... Periodic acid-Schiff staining is used to mark carbohydrates (glycogen, glycoprotein, proteoglycans). It is used to distinguish ... different types of glycogen storage diseases.. Masson's trichrome[edit]. Masson's trichrome is (as the name implies) a three- ...
In comparison to glycogen which would contribute only half of the energy per its pure mass, triglyceride carbons are all bonded ... in extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis (for instance, peptidoglycan polymerization in bacteria), and in eukaryotic ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
The glucans and levans (fructose polysaccharides) produced by the plaque bacteria also act as a reserve food supply for the ... GSD type VI (Hers' disease, liver glycogen phosphorylase deficiency). *GSD type V (McArdle's disease, myophosphorylase ... or is converted and reserved in the liver as glycogen. The fructose is either bonded to cellulose and transported out the GI ... dextran-like polysaccharides) by extracellular enzymes. These glucans allow the bacteria to adhere to the tooth surface and to ...
structural polysaccharides: cellulose, chitin and others. *storage polysaccharides: starch, glycogen and others ...
... /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in ... Its counterpart in animals is glycogen, which has the same composition and structure, but with more extensive branching that ...
... the polysaccharide glycogen, and the water-insoluble structural polysaccharide chitin, which accounts for up to 80-90% of dry ...
The more viscous polysaccharides extend the mouth-to-cecum transit time; guar, tragacanth and pectin being slower than wheat ... stabilize blood glucose levels by acting on pancreatic insulin release and liver control of glycogen breakdown ... Adding viscous polysaccharides to carbohydrate meals can reduce post-prandial blood glucose concentrations. Wheat and maize but ... Dietary fiber consists of non-starch polysaccharides and other plant components such as cellulose, resistant starch, resistant ...
polysaccharide: cellulose - carbohydrate - chitin - glycogen - starch. *Biochemical mechanisms: proteolysis - cooperativity. * ...
HA, a linear polysaccharide, is composed of repeating disaccharide units of →4)GlcAβ(1→3)GlcNAcβ(1→ and has a very high ... Glycosaminoglycans[1] (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides[2] are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating ...
Ultracentrifugal studies of compounds of proteins with polysaccharides. Compounds between proteins and glycogen. Edmund Marcel ... Ultracentrifugal studies of compounds of proteins with polysaccharides. Compounds between proteins and glycogen ... Ultracentrifugal studies of compounds of proteins with polysaccharides. Compounds between proteins and glycogen ... Ultracentrifugal studies of compounds of proteins with polysaccharides. Compounds between proteins and glycogen ...
... a branched polysaccharide, were exhaustively methylated and then hydrolyzed. The methylated products were separatd and... ... Exactly 81.0 mg of glycogen, a branched polysaccharide, were exhaustively methylated and then hydrolyzed. The methylated ... Exactly 81.0 mg of glycogen, a branched polysaccharide, were exhaustively methylated and then hydrolyzed. The methylated ... Answer to Exactly 81.0 mg of glycogen, ...
... and Glycogen along with Storage polysaccharides, Structural polysaccharides, and more. ... Learn the importance of polysaccharides such as starch, cellulose, ... Glycogen. What is Glycogen?. In an animals body the carbohydrates are stored in the form of glycogen. This is also called ... First of all, let us discuss starch from where we will move on to other polysaccharides such as Glycogen and Cellulose. ...
Well-known polysaccharides include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen and structural polysaccharides such as ... Glycogen. Glycogen is the principal storage form of glucose in animal cells. Glycogen is a highly branched polymer of about ... Acidic polysaccharides. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups, and/or ... Glycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide of glucose with α-glycosidic linkages. Cellulose is an unbranched polysaccharide ...
Now, these complex carbohydrates have a highly branched molecular structure and are named polysaccharide. Let us study them in ... The structure of glycogen is similar to that of Amylopectin. The only exception being that glycogen is very highly branched. In ... This is the reason glycogen behaves differently to Amylopectin. This is the reason a glycogen molecule has a very high ... Q: The solution of iodine in KI is used to detect a solution of starch and glycogen, as it gives:. *blue colour with starch and ...
Cellulose and Glycogen. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE (Commerce), CBSE (Science), PUC Karnataka Science ... Biomolecules part 12 (Polysaccharides :- starch, cellulose, glycogen). undefined Carbohydrates video tutorial00:15:25 ... Solution for concept: Carbohydrates - Polysaccharides - Starch, Cellulose and Glycogen. For the courses CBSE (Arts), CBSE ( ...
Which of the following storage polysaccharides is not a glucose polymer? a. amylose b. amylopectin c. glycogen .... Organic And ... What is the difference between a monosaccharide, a disaccharide, and a polysaccharide? Give examples of each.. Biology: The ...
Starches are classified as polysaccharides due to their molecular structures. Most starches are found in plants, since plants ... What are the structural differences between starch and glycogen?. A: The chief difference between starch and glycogen is that ... Polysaccharides are sugars that consists of multiple simple sugar units. The simple sugar units are known as monosaccharides, ... Polysaccharides form when numerous monosaccharides bind together to form long-chain compounds. Many of the common ...
d) which form the polysaccharide glycogen.. Answer: a. 3. Fructose is:. a) an aldopentose sugar. ... b) indigestible polysaccharides, such as starch and cellulose have been completely or partial. hydrolyzed to maltose.. c) ... Modification of the TRI reagent procedure for isolation of RNA from polysaccharide.pdf ...
glycogen succinates. semi-cellulose diglycolates. starch. oxidized heteropolymeric polysaccharides, etc. Other materials which ... ester-linked carboxylate derivatives of polysaccharides. such as the sodium and potassium starch maleates. cellulose phthalates ...
disaccharides viscous glycogen caries. 12. soluble fibers 13. polysaccharides 14. stevia sweeteners ... Once the glycogen stores are full, carbohydrates in excess of energy needs are stored as fat. Honey is a concentrated sweet and ... A polysaccharide composed of glucose that is made and stored by liver and muscle tissues of human beings and animals The ... Starch (from plants), glycogen (from animal sources) Soluble fibers, insoluble fibers Composition of the food, how sticky the ...
Chapter 10.Polysaccharides. Chapter 11.Starch Chapter 12.Glycogen. Chapter 13.Cellulose. Chapter 14.Sugar phosphates. Chapter ...
3. Natural polymer: Carbohydrates (polysaccharides) (starch, glycogen and cellulose). General formula: Cx(H2O)y with the ratio ...
3) Which structures are polysaccharides?. (8). Short- term or quick energy. ie. starch, glycogen. Structural support. ie. ... 3. Glycogen is used to store energy in the liver and muscle tissue. Glycogen is an example of which type of macromolecule?. A. ... Polymers called polysaccharides. (5). (7). (3). (6). (7). Answer the following:. 1) Which of the following structures is not a ... D. polysaccharide. 2. Which of the following is not a protein?. A. an enzyme. B. cholesterol. C. an antibody. D. insulin. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Polysaccharides easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... Polysaccharides function both as food stores (starch in plants and glycogen in animals) and as structural materials (cellulose ... Polysaccharides Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides ... Glycogen is the energy storage carbohydrate in animals. Glycogen is found mainly in the liver (where it is responsible for up ...
Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and ... Acidic polysaccharides[edit]. Acidic polysaccharides are polysaccharides that contain carboxyl groups, phosphate groups and/or ... Glycogen[edit]. Glycogen serves as the secondary long-term energy storage in animal and fungal cells, with the primary energy ... Glycogen is a polymer of α(1→4) glycosidic bonds linked, with α(1→6)-linked branches. Glycogen is found in the form of granules ...
Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The ... Keywords: blood lactic acid; forced swimming test; glutathione peroxidase; glycogen; malondialdehyde; mice; serum urea nitrogen ... Anti-fatigue activities of polysaccharides extracted from Hericium erinaceus Exp Ther Med. 2015 Feb;9(2):483-487. doi: 10.3892/ ... Polysaccharides from HEP have recently attracted considerable attention due to their numerous physiological activities. The ...
Appendix 2 Polysaccharides - Starch and Glycogen. Appendix 3 Glycosaminoglycans (Mucopolysaccharides) - Proteoglycans. Appendix ...
Glycogen is the polysaccharide used to store energy in animals, including humans. Like starch, glycogen is made up of chains of ... Three polysaccharides are of particular importance in human nutrition : starch, glycogen , and dietary fiber . ... Glycolysis breaks down glucose or glycogen into pyruvic acid through enzymatic reactions within the cytoplasm of the cells. The ... The end result is a net gain of up to thirty-nine molecules of ATP from one molecule of glycogen (thirty-eight molecules of ATP ...
several polysaccharides, such as cellulose and glycogen Background Information on Carbohydrates:. *Kimballs Biology Pages: ...
Photosynthesis or gluconeogenesis → monosaccharides → polysaccharides (cellulose, chitin, glycogen etc.) Acetate pathway → ... In addition, polysaccharides formed from simpler carbohydrates are important structural components of many organisms such the ...
Polysaccharides are carbohydrates of much greater molecular weight and complexity; examples are starch, which serves as energy ... store in plant seeds and tubers; cellulose and lignin that form the cell walls and woody tissue of plants of plants; glycogen, ... chitin A nitrogenous polysaccharide occurring as skeletal material in many invertebrates and fungi. ...
Polysaccharides. Chains of sugars formed by Dehydration Synthesis. Glycogen. stored glucose released by enhanced muscle ...
Glycogen. Energy-storage polysaccharide in animals.. Made with a-glucose -- branched.. Glycogen differs to amylopectin, the 1,4 ... Glycogen is more compact than starch -- forms glycogen granules in animal cells. Features of starch and glycogen. Both starch ... Starch and glycogen. Large molecules of many a-glucose joined by condensation reactions. Insoluble in water.. Forms grains/ ... Energy-storage polysaccharide in plants. Consists of straight chain amylose and branched amylopectin.. Its stored in ...
Keywords: glycogen molecule; α-particles; β-particles; polysaccharide-protein complex; glycogen fractions; liver; skeletal ... However, the type and force of bonds connecting these proteins to the polysaccharide moiety of glycogen are significantly ... Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; O-specific polysaccharide; bacterial polysaccharide structure; O-antigen gene cluster; ... Glycogen is a strongly branched polymer of α-D-glucose, with glucose residues in the linear chains linked by 1→4-bonds (~93% of ...
Disaccharides (cellobiose, maltose, lactose, sucrose). Polysaccharides (cellulose, starch, glycogen). A look at some ecological ... industrial processes to produce polymers, based on fermentation of polysaccharides from vegetables grown in the same area. ...
Polysaccharides: cellulose, starch, glycogen. From the energy of sunlight to the chemical energy of carbohydrates and to cell ...
examples of a polysaccharides. starches, glycogen. lipose is what fat. elements in a lipid. c,h,o,p. ...
Glycogen Glycogen, white, amorphous, tasteless polysaccharide (C6H1005)n. It is the principal form in which carbohydrate is ... Glycogen ... * Glycol Glycol, any of a class of organic compounds belonging to the alcohol family; in the molecule of a glycol ... see polysaccharide) and in carbohydrate-containing lipids ... ...
Glycogen Glycogen, white, amorphous, tasteless polysaccharide (C6H1005)n. It is the principal form in which carbohydrate is ... Glycogen ... * Glycol Glycol, any of a class of organic compounds belonging to the alcohol family; in the molecule of a glycol ... and muscle contraction and was the first to discover and link together all the steps involved in the conversion of glycogen to ... see polysaccharide) and in carbohydrate-containing lipids ... ...

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