Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Glycerol Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Glycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Aquaglyceroporins: A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenasePermeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neuromyelitis Optica: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NAD+)Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Monoglycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with a single acyl (FATTY ACIDS) chain.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Tulipa: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cistaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Dehydration: The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.Mercury Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Eye ProteinsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate: An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.Ethylene Glycol: A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.AnguillaVasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Glomeromycota: A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission: A type of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY in which the object is examined directly by an extremely narrow electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point and using the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen to create the image. It should not be confused with SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)GlyceraldehydeMycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.PhloretinSaccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mesembryanthemum: A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Submandibular Gland: One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Mercury: A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.Nobel PrizePropaneFatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Propanediol Dehydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydration of 1,2-propanediol to propionaldehyde. EC 4.2.1.28.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Teichoic Acids: Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Rats, Brattleboro: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus used in research on renal function and hypertension and as a disease model for diabetes insipidus.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).4-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonate: A cytotoxic sulfhydryl reagent that inhibits several subcellular metabolic systems and is used as a tool in cellular physiology.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.TriglyceridesMorula: An early embryo that is a compact mass of about 16 BLASTOMERES. It resembles a cluster of mulberries with two types of cells, outer cells and inner cells. Morula is the stage before BLASTULA in non-mammalian animals or a BLASTOCYST in mammals.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1: Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Mice, Inbred ICREpididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Gluconobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.CobamidesProtein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).
Aquaporins selectively transport glycerol as well as water while glycerol facilitators selectively transport glycerol but not ... Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the bacterial glycerol facilitator, GlpF can transport O2, CO2, NH3, glycerol, urea, and water to ... The MIP superfamily includes three subfamilies: aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and S-aquaporins. The aquaporins (AQPs) are water ... Aquaporins generally have the NPA motif in both halves, the glycerol facilitators generally have an NPA motif in the first ...
Aquaporin 7 facilitates water, glycerol and urea transport. It may play an important role in sperm function. Aquaporin GRCh38: ... 2007). "Adipose tissue expression of the glycerol channel aquaporin-7 gene is altered in severe obesity but not in type 2 ... Aquaporin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AQP7 gene. Aquaporins/major intrinsic protein (MIP) are a family of ... Aquaporin 7 has greater sequence similarity with AQP3 and AQP9 and they may be a subfamily. Aquaporin 7 and AQP3 are at the ...
The Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane aquaporin NtAQP1 is mercury-insensitive and permeable for glycerol. The Plant journal : ... Aquaporin tetramer composition modifies the function of tobacco aquaporins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2010. 285(41): p. ... He is known for his work on the aquaporin protein class, where he detected facilitated diffusion of CO2 in plant tissue and ... Kaldenhoff was one of the first scientists to describe plant aquaporins. He initially accomplished to analyse the function and ...
... there are contradicting reports about its role in providing glycerol permeability. Aquaporin 9 may also have some role in ... Aquaporin-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AQP9 gene. The aquaporins/major intrinsic protein are a family of ... Aquaporin 9 has greater sequence similarity with AQP3 and AQP7 and they may be a subfamily. Aquaporin 9 allows passage of a ... AQP9 aquaporin 9". Ishibashi K, Kuwahara M, Gu Y, et al. (1998). "Cloning and functional expression of a new aquaporin (AQP9) ...
... glycerol, and urea. For example, the aquaporin 3 channel has a pore width of 8-10 Ångströms and allows the passage of ... The gating of an aquaporin is carried out by an interaction between a gating mechanism and the aquaporin, which causes a 3D ... It was not until 1992 that the first aquaporin, 'aquaporin-1' (originally known as CHIP 28), was reported by Peter Agre, of ... There have been two clear examples of diseases identified as resulting from mutations in aquaporins: Mutations in the aquaporin ...
Aquaporins, membrane proteins involved in the channeling of water, have also been shown to play a key role in E. solidaginis' ... Rojas, R. R., Lee, R. E., & Baust, J. G. (1986). Relationship of environmental water content to glycerol accumulation in the ... Upregulation of these aquaporin proteins in the winter seasons corroborates the hypothesis that they play a key role in ... Philip, B. N., Yi, S. X., Elnitsky, M. A., & Lee, R. E. (2008). Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in ...
Glycerol-3-phosphate transporter, Lactose permease, and Multidrug transporter EmrD) [11] Resistance-nodulation-cell division ( ... Aquaporins [23] Chloride channels [24] Outer membrane auxiliary proteins (polysaccharide transporter) [25] - α-helical ... Cytochrome c oxidases [5] from bacteria and mitochondria Proton or sodium translocating F-type and V-type ATPases [6] P-type ... 18 (5): 581-586. doi:10.1016/j.sbi.2008.07.001. PMC 2580798 . PMID 18674618. Membrane Proteins of known 3D Structure Elofsson, ...
Аквапорин-1, AQP1 (англ. Aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group)) - білок, який кодується геном AQP1, розташованим у людей на ... glycerol transport. • nociception. • lateral ventricle development. • water homeostasis. • positive regulation of cell ... de Groot B.L., Engel A., Grubmueller H. (2001). A refined structure of human aquaporin-1.. FEBS Lett. 504: 206 - 211. PubMed ... AQP1, AQP-CHIP, CHIP28, CO, aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group). Зовнішні ІД. OMIM: 107776 MGI: 103201 HomoloGene: 68051 GeneCards ...
Diacyl glycerol. *Dihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper). *Estradiol. *Eugenol (basil, clove). *Evodiamine (Euodia ruticarpa) ... inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate binding. • ion channel activity. • protein binding. • actin binding. • calcium channel activity. • ... It has been associated with depression and anxiety (see below), as well as with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS).[5] ...
Short transient receptor potential channel 5 (TrpC5) also known as transient receptor protein 5 (TRP-5) is a protein that in ... Diacyl glycerol. *Dihydrocapsaicin (chili pepper). *Estradiol. *Eugenol (basil, clove). *Evodiamine (Euodia ruticarpa) ... inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate binding. • ion channel activity. • store-operated calcium channel activity. • protein binding. • ... Beech DJ (2007). Canonical transient receptor potential 5. Handb Exp Pharmacol. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 179. pp ...
Competitive vasopressin antagonism leads to decreased number of aquaporin channels in the apical membrane of the renal ... 5. collecting duct Selective vasopressin V2 antagonist (sometimes called aquaretics) tolvaptan,[14] conivaptan ... 5. cortical collecting ducts Thiazides bendroflumethiazide, hydrochlorothiazide Inhibits reabsorption by Na+/Cl− symporter 4. ... The thiazides and potassium-sparing diuretics are considered to be calcium-sparing diuretics.[5] ...
Rabbit polyclonal Aquaporin 5 antibody. Validated in WB, ELISA and tested in Rat. Independently reviewed in 1 review(s). ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Aquaporin 5 antibody (ab15119) WB, ELISA Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) IHC-P, WB ... Aquaporins contain two tandem repeats each containing three membrane-spanning domains and a pore-forming loop with the ... Immunohistochemistry (Formalin/PFA-fixed paraffin-embedded sections) abreview for Anti-Aquaporin 5 antibody. Average ...
We characterized an aquaporin gene HvPIP2;5 from Hordeum vulgare and investigated its physiological roles in heterologous ... We characterized an aquaporin gene HvPIP2;5 from Hordeum vulgare and investigated its physiological roles in heterologous ... Indeed, overexpression of HvPIP2;5 caused higher retention of chlorophylls and water under salt and osmotic stresses than did ... These results suggest that HvPIP2;5 overexpression brought about stress tolerance, at least in part, by reducing the secondary ...
Aquaporin 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). Aquaporin 5 ... GO annotations related to this gene include transporter activity and glycerol channel activity. An important paralog of this ... The human Aquaporin-5 gene. Molecular characterization and chromosomal localization. (PMID: 8621489) Lee MD … Agre P (The ...
Aquaporin 5 antibody LS-C3810 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) from mouse and rat. Validated ... PBS, 0.05% Sodium Azide, 40% Glycerol. Storage. Short term: 4°C. Long term: Store at -20°C. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles. ... Aquaporin 5 antibody LS-C3810 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) from mouse and rat. Validated ... Aquaporin 5 antibody LS-C3810 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) from mouse and rat. Validated ...
Water and glycerol permeability of aquaporins 1-5 and MIP determined quantitatively by expression of epitope-tagged constructs ... Transcriptional regulation of aquaporins in the ischemic rat retina: upregulation of aquaporin-9 ... Changes in retinal aquaporin-9 (AQP9) expression in glaucoma Ming-Hui Yang Ming-Hui Yang ... AQPs (aquaporins) are hydrophobic membrane proteins and the narrowest diameter of the pore of AQPs is 2.8 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) [16]. ...
... while other membranes of aquaporins family transport hydroxyl-containing molecules such as glycerol rather than water. Few ... Moreover, aquaporin 0 found in the lens in the eye has a role in maintaining lens clarity. While aquaporin 1 occurs on the red ... Aquaporins 3 and 4 normally are found in the basolateral membrane in the collecting duct but they are not altered by ADH levels ... Aquaporin 5 occurs in lacrimal and salivary glands and in the lungs. Thus, aquaporins increase the water permeability of cell ...
A subgroup of aquaporins called aquaglycerporins allow the passage of small solutes such as glycerol, urea, and ammonia. ... Aquaporins Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) was first discovered in human red blood cell membranes by Gheorghe Bengas research group in 1986 ... Aquaporin-1 Structure Aquaporin-1 is an integral membrane protein that is considered to have an "open" structure. Despite being ... Aquaporin-1 Regulation Aquaporin channels may be subject to intense short term regulation via signal transduction. Transducers ...
Aquaporin-3 function is to promote glycerol permeability across cell membrane.. *Aquaporin-4 regulates water balance in the ... Mutations in aquaporin-2 cause diabitis insipidus. Mutations in aquaporin-0 in mice cause congenital cataracts. Aquaporin-4 is ... Aquaporin-Z is a major water channel in bacteria.. *Aquaglycerolporin (GLpf) is a water channel which can transport glycerol, ... Aquaporins are channel producing proteins which regulate the flow of water across the cell membrane. The image on the left ...
Aquaporins are membrane channels selectively permeated by water or water plus glycerol. Conflicting reports have described ion ... Functional requirement of aquaporin-5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands Nielsen, Søren; Agre, Peter C.; King, Landon S.; ... Defective cellular trafficking of lacrimal gland aquaporin-5 in Sjögrens syndrome Ishida, Naruhiro; Agre, Peter; King, Landon ... Aquaporins/physiology (1)Cell Membrane/metabolism (1)Escherichia coli Proteins (1)Lacrimal Apparatus/metabolism (1)Lipid ...
Aquaporins/metabolism (3). Aquaporins/physiology (1)Cell Membrane/metabolism (1)Erythrocytes/metabolism (1)Glycerol/metabolism ... Aquaporin 9 is the major pathway for glycerol uptake by mouse erythrocytes, with implications for malarial virulence Carbrey, ... Aquaglyceroporin aquaporin (AQP)3 is the major glycerol channel in human and rat erythrocytes. However, AQP3 expression has not ... Functional requirement of aquaporin-5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands Nielsen, Søren; Agre, Peter C.; King, Landon S.; ...
2009). Role of aquaporin-7 and aquaporin-9 in glycerol metabolism; involvement in obesity. Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. 190, 233-249 ... 2005). Aquaporin 7 deficiency is associated with development of obesity through activation of adipose glycerol kinase. Proc. ... 2003). Glycerol replacement corrects defective skin hydration, elasticity, and barrier function in aquaporin-3-deficient mice. ... 2002). Selectively reduced glycerol in skin of aquaporin-3-deficient mice may account for impaired skin hydration, elasticity, ...
Two previous articles in this series on aquaporins have discussed their history, mechanism and stimulation. The current article ... In the presence of glycerol-which gains intracellular access via the aquaporin AQP3 transport channels-PLD2 catalyzes the ... Further studies revealed correlations between cell proliferation, and ATP and glycerol concentrations. Oral glycerol ... Glycerol, or glycerin as it is sometimes called, has long been a principal ingredient in cosmetics and skin creams based on the ...
Abstract Aquaporin (AQP) 3 expression is altered in inflammatory bowel diseases, although the exact mechanisms regulating AQP ... Yang B, Verkman AS (1997) Water and glycerol permeabilities of aquaporins 1-5 and MIP determined quantitatively by expression ... Yuan WT, Yang HF, Zhang ZY, Liu JB (2008) Expression and significance of aquaporin 3 and aquaporin 9 in colonic mucosa of ... Molecular cloning and expression of a member of the aquaporin family with permeability to glycerol and urea in addition to ...
... glycerol, 10 mM DTT, 10 μg/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor, 20 μg/ml aprotinin, 10 μg/ml leupeptin, 25 mM benzamidine, and 1 mM ... aquaporin. ACh. acetylcholine. mAChR. muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. APM. apical plasma membrane. SNI-2011. cevimeline ... 1999) Defective secretion of saliva in transgenic mice lacking aquaporin-5 water channels. J Biol Chem 274:20071-20074. ... Several aquaporins (AQPs), which form water channels that selectively transport water across the plasma membrane, have been ...
Aquaporin 1 Antibody, Affinity purified polyclonal antibody validated in WB (AG1048-025), Abgent ... that are only permeated by water and the aquaglyceroporins that are permeated by water and other small solutes such as glycerol ... home , Products , Primary Antibodies , Signal Transduction , Aquaporin 1 Antibody Aquaporin 1 Antibody. Affinity purified ... Aquaporin-1, AQP-1, Aquaporin-CHIP, Urine water channel, Water channel protein for red blood cells and kidney proximal tubule, ...
Aquaporins selectively transport glycerol as well as water while glycerol facilitators selectively transport glycerol but not ... Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the bacterial glycerol facilitator, GlpF can transport O2, CO2, NH3, glycerol, urea, and water to ... The MIP superfamily includes three subfamilies: aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and S-aquaporins. The aquaporins (AQPs) are water ... Aquaporins generally have the NPA motif in both halves, the glycerol facilitators generally have an NPA motif in the first ...
Aquaporins and Their Regulation after Spinal Cord Injury. Halsey, A. M., Conner, A. C., Bill, R. M., Logan, A. & Ahmed, Z., 18 ... Inhibitors of Mammalian Aquaporin Water Channels. Abir-Awan, M., Kitchen, P., Salman, M. M., Conner, M. T., Conner, A. C. & ... Structural determinants of oligomerization of the aquaporin-4 channel. Kitchen, P., Conner, M. T., Bill, R. M. & Conner, A. C ... Downregulation of aquaporin 3 inhibits cellular proliferation, migration and invasion in the MDA‑MB‑231 breast cancer cell line ...
Aquaporins selectively transport water (but not glycerol) while glycerol facilitators selectively transport glycerol but not ... Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and the bacterial glycerol facilitator, GlpF can transport O2, CO2, NH3, glycerol, urea, and water to ... The MIP superfamily includes three subfamilies: aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins and S-aquaporins. (1) The aquaporins (AQPs) are ... The known aquaporins cluster loosely together as do the known glycerol facilitators. MIP family proteins are believed to form ...
... putative soybean aquaporin pip2/aquaporin transporter/glycerol uptake facilitator), no statistical difference was found between ... putative soybean aquaporin pip2/aquaporin transporter/glycerol uptake facilitator (Glyma12G172500), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate ... 2014). A banana aquaporin gene, MaPIP1;1, is involved in tolerance to drought and salt stresses. BMC Plant Biol. 14:59 10.1186/ ... In banana (Musa acuminata L.), the aquaporin gene MaPIP1;1 was induced in leaves and roots after salinity stress and simulated ...
Aquaporin 7 facilitates water, glycerol and urea transport. It may play an important role in sperm function. Aquaporin GRCh38: ... 2007). "Adipose tissue expression of the glycerol channel aquaporin-7 gene is altered in severe obesity but not in type 2 ... Aquaporin-7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AQP7 gene. Aquaporins/major intrinsic protein (MIP) are a family of ... Aquaporin 7 has greater sequence similarity with AQP3 and AQP9 and they may be a subfamily. Aquaporin 7 and AQP3 are at the ...
"Transport of Water and Glycerol in Aquaporin 3 Is Gated by H ." . The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Web. 5 Jul 2013. ,http ... "Aquaporin water channels: atomic structure molecular dynamics meet clinical medicine." Journal of Clinical Investigation. ... "The influence of natural mineral water on aquaporin water permeability and human natural killer cell activity." Science Direct ... Bowen, R. "Aquaporins: Water Channels." Aquaporins. Colorado State University, 28 Nov 2005. Web. 5 Jul 2013. http://www.vivo. ...
Philip, B.N.; Yi, S.X.; Elnitsky, M.A.; Lee, R.E. Aquaporins play a role in desiccation and freeze tolerance in larvae of the ... Yoder, J.A.; Benoit, J.B.; Denlinger, D.L.; Rivers, D.B. Stress-induced accumulation of glycerol in the flesh fly, Sarcophaga ... Drake, L.L.; Boudko, D.Y.; Marinotti, O.; Carpenter, V.K.; Dawe, A.L.; Hansen, I.A. The aquaporin gene family of the yellow ... Izumi, Y.; Sonoda, S.; Yoshida, H.; Danks, H.V.; Tsumuki, H. Role of membrane transport of water and glycerol in the freeze ...
In the mid nineties of the last century, the OAs turned out to be a water channel named aquaporin 4 (AQP4). Since this ... N. Maeda, T. Hibuse, and T. Funahashi, "Role of aquaporin-7 and aquaporin-9 in glycerol metabolism; involvement in obesity," ... N. Maeda, T. Funahashi, and I. Shimomura, "Metabolic impact of adipose and hepatic glycerol channels aquaporin 7 and aquaporin ... aquaporin adipose and aquaporin 9," Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 2915-2921, 2002. View at: Google Scholar*J. M. Carbrey, D. A ...
The remaining channels, AQP6, AQP7, and AQP11 are involved in urinary acid secretion, glycerol transport, and endoplasmic ... 2008) Aquaporin 1 is important for maintaining secretory granule biogenesis in endocrine cells. Mol Endocrinol 22:1924-1934. ... 1994) Requirement of human renal water channel aquaporin-2 for vasopressin-dependent concentration of urine. Science 264:92-95. ... 2007) Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in mice caused by deleting COOH-terminal tail of aquaporin-2. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ...
7 and AQP9 are membrane proteins and are the members of aquaglyceroporin which transports glycerol in addition to water ... Maeda N,Funahashi T, Shimomura I (2008) Metabolic impact of adipose and hepatic glycerol channels aquaporin 7 and aquaporin 9. ... Aquaporin (AQP) 7 and AQP9 are membrane proteins and are the members of aquaglyceroporin which transports glycerol in addition ... 2005) Aquaporin 7 deficiency is associated with development of obesity through activation of adipose glycerol kinase. ...
  • In addition, the proline biosynthesis genes, Δ 1 -Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase 1 and 2 ( P5CS1 and P5CS2 ) were up-regulated in HvPIP2;5 overexpressing plants under salt and osmotic stresses, which coincided with increased levels of the osmoprotectant proline. (frontiersin.org)
  • Subsequently, many aquaporin genes have already been cloned and functionally verified to play pivotal jobs in seed transmembrane drinking water transport [9, entire and seed drinking water stability [11C (cancer-basics.com)
  • When we analyzed the freeze tolerance of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an organism whose genome sequence has revealed no genes encoding a bona fide water channel, we found very low intrinsic freeze tolerance compared to other yeast species with aquaporin-encoding genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic defects involving aquaporin genes have been associated with several human diseases. (worldlibrary.net)
  • For example, in S. cerevisiae , two aquaporin-encoding genes, Aqy1 and Aqy2, have been identified and characterized. (ijbs.com)
  • Genes responsible for starch hydrolysis and glycerol synthesis were significantly up-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, GW843682X aquaporins can now be considered as multifunctional channels involved in various plant physiological processes, such as herb cell osmoregulation, leaf physiology, seed germination, root water uptake, herb reproduction and herb development [9, 14, 19C (cancer-basics.com)
  • AQP7 and aquaporin adipose (AQPap) were independently cloned from rat testis [ 6 ] and mouse fat tissue [ 11 ], respectively. (omicsonline.org)
  • 1992). Aquaporins exist as different isoforms till date there are 13 isoforms (AQP0-12) identified in mammals. (relatewithkatypark.com)
  • Investigate the effects of the absence of 17 amino acids at the C-terminal end of Aquaporin 0 (AQP0) on lens transparency, focusing property, and homeostasis. (arvojournals.org)
  • We also observed lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), an end-product of lipid peroxidation in HvPIP2;5 overexpressing plants than in WT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Besides glucose, Dryophytes chrysoscelis and its sister species Dryophytes versicolor also accumulate glycerol during cold acclimation prior to the onset of subfreezing temperatures (Layne and Jones 2001 ). (physiology.org)
  • Aquaporins are present in most species and their capacity to facilitate the diffusion of H 2 O 2 may be of physiological significance in many organisms and particularly in communication between different species. (portlandpress.com)
  • Therefore, (i) the absence of a bona fide water channel in S. pombe might provide in part an explanation for its overall low freeze tolerance compared to other yeast species, and (ii) aquaporin overexpression might be a tool to improve cryopreservation of many other cell types as well, as has recently been shown for mouse oocytes and fish embryos. (elsevier.com)
  • Hence, the discussion about the role of aquaporins in the majority of multicellular organisms remains open ( Chrispeels and Maurel, 1994 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Agren J, Zelenin S, Hakansson M, Eklof AC, Aperia A, Nejsum LN, Nielsen S, Sedin G (2003) Transepidermal water loss in developing rats: role of aquaporins in the immature skin. (springer.com)
  • Placental programmed cell death: insights into the role of aquaporins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency type A and type C: Characterization of 5 novel pathogenic variants in PC and analysis of the genotype-phenotype correlation. (mpg.de)
  • We obtained high-precision p f values by (i) having measured the abundance of the reconstituted aquaporins in the vesicular membrane via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and via high-speed atomic force microscopy, and (ii) having acquired the vesicular water efflux from scattered light intensities via our new adaptation of the Rayleigh-Gans-Debye equation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hay varios tipos de proteinuria.Las relaciones albumina/creatinina (RAC) y proteína/creatinina (RPC) en orina son marcadores importantes de daño renal. (bvsalud.org)